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Journal of Microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421602/the-qualitative-f-ratio-method-applied-to-electron-channelling-induced-x-ray-imaging-with-an-annular-silicon-drift-detector-in-a-scanning-electron-microscope-in-the-transmission-mode
#1
Nicolas Brodusch, Raynald Gauvin
Electron channelling is known to affect the x-ray production when an accelerated electron beam is applied to a crystalline material and is highly dependent on the local crystal orientation. This effect, unless very long counting time are used, is barely noticeable on x-ray energy spectra recorded with conventional silicon drift detectors (SDD) located at a small elevation angle. However, the very high count rates provided by the new commercially available annular SDDs permit now to observe this effect routinely and may, in some circumstances, hide the true elemental x-ray variations due to the local true specimen composition...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419509/automatic-diagnosis-of-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-from-pap-smear-images
#2
M Momenzadeh, M Sehhati, A Mehri Dehnavi, A Talebi, H Rabbani
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is the most common genital infections that are seen every day in clinics. This infection is due to excessive growth of Candida that are normally present in the vagina in small numbers. Diagnosis of VVC is routinely done by direct microscopy of Pap smear samples and searching for the Candida in the Pap smear glass slides. This manual method is subjective, time consuming, labour-intensive and tedious. This study presents a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) method to improve human diagnosis of VVC...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419456/time-lapse-lab-based-x-ray-nano-ct-study-of-corrosion-damage
#3
R S Bradley, Y Liu, T L Burnett, X Zhou, S B Lyon, P J Withers, A Gholinia, T Hashimoto, D Graham, S R Gibbon, B Hornberger
An experimental protocol (workflow) has been developed for time-lapse x-ray nanotomography (nano-CT) imaging of environmentally driven morphological changes to materials. Two case studies are presented. First, the leaching of nanoparticle corrosion inhibitor pigment from a polymer coating was followed over 14 days, while in the second case the corrosion damage to an AA2099 aluminium alloy was imaged over 12 hours. The protocol includes several novel aspects relevant to nano-CT with the use of a combination of x-ray absorption and phase contrast data to provide enhanced morphological and composition information, and hence reveal the best information to provide new insights into the changes of different phases over time...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394454/development-of-an-improved-kelvin-probe-force-microscope-for-accurate-local-potential-measurements-on-biased-electronic-devices
#4
N B Bercu, L Giraudet, O Simonetti, M Molinari
An improved setup for accurate near-field surface potential measurements and characterisation of biased electronic devices using the Kelvin Probe method has been developed. Using an external voltage source synchronised with the raster-scan of the KPFM-AM, this setup allows to avoid potential measurement errors of the conventional Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy in the case of in situ measurements on biased electronic devices. This improved KPFM-AM setup has been tested on silicon-based devices and organic semiconductor-based devices such as organic field effect transistors (OFETs), showing differences up to 25% compared to the standard KPFM-AM lift-mode measurement method...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394445/3d-map-distribution-of-metallic-nanoparticles-in-whole-cells-using-mev-ion-microscopy
#5
M S Vasco, L C Alves, V Corregidor, A Bettiol, F Watt, T Pinheiro
In this work, a new tool was developed, the MORIA program that readily translates Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) output data into visual information, creating a display of the distribution of elements in a true three-dimensional (3D) environment. The program methodology is illustrated with the analysis of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, exposed to copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NP) and HeLa cells in the presence of gold nanoparticles (Au-NP), using different beam species, energies and nuclear microscopy systems...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394413/fast-operando-electron-nanotomography
#6
L Roiban, S Li, M Aouine, A Tuel, D Farrusseng, T Epicier
Electron tomography in transmission electron microscopy provides valuable three-dimensional structural, morphological and chemical information of condensed matter at nanoscale. Current image acquisitions require at least tens of minutes, which prohibits the analysis of nano-objects evolving rapidly such as under dynamic environmental conditions. Reducing the acquisition duration to tens of seconds or less permits to follow in 3D the same object during its evolution under varying temperatures and pressures. We report Operando Electron nanotomography using image series acquired in less than 230 seconds instead of typically 15 min in the best cases so far...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370211/a-protocol-for-registration-and-correction-of-multicolour-sted-superresolution-images
#7
E Hebisch, E Wagner, V Westphal, J J Sieber, S E Lehnart
