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Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Michael Davison
Responding on concurrent schedules produced a conditional discrimination (Phases 1 and 2), asking either which peck produced the event, or which color the keys were when the event was produced. In Phases 3 and 4, reinforcer delivery or a delay in blackout was interpolated between responding and the conditional discrimination. In Phase 1, location versus color discrimination accuracy was controlled by the relative reinforcer frequency for correct responses to these questions (divided stimulus control). In Phases 2 to 4, relative reinforcer frequency for correct responses to these questions was ...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Rachel Young, T Mary Foster, Lewis A Bizo
Hens responded under multiple fixed-ratio schedules with equal response requirements and either a 1-s or a 6-s reinforcer. Upcoming reinforcer size was indicated by key color. Components were presented in a quasirandom series so that all four component transitions occurred. Postreinforcement pauses were affected by the upcoming and preceding reinforcer size, with longer pauses after large reinforcers followed by small reinforcers than when followed by large ones, and longer pauses after small reinforcers that were followed by small reinforcers rather than large ones...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Paul M Guinther
This paper introduces the relational triangulation framework as a functional contextual expansion of the established Relational Frame Theory (Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001) account of perspective-taking. Initial support for the new framework is provided through data collected with a novel relational triangulation perspective-taking protocol configured in the present study to show contextual influence over deriving true belief in others following the direct training of a "seeing leads to knowing" repertoire (Leslie & Frith, 1988)...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Matthew C Bell, William M Baum
Most studies of operant choice have focused on presenting subjects with a fixed pair of schedules across many experimental sessions. Using these methods, studies of concurrent variable- interval variable-ratio schedules helped to evaluate theories of choice. More recently, a growing literature has focused on dynamic choice behavior. Those dynamic choice studies have analyzed behavior on a number of different time scales using concurrent variable-interval schedules. Following the dynamic choice approach, the present experiment examined performance on concurrent variable-interval variable-ratio schedules in a rapidly changing environment...
November 7, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Carlos R X Cançado, Kennon A Lattal, H K Carpenter, Elizabeth A Solley
The resurgence of time allocation with pigeons was studied in three experiments. In Phase 1 of each experiment, response-independent food occurred with different probabilities in the presence of two different keylights. Each peck on the key changed its color and the food probability in effect. In Phase 2, the food probabilities associated with each keylight were reversed and, in Phase 3, food was discontinued in the presence of either keylight. The food probabilities were .25 and .75, in Experiment 1, and 0...
November 3, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Toshikazu Kuroda, James E Cook, Kennon A Lattal
The effect of response rates on resistance to change, measured as resistance to extinction, was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, responding in transition from a variable-ratio schedule and its yoked-interval counterpart to extinction was compared with pigeons. Following training on a multiple variable-ratio yoked-interval schedule of reinforcement, in which response rates were higher in the former component, reinforcement was removed from both components during a single extended extinction session...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Toshikazu Kuroda
Remote control over devices for experiments may increase the efficiency of operant research and expand the area where behavior can be studied. This article introduces a combination of Raspberry Pi® (Pi) and SoftEther VPN® that allows for such remote control via the Internet. The Pi is a small Linux computer with a great degree of flexibility for customization. Test results indicate that a Pi-based interface meets the requirement for conducting operant research. SoftEther VPN® allows for establishing an extensive private network on the Internet using a single private Wi-Fi router...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Eric J French, Mark P Reilly
Animals accumulate reinforcers when they forgo the opportunity to consume available food in favor of acquiring additional food for later consumption. Laboratory research has shown that reinforcer accumulation is facilitated when an interval (either spatial or temporal) separates earning from consuming reinforcers. However, there has been no systematic investigation on the interval separating consuming reinforcers from earning additional reinforcers. This oversight is problematic because this second interval is an integral part of much of the previous research on reinforcer accumulation...
October 25, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
William F Perez, Roberta Kovac, Yara C Nico, Daniel M Caro, Adriana P Fidalgo, Ila Linares, João Henrique de Almeida, Júlio C de Rose
According to Relational Frame Theory (RFT) Crel denotes a contextual stimulus that controls a particular type of relational response (sameness, opposition, comparative, temporal, hierarchical etc.) in a given situation. Previous studies suggest that contextual functions may be indirectly acquired via transfer of function. The present study investigated the transfer of Crel contextual control through equivalence relations. Experiment 1 evaluated the transfer of Crel contextual functions for relational responses based on sameness and opposition...
October 23, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Sarah Beurms, Frits Traets, Jan De Houwer, Tom Beckers
Symmetry refers to the observation that subjects will derive B-A (e.g., in the presence of B, select A) after being trained on A-B (e.g., in the presence of A, select B). Whereas symmetry is readily shown in humans, it has been difficult to demonstrate in nonhuman animals. This difficulty, at least in pigeons, may result from responding to specific stimulus properties that change when sample and comparison stimuli switch roles between training and testing. In three experiments with humans, we investigated to what extent human responding is influenced by the temporal location of stimuli using a successive matching-to-sample procedure...
