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Journal of Microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543440/chronic-sleep-restriction-disrupts-interendothelial-junctions-in-the-hippocampus-and-increases-blood-brain-barrier-permeability
#1
G Hurtado-Alvarado, J Velázquez-Moctezuma, B Gómez-González
Chronic sleep loss in the rat increases blood-brain barrier permeability to Evans blue and FITC-dextrans in almost the whole brain and sleep recovery during short periods restores normal blood-brain barrier permeability. Sleep loss increases vesicle density in hippocampal endothelial cells and decreases tight junction protein expression. However, at the ultrastructural level the effect of chronic sleep loss on interendothelial junctions is unknown. In this study we characterised the ultrastructure of interendothelial junctions in the hippocampus, the expression of tight junction proteins, and quantified blood-brain barrier permeability to fluorescein-sodium after chronic sleep restriction...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543185/iron-oxide-nanoparticles-decrease-nuclear-fractal-dimension-of-buccal-epithelial-cells-in-a-time-dependent-manner
#2
D Nikolovski, S Dugalic, I Pantic
In this paper, we present results that iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) induce time-dependent structural changes in nuclei of buccal epithelial cells. The cells were treated with magnetite, Fe3 O4 nanoparticles (spherical shape, diameter 80-100 nanometres). The digital micrographs of the nuclei were made in 3 different time points: 15, 30 and 60 min after the treatment with IONPs, as well as in the control cells. A total of 120 nuclear structures (30 per sample) were analysed. Fractal analysis of nuclei was done in ImageJ software of the National Institutes of Health, (Bethesda, MD, USA)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504417/laser-preparation-of-geometrically-optimised-samples-for-x-ray-nano-ct
#3
J J Bailey, T M M Heenan, D P Finegan, X Lu, S R Daemi, F Iacoviello, N R Backeberg, O O Taiwo, D J L Brett, A Atkinson, P R Shearing
A robust and versatile sample preparation technique for the fabrication of cylindrical pillars for imaging by X-ray nano-computed tomography (nano-CT) is presented. The procedure employs simple, cost-effective laser micro-machining coupled with focused-ion beam (FIB) milling, when required, to yield mechanically robust samples at the micrometre length-scale to match the field-of-view (FOV) for nano-CT imaging. A variety of energy and geological materials are exhibited as case studies, demonstrating the procedure can be applied to a variety of materials to provide geometrically optimised samples whose size and shape are tailored to the attenuation coefficients of the constituent phases...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474765/assessment-of-statistical-agreement-of-three-techniques-for-the-study-of-cut-marks-3d-digital-microscope-laser-scanning-confocal-microscopy-and-micro-photogrammetry
#4
Miguel Ángel Maté-González, Julia Aramendi, José Yravedra, Ruth Blasco, Jordi Rosell, Diego González-Aguilera, Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo
In the last few years, the study of cut marks on bone surfaces has become fundamental for the interpretation of prehistoric butchery practices. Due to the difficulties in the correct identification of cut marks, many criteria for their description and classification have been suggested. Different techniques, such as three-dimensional digital microscope (3D DM), laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and micro-photogrammetry (M-PG) have been recently applied to the study of cut marks. Although the 3D DM and LSCM microscopic techniques are the most commonly used for the 3D identification of cut marks, M-PG has also proved to be very efficient and a low-cost method...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474763/three-dimensional-microstructure-characterisation-of-thermoplastic-polyolefin-blends
#5
J-C Lin, Y Huang, J Harris, B Weinlander, M A Jones
The size, shape and distribution of different phases in thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) blends and composites are critical to the properties of the materials, but can be difficult to characterise. Here we report the combination of heavy metal staining and focused ion beam - scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) to reveal the three-dimensional (3D) structure of an elastomer-modified poly(propylene) and a talc filled elastomer-modified poly(propylene). High-quality, high-resolution serial images were collected and the 3D structures were characterised quantitatively...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474742/diffraction-effects-and-inelastic-electron-transport-in-angle-resolved-microscopic-imaging-applications
#6
A Winkelmann, G Nolze, S Vespucci, G Naresh-Kumar, C Trager-Cowan, A Vilalta-Clemente, A J Wilkinson, M Vos
We analyse the signal formation process for scanning electron microscopic imaging applications on crystalline specimens. In accordance with previous investigations, we find nontrivial effects of incident beam diffraction on the backscattered electron distribution in energy and momentum. Specifically, incident beam diffraction causes angular changes of the backscattered electron distribution which we identify as the dominant mechanism underlying pseudocolour orientation imaging using multiple, angle-resolving detectors...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470948/using-transmission-kikuchi-diffraction-to-characterise-%C3%AE-variants-in-an-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-titanium-alloy
#7
V Tong, S Joseph, A K Ackerman, D Dye, T B Britton
