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Journal of Microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918627/exploring-dynamic-surface-processes-during-silicate-mineral-wollastonite-dissolution-with-liquid-cell-tem
#1
D N Leonard, R Hellmann
Most liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (LC TEM) studies focus on nanoparticles or nanowires, in large part because the preparation and study of materials in this size range is straightforward. By contrast, this is not true for samples in the micrometre size range, in large part because of the difficulties associated with sample preparation starting from a 'bulk' material. There are also many advantages inherent to the study of micrometre-sized samples compared to their nanometre-sized counterparts...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918621/single-particle-raster-image-analysis-of-diffusion
#2
M Longfils, E Schuster, N Lorén, A Särkkä, M Rudemo
As a complement to the standard RICS method of analysing Raster Image Correlation Spectroscopy images with estimation of the image correlation function, we introduce the method SPRIA, Single Particle Raster Image Analysis. Here, we start by identifying individual particles and estimate the diffusion coefficient for each particle by a maximum likelihood method. Averaging over the particles gives a diffusion coefficient estimate for the whole image. In examples both with simulated and experimental data, we show that the new method gives accurate estimates...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918613/defining-the-radiation-chemistry-during-liquid-cell-electron-microscopy-to-enable-visualization-of-nanomaterial-growth-and-degradation-dynamics
#3
T J Woehl, P Abellan
We present a critical review of methods for defining the chemical environment during liquid cell electron microscopy investigation of electron beam induced nanomaterial growth and degradation. We draw from the radiation chemistry and liquid cell electron microscopy literature to present solution chemistry and electron beam-based methods for selecting the radiolysis products formed and their relative amount during electron irradiation of liquid media in a transmission electron microscope. We outline various methods for establishing net oxidizing or net reducing reaction environments and propose solvents with minimal overall production of radicals under the electron beam...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911467/a-systematic-investigation-of-the-charging-effect-in-scanning-electron-microscopy-for-metal-nanostructures-on-insulating-substrates
#4
R Flatabø, A Coste, M M Greve
Scanning electron microscopy is perhaps the most important method for investigating and characterizing nanostructures. A well-known challenge in scanning electron microscopy is the investigation of insulating materials. As insulating materials do not provide a path to ground they accumulate charge, evident as image drift and image distortions. In previous work, we have seen that sample charging in arrays of metal nanoparticles on glass substrates leads to a shrinkage effect, resulting in a measurement error in the nanoparticle dimension of up to 15% at 10 kV and a probe current of 80 ± 10 pA...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905112/evolution-of-defects-in-titanium-grade-2-under-ti-2-ion-irradiation
#5
REVIEW
E Jouanny, S Doriot, J Malaplate, M Dehmas, L Allais, M LE Thuaut, T Millot
The complexity and diversity of microstructure involved in titanium alloys make it rather difficult to quantitatively describe defect evolution due to irradiation. This paper focuses on defect evolutions of commercially pure titanium grade 2 under Ti(2+) ion irradiation considering the effect of dose (0.6 and 3 dpa), temperature (300°C and 430°C) and flux (15:1 ratio). An irradiation damage profile was predicted using SRIM software to obtain a homogeneous damage on at least 500 nm depth for TEM observations and simulated using JANNUS-Saclay facility...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905111/depth-enhancement-of-3d-microscopic-living-cell-image-using-incoherent-fluorescent-digital-holography
#6
L T Bang, H Y Wu, Y Zhao, E G Kim, N Kim
Multilayer images of living cells are typically obtained using confocal or multiphoton microscopy. However, limitations on the distance between consecutive scan layers hinder high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction, and scattering strongly degrades images of living cell components. Consequently, when overlapping information from different layers is focused on a specific point in the camera, this causes uncertainty in the depiction of the cell components. We propose a method that combines the Fresnel incoherent correlation holography and a depth-of-focus reduction algorithm to enhance the depth information of three-dimensional cell images...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896802/a-method-to-characterize-the-roughness-of-2-d-line-features-recrystallization-boundaries
#7
J Sun, Y B Zhang, A B Dahl, K Conradsen, D Juul Jensen
A method is presented, which allows quantification of the roughness of nonplanar boundaries of objects for which the neutral plane is not known. The method provides quantitative descriptions of both the local and global characteristics. How the method can be used to estimate the sizes of rough features and local curvatures is also presented. The potential of the method is illustrated by quantification of the roughness of two recrystallization boundaries in a pure Al specimen characterized by scanning electron microscopy...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892598/a-novel-substrate-for-multisensor-hyperspectral-imaging
