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Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Toshikazu Kuroda, Kennon A Lattal
Using a discrete-trials procedure, two experiments examined the effects of response-reinforcer correlations on responding while controlling molecular variables that operated at the moment of reinforcer delivery (e.g., response-reinforcer temporal contiguity, interresponse times preceding reinforcement). Each trial consisted of three successive components: Response, Timeout, and Reinforcement, with the duration of each component held constant. The correlation between the number of responses in the Response component and reinforcer deliveries in the Reinforcement component was varied...
August 3, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Rafaela M Fontes, João C Todorov, Timothy A Shahan
Resurgence is often defined as the recurrence of an extinguished behavior when a more recently reinforced alternative behavior is also extinguished. Resurgence has also been observed when the alternative behavior is devalued by other means (e.g., reinforcement rate or magnitude reductions). The present study investigated whether punishment of an alternative behavior would generate resurgence. A target response was reinforced during Phase 1 and then extinguished in Phase 2 while an alternative response was reinforced...
July 31, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Tyler D Nighbor, Stephanie L Kincaid, Christopher M O'Hearn, Kennon A Lattal
In two experiments, pigeons were exposed to a three-phase resurgence procedure (train Response A; extinguish Response A and train Response B; extinguish Response B). In the first experiment, the stimuli associated with phases were different, resulting in a resurgence procedure combined with an ABC renewal procedure. Presenting the novel stimulus, C, during extinction of both responses in the third phase resulted in minimal resurgence. Subsequently, substituting the original training Stimulus A for Stimulus C resulted in resurgence with all pigeons...
July 25, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Yosuke Hachiga, Lindsay P Schwartz, Alan Silberberg, David N Kearns, Maria Gomez, Burton Slotnick
This report evaluates whether a rat releasing a trapped rat from a restraint tube is better explained as due to its empathic motivation or to the pursuit of social contact. In the first condition, each of six rats chose in an E maze between entering an empty goal box versus entering a goal box where its entrance caused a rat trapped in a restraint tube to be released. Rats preferred the goal box with the trapped rat over the empty goal box. In the second condition, these rats chose between releasing a restraint-tube-trapped rat in one goal box and another rat in the second goal box that was not locked into its restraint tube...
July 25, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Daniel R Mitteer, Brian D Greer, Wayne W Fisher, Adam M Briggs, David P Wacker
The success of behavioral treatments like functional communication training depends on their continued implementation outside of the clinical context, where failures in caregiver treatment adherence can lead to the relapse of destructive behavior. In the present study, we developed a laboratory model for evaluating the relapse of undesirable caregiver behavior that simulates two common sources of disruption (i.e., changes in context and in treatment efficacy) believed to affect caregiver treatment adherence using simulated confederate destructive behavior...
July 20, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Yusuke Hayashi, Heather J Fessler, Jonathan E Friedel, Anne M Foreman, Oliver Wirth
A sample of 109 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send or read text messages while driving. In a novel discounting task with a hypothetical scenario in which participants receive a text message while driving, they rated the likelihood of replying to a text message immediately versus waiting to reply until arriving at a destination. The scenario presented several delays to a destination and probabilities of a motor vehicle crash. The likelihood of waiting to reply decreased as a function of both the delay until the destination and the probability of a motor vehicle crash...
July 20, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Benigno Alonso-Álvarez, Luis Antonio Pérez-González
We evaluated whether contextual control over equivalence and nonequivalence and responding by exclusion can explain the outcomes of relational frame theory (RFT) studies on sameness and opposition relations. We trained nine college students to maintain and reverse conditional discriminations with X1 and X2 as contextual stimuli. In Experiment 1, X1 and X2 controlled derived stimulus relations (DSR) analogous to those controlled by Same and Opposite in RFT studies. These results can be explained by at least two hypotheses: X1 and X2 were cues for equivalence and nonequivalence and responding by exclusion, or for sameness and opposition...
July 12, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Kristen A Rost
Under concurrent-chains schedules of reinforcement, participants often prefer situations that allow selection among alternatives (free choice) to situations that do not (forced choice). The present experiment examined the effects of reinforcement probability on choice preferences. Preferences for free versus forced choice were measured under a condition in which participants' choices were always reinforced (reinforcement probability of 1.0) and a condition in which outcomes were uncertain (reinforcement probability of 0...
July 1, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Carlos R Picanço, François Tonneau
Tracking eye movements is being increasingly recognized as a valuable source of information about stimulus control. So far, however, eye-tracking research has suffered from accessibility issues, with expensive hardware and closed-source software. In this article we review Pupil©, an eye-tracking platform developed by Pupil Labs and that combines open-source software with low-cost hardware components. We offer concrete recommendations about Pupil use in stimulus-control research and we show how the software can be extended to automatize the analysis of gaze data...
June 21, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Lucas Couto de Carvalho, Letícia Dos Santos, Alceu Regaço, Thiago Braga Barbosa, Rafael Fernando da Silva, Deisy das Graças de Souza, Ingunn Sandaker
The present study investigated the effects of fixed-ratio (FR) and variable-ratio (VR) reinforcement schedules on patterns of cooperative responding in pairs of rats. Experiment 1 arranged FR 1, FR 10, and VR 10 schedules to establish cooperative responding (water delivery depended on the joint responding of two rats). Cooperative response rates and proportions were higher under intermittent schedules than under continuous reinforcement. The FR 10 schedule generated a break-and-run pattern, whereas the VR 10 schedule generated a relatively high and constant rate pattern...