October 6, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Amilcar Rodrigues Fonseca Júnior, Maria Helena Leite Hunziker
This study aimed to investigate whether variable patterns of responses can be acquired and maintained by negative reinforcement under an avoidance contingency. Six male Wistar rats were exposed to sessions in which behavioral variability was reinforced according to a Lag contingency: Sequences of three responses on two levers had to differ from one, two or three previous sequences for shocks to be avoided (Lag 1, Lag 2 and Lag 3, respectively). Performance under the Lag conditions was compared with performance on a Yoke condition in which the animals received the same reinforcement frequency and distribution as in the Lag condition but behavioral variability was not required...
November 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Erica N Feuerbacher, Clive D L Wynne
The unique relationship between dog and owner has been demonstrated in several experimental procedures, including tests in which dogs are left alone or with a stranger, tests of dogs' appeasement or social approach when petted by their owner or a stranger, and their ability to learn when taught by their owner or a stranger. In all cases, dogs responded differently to their owner, which has been referred to as a specific attachment, and likely a product of a prolonged history of reinforcement. In the current study, we used a concurrent choice paradigm in which dogs could interact with two people, both of whom provided the same petting interaction, to test whether owned dogs would prefer their owner over a stranger and whether the familiarity of the testing context would influence preference...
September 4, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Sarah Cowie, Michael Davison, Douglas Elliffe
The extent to which a stimulus exerts control over behavior depends largely on its informativeness. However, when reinforcers have discriminative properties, they often exert less control over behavior than do other less reliable stimuli such as elapsed time. We investigated why less reliable cues in the present often overshadow stimulus control by more reliable cues presented in the recent past, by manipulating the reliability and duration of stimulus presentations. Five pigeons worked on a modified concurrent schedule in which the location of the response that produced the last reinforcer was a discriminative stimulus for the likely time and location of the next reinforcer...
September 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
David P Jarmolowicz, Jennifer L Hudnall, Luanne Hale, Stephen C Fowler, Marco Bortolato, Shea M Lemley, Michael J Sofis
Obesity is a major public health problem, which, like many forms of addiction, is associated with an elevated tendency to choose smaller immediate rather than larger delayed rewards, a response pattern often referred to as excessive delay discounting. Although some accounts of delay discounting conceptualize this process as impulsivity (placing the emphasis on overvaluing the smaller immediate reward), others have conceptualized delay discounting as an executive function (placing the emphasis on delayed rewards failing to retain their value)...
September 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Masanori Kono
Many studies that have investigated performance under reinforcement schedules have measured response rate or interresponse time, which reflect the temporal dimension of responding; however, relatively few studies have examined other dimensions. The present study investigated the effects of fixed-interval schedules on the location of pigeons' pecking response. A circular response area 22.4 cm in diameter was used so that the pecking responses were effective over a wide range. Pigeons were exposed to a fixed-interval schedule whose requirement was systematically varied between conditions...
September 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Jonathan Buriticá, Cristiano V Dos Santos
The concept of reinforcement value summarizes the effect of different variables, such as reinforcement delay, reinforcement magnitude, and deprivation level, on behavior. In the present set of experiments, we evaluated the effect of reinforcement devaluation on performance under FI schedules. The literature on timing and reinforcement value suggests that devaluation generates longer expected times to reinforcement than the same intervals trained under control conditions. We devalued reinforcement with delay in Experiments 1A, 1B, and 2, and diminished deprivation in Experiments 3A and 3B...
August 29, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Andrew R Craig, Kaitlyn O Browning, Timothy A Shahan
Resurgence refers to the recurrence of an extinguished target behavior following subsequent suspension of alternative reinforcement. Delivery of reinforcers during extinction of alternative behavior has been shown to mitigate resurgence. The present experiment aimed to determine whether delivering stimuli associated with reinforcers during resurgence testing similarly mitigates resurgence. Three groups of rats pressed target levers for food according to variable-interval 15-s schedules during Phase 1. In Phase 2, lever pressing was extinguished, and an alternative nose-poke response produced alternative reinforcement according to a variable-interval 15-s schedule...
August 29, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Adrienne M Jennings, Caio F Miguel
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of tact and intraverbal training on the establishment of generalized equivalence classes. Seventeen college students were exposed to tact training, listener testing, and intraverbal training (A'B' and B'C') in two experiments. Visual-visual matching-to-sample and intraverbal tests measured performances consistent with the formation of equivalence classes. Generalization was assessed with four novel sets of stimuli. In the second experiment, matching-to-sample tests for baseline relations (AB, BC) were eliminated to control for the possibility that equivalence classes were developed through exposure to these visual stimulus-stimulus relations...
August 29, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
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