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Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Sydney Trask, Christopher L Keim, Mark E Bouton
Two experiments investigated methods that reduce the resurgence of an extinguished behavior (R1) that occurs when reinforcement for an alternative behavior (R2) is discontinued. In Experiment 1, R1 was first trained and then extinguished while R2 was reinforced during a 5- or 25-session treatment phase. For half the rats, sessions in which R2 was reinforced alternated with sessions in which R2 was extinguished. Controls received the same number of treatment sessions, but R2 was never extinguished. When reinforcement for R2 was discontinued, R1 resurged in the controls...
June 17, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Jessica M Cohenour, Valerie M Volkert, Keith D Allen
Operant renewal is a return of extinguished behavior due to changes in contextual stimuli that control the occurrence or nonoccurrence of a response. Well-established in classical conditioning and operant research, renewal presents itself in three forms-ABA, ABC, and AAB-and poses threats to treatment maintenance where extinction procedures are utilized. As AAB renewal may be less likely to occur than ABA or ABC renewal, the current study sought to determine if AAB renewal would occur with three participants with Autism Spectrum Disorder who were taught a simple lever pull response...
June 17, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Brent Alsop
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 17, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Justin C Strickland, William W Stoops
Challenges to conducting longitudinal research include financial, time, and geographic constraints. An emerging sampling method positioned to address these concerns is crowdsourcing. This study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and validity of collecting intensive longitudinal alcohol use data with the crowdsourcing platform,'s Mechanical Turk (mTurk). Participants (N = 278) recruited from mTurk provided weekly recordings of daily alcohol and soda use over an 18-week period. Construct and external validity was evaluated using generalized linear mixed models describing associations of between-subject (e...
June 6, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Rick A Bevins, Scott T Barrett, Y Wendy Huynh, Brady M Thompson, David A Kwan, Jennifer E Murray
With the signing of H.R. 1256, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) gained regulatory authority over the tobacco industry. A notable clause in this Act permits the FDA to regulate nicotine yields. However, they cannot completely remove this addictive constituent from tobacco products. This restriction has prompted the FDA to seek research on the threshold dose of nicotine that does not support dependence. This idea of threshold dose has led to an interesting reframing of scientific questions...
June 4, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Mehdi Bugallo, Armando Machado, Marco Vasconcelos
We propose a new variable interval (VI) schedule that achieves constant probability of reinforcement in time while using a bounded range of intervals. By sampling each trial duration from a uniform distribution ranging from 0 to 2 T seconds, and then applying a reinforcement rule that depends linearly on trial duration, the schedule alternates reinforced and unreinforced trials, each less than 2 T seconds, while preserving a constant hazard function.
May 27, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Sara R Westbrook, Minsu Kang, Luke K Sherrill, Dylan O'Hearn, Tanya Krishnamani, Joshua M Gulley
Rodent models have been especially useful for investigating adolescent ethanol exposure. However, there is a paucity of studies examining sex differences in behavioral intoxication from adolescent ethanol drinking. Here, we used an ethanol drinking model to investigate if adolescent rats of both sexes readily drink ethanol to measurable behavioral intoxication, indicated by increased impulsive action and motor incoordination. Beginning on postnatal day (P) 28, male and female Long-Evans rats were given 30-min access to a solution of sucrose (20%) or sweetened ethanol (20% sucrose +15% ethanol) every other day until P60 and once after 2 weeks of forced abstinence (on P75)...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Jamie Cummins, Bryan Roche, Ian Tyndall, Aoife Cartwright
Implicit measures have been hypothesized to allow researchers to ascertain the existence and strength of relations between stimuli, often in the context of research on attitudes. However, little controlled behavioral research has focused on whether stimulus relations, and the degree of relatedness within such relations, are indexed by implicit measures. The current study eamined this issue using a behavior-analytic implicit-style stimulus relation indexing procedure known as the Function Acquisition Speed Test (FAST)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
David P Jarmolowicz, Derek D Reed, Alex J Francisco, Jared M Bruce, Shea M Lemley, Amanda S Bruce
Despite vaccines' consistently demonstrated effectiveness, vaccination rates remain suboptimal due to vaccine refusal. Low vaccination rates are particularly problematic for individuals who cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons and thus must rely on herd immunity (i.e., protection of vulnerable individuals due to the high rate of vaccination of other-often socially distant-individuals). The current study uses a novel decision-making task to examine how three variables impacted participants' highest acceptable probability of side effects to their children: 1) the severity of the side effects their children experience, 2) the social distance to the beneficiary of the vaccination, and 3) the probability that the vaccine will prevent disease for that designated beneficiary...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Carl T Sundberg, Mark L Sundberg, Jack Michael
