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Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Shawn P Gilroy, Brent A Kaplan, Derek D Reed, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Donald A Hantula
Free and open-source software for applying models of operant demand called the Demand Curve Analyzer (DCA) was developed and systematically evaluated for use in research. The software was constructed to streamline the use of recommended screening measures, prepare suitable scaling parameters, fit one of several models of operant demand, and provide publication-quality figures. The DCA allows users to easily import price and consumption data into spreadsheet-based controls and to perform statistical modeling with the aid of a graphical user interface...
October 16, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Don Li, Douglas Elliffe, Michael J Hautus
A multivariate analysis is concerned with more than one dependent variable simultaneously. Models that generate event records have a privileged status in a multivariate analysis. From a model that generates event records, we may compute predictions for any dependent variable associated with those event records. However, because of the generality that is afforded to us by these kinds of models, we must carefully consider the selection of dependent variables. Thus, we present a conditional compromise heuristic for the selection of dependent variables from a large group of variables...
October 16, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Kathryn M Kestner, Claudia C Diaz-Salvat, Claire C St Peter, Stephanie M Peterson
Resurgence refers to the recurrence of a previously reinforced response following the worsening of reinforcement conditions (e.g., extinction) for an alternative response. Because of the implications for treatment relapse, researchers have become particularly interested in mitigating resurgence of human behavior. Some studies have employed reversal designs and varied parameters across replications (e.g., ABCADC) to compare effects of second-phase variables. Although resurgence is generally repeatable within and between subjects, the extent to which similar levels of resurgence occur across replications is less clear...
October 16, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Thuong Ho, John Y H Bai, Madeleine Keevy, Christopher A Podlesnik
Resurgence is defined as the recurrence of a previously reinforced and then extinguished target response when reducing or eliminating a more recently reinforced alternative response. In experiments with children and pigeons, we evaluated patterns of resurgence across and within sessions through decreases in reinforcer availability by challenging alternative responding with extinction and progressive-ratio schedules. In Phase 1, we reinforced only target responding. In Phase 2, we extinguished target responding while reinforcing an alternative response...
October 10, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
William M Baum
In the context of evolutionary theory, behavior is the interaction between the organism and its environment. Two implications follow: (a) behavior takes time; and (b) behavior is defined by its function. That behavior takes time implies that behavioral units are temporally extended patterns or activities. An activity functions as an integrated whole composed of parts that are themselves smaller-scale activities. That behavior is defined by its function implies that behavior functions to change the environment in ways that promote reproductive success...
October 9, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Jocelyn Hansson, Allen Neuringer
Studies with rats and pigeons showed that reinforcement of response variability improved learning of difficult response sequences. The results suggested that concurrent reinforcement of variability might be a helpful tool when educators or therapists attempt to teach individuals with learning difficulties. However, similar experiments with humans failed to confirm the results. In fact, in the human case, concurrent reinforcement of variability interfered with learning. The present experiment studied the same phenomenon with human participants in the context of a computer-based game...
October 9, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Ioannis S Moustakis, Robert C Mellon
In tests of the derivation of complex relations such as transitivity, extant cues might fail to evoke effective responding, necessitating the construction of supplemental stimuli prior to their solution. The significance of this process was investigated by within-subject manipulation of an instructional variable designed to produce different levels of construction of supplemental stimulation concerning relationships among stimulus elements of concatenated conditional discriminations. In two experimental sessions, serial training of three 5-member stimulus classes occurred, either with the instruction to simply name the component stimuli or to both name them and generate a tale serially linking the stimuli named; such constructed stimuli might be spontaneously reconstructed by precurrent acts in subsequent tests of "emergent" relations...
October 1, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Kaitlyn O Browning, Timothy A Shahan
Renewal is the reoccurrence of previously extinguished behavior following a change in the context in which extinction was conducted. Despite an extensive body of research examining renewal, little is known about the role of social stimuli in renewal. The present experiments provided a novel examination of renewal of operant behavior by changing social stimuli across phases in an ABA renewal preparation. In both experiments, social stimuli were arranged by placing another rat in a second compartment of a divided operant chamber...
September 21, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Toshikazu Kuroda
The capacity of 3D cameras to measure many different aspects of behavior (e.g., velocity, pattern, and posture) could contribute to the understanding of behavior. The present article describes a system for the real-time tracking of operant behavior, which is applicable to other domains of behavioral science as well. Methods for real-time 3D tracking of animal behavior are described, along with sample C++ programs. A demonstration using one zebrafish as a subject indicated that the present system successfully tracked the 3D motion of the fish...
September 19, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Daniel D Holt, Matthew R Wolf, Ryne D Skytta
A series of procedures were conducted in an attempt to assess various forms of validity related to the use of pigeons in research on delay discounting. In separate experimental arrangements, pigeons pressed a treadle, pecked a lit key, pecked a darkened key, or pecked a lit key with a hold as the required response. First, the obtained results were consistent with what would be necessary if the construct of delay discounting were being measured, which provides evidence of face validity. Second, criterion validity was assessed by comparing individual differences in rates of discounting across procedures...