#8
J Ofner, J Kirschner, E Eitenberger, G Friedbacher, A Kasper-Giebl, H Lohninger, C Eisenmenger-Sittner, B Lendl
The quality of chemical imaging, especially multisensor hyperspectral imaging, strongly depends on sample preparation techniques and instrumental infrastructure but also on the choice of an appropriate imaging substrate. To optimize the combined imaging of Raman microspectroscopy, scanning-electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, a novel substrate was developed based on sputtering of highly purified aluminium onto classical microscope slides. The novel aluminium substrate overcomes several disadvantages of classical substrates like impurities of the substrate material and contamination of the surface as well as surface roughness and homogeneity...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883183/effect-of-nanoclay-concentration-level-on-the-electrical-properties-of-polypropylene-under-electron-irradiation-in-a-sem
#9
L Ben Ammar, S Fakhfakh, O Jbara, S Rondot
For studying the electrical properties (charge trapping, transport and secondary electron emission) of the polypropylene-based nanocomposites with different contents of natural clay, the specimens were submitted to electron irradiation of a scanning electron microscope. A device, suitably mounted on the sample holder of the scanning electron microscope, was used to measure two currents (i.e. leakage and displacement currents) induced in the polypropylene-based nanocomposites (polymer nanocomposites) under electron irradiation...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883182/the-benefit-of-thresholding-carbon-layers-in-electron-tomographic-tilt-series-by-intensity-downshifting
#10
Lionel C Gontard, Jesús Cintas, Rafal E Dunin Borkowski
When performing electron tomography, tilt series of images are often acquired from samples that contain unwanted carbonaceous material, such as an embedding resin, a thin carbon support film or hydrocarbon contamination. The presence of such layers can introduce artefacts in reconstructions, obscuring features of interest. Here, we illustrate the benefit of preprocessing a high-angle annular dark-field tomographic tilt series by thresholding unwanted low-density materials using a simple intensity downshifting procedure...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883175/heads-you-win-tails-you-lose-filtration-processing-for-the-microscopical-examination-of-sperm-heads
#11
I A Brewis, M A Watkinson, C J VON Ruhland
The sperm head plays a key role in many fertilisation events and determining the precise location of molecules within the head region is important in mechanistically dissecting the fertilisation process. Such molecules may be present in low copy number and many sperm head profiles must be examined to localise them to particular subcellular structures with confidence. Filtration has traditionally been used for the purpose of concentrating biological material, such as free-living cells, spores, and subcellular fractions, and little attempt has been made to extend the procedure to encompass the entire processing schedule, mainly due to the incompatibility of intermediate dehydrating solvents with membrane filters...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809347/atomic-resolution-imaging-of-beryl-an-investigation-of-the-nano-channel-occupation
#12
V Arivazhagan, F D Schmitz, P E Vullum, A T J VAN Helvoort, B Holst
Beryl in different varieties (emerald, aquamarine, heliodor etc.) displays a wide range of colours that have fascinated humans throughout history. Beryl is a hexagonal cyclo-silicate (ring-silicate) with channels going through the crystal along the c-axis. The channels are about 0.5 nm in diameter and can be occupied by water and alkali ions. Pure beryl (Be3 Al2 Si6 O18 ) is colourless (variety goshenite). The characteristic colours are believed to be mainly generated through substitutions with metal atoms in the lattice...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779744/three-dimensional-imaging-of-porous-media-using-confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy
#13
S M Shah, J P Crawshaw, E S Boek
In the last decade, imaging techniques capable of reconstructing three-dimensional (3-D) pore-scale model have played a pivotal role in the study of fluid flow through complex porous media. In this study, we present advances in the application of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to image, reconstruct and characterize complex porous geological materials with hydrocarbon reservoir and CO2 storage potential. CLSM has a unique capability of producing 3-D thin optical sections of a material, with a wide field of view and submicron resolution in the lateral and axial planes...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779739/cardioprotective-potential-of-curcumin-against-norepinephrine-induced-cell-death-a-microscopic-study
#14
C Manghani, A Gupta, V Tripathi, V Rani
