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Journal of Microscopy

R Flight, G Landini, I B Styles, R M Shelton, M R Milward, P R Cooper
Cell counting is commonly used to determine proliferation rates in cell cultures and for adherent cells it is often a 'destructive' process requiring disruption of the cell monolayer resulting in the inability to follow cell growth longitudinally. This process is time consuming and utilises significant resource. In this study a relatively inexpensive, rapid and widely applicable phase contrast microscopy-based technique has been developed that emulates the contrast changes taking place when bright field microscope images of epithelial cell cultures are defocused...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
E Machado Charry, M Neumann, J Lahti, R Schennach, V Schmidt, K Zojer
We show that attenuation X-ray microcomputed tomography (μ-CT) offers a route to extract the three-dimensional pore space of paper reliably enough to distinguish samples of the same kind of paper. Here, we consider two sack kraft papers for cement bags with different basis weights and thicknesses. Sample areas of approximately 5 mm2 with a resolution of 1.5 μm are considered, i.e. sizes that exceed sample areas of 2 mm2 for which the pore structure was previously studied in the literature. The image segmentation is based on indicator kriging as a local method that removes ambiguities in assigning voxels as pore or as fibre...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
M N D'Eurydice, C H Arns, J-Y Arns, R T Armstrong
This paper introduces an original application on reconstruction strategies for X-ray computed microtomography, enabling the observation of time-dependent changes that occur during multiphase flow. In general, by sparsely collecting radiographs, the reconstruction of the object is compromised. Optimizations can be achieved by combining specific characteristics of the dynamics with the acquisition. Herein, the proposed method relies on short random intervals in which no drastic changes occur in the sample to acquire as many radiographs as possible that constitute a reconstructible data set...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
A J Cresswell-Boyes, A H Barber, D Mills, A Tatla, G R Davis
Artificial teeth have several advantages in preclinical training. The aim of this study is to three-dimensionally (3D) print accurate artificial teeth using scans from X-ray microtomography (XMT). Extracted and artificial teeth were imaged at 90 kV and 40 kV, respectively, to create detailed high contrast scans. The dataset was visualised to produce internal and external meshes subsequently exported to 3D modelling software for modification before finally sending to a slicing program for printing. After appropriate parameter setting, the printer deposited material in specific locations layer by layer, to create a 3D physical model...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
Q Feng, W Meng, J Wang, Z Wang, J Zhang, Q Wang, Y Hou, Q Lu
We present an ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV)-sealed high-stability scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) that can be entirely immersed in liquid helium and readily used in a commercial Dewar or superconducting magnet. The STM head features a horizontal microscanner that can become standalone and ultrastable when the coarse approach inertial motor retracts. Low voltage is enough to operate the STM even at low temperature owing to the powerful motor. It is housed in a tubular chamber of 49 mm outer diameter, which can be pumped via a detachable valve (DV), UHV-sealed and remain sealed after the DV is removed...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
K-C Lan, W Zhong, P A Mouche, H-M Tung, H Lee, B J Heuser, J F Stubbins
This work presents a methodology combining SEM, EDS, conventional EBSD, and transmission-EBSD to analyse a recrystallised Zircaloy-4 sheet and cold-worked stress-relieved (CWSR) Zircaloy-4 cladding in unprecedented detail. Second-phase precipitates (SPPs) in Zircaloy-4 specimens were revealed after chemical polishing using a solution containing hydrofluoric acid (HF). Pitting corrosion of Zircaloy-4 specimens was revealed after electropolishing using an electrolyte containing HClO4 . A zirconium coupon without SPPs was used to confirm the chemical response of SPPs on surface morphology...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
M Bawart, A Jesacher, S Bernet, M Ritsch-Marte
