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Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229461/how-different-is-a-3d-printed-replica-from-a-conspecific-in-the-eyes-of-a-zebrafish
#1
Tommaso Ruberto, Giovanni Polverino, Maurizio Porfiri
Robotics is emerging as a promising tool for aiding research on animal behavior. The possibility of generating customizable, controllable, and standardized robotic stimuli has been demonstrated through a number of behavioral assays, involving vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the specific appraisal of the nature of robotic stimuli is currently lacking. Here, we attempt to evaluate this aspect in zebrafish, through a within-subject design in which experimental subjects are faced with three experimental conditions...
February 22, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194793/resurgence-and-alternative-reinforcer-magnitude
#2
Andrew R Craig, Kaitlyn O Browning, Rusty W Nall, Ciara M Marshall, Timothy A Shahan
Resurgence is defined as an increase in the frequency of a previously reinforced target response when an alternative source of reinforcement is suspended. Despite an extensive body of research examining factors that affect resurgence, the effects of alternative-reinforcer magnitude have not been examined. Thus, the present experiments aimed to fill this gap in the literature. In Experiment 1, rats pressed levers for single-pellet reinforcers during Phase 1. In Phase 2, target-lever pressing was extinguished, and alternative-lever pressing produced either five-pellet, one-pellet, or no alternative reinforcement...
February 14, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194789/behavioral-effects-of-delayed-timeouts-from-reinforcement
#3
Tom Byrne, Alan Poling
Timeouts are sometimes used in applied settings to reduce target responses, and in some circumstances delays are unavoidably imposed between the onset of a timeout and the offset of the response that produces it. The present study examined the effects of signaled and unsignaled timeouts in rats exposed to concurrent fixed-ratio 1 fixed-ratio 1 schedules of food delivery, where each response on one lever, the location of which changed across conditions, produced both food and a delayed 10-s timeout. Delays of 0 to 38 s were examined...
February 14, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101928/are-positive-and-negative-reinforcement-different-insights-from-a-free-operant-differential-outcomes-effect
#4
Michael A Magoon, Thomas S Critchfield, Dustin Merrill, M Christopher Newland, W Joel Schneider
Although theoretical discussions typically assume that positive and negative reinforcement differ, the literature contains little unambiguous evidence that they produce differential behavioral effects. To test whether the two types of consequences control behavior differently, we pitted money-gain positive reinforcement and money-loss-avoidance negative reinforcement, scheduled through identically programmed variable-cycle schedules, against each other in concurrent schedules. Contingencies of response-produced feedback, normally different in positive and negative reinforcement, were made symmetrical...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101927/comparing-positive-and-negative-reinforcement-a-fantasy-experiment
#5
REVIEW
John A Nevin, Charlotte Mandell
We propose quantitative experimental approaches to the question of whether positive and negative reinforcement are functionally different, and discuss scientific and ethical concerns that would arise if these approaches were pursued.
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101926/alan-baron-a-pioneer-in-translational-science
#6
EDITORIAL
Michael Perone, Dean C Williams, Mark Galizio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101925/-watch-out-effects-of-instructed-threat-and-avoidance-on-human-free-operant-approach-avoidance-behavior
#7
Michael W Schlund, Kay Treacher, Oli Preston, Sandy K Magee, David M Richman, Adam T Brewer, Gemma Cameron, Simon Dymond
Approach-avoidance paradigms create a competition between appetitive and aversive contingencies and are widely used in nonhuman research on anxiety. Here, we examined how instructions about threat and avoidance impact control by competing contingencies over human approach-avoidance behavior. Additionally, Experiment 1 examined the effects of threat magnitude (money loss amount) and avoidance cost (fixed ratio requirements), whereas Experiment 2 examined the effects of threat information (available, unavailable and inaccurate) on approach-avoidance...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101924/effects-of-differential-rates-of-alternative-reinforcement-on-resurgence-of-human-behavior
#8
Brooke M Smith, Gregory S Smith, Timothy A Shahan, Gregory J Madden, Michael P Twohig