Two phase titanium alloys are important for high-performance engineering components, such as aeroengine discs. The microstructures of these alloys are tailored during thermomechanical processing to precisely control phase fractions, morphology and crystallographic orientations. In bimodal two phase (α + β) Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo (Ti-6242) alloys there are often three microstructural lengthscales to consider: large (∼10 μm) equiaxed primary α; >200 nm thick plate α with a basketweave morphology; and very fine scaled (<50 nm plate thickness) secondary α that grows between the larger α plates surrounded by retained β...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470888/observation-of-asphalt-binder-microstructure-with-esem
#8
P Mikhailenko, H Kadhim, H Baaj, S Tighe
The observation of asphalt binder with the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has shown the potential to observe asphalt binder microstructure and its evolution with binder aging. A procedure for the induction and identification of the microstructure in asphalt binder was established in this study and included sample preparation and observation parameters. A suitable heat-sampling asphalt binder sample preparation method was determined for the test and several stainless steel and Teflon sample moulds developed, finding that stainless steel was the preferable material...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470847/area-preserving-colour-coding-of-inverse-pole-figure-domain
#9
T Karthikeyan
The inverse pole figure (IPF) map is a routinely displayed output in microtexture studies, interpreted using the attached colour legend/diagram. An area-preserving relation between the IPF domain and RGB colour domain has been developed here, and the resultant IPF colour diagrams of different crystal point group symmetries are presented.
May 4, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470842/driving-reversible-redox-reactions-at-solid-liquid-interfaces-with-the-electron-beam-of-a-transmission-electron-microscope
#10
Nabeel Ahmad, Guillaume Wang, Jaysen Nelayah, Christian Ricolleau, Damien Alloyeau
Liquid-cell transmission electron microscopy (LCTEM) has opened up a new way to study chemical reactions at the interface between solids and liquids. However, understanding the effects of the electron beam in the liquid cell has been clearly identified as one of the most important challenges to assess correctly and quantitatively LCTEM data. Here we show that the electron beam can be used to drive reversible deposition/dissolution cycles of copper shells over gold nanoparticles in methanol. Besides revealing the influence of irreversible processes on the kinetic of growth/etching cycles, this study of nanostructure behaviour as a function of the dose rate highlights the possibility to switch the oxidising or reducing nature of liquid environment only with the electron beam...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470763/membrane-protein-stoichiometry-studied-in-intact-mammalian-cells-using-liquid-phase-electron-microscopy
#11
N DE Jonge
Receptor membrane proteins in the plasma membranes of cells respond to extracellular chemical signals by conformational changes, spatial redistribution, and (re-)assembly into protein complexes, for example, into homodimers (pairs of the same protein type). The functional state of the proteins can be determined from information about how subunits are assembled into protein complexes. Stoichiometric information about the protein complex subunits, however, is generally not obtained from intact cells but from pooled material extracted from many cells, resulting in a lack of fundamental knowledge about the functioning of membrane proteins...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470749/noninvasive-imaging-systems-for-gametes-and-embryo-selection-in-ivf-programs-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Marjan Omidi, Azita Faramarzi, Azam Agharahimi, Mohammad Ali Khalili
Optimizing the efficiency of the in vitro fertilization procedure by improving pregnancy rates and reducing the risks of multiple pregnancies simultaneously are the primary goals of the current assisted reproductive technology program. With the move to single embryo transfers, the need for more cost-effective and noninvasive methods for embryo selection prior to transfer is paramount. These aims require advancement in a more acquire gametes/embryo testing and selection procedures using high-tech devices. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to evaluate the efficacy of noninvasive imaging systems in the current literatures, focusing on the potential clinical application in infertile patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatments...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470743/correlative-light-and-electron-microscopy-reveals-discrepancy-between-gold-and-fluorescence-labelling
#13
D M VAN Elsland, E Bos, J B Pawlak, H S Overkleeft, A J Koster, S I VAN Kasteren
Electron microscopy (EM) is traditionally employed as a follow-up to fluorescence microscopy (FM) to resolve the cellular ultrastructures wherein fluorescently labelled biomolecules reside. In order to translate the information derived from FM studies to EM analysis, biomolecules of interest must be identified in a manner compatible with EM. Although fluorescent signals can serve this purpose when FM is combined with EM in correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM), the traditional immunogold labelling remains commonly used in this context...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421602/the-qualitative-f-ratio-method-applied-to-electron-channelling-induced-x-ray-imaging-with-an-annular-silicon-drift-detector-in-a-scanning-electron-microscope-in-the-transmission-mode
#14
Nicolas Brodusch, Raynald Gauvin
