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Journal of Microscopy

Gunes A Yakaboylu, Edward M Sabolsky
The physical properties of particle-reinforced composite materials are highly affected by the distribution of particles within a matrix material. In this study, a microstructural image analysis method with a new distribution index for quantifying the degree of distribution in composite materials was developed. The free-path spacing between particles was measured to calculate the distribution (D) index based on the coefficient of variation. The proposed method was applied to six digitally created reference patterns as representative binary composite microstructures and three actual ceramic-matrix composites, respectively...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
B Dubiel, P Indyka, T Moskalewicz, A Kruk, M Zubko, I Kalemba-Rec, K Berent
A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using high-angle annular-dark-field (HAADF) imaging, focussed ion beam- scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) tomography, selected area electron diffraction with beam precession (PED), as well as spatially resolved energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), was used to investigate topologically close-packed (TCP) phases, occurring in the CMSX-4 superalloy subjected to high temperature annealing and creep deformation...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
O Šedivý, A Jäger
Three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction allows obtaining the 3D image of a material from the stack of 2D sections. This is achieved by repeated application of two different beams; electron beam for electron backscatter diffraction mapping of the surface and focused ion beam for removing a thin layer of material from the surface. In most of these systems with two beams, the experiment requires stage movements for correct positioning of the sample to the respective beams. However, imperfections in this positioning are difficult to avoid, which yield small translational misalignments between the sections in the output data...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
Yiwen Xu, J Geoffrey Pickering, Zengxuan Nong, Aaron D Ward
Immunohistochemical tissue staining enhances microvasculature characteristics, including the smooth muscle in the medial layer of the vessel walls that is responsible for regulation of blood flow. The vasculature can be imaged in a comprehensive fashion using whole-slide scanning. However, since each such image potentially contains hundreds of small vessels, manual vessel delineation and quantification is not practically feasible. In this work, we present a fully automatic segmentation and vasculature quantification algorithm for whole-slide images...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
N Saowadee, K Agersted, J R Bowen
Kikuchi bands in election backscattered diffraction patterns (EBSP) contain information about lattice constants of crystallographic samples that can be extracted via the Bragg equation. An advantage of lattice constant measurement from EBSPs over diffraction (XRD) is the ability to perform local analysis. In this study, lattice constants of cubic STN and cubic YSZ in the pure materials and in co-sintered composites were measured from their EBSPs acquired at 10 kV using a silicon single crystal as a calibration reference...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
Y Li, S Liu, D Liu, S Sun, C Kuang, Z Ding, X Liu
We propose a novel imaging method that enables the enhancement of three-dimensional resolution of confocal microscopy significantly and achieve experimentally a new fluorescence emission difference method for the first time, based on the parallel detection with a detector array. Following the principles of photon reassignment in image scanning microscopy, images captured by the detector array were arranged. And by selecting appropriate reassign patterns, the imaging result with enhanced resolution can be achieved with the method of fluorescence emission difference...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
Keiji Takata
This paper presents the imaging of the expansion and contraction of graphite particles at the anode of a lithium-ion battery. The intercalation and deintercalation of Li ions in the graphite particles induced by charging and discharging lead to expansion and contraction of the layered materials. These changes in volume were imaged through current collectors using scanning probe microscopy, which permitted in-situ observation of the Li ion shift with high resolutions. We were able to evaluate the properties of each individual graphite particle...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
P Bidola, K Morgan, M Willner, A Fehringer, S Allner, F Prade, F Pfeiffer, K Achterhold
Several dedicated commercial lab-based micro-computed tomography (μCT) systems exist, which provide high-resolution images of samples, with the capability to also deliver in-line phase contrast. X-ray phase contrast is particularly beneficial when visualizing very small features and weakly absorbing samples. The raw measured projections will include both phase and absorption effects. Extending our previous work that addressed the optimization of experimental conditions at the commercial ZEISS Xradia 500 Versa system, single-distance phase-contrast imaging is demonstrated on complex biological and material samples...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
Alan T Marshall
It is shown that accurate x-ray microanalysis of frozen-hydrated and dry organic compounds, such as model biological samples, is possible with a silicon drift detector in combination with XPP (exponential model of Pouchou and Pichoir matrix correction) software using 'remote standards'. This type of analysis is also referred to as 'standardless analysis'. Analyses from selected areas or elemental images (maps) were identical. Improvements in x-ray microanalytical hardware and software, together with developments in cryotechniques, have made the quantitative analysis of cryoplaned frozen-hydrated biological samples in the scanning electron microscope a much simpler procedure...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
C Blankenburg, A Rack, C Daul, J Ohser
The torsion distribution of cell paths in two-phase flow of a cell suspension through a porous medium is an important quantity for chromatographic processes. It can be estimated from cell tracking in sequences of three-dimensional images of a suspension pumped through the medium, where the images are acquired by in-situ time-resolved microtomography using synchrotron radiation and inline phase contrast modus. This contribution presents a new method for estimating path torsion from discrete positions, where the estimation is based on an appropriate discretization of the differential-geometric formula of the torsion of a space curve...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
N Hardy, M Moreaud, D Guillaume, F Augier, A Nienow, C Béal, F Ben Chaabane