Despite the success of exposure-based psychotherapies in anxiety treatment, relapse remains problematic. Resurgence, the return of previously eliminated behavior following the elimination of an alternative source of reinforcement, is a promising model of operant relapse. Nonhuman resurgence research has shown that higher rates of alternative reinforcement result in faster, more comprehensive suppression of target behavior, but also in greater resurgence when alternative reinforcement is eliminated. This study investigated rich and lean rates of alternative reinforcement on response suppression and resurgence in typically developing humans...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101923/how-suboptimal-is-suboptimal-choice
#9
Jay E Hinnenkamp, Timothy A Shahan, Gregory J Madden
In a frequently used suboptimal-choice procedure pigeons choose between an alternative that delivers three food pellets with p = 1.0 and an alternative that delivers ten pellets with p = 0.2. Because pigeons reliably choose the probabilistic (suboptimal) alternative, the procedure has been proposed as a nonhuman analog of human gambling. The present experiments were conducted to evaluate two potential threats to the validity of this procedure. Experiments 1 and 2 evaluated if pigeons obtained food at a lower unit price (i...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101922/a-second-type-of-magnitude-effect-reinforcer-magnitude-differentiates-delay-discounting-between-substance-users-and-controls
#10
Alexandra M Mellis, Alina E Woodford, Jeffrey S Stein, Warren K Bickel
Basic research on delay discounting, examining preference for smaller-sooner or larger-later reinforcers, has demonstrated a variety of findings of considerable generality. One of these, the magnitude effect, is the observation that individuals tend to exhibit greater preference for the immediate with smaller magnitude reinforcers. Delay discounting has also proved to be a useful marker of addiction, as demonstrated by the highly replicated finding of greater discounting rates in substance users compared to controls...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101921/effects-of-shifts-in-food-reinforcement-context-on-rats-consumption-of-concurrently-available-water-or-sucrose-solution
#11
Chad M Galuska, Leslie E Sawyer
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of signaled transitions from relatively rich to lean conditions of food reinforcement on drinking concurrently available water or sucrose-sweetened water in rats. Past research demonstrated that these negative incentive shifts produce behavioral disruption in the form of extended pausing on fixed-ratio schedules. Four male Long-Evans rats operated on a two-component multiple fixed-ratio fixed-ratio schedule. In one manipulation, the ratio was held constant and the components arranged either a large six-pellet reinforcer (rich) or small one-pellet reinforcer (lean)...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078744/escape-from-rich-to-lean-transitions-stimulus-change-and-timeout
#12
Billie J Retzlaff, Elizabeth T P Parthum, Raymond C Pitts, Christine E Hughes
Extended pausing during discriminable transitions from rich-to-lean conditions can be viewed as escape (i.e., rich-to-lean transitions function aversively). In the current experiments, pigeons' key pecking was maintained by a multiple fixed-ratio fixed-ratio schedule of rich or lean reinforcers. Pigeons then were provided with another, explicit, mechanism of escape by changing the stimulus from the transition-specific stimulus used in the multiple schedule to a mixed-schedule stimulus (Experiment 1) or by producing a period of timeout in which the stimulus was turned off and the schedule was suspended (Experiment 2)...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078680/children-s-preference-for-mixed-versus-fixed-ratio-schedules-of-reinforcement-a-translational-study-of-risky-choice
#13
Michael P Mullane, Brian K Martens, Emily L Baxter, Danica Ver Steeg
Laboratory research has shown that when subjects are given a choice between fixed-ratio and bi-valued mixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement, preference typically emerges for the mixed-ratio schedule even with a larger ratio requirement. The current study sought to replicate and extend these findings to children's math problem completion. Using an ABCBC reversal design, four fourth-grade students were given the choice of completing addition problems reinforced on either a fixed-ratio 5 schedule or one of three mixed-ratio schedules; an equivalent mixed-ratio (1, 9) schedule, a mixed-ratio (1, 11) schedule with a 20% larger ratio requirement, and an equally lean mixed-ratio (5, 7) schedule without the small fixed-ratio 1 component...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078664/behavior-analysts-in-the-war-on-poverty-a-review-of-the-use-of-financial-incentives-to-promote-education-and-employment
#14
REVIEW
August F Holtyn, Brantley P Jarvis, Kenneth Silverman
Poverty is a pervasive risk factor underlying poor health. Many interventions that have sought to reduce health disparities associated with poverty have focused on improving health-related behaviors of low-income adults. Poverty itself could be targeted to improve health, but this approach would require programs that can consistently move poor individuals out of poverty. Governments and other organizations in the United States have tested a diverse range of antipoverty programs, generally on a large scale and in conjunction with welfare reform initiatives...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000917/simulating-demand-for-cigarettes-among-pregnant-women-a-low-risk-method-for-studying-vulnerable-populations