Electron channelling is known to affect the x-ray production when an accelerated electron beam is applied to a crystalline material and is highly dependent on the local crystal orientation. This effect, unless very long counting time are used, is barely noticeable on x-ray energy spectra recorded with conventional silicon drift detectors (SDD) located at a small elevation angle. However, the very high count rates provided by the new commercially available annular SDDs permit now to observe this effect routinely and may, in some circumstances, hide the true elemental x-ray variations due to the local true specimen composition...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419509/automatic-diagnosis-of-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-from-pap-smear-images
#15
M Momenzadeh, M Sehhati, A Mehri Dehnavi, A Talebi, H Rabbani
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is the most common genital infections that are seen every day in clinics. This infection is due to excessive growth of Candida that are normally present in the vagina in small numbers. Diagnosis of VVC is routinely done by direct microscopy of Pap smear samples and searching for the Candida in the Pap smear glass slides. This manual method is subjective, time consuming, labour-intensive and tedious. This study presents a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) method to improve human diagnosis of VVC...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419456/time-lapse-lab-based-x-ray-nano-ct-study-of-corrosion-damage
#16
R S Bradley, Y Liu, T L Burnett, X Zhou, S B Lyon, P J Withers, A Gholinia, T Hashimoto, D Graham, S R Gibbon, B Hornberger
An experimental protocol (workflow) has been developed for time-lapse x-ray nanotomography (nano-CT) imaging of environmentally driven morphological changes to materials. Two case studies are presented. First, the leaching of nanoparticle corrosion inhibitor pigment from a polymer coating was followed over 14 days, while in the second case the corrosion damage to an AA2099 aluminium alloy was imaged over 12 hours. The protocol includes several novel aspects relevant to nano-CT with the use of a combination of x-ray absorption and phase contrast data to provide enhanced morphological and composition information, and hence reveal the best information to provide new insights into the changes of different phases over time...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394454/development-of-an-improved-kelvin-probe-force-microscope-for-accurate-local-potential-measurements-on-biased-electronic-devices
#17
N B Bercu, L Giraudet, O Simonetti, M Molinari
An improved setup for accurate near-field surface potential measurements and characterisation of biased electronic devices using the Kelvin Probe method has been developed. Using an external voltage source synchronised with the raster-scan of the KPFM-AM, this setup allows to avoid potential measurement errors of the conventional Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy in the case of in situ measurements on biased electronic devices. This improved KPFM-AM setup has been tested on silicon-based devices and organic semiconductor-based devices such as organic field effect transistors (OFETs), showing differences up to 25% compared to the standard KPFM-AM lift-mode measurement method...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394445/3d-map-distribution-of-metallic-nanoparticles-in-whole-cells-using-mev-ion-microscopy
#18
M S Vasco, L C Alves, V Corregidor, A Bettiol, F Watt, T Pinheiro
In this work, a new tool was developed, the MORIA program that readily translates Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) output data into visual information, creating a display of the distribution of elements in a true three-dimensional (3D) environment. The program methodology is illustrated with the analysis of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, exposed to copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NP) and HeLa cells in the presence of gold nanoparticles (Au-NP), using different beam species, energies and nuclear microscopy systems...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394413/fast-operando-electron-nanotomography
#19
L Roiban, S Li, M Aouine, A Tuel, D Farrusseng, T Epicier
Electron tomography in transmission electron microscopy provides valuable three-dimensional structural, morphological and chemical information of condensed matter at nanoscale. Current image acquisitions require at least tens of minutes, which prohibits the analysis of nano-objects evolving rapidly such as under dynamic environmental conditions. Reducing the acquisition duration to tens of seconds or less permits to follow in 3D the same object during its evolution under varying temperatures and pressures. We report Operando Electron nanotomography using image series acquired in less than 230 seconds instead of typically 15 min in the best cases so far...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370211/a-protocol-for-registration-and-correction-of-multicolour-sted-superresolution-images
#20
E Hebisch, E Wagner, V Westphal, J J Sieber, S E Lehnart
Multicolour fluorescence imaging by STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) superresolution microscopy with doughnut-shaped STED laser beams based on different wavelengths for each colour channel requires precise image registration. This is especially important when STED imaging is used for co-localisation studies of two or more native proteins in biological specimens to analyse nanometric subcellular spatial arrangements. We developed a robust postprocessing image registration protocol, with the aim to verify and ultimately optimise multicolour STED image quality...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
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