Alvarez lenses are actuated lens-pairs which allow one to tune the optical power by mechanical displacement of subelements. Here, we show that a recently realized modified Alvarez lens design which does not require mechanical actuation can be integrated into a confocal microscope. Instead of mechanically moving them, the sublenses are imaged onto each other in a 4f-configuration, where the lateral image shift leading to a change in optical power is created by a galvo-mirror. The avoidance of mechanical lens shifts leads to a large speed gain for axial (and hence also 3D) image scans compared to classical Alvarez lenses...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
A E Larue, P Swider, P Duru, D Daviaud, M Quintard, Y Davit
Optical imaging techniques for biofilm observation, like laser scanning microscopy, are not applicable when investigating biofilm formation in opaque porous media. X-ray micro-tomography (X-ray CMT) might be an alternative but it finds limitations in similarity of X-ray absorption coefficients for the biofilm and aqueous phases. To overcome this difficulty, barium sulphate was used in Davit et al. (2011) to enable high-resolution 3D imaging of biofilm via X-ray CMT. However, this approach lacks comparison with well-established imaging methods, which are known to capture the fine structures of biofilms, as well as uncertainty quantification...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
M T Tran, R Oldenbourg
We report methods to generate three-dimensional maps of birefringence, its position and orientation in juvenile shells of the Atlantic hard clamshell (Mercenaria mercenaria). For measuring the retardance and optic axis orientation of curved shell surfaces in three dimensions, we developed enhanced acquisition and processing algorithms and combined results from conventional and light field imaging approaches to reconstruct the three-dimensional shell shape and its anisotropic optical properties. Our work represents the first successful attempt to generate such maps at a spatial resolution of about 2 μm and angular steps of about 9° in terms of the inclination angles of the optic axis...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
A E Cordero-Borboa, R Unda-Angeles
A typical quadruple node (QN) of triple junctions (TJs) of grain boundaries (GBs) in a Eu2+ -doped KCl0.52 Br0.48 solid solution is investigated from the geometrical point of view by epifluorescence microscopy using the doping ion as a fluorochrome. The excitation and fluorescence optical properties of the fluorochrome were previously characterised by spectrophotometry whereas the structural nature of the studied material as well as its Bravais lattice type, unit cell size and long-range translational order degree was determined by X-ray diffraction...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
B Payre, E Gontier, A Jarray, Y Martinez, J P Laugier, A Delalleau, B M Gaillard, I Anselme, D Goudounèche, I Fourquaux, M Hemati, V Gerbaud, M B Delisle, C Guilbeau-Frugier
Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy of high-pressure freezing (HPF) samples is a well-established technique for the analysis of liquid containing specimens. This technique enables observation without removing water or other volatile components. The HPF technique is less used in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) due to the lack of a suitable HPF specimen carrier adapter. The traditional SEM cryotransfer system (PP3000T Quorum Laughton, East Sussex, UK; Alto Gatan, Pleasanton, CA, USA) usually uses nitrogen slush...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
J Roels, J Aelterman, H Q Luong, S Lippens, A Pižurica, Y Saeys, W Philips
In Life Science research, electron microscopy (EM) is an essential tool for morphological analysis at the subcellular level as it allows for visualization at nanometer resolution. However, electron micrographs contain image degradations such as noise and blur caused by electromagnetic interference, electron counting errors, magnetic lens imperfections, electron diffraction, etc. These imperfections in raw image quality are inevitable and hamper subsequent image analysis and visualization. In an effort to mitigate these artefacts, many electron microscopy image restoration algorithms have been proposed in the last years...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
J P Chiverton, A Kao, M Roldo, G Tozzi
Fibrous nanomaterials such as electrospun materials have many uses ranging from tissue engineering to biosensors. High-resolution imaging is an important component in the characterization of these materials. Important parameters required to predict and study the properties of fibre rich materials include diameter and orientation distribution as well as fibre spacing. The orientations and the relative dimensions of the fibres can be measured via specially designed imaging software. Difficulties in this measurement process can arise if fibres are distributed in close proximity to each other in relation to the resolution of the imaging modality...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