#15
Stephen T Higgins, Derek D Reed, Ryan Redner, Joan M Skelly, Ivori A Zvorsky, Allison N Kurti
A substantive obstacle to experimentally studying cigarette smoking and use of other tobacco products in pregnant women is the risk of adverse effects on mother and fetus from experimenter administration of the product of interest. The purpose of this study is to investigate bypassing that obstacle by using behavioral economic simulation tasks. In the present study we used the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT) to simulate changes in demand for hypothetical cigarettes as a function of varying cigarette prices. Participants were 95 pregnant women who completed the CPT prior to participation in a smoking-cessation trial...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000221/substitution-effects-in-a-generalized-token-economy-with-pigeons
#16
Leonardo F Andrade, Timothy D Hackenberg
Pigeons made repeated choices between earning and exchanging reinforcer-specific tokens (green tokens exchangeable for food, red tokens exchangeable for water) and reinforcer-general tokens (white tokens exchangeable for food or water) in a closed token economy. Food and green food tokens could be earned on one panel; water and red water tokens could be earned on a second panel; white generalized tokens could be earned on either panel. Responses on one key produced tokens according to a fixed-ratio schedule, whereas responses on a second key produced exchange periods, during which all previously earned tokens could be exchanged for the appropriate commodity...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887034/epicurus-and-b-f-skinner-in-search-of-the-good-life
#17
REVIEW
Allen Neuringer, Walter Englert
This paper examines similarities in the works of Epicurus, an ancient Greek philosopher, and B. F. Skinner, a behavioral psychologist. They both were empiricists who argued in favor of the lawfulness of behavior while maintaining that random events were included within those laws. They both devoted much effort to describing how individuals could live effective, rewarding and pleasurable lives. They both emphasized simple and natural pleasures (or reinforcers) and the importance of combining personal pleasures with actions that benefit friends and community...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870108/effects-of-signaling-on-temporal-control-of-behavior-in-response-initiated-fixed-intervals
#18
Adam E Fox, Elizabeth G E Kyonka
Behavior and events distributed in time can serve as markers that signal delays to future events. The majority of timing research has focused on how behavior changes as the time to some event, usually food availability, decreases. The primary objective of the two experiments presented here was to assess how behavior changes as time passes between two time markers when the first time marker was manipulated but the second, food delivery, was held constant. Pigeons were exposed to fixed-interval, response-initiated fixed-interval, and signaled response-initiated fixed-interval 15- and 30-s schedules of reinforcement...
November 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870107/stimulus-reinforcer-relations-established-during-training-determine-resistance-to-extinction-and-relapse-via-reinstatement
#19
John Y H Bai, C K Jonas Chan, Douglas Elliffe, Christopher A Podlesnik
The baseline rate of a reinforced target response decreases with the availability of response-independent sources of alternative reinforcement; however, resistance to disruption and relapse increases. Because many behavioral treatments for problem behavior include response-dependent reinforcement of alternative behavior, the present study assessed whether response-dependent alternative reinforcement also decreases baseline response rates but increases resistance to extinction and relapse. We reinforced target responding at equal rates across two components of a multiple schedule with pigeons...
November 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870106/a-two-part-mixed-effects-model-for-cigarette-purchase-task-data
#20
Tingting Zhao, Xianghua Luo, Haitao Chu, Chap T Le, Leonard H Epstein, Janet L Thomas
The Cigarette Purchase Task is a behavioral economic assessment tool designed to measure the relative reinforcing efficacy of cigarette smoking across different prices. An exponential demand equation has become a standard model for analyzing purchase task data, but its utility is compromised by its inability to accommodate values of zero consumption. We propose a two-part mixed effects model that keeps the same exponential demand equation for modeling nonzero consumption values, while providing a logistic regression for the binary outcome of zero versus nonzero consumption...
November 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
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