Cardiomyopathy and associated heart failure continues to be one of the most severe complications that threaten a large population. Curcumin, one of the three curcuminoids of the spice turmeric, is very well known for a multitude of health benefits and functions. Norepinephrine (NE), a catecholamine and also a stress hormone may cause the cardiomyocytes to develop increased sensitivity to death with its increasing concentrations. In this study, we investigated the cardioprotective effect of curcumin in NE-induced cardiac apoptosis using several fluorescent and nonfluorescent microscopic techniques like DAPI, PI, Giemsa, PicroSirius and TUNEL...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766644/a-stand-alone-compact-euv-microscope-based-on-gas-puff-target-source
#15
Alfio Torrisi, Przemyslaw Wachulak, Łukasz Węgrzyński, Tomasz Fok, Andrzej Bartnik, Tomáš Parkman, Šárka Vondrová, Jana Turňová, Bartłomiej J Jankiewicz, Bartosz Bartosewicz, Henryk Fiedorowicz
We report on a very compact desk-top transmission extreme ultraviolet (EUV) microscope based on a laser-plasma source with a double stream gas-puff target, capable of acquiring magnified images of objects with a spatial (half-pitch) resolution of sub-50 nm. A multilayer ellipsoidal condenser is used to focus and spectrally narrow the radiation from the plasma, producing a quasi-monochromatic EUV radiation (λ = 13.8 nm) illuminating the object, whereas a Fresnel zone plate objective forms the image. Design details, development, characterization and optimization of the EUV source and the microscope are described and discussed...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682151/growth-and-characterization-of-v2-o5-thin-film-on-conductive-electrode
#16
Genene T Mola, Elhadi A A Arbab, Bidini A Taleatu, K Kaviyarasu, Ishaq Ahmad, M Maaza
Vanadium pentoxide V2 O5 thin films were grown at room temperature on ITO coated glass substrates by electrochemical deposition. The resulting films were annealed at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h in ambient environment. The effect of heat treatment on the films properties such as surface morphology, crystal structure, optical absorption and photoluminescence were investigated. The x-ray diffraction study showed that the films are well crystallized with temperatures. Strong reflection from plane (400) indicated the film's preferred growth orientation...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681946/survey-interpolation-methods-for-whole-slide-image-processing
#17
L Roszkowiak, A Korzynska, J Zak, D Pijanowska, Z Swiderska-Chadaj, T Markiewicz
Evaluating whole slide images of histological and cytological samples is used in pathology for diagnostics, grading and prognosis . It is often necessary to rescale whole slide images of a very large size. Image resizing is one of the most common applications of interpolation. We collect the advantages and drawbacks of nine interpolation methods, and as a result of our analysis, we try to select one interpolation method as the preferred solution. To compare the performance of interpolation methods, test images were scaled and then rescaled to the original size using the same algorithm...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716931/compositional-mapping-of-bitumen-using-local-electrostatic-force-interactions-in-atomic-force-microscopy
#18
Sergei Magonov, John Alexander, Marko Surtchev, Albert M Hung, Elham H Fini
In recent years, many researchers have investigated bitumen surface morphology, especially the so-called bee-like structures, in an attempt to relate the chemical composition and molecular conformation to bitumen micromechanics and ultimately performance properties. Even though recent studies related surface morphology and its evolution to stiffness and stress localization, the complex chemical nature of bitumen and its time- and temperature-dependent properties still engender significant questions about the nature and origin of the observed morphological features and how they evolve due to exposure to various environmental and loading conditions...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716926/comparison-of-quartz-crystallographic-preferred-orientations-identified-with-optical-fabric-analysis-electron-backscatter-and-neutron-diffraction-techniques
#19
N J R Hunter, C J L Wilson, V Luzin
Three techniques are used to measure crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) in a naturally deformed quartz mylonite: transmitted light cross-polarized microscopy using an automated fabric analyser, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and neutron diffraction. Pole figure densities attributable to crystal-plastic deformation are variably recognizable across the techniques, particularly between fabric analyser and diffraction instruments. Although fabric analyser techniques offer rapid acquisition with minimal sample preparation, difficulties may exist when gathering orientation data parallel with the incident beam...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649382/automatic-thresholding-from-the-gradients-of-region-boundaries
#20
G Landini, D A Randell, S Fouad, A Galton
We present an approach for automatic threshold segmentation of greyscale images. The procedure is inspired by a reinterpretation of the strategy observed in human operators when adjusting thresholds manually and interactively by means of 'slider' controls. The approach translates into two methods. The first one is suitable for single or multiple global thresholds to be applied globally to images and consists of searching for a threshold value that generates a phase whose boundary coincides with the largest gradients in the original image...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
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