T Takeshima, T Takahashi, J Yamashita, Y Okada, S Watanabe
Multi-emitter fitting algorithms have been developed to improve the temporal resolution of single-molecule switching nanoscopy, but the molecular density range they can analyse is narrow and the computation required is intensive, significantly limiting their practical application. Here, we propose a computationally fast method, wedged template matching (WTM), an algorithm that uses a template matching technique to localise molecules at any overlapping molecular density from sparse to ultrahigh density with subdiffraction resolution...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
A Sensini, L Cristofolini, M L Focarete, J Belcari, A Zucchelli, A Kao, G Tozzi
Repair of ligaments and tendons requires scaffolds mimicking the spatial organisation of collagen in the natural tissue. Electrospinning is a promising technique to produce nanofibres of both resorbable and biostable polymers with desired structural and morphological features. The aim of this study was to perform high-resolution x-ray tomography (XCT) scans of bundles of Nylon6.6, pure PLLA and PLLA-Collagen blends, where the nanofibres were meant to have a predominant direction. Characterisation was carried out via a dedicated methodology to firmly hold the specimen during the scan and a workflow to quantify the directionality of the nanofibres in the bundle...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
A Ramm, N Sakib, A Bhasin, M C Downer
We use near-infrared dark-field optical microscopy to probe isothermal time variation of the volume fraction of naturally-occurring, subsurface microstructures in PG 64-22 asphalt binders at temperature T=30∘C, following a rapid heating (cooling) increment |ΔT|=20∘C from initial temperature T0=10∘C(50∘C). We compare these microstructure variations with isothermal time variations of the magnitude |G30∗(t)| of the bulk complex shear modulus measured for identical sample conditions with a Dynamic Shear Rheometer...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
I Cho, J Y Seo, J Chang
Super-resolution optical microscopy techniques have revolutionized how we see and understand biology. In recent past, a new super-resolution optical microscopy technique called expansion microscopy (ExM) was developed. Unlike other pre-existing super-resolution imaging techniques, this technique achieves super-resolution by physically expanding biological specimens via a swellable hydrogel. After the development of ExM, various techniques based on ExM but with improved performance in various aspects, have been developed...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
Y Ruan, Y Li, M Zhang, X Chen, Z Liu, S Wang, S Jiang
The endeavours to reveal the tracheal system of insects and some arachnids has a long history. The traditional way to observe a tracheal system in an insect body is by utilising the glycerin immersion method. In this study, we developed the lactic acid immersion method, which reveals a more complete tracheal system. By mounting various types of live specimens or body parts directly into lactic acid, multiple intact and complex tracheal systems were clearly visualised. The lactic acid immersion contributed to revealing tracheal systems by penetrating body tissue while reserving enough time for observation before the penetration of the tracheae...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
Z Bi, W Cai, Y Wang, G Shang
Micro/nanomanipulation is a rapidly growing technology and holds promising applications in various fields, including photonic/electronic devices, chemical/biosensors etc. In this work, we present that shear force microscopy (ShFM) can be exploited to manipulate metallic nanosheets besides imaging. The manipulation is realized via controlling the shear force sensor probe position and shear force magnitude based on our homemade ShFM system under an optical microscopy for in situ observation. The main feature of the ShFM system is usage of a piezoelectric bimorph sensor, which has the ability of self-excitation and detection...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
Y Wang, Z Tao, J Yu, X Zhang
The misfit dislocations at α-Fe2 O3 /α-Al2 O3 heterostructure interfaces were investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), geometric phase analysis (GPA) and dislocation density tensor analysis. When imaged along the [112¯0] direction, the misfit dislocation core is a mixed-type, which can be characterised by one extra (11¯02) plane and one extra (1¯104) plane of α-Al2 O3 . Dislocation density tensor analysis gave a very high accuracy in determining the corresponding Burgers vectors of two extra half-planes...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
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