July 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
William E Sullivan, Valdeep Saini, Henry S Roane
ABA renewal is a model of treatment relapse that describes the recurrence of severe problem behavior when behavior learned in one context (e.g., home; A) and treated in a separate context (e.g., clinic; B) reemerges when the original context is reintroduced (A). However, in the typical environment and during the usual course of treatment for severe problem behavior, the target behavior is exposed to the baseline context periodically (e.g., the child returns home after several hours in a clinic setting). Due to the difficulty of studying what effect this may have on treatment relapse during ABA renewal in a strictly applied investigation, we developed a human-laboratory translation to study renewal in a nonsequential manner...
July 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Vikki J Bland, Sarah Cowie, Douglas Elliffe, Christopher A Podlesnik
The study and use of punishment in behavioral treatments has been constrained by ethical concerns. However, there remains a need to reduce harmful behavior unable to be reduced by differential-reinforcement procedures. We investigated whether response-contingent presentation of a negative discriminative stimulus previously correlated with an absence of reinforcers would punish behavior maintained by positive reinforcers. Across four conditions, pigeons were trained to discriminate between a positive discriminative stimulus (S+) signaling the presence of food, and a negative discriminative stimulus (S-) signaling the absence of food...
July 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Sydney Trask, Christopher L Keim, Mark E Bouton
Two experiments investigated methods that reduce the resurgence of an extinguished behavior (R1) that occurs when reinforcement for an alternative behavior (R2) is discontinued. In Experiment 1, R1 was first trained and then extinguished while R2 was reinforced during a 5- or 25-session treatment phase. For half the rats, sessions in which R2 was reinforced alternated with sessions in which R2 was extinguished. Controls received the same number of treatment sessions, but R2 was never extinguished. When reinforcement for R2 was discontinued, R1 resurged in the controls...
July 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Jessica M Cohenour, Valerie M Volkert, Keith D Allen
Operant renewal is a return of extinguished behavior due to changes in contextual stimuli that control the occurrence or nonoccurrence of a response. Well-established in classical conditioning and operant research, renewal presents itself in three forms-ABA, ABC, and AAB-and poses threats to treatment maintenance where extinction procedures are utilized. As AAB renewal may be less likely to occur than ABA or ABC renewal, the current study sought to determine if AAB renewal would occur with three participants with Autism Spectrum Disorder who were taught a simple lever pull response...
July 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Brent Alsop
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Justin C Strickland, William W Stoops
Challenges to conducting longitudinal research include financial, time, and geographic constraints. An emerging sampling method positioned to address these concerns is crowdsourcing. This study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and validity of collecting intensive longitudinal alcohol use data with the crowdsourcing platform,'s Mechanical Turk (mTurk). Participants (N = 278) recruited from mTurk provided weekly recordings of daily alcohol and soda use over an 18-week period. Construct and external validity was evaluated using generalized linear mixed models describing associations of between-subject (e...
July 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Rick A Bevins, Scott T Barrett, Y Wendy Huynh, Brady M Thompson, David A Kwan, Jennifer E Murray
With the signing of H.R. 1256, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) gained regulatory authority over the tobacco industry. A notable clause in this Act permits the FDA to regulate nicotine yields. However, they cannot completely remove this addictive constituent from tobacco products. This restriction has prompted the FDA to seek research on the threshold dose of nicotine that does not support dependence. This idea of threshold dose has led to an interesting reframing of scientific questions...
July 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Mehdi Bugallo, Armando Machado, Marco Vasconcelos
We propose a new variable interval (VI) schedule that achieves constant probability of reinforcement in time while using a bounded range of intervals. By sampling each trial duration from a uniform distribution ranging from 0 to 2 T seconds, and then applying a reinforcement rule that depends linearly on trial duration, the schedule alternates reinforced and unreinforced trials, each less than 2 T seconds, while preserving a constant hazard function.
July 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Sara R Westbrook, Minsu Kang, Luke K Sherrill, Dylan O'Hearn, Tanya Krishnamani, Joshua M Gulley
Rodent models have been especially useful for investigating adolescent ethanol exposure. However, there is a paucity of studies examining sex differences in behavioral intoxication from adolescent ethanol drinking. Here, we used an ethanol drinking model to investigate if adolescent rats of both sexes readily drink ethanol to measurable behavioral intoxication, indicated by increased impulsive action and motor incoordination. Beginning on postnatal day (P) 28, male and female Long-Evans rats were given 30-min access to a solution of sucrose (20%) or sweetened ethanol (20% sucrose +15% ethanol) every other day until P60 and once after 2 weeks of forced abstinence (on P75)...
July 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Jamie Cummins, Bryan Roche, Ian Tyndall, Aoife Cartwright
Implicit measures have been hypothesized to allow researchers to ascertain the existence and strength of relations between stimuli, often in the context of research on attitudes. However, little controlled behavioral research has focused on whether stimulus relations, and the degree of relatedness within such relations, are indexed by implicit measures. The current study examined this issue using a behavior-analytic implicit-style stimulus relation indexing procedure known as the Function Acquisition Speed Test (FAST)...
July 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
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