September 16, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
William B DeHart, Jonathan E Friedel, Charles C J Frye, Ann Galizio, Amy L Odum
We examined the effects of outcome framing on delay discounting. In Experiment 1, participants completed four delay-discounting tasks. In one monetary task, money was framed in units of dollars ($50), and in the other, money was framed in units of handfuls of quarters (equal to $50). In one food task, food was framed in clear units of food (e.g., 100 M&Ms), and in the other, food was framed in units of servings (e.g., 10 servings of M&Ms). When money was framed in units of dollars, participants discounted less by delay compared to discounting of handfuls of quarters...
September 11, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
J J McDowell, Bryan Klapes
An evolutionary theory of adaptive behavior dynamics was tested by studying the behavior of artificial organisms (AOs) animated by the theory, working on concurrent ratio schedules with unequal and equal ratios in the components. The evolutionary theory implements Darwinian rules of selection, reproduction, and mutation in the form of a genetic algorithm that causes a population of potential behaviors to evolve under the selection pressure of consequences from the environment. On concurrent ratio schedules with unequal ratios in the components, the AOs tended to respond exclusively on the component with the smaller ratio, provided that ratio was not too large and the difference between the ratios was not too small...
September 8, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Erik Arntzen, Richard K Nartey
The present experiment investigated the effects of preliminary training with pictorial stimuli on the subsequent formation of three 5-member equivalence classes (A➔B➔C➔D➔E) in 84 university students assigned to seven groups of 12. In the Abstract (ABS) group, all stimuli were abstract shapes. In the Picture (PIC) group, the C stimuli were pictures, and the remaining stimuli were the same abstract shapes as in the ABS group. For the remaining five groups, all stimuli were the same abstract shapes as in the ABS group...
September 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Toshikazu Kuroda, Kennon A Lattal
Using a discrete-trials procedure, two experiments examined the effects of response-reinforcer correlations on responding while controlling molecular variables that operated at the moment of reinforcer delivery (e.g., response-reinforcer temporal contiguity, interresponse times preceding reinforcement). Each trial consisted of three successive components: Response, Timeout, and Reinforcement, with the duration of each component held constant. The correlation between the number of responses in the Response component and reinforcer deliveries in the Reinforcement component was varied...
September 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Rafaela M Fontes, João C Todorov, Timothy A Shahan
Resurgence is often defined as the recurrence of an extinguished behavior when a more recently reinforced alternative behavior is also extinguished. Resurgence has also been observed when the alternative behavior is devalued by other means (e.g., reinforcement rate or magnitude reductions). The present study investigated whether punishment of an alternative behavior would generate resurgence. A target response was reinforced during Phase 1 and then extinguished in Phase 2 while an alternative response was reinforced...
September 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Tyler D Nighbor, Stephanie L Kincaid, Christopher M O'Hearn, Kennon A Lattal
In two experiments, pigeons were exposed to a three-phase resurgence procedure (train Response A; extinguish Response A and train Response B; extinguish Response B). In the first experiment, the stimuli associated with phases were different, resulting in a resurgence procedure combined with an ABC renewal procedure. Presenting the novel stimulus, C, during extinction of both responses in the third phase resulted in minimal resurgence. Subsequently, substituting the original training Stimulus A for Stimulus C resulted in resurgence with all pigeons...
September 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Yosuke Hachiga, Lindsay P Schwartz, Alan Silberberg, David N Kearns, Maria Gomez, Burton Slotnick
This report evaluates whether a rat releasing a trapped rat from a restraint tube is better explained as due to its empathic motivation or to the pursuit of social contact. In the first condition, each of six rats chose in an E maze between entering an empty goal box versus entering a goal box where its entrance caused a rat trapped in a restraint tube to be released. Rats preferred the goal box with the trapped rat over the empty goal box. In the second condition, these rats chose between releasing a restraint-tube-trapped rat in one goal box and another rat in the second goal box that was not locked into its restraint tube...
September 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Daniel R Mitteer, Brian D Greer, Wayne W Fisher, Adam M Briggs, David P Wacker
The success of behavioral treatments like functional communication training depends on their continued implementation outside of the clinical context, where failures in caregiver treatment adherence can lead to the relapse of destructive behavior. In the present study, we developed a laboratory model for evaluating the relapse of undesirable caregiver behavior that simulates two common sources of disruption (i.e., changes in context and in treatment efficacy) believed to affect caregiver treatment adherence using simulated confederate destructive behavior...
September 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Yusuke Hayashi, Heather J Fessler, Jonathan E Friedel, Anne M Foreman, Oliver Wirth
A sample of 109 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send or read text messages while driving. In a novel discounting task with a hypothetical scenario in which participants receive a text message while driving, they rated the likelihood of replying to a text message immediately versus waiting to reply until arriving at a destination. The scenario presented several delays to a destination and probabilities of a motor vehicle crash. The likelihood of waiting to reply decreased as a function of both the delay until the destination and the probability of a motor vehicle crash...
September 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Benigno Alonso-Álvarez, Luis Antonio Pérez-González
We evaluated whether contextual control over equivalence and nonequivalence and responding by exclusion can explain the outcomes of relational frame theory (RFT) studies on sameness and opposition relations. We trained nine college students to maintain and reverse conditional discriminations with X1 and X2 as contextual stimuli. In Experiment 1, X1 and X2 controlled derived stimulus relations (DSR) analogous to those controlled by Same and Opposite in RFT studies. These results can be explained by at least two hypotheses: X1 and X2 were cues for equivalence and nonequivalence and responding by exclusion, or for sameness and opposition...
September 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
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