Multicolour fluorescence imaging by STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) superresolution microscopy with doughnut-shaped STED laser beams based on different wavelengths for each colour channel requires precise image registration. This is especially important when STED imaging is used for co-localisation studies of two or more native proteins in biological specimens to analyse nanometric subcellular spatial arrangements. We developed a robust postprocessing image registration protocol, with the aim to verify and ultimately optimise multicolour STED image quality...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333371/structure-dependent-behaviours-of-skin-layers-studied-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#8
A C Chang, B H Liu, P L Shao, J D Liao
The multilayer skin provides the physical resistance and strength against the environmental attacks, and consequently plays a significant role in maintaining the mammalian health. Currently, optical microscopy (OM) is the most common method for the research related to skin tissues while with the drawbacks including the possibility of changing the native morphology of the sample with the addition of the chemical or immunological staining and the restricted resolution of images for the direct observation of the tissue structures...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328142/enhanced-spatial-resolution-in-vector-potential-photoelectron-microscopy
#9
R Browning
The spatial resolution of the vector potential photoelectron microscope is determined by the maximum size of the cyclotron orbits of the imaged electrons at the surface of a sample. It is straightforward to calculate the spatial resolution for any imaged electron energy given the magnetic field strength. However, in low-energy secondary photoelectron images from an aluminium-calcium metal matrix alloy, we find the apparent spatial resolution is significantly higher than expected. A possible explanation for the enhanced resolution is that the low-energy cyclotron orbits are distorted when passing from one area of work function to another and the image is dependent on the surface field distribution...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328099/an-icosahedral-virus-as-a-fluorescent-calibration-standard-a-method-for-counting-protein-molecules-in-cells-by-fluorescence-microscopy
#10
John M Murray
The ability to replace genes coding for cellular proteins with DNA that codes for fluorescent protein-tagged versions opens the way to counting the number of molecules of each protein component of macromolecular assemblies in vivo by measuring fluorescence microscopically. Converting fluorescence to absolute numbers of molecules requires a fluorescent standard whose molecular composition is known precisely. In this report, the construction, properties and mode of using a set of fluorescence calibration standards are described...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328071/investigation-of-c3-s-hydration-mechanism-by-transmission-electron-microscope-tem-with-integrated-super-x-tm-eds-system
#11
Y Sakalli, R Trettin
Tricalciumsilicate (C3 S, Alite) is the major component of the Portland cement clinker. Hydration of Alite is decisive in influencing the properties of the resulting material. This is due to its high content in cement. The mechanism of the hydration of C3 S is very complicated and not yet fully understood. There are different models describing the hydration of C3 S in various ways. In this work for a better understanding of hydration mechanism, the hydrated C3 S was investigated by using the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and for the first time, the samples for the investigations were prepared by using of focused ion beam from sintered pellets of C3 S...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328041/sem-microphotogrammetry-a-new-take-on-an-old-method-for-generating-high-resolution-3d-models-from-sem-images
#12
A D Ball, P A Job, A E L Walker
The method we present here uses a scanning electron microscope programmed via macros to automatically capture dozens of images at suitable angles to generate accurate, detailed three-dimensional (3D) surface models with micron-scale resolution. We demonstrate that it is possible to use these Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images in conjunction with commercially available software originally developed for photogrammetry reconstructions from Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR) cameras and to reconstruct 3D models of the specimen...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328030/estimation-of-microscope-drift-using-fluorescent-nanodiamonds-as-fiducial-markers
#13
W Colomb, J Czerski, J D Sau, S K Sarkar
Fiducial markers are used to correct the microscope drift and should be photostable, be usable at multiple wavelengths and be compatible for multimodal imaging. Fiducial markers such as beads, gold nanoparticles, microfabricated patterns and organic fluorophores lack one or more of these criteria. Moreover, the localization accuracy and drift correction can be degraded by other fluorophores, instrument noise and artefacts due to image processing and tracking algorithms. Estimating mechanical drift by assuming Gaussian distributed noise is not suitable under these circumstances...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328010/on-axis-versus-off-axis-transmission-kikuchi-diffraction-technique-application-to-the-characterisation-of-severe-plastic-deformation-induced-ultrafine-grained-microstructures
#14
H Yuan, E Brodu, C Chen, E Bouzy, J-J Fundenberger, L S Toth
