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Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817193/response-reinforcer-dependency-and-resistance-to-change
#1
Carlos R X Cançado, Josele Abreu-Rodrigues, Raquel Moreira Aló, Flávia Hauck, Adam H Doughty
The effects of the response-reinforcer dependency on resistance to change were studied in three experiments with rats. In Experiment 1, lever pressing produced reinforcers at similar rates after variable interreinforcer intervals in each component of a two-component multiple schedule. Across conditions, in the fixed component, all reinforcers were response-dependent; in the alternative component, the percentage of response-dependent reinforcers was 100, 50 (i.e., 50% response-dependent and 50% response-independent) or 10% (i...
August 17, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805988/are-behaviors-at-one-alternative-in-concurrent-schedules-independent-of-contingencies-at-the-other-alternative
#2
James S MacDonall
Some have reported changing the schedule at one alternative of a concurrent schedule changed responding at the other alternative (Catania, 1969), which seems odd because no contingencies were changed there. When concurrent schedules are programmed using two schedules, one associated with each alternative that operate continuously, changing the schedule at one alternative also changes the switch schedule at the other alternative. Thus, changes in responding at the constant alternative could be due to the change in the switch schedule...
August 14, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776679/generalization-of-the-disruptive-effects-of-alternative-stimuli-when-combined-with-target-stimuli-in-extinction
#3
Christopher A Podlesnik, Ludmila Miranda-Dukoski, C K Jonas Chan, Vikki J Bland, John Y H Bai
Differential-reinforcement treatments reduce target problem behavior in the short term but at the expense of making it more persistent long term. Basic and translational research based on behavioral momentum theory suggests that combining features of stimuli governing an alternative response with the stimuli governing target responding could make target responding less persistent. However, changes to the alternative stimulus context when combining alternative and target stimuli could diminish the effectiveness of the alternative stimulus in reducing target responding...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776677/searching-for-the-variables-that-control-human-rule-governed-insensitivity
#4
Adam E Fox, Elizabeth G E Kyonka
Verbal rules or instructions often exert obvious and meaningful control over human behavior. Sometimes instructions benefit the individual by enabling faster acquisition of a skill or by obviating an aversive consequence. However, research has also suggested a clear disadvantage: "insensitivity" to changing underlying contingencies. The two experiments described here investigated the variables that control initial rule-following behavior and rule-following insensitivity. When the initial rule was inaccurate, behavior was consistent with the rule for approximately half of participants and all participants' behavior was mostly insensitive to changing contingencies...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776664/is-talking-to-yourself-thinking
#5
Howard Rachlin
The question whether talking to yourself is thinking is considered from two viewpoints: radical behaviorism and teleological behaviorism. For radical behaviorism, following Skinner (1945), mental events such as 'thinking' may be explained in terms of private behavior occurring within the body, ordinarily unobservable by other people; thus, radical behaviorism may identify talking to yourself with thinking. However, to be consistent with its basic principles, radical behaviorism must hold that private behavior, hence thinking, is identical with covert muscular, speech movements (rather than proprioception of those movements)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758210/choosing-among-multiple-alternatives-relative-and-overall-reinforcer-rates
#6
Emma Beeby, Brent Alsop
Choice behavior among two alternatives has been widely researched, but fewer studies have examined the effect of multiple (more than two) alternatives on choice. Two experiments investigated whether changing the overall reinforcer rate affected preference among three and four concurrently scheduled alternatives. Experiment 1 trained six pigeons on concurrent schedules with three alternatives available simultaneously. These alternatives arranged reinforcers in a ratio of 9:3:1 with the configuration counterbalanced across pigeons...
July 31, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653338/a-method-for-detailed-movement-pattern-analysis-of-tadpole-startle-response
#7
Kasra Zarei, Karen L Elliott, Sanam Zarei, Bernd Fritzsch, James H J Buchholz
Prolonged space flight, specifically microgravity, presents a problem for space exploration. Animal models with altered connections of the vestibular ear, and thus altered gravity sensation, would allow the examination of the effects of microgravity and how various countermeasures can establish normal function. We describe an experimental apparatus to monitor the effects of ear manipulations to generate asymmetric gravity input on the tadpole escape response. To perform the movement pattern analysis, an imaging apparatus was developed that uses a high-speed camera to obtain time-resolved, high-resolution images of tadpole movements...
June 27, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573713/how-do-reinforcers-affect-choice-preference-pulses-after-responses-and-reinforcers
#8
Stephanie Gomes-Ng, Douglas Elliffe, Sarah Cowie
In concurrent schedules, reinforcers are often followed by a brief period of heightened preference for the just-productive alternative. Such 'preference pulses' may reflect local effects of reinforcers on choice. However, similar pulses may occur after nonreinforced responses, suggesting that pulses after reinforcers are partly unrelated to reinforcer effects. McLean, Grace, Pitts, and Hughes (2014) recommended subtracting preference pulses after responses from preference pulses after reinforcers, to construct residual pulses that represent only reinforcer effects...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699272/aversive-functions-of-response-effort-fact-or-artifact
#9
Jonathan W Pinkston, Benjamin M Libman
Historically, effort has been viewed as aversive. Most supporting evidence comes from studies demonstrating increased force/effort requirements reduce operant responding. Changes in force/effort requirements, however, are often accompanied by changes in response definition when mechanical devices are used to define the response. As a consequence, responses measured at one point in a study may go unmeasured at other points. In an alternative approach, we used a continuous measurement strategy that provided a means to fix the threshold force defining the response class and simultaneously allowed independent manipulation of the force criteria required to produce reinforcement...