Filamentous fungi have a complex morphology that induces fermentation process development issues, as a consequence of viscosity increase and diffusion limitations. In order to better understand the relationship between viscosity changes and fungus morphology during fermentations of Trichoderma reesei, an accurate image analysis method has been developed to provide quantitative and representative data for morphological analysis. This method consisted of a new algorithm called FACE that allowed sharp images to be created at all positions, segmentation of fungus, and morphological analysis using skeleton and topological approaches...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
F D E Latief, U Fauzi, Z Irayani, G Dougherty
The study of digital rock physics has seen significant advances due to the development of X-ray micro computed tomography scanning devices. One of the advantages of using such a device is that the pore structure of rock can be mapped down to the micrometre level in three dimensions. However, in providing such high-resolution images (low voxel size), the resulting file sizes are necessarily large (of the order of gigabytes). Lower image resolution (high voxel size) produces smaller file sizes (of the order of hundreds of megabytes), but risks losing significant details...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
Z Liu, T Epicier, Y Lefkir, G Vitrant, N Destouches
Measuring with a high accuracy the size distribution of small metallic nanoparticles loaded in a mesoporous metal oxide matrix is of particular interest for many studies related to new generations of interesting metamaterials. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a powerful tool to determine the nature and morphology of very small particles, but their reliable and automatic identification in an inhomogeneous environment where the nanoparticle/background contrast locally varies is not straightforward. Here, we present how a quantitative analysis of high-angle annular dark field scanning TEM (HAADF STEM) images, accounting for the chemical sensitivity of the technique, can improve the accuracy of semiautomatic segmentation methods based on morphological processing to calculate size histograms...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
Y Zou, B Lei, F Dong, G Xu, S Sun, P Xia
Partitioning epidermis surface microstructure (ESM) images into skin ridge and skin furrow regions is an important preprocessing step before quantitative analyses on ESM images. Binarization segmentation is a potential technique for partitioning ESM images because of its computational simplicity and ease of implementation. However, even for some state-of-the-art binarization methods, it remains a challenge to automatically segment ESM images, because the grey-level histograms of ESM images have no obvious external features to guide automatic assessment of appropriate thresholds...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
Y Fleger, K Gotlib-Vainshtein, Y Talyosef
Focused ion beam (FIB) is an extremely valuable tool in nanopatterning and nanofabrication for potentially high-resolution patterning, especially when refers to He ion beam microscopy. The work presented here demonstrates an 'out-of-the-box' method of writing using FIB, which enables creating very large matrices, up to the beam-shift limitation, in short times and with high accuracy unachievable by any other writing technique. The new method allows combining different shapes in nanometric dimensions and high resolutions for wide ranges...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
N Arora, S Islam, K Wafa, J Zhou, J T Toguri, V Cerny, C Lehmann
The ocular microcirculation represents an important target to treat inflammatory diseases of eye, where impairment of microvascular blood flow plays key role as, for example, in anterior uveitis. To evaluate novel interventions targeting the microcirculation, appropriate and reliable tools to study this particular microvascular bed are needed. Intravital microscopy (IVM) belongs to several methods allowing evaluation of microcirculation experimentally, even in small animals. The aim of our study was to examine the iridial microcirculation (IMIC) in uveitis induced by local or systemic endotoxin administration in rats and mice by IVM and to propose new parameters to quantify the changes within the IMIC...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
F Grosso, A Croce, N F Trincheri, N Mariani, R Libener, D Degiovanni, C Rinaudo
Gallbladders from patients affected by both malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and important gallbladder disorders were analyzed to verify the presence of asbestos fibres. Histological thin sections were analyzed by optical microscope and variable pressure scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy, allowing morphological and chemical characterization of each inorganic phase observed. Fibres of chrysotile and crocidolite, minerals regulated as asbestos, were identified. By immunohistochemical analysis, connective tissue was recognized as the incorporation site...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
T Yoon, D-M Shin, S Kim, S Lee, T G Lee, K Kim
We investigated the temperature-dependent locomotion of Caenorhabditis elegans by using the mobile phone-based microscope. We developed the customized imaging system with mini incubator and smartphone to effectively control the thermal stimulation for precisely observing the temperature-dependent locomotory behaviours of C. elegans. Using the mobile phone-based microscope, we successfully followed the long-term progress of specimens of C. elegans in real time as they hatched and explored their temperature-dependent locomotory behaviour...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
Z-W Hsiao, D Chen, J-C Kuo, D-Y Lin
This study investigated the influence of deformation on precipitation behaviour and microstructure change during annealing. Here, the prior deformation of high-chromium stainless steel was tensile deformation of 3%, 6% and 10%, and the specimens were then annealed at 700˚C for 10 h. The specimens were subsequently analyzed using backscattered electron image and electron backscattering diffraction measurements with SEM. Compared with the deformation microstructure, the grains revealed no preferred orientation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
L Liu, A Kan, C Leckie, P D Hodgkin
Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy is a valuable technology in cell biology, but it suffers from the inherent problem of intensity inhomogeneity due to uneven illumination or camera nonlinearity, known as shading artefacts. This will lead to inaccurate estimates of single-cell features such as average and total intensity. Numerous shading correction methods have been proposed to remove this effect. In order to compare the performance of different methods, many quantitative performance measures have been developed...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
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