Covert verbal mediation was examined in an arbitrary matching-to-sample (MTS) preparation with a high-verbal group (college students) and a low-verbal group (adults with intellectual disabilities). Arbitrary relations were established between nonsense words, visual symbols, objects, and hand signs. Task difficulty was balanced for the groups based on errors during acquisition. All participants experienced a hand sign condition, and three MTS conditions each with a unique configuration of the comparison array: fixed location, random location, and all symbols the same...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Stephanie L Kincaid, Kennon A Lattal
Three experiments were conducted using pigeons to assess the recurrence of responding eliminated by increasing the value of a progressive-ratio schedule to the breakpoint of responding. The procedures used in these assessments were, in successive experiments, reinstatement, renewal and resurgence. Each was effective in returning temporarily the eliminated responding. Reinstatement occurred with both yoked-time and fixed-time food deliveries. Both renewal and resurgence resulted in immediate recurrence of the response, and, as in other experiments investigating resurgence, the key peck response resurged as the alternative response extinguished...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Toshikazu Kuroda, Yuto Mizutani
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a common vertebrate animal model in biomedical research and is a promising species for studying how genes interact with environmental factors in determining behavior. The present study investigated how reinforcement parameters affect zebrafish behavior by assessing response acquisition with delayed reinforcement, which has been studied with other species (e.g., rats, pigeons, humans, etc.) but not with zebrafish. Twenty-four experimentally naïve subjects were exposed to a tandem fixed-ratio 1 differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior x-s schedule of reinforcement, where x varied across subjects...
April 6, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Howard Rachlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Erik Arntzen, Richard K Nartey, Lanny Fields
In Condition 1, adults learned the baseline relations for the three equivalence classes A1-B1-C1-D1-E1, A2-B2-C2-D2-E2, and A3-B3-C3-D3-E3. Classes contained abstract shapes in the ABS and four preliminary training groups. Each class in the PIC group contained one picture and four abstract shapes. Before class formation for four other groups, preliminary training involved establishing identity (CC) or arbitrary (CX) relations either with or without a delay. Without preliminary training, classes formed with low and high likelihoods in the ABS and PIC groups, respectively...
May 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Tony Nevin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Andrew R Craig, Paul J Cunningham, Mary M Sweeney, Timothy A Shahan, John A Nevin
Delivery of alternative reinforcers in the presence of stimuli previously associated with reinforcement for target behavior increases the susceptibility of target behavior to relapse. To explore contingencies that might mitigate this counter-therapeutic effect, we trained pigeons on a procedure that entailed extinction of previously reinforced target-key pecking, access to a distinct stimulus context contingently on refraining from target behavior (differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior; DRO), and reinforcement of alternative-key pecks (differential-reinforcement of alternative behavior; DRA) in that context...
May 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
C Renee Renda, Jillian M Rung, Jay E Hinnenkamp, Stephanie N Lenzini, Gregory J Madden
Impulsive choice describes preference for smaller, sooner rewards over larger, later rewards. Excessive delay discounting (i.e., rapid devaluation of delayed rewards) underlies some impulsive choices, and is observed in many maladaptive behaviors (e.g., substance abuse, gambling). Interventions designed to reduce delay discounting may provide therapeutic gains. One such intervention provides rats with extended training with delayed reinforcers. When compared to a group given extended training with immediate reinforcers, delay-exposed rats make significantly fewer impulsive choices...
May 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Don Li, Michael J Hautus, Douglas Elliffe
Models that generate event records have very general scope regarding the dimensions of the target behavior that we measure. From a set of predicted event records, we can generate predictions for any dependent variable that we could compute from the event records of our subjects. In this sense, models that generate event records permit us a freely multivariate analysis. To explore this proposition, we conducted a multivariate examination of Catania's Operant Reserve on single VI schedules in transition using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo scheme for Approximate Bayesian Computation...
May 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Gideon P Naudé, Brent A Kaplan, Derek D Reed, Amy J Henley, Florence D DiGennaro Reed
Recent research suggests that presenting time intervals as units (e.g., days) or as specific dates, can modulate the degree to which humans discount delayed outcomes. Another framing effect involves explicitly stating that choosing a smaller-sooner reward is mutually exclusive to receiving a larger-later reward, thus presenting choices as an extended sequence. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 201) recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire in a 2 (delay framing) by 2 (zero framing) design...
May 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
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