A new configuration for Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction (TKD) in a scanning electron microscope is presented; called 'on-axis TKD'. Compared to the usual off-axis configuration, the scintillator is placed perpendicular to the incident beam under the electron-transparent sample, not in vertical position. In this way, the setup benefits from intense forward scattered electrons enabling short acquisition times. At equivalent diffraction pattern quality, the electron dose needed on the sample is estimated to be 20 times lower in comparison to the off-axis configuration...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319275/mrf-ann-a-machine-learning-approach-for-automated-er-scoring-of-breast-cancer-immunohistochemical-images
#15
T Mungle, S Tewary, D K DAS, I Arun, B Basak, S Agarwal, R Ahmed, S Chatterjee, C Chakraborty
Molecular pathology, especially immunohistochemistry, plays an important role in evaluating hormone receptor status along with diagnosis of breast cancer. Time-consumption and inter-/intraobserver variability are major hindrances for evaluating the receptor score. In view of this, the paper proposes an automated Allred Scoring methodology for estrogen receptor (ER). White balancing is used to normalize the colour image taking into consideration colour variation during staining in different labs. Markov random field model with expectation-maximization optimization is employed to segment the ER cells...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319271/oolong-tea-extract-as-a-substitute-for-uranyl-acetate-in-staining-of-ultrathin-sections-based-on-examples-of-animal-tissues-for-transmission-electron-microscopy
#16
Xiaohua He, Bin Liu
Oolong tea extract (OTE) was assessed for its potential as an electron stain to substitute for uranyl acetate (UA) in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A comparative analysis of the ultrastructures of biological specimens (i.e. compound eye and sciatic nerve tissue) stained by different methods (UA and 0.1% OTE) has been performed. Results revealed that there was no significant difference between the OTE double staining method and the traditional double staining method, except the contrast in the OTE method was slightly lower than the UA method...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319261/comparative-measurement-of-collagen-bundle-orientation-by-fourier-analysis-and-semiquantitative-evaluation-reliability-and-agreement-in-masson-s-trichrome-picrosirius-red-and-confocal-microscopy-techniques
#17
V Marcos-Garcés, M Harvat, P Molina Aguilar, A Ferrández Izquierdo, A Ruiz-Saurí
Measurement of collagen bundle orientation in histopathological samples is a widely used and useful technique in many research and clinical scenarios. Fourier analysis is the preferred method for performing this measurement, but the most appropriate staining and microscopy technique remains unclear. Some authors advocate the use of Haematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) and confocal microscopy, but there are no studies comparing this technique with other classical collagen stainings. In our study, 46 human skin samples were collected, processed for histological analysis and stained with Masson's trichrome, Picrosirius red and H&E...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319259/label-free-identification-of-the-microstructure-of-rat-spinal-cords-based-on-nonlinear-optical-microscopy
#18
C X Liao, Z Y Wang, Y Zhou, L Q Zhou, X Q Zhu, W G Liu, J X Chen
The spinal cord is a vital link between the brain and the body and mainly comprises neurons, glial cells and nerve fibres. In this work, nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopy based on intrinsic tissue properties was employed to label-freely analyze the cells and matrix in spinal cords at a molecular level. The high-resolution and high-contrast NLO images of unstained spinal cords demonstrate that NLO microscopy has the ability to show the microstructure of white and grey matter including ventral horn, intermediate area, dorsal horns, ventral column, lateral column and dorsal column...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295332/crystalline-phases-found-in-rapidly-quenched-ni-nb-zr-alloys
#19
L P Deo, M J Kaufman, B Wang, S Nikodemski, M F DE Oliveira
The properties of metallic alloys can be significantly improved by developing non-equilibrium phases in the microstructures through rapid solidification techniques, thus the characterisation of these unusual structures is extremely important. In this research, the microstructures of three rapidly quenched alloys, namely Ni65.2 Nb33.8 Zr1.0 , Ni54.8 Nb31.1 Zr14.1 and Ni54.8 Nb21.6 Zr23.6 (at. %) were investigated in greater detail in order to determine the structures and compositions of their crystalline phases...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295331/unifying-miscellaneous-performance-criteria-for-a-prototype-supercapacitor-via-co-oh-2-active-material-and-current-collector-interactions
#20
H X Wang, W Zhang, N E Drewett, H B Zhang, K K Huang, S H Feng, X L Li, J Kim, S Yoo, T Deng, S J Liu, D Wang, W T Zheng
The use of transition metal oxides and hydroxides in supercapacitors can yield high specific capacity electrodes. However, the effect of interaction between active material and current collector has remained unexplored. Here the behaviour of electrodeposited hexagonal cobalt hydroxide nanosheets on a variety of substrates was investigated, and the resulting valence bonding, morphological evolutions and phase transformations examined. It is shown that the electrochemical activity of the face centred cubic (FCC) Ni substrate dramatically decreases cyclability, the FCC Cu substrate also demonstrates decreased performance, and hexagonal carbon nanofibre (CNF) and Ti substrates exhibit far more stability...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
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