July 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699271/discounting-a-practical-guide-to-multilevel-analysis-of-indifference-data
#10
Michael E Young
Multilevel modeling provides the ability to simultaneously evaluate the discounting of individuals and groups using indifference point data. After considering the conditions when weaknesses emerge in estimating individual discounting as a prelude to estimating group discounting, examples are provided that indicate that multilevel modeling improves estimation in the presence of variability and missing data, and when trying to fit two-parameter discounting functions. Concrete examples of how to fit nonlinear multilevel models are provided to help researchers in the adoption of these methods...
July 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653484/theoretical-implications-of-quantitative-properties-of-interval-timing-and-probability-estimation-in-mouse-and-rat
#11
Aaron Kheifets, David Freestone, C R Gallistel
In three experiments with mice ( Mus musculus ) and rats (Rattus norvigicus), we used a switch paradigm to measure quantitative properties of the interval-timing mechanism. We found that: 1) Rodents adjusted the precision of their timed switches in response to changes in the interval between the short and long feed latencies (the temporal goalposts). 2) The variability in the timing of the switch response was reduced or unchanged in the face of large trial-to-trial random variability in the short and long feed latencies...
July 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542842/failure-to-find-a-distance-effect-in-pigeon-choice
#12
Matthew C Bell, Federico Sanabria
Primates take longer to choose between alternatives with smaller differences in value. This effect-a particular instance of the distance effect in symbolic comparisons-has not been replicated in birds. Instead, birds appear to respond independently to each alternative, such that the latency to choose depends primarily on the alternative of highest value. Three experiments tested for the distance effect in pigeons under conditions not previously considered. Experiment 1 presented pigeons with forced- and binary free-choice trials, where each alternative was one of three possible delays to reinforcement (4, 8, and 16 s)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467023/the-discounting-model-selector-statistical-software-for-delay-discounting-applications
#13
Shawn P Gilroy, Christopher T Franck, Donald A Hantula
Original, open-source computer software was developed and validated against established delay discounting methods in the literature. The software executed approximate Bayesian model selection methods from user-supplied temporal discounting data and computed the effective delay 50 (ED50) from the best performing model. Software was custom-designed to enable behavior analysts to conveniently apply recent statistical methods to temporal discounting data with the aid of a graphical user interface (GUI). The results of independent validation of the approximate Bayesian model selection methods indicated that the program provided results identical to that of the original source paper and its methods...
May 3, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467011/contributions-of-peter-b-dews-1922-2012-to-the-experimental-analysis-of-behavior-a-personal-perspective-and-appreciation
#14
W H Morse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516674/selection-by-consequences-behavioral-evolution-and-the-price-equation
#15
William M Baum
Price's equation describes evolution across time in simple mathematical terms. Although it is not a theory, but a derived identity, it is useful as an analytical tool. It affords lucid descriptions of genetic evolution, cultural evolution, and behavioral evolution (often called "selection by consequences") at different levels (e.g., individual vs. group) and at different time scales (local and extended). The importance of the Price equation for behavior analysis lies in its ability to precisely restate selection by consequences, thereby restating, or even replacing, the law of effect...
May 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516673/choice-among-two-and-three-alternatives
#16
Emma Beeby, Brent Alsop
Although choice between two alternatives has been widely researched, fewer studies have examined choice across multiple (more than two) alternatives. Past models of choice behavior predict that the number of alternatives should not affect relative response allocation, but more recent research has found violations of this principle. Five pigeons were presented with three concurrently scheduled alternatives. Relative reinforcement rates across these alternatives were assigned 9:3:1. In some conditions three keys were available; in others, only two keys were available...
May 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453234/the-effects-of-100-db-1-khz-and-22-khz-tones-as-punishers-on-lever-pressing-in-rats
#17
Jonathan E Friedel, William B DeHart, Amy L Odum
Aversive control is an important yet understudied process of learning. One reason aversive control may be relatively understudied is ethical concerns about painful stimuli (e.g., electric shock). High decibel broad-band noise and 22-kHz vocalizations both demonstrably affect rodent behavior while not necessarily being painful. The goal of this study was to determine if 100-dB 22-kHz-pure tones were differentially more effective in reducing operant response rates in rats. We examined whether 22-kHz pure tones would function as aversive stimuli, specifically as positive punishers...
April 28, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453222/noncontingent-reinforcement-competes-with-response-performance
#18
Michael E Kelley, Cy B Nadler, Catalina Rey, Sarah Cowie, Christopher A Podlesnik
Noncontingent reinforcement is a commonly used procedure to decrease levels of problem behavior. Goals of this intervention are to decrease motivation, responding, and the functional relation between behavior and consequences, but it could also possibly compete with performance of alternative desirable responses. In the current study, we assessed the effects of noncontingent reinforcement arranged from 0% to 100% of sessions on performance of alternative responding across two experiments. Experiment 1 assessed manding (i...
April 28, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300278/behavior-analysis-and-neuroscience-complementary-disciplines
#19
John W Donahoe
Behavior analysis and neuroscience are disciplines in their own right but are united in that both are subfields of a common overarching field-biology. What most fundamentally unites these disciplines is a shared commitment to selectionism, the Darwinian mode of explanation. In selectionism, the order and complexity observed in nature are seen as the cumulative products of selection processes acting over time on a population of variants-favoring some and disfavoring others-with the affected variants contributing to the population on which future selections operate...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326593/allocation-of-speech-in-conversation
#20
Carsta Simon, William M Baum
In a replication and extension of Conger and Killeen's (1974) widely cited demonstration of matching in conversations, we evaluated nine participants' allocation of speech and gaze to two conversational partners. German speakers participated in two 90-min sessions in which confederates uttered approval on independent variable-interval schedules. In one of the sessions, confederates uttered approval contingent upon and contiguous with eye contact whereas in the other session approval was uttered independent of the participant's gaze...
March 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
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