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Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Don Li, Michael J Hautus, Douglas Elliffe
Models that generate event records have very general scope regarding the dimensions of the target behavior that we measure. From a set of predicted event records, we can generate predictions for any dependent variable that we could compute from the event records of our subjects. In this sense, models that generate event records permit us a freely multivariate analysis. To explore this proposition, we conducted a multivariate examination of Catania's Operant Reserve on single VI schedules in transition using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo scheme for Approximate Bayesian Computation...
April 19, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Gideon P Naudé, Brent A Kaplan, Derek D Reed, Amy J Henley, Florence D DiGennaro Reed
Recent research suggests that presenting time intervals as units (e.g., days) or as specific dates, can modulate the degree to which humans discount delayed outcomes. Another framing effect involves explicitly stating that choosing a smaller-sooner reward is mutually exclusive to receiving a larger-later reward, thus presenting choices as an extended sequence. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 201) recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire in a 2 (delay framing) by 2 (zero framing) design...
April 16, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Vikki J Bland, Sarah Cowie, Douglas Elliffe, Christopher A Podlesnik
Organisms that behave so as to forfeit a relatively higher overall rate of reinforcement in favor of a relatively lower rate are said to engage in suboptimal choice. Suboptimal choice has been linked with maladaptive behavior in humans. Melioration theory offers one explanatory framework for suboptimal choice. Melioration theory suggests behavior is controlled by differences in local reinforcer rates between alternatives. Vaughan (1981) arranged two experimental conditions in which maximizing the overall rate of reinforcement required behavior that was compatible, or incompatible, with melioration...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Charisse A Lantaya, Caio F Miguel, Timothy G Howland, Danielle L LaFrance, Scott V Page
Traditionally, behavior analysts have studied stimulus equivalence using a matching-to-sample (MTS) preparation. Although researchers have shown the utility of MTS to yield equivalence classes, the procedure requires several prerequisite skills for a learner to accurately respond. Previous research with humans and nonhumans has shown that relational responding can be produced via compound stimulus discrimination and successive matching-to-sample (S-MTS). We conducted four experiments with college students to further evaluate the effectiveness of S-MTS in the establishment of stimulus relations...
April 14, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Toshikazu Kuroda, Yuto Mizutani
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a common vertebrate animal model in biomedical research and is a promising species for studying how genes interact with environmental factors in determining behavior. The present study investigated how reinforcement parameters affect zebrafish behavior by assessing response acquisition with delayed reinforcement, which has been studied with other species (e.g., rats, pigeons, humans, etc.) but not with zebrafish. Twenty-four experimentally naïve subjects were exposed to a tandem fixed-ratio 1 differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior x-s schedule of reinforcement, where x varied across subjects...
April 6, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Howard Rachlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Bryan Klapes, Steven Riley, J J McDowell
A direct-suppression, or subtractive, model of punishment has been supported as the qualitatively and quantitatively superior matching law-based punishment model (Critchfield, Paletz, MacAleese, & Newland, 2003; de Villiers, 1980; Farley, 1980). However, this conclusion was made without testing the model against its predecessors, including the original (Herrnstein, 1961) and generalized (Baum, 1974) matching laws, which have different numbers of parameters. To rectify this issue, we reanalyzed a set of data collected by Critchfield et al...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Elberto A Plazas, Carlos-Wilcen Villamil
This study presents three experiments that aimed to show the formation of stimulus equivalence relations among stimuli that had been previously related only by exclusion. In Experiment 1, participants were trained on baseline conditional discriminations to establish two 3-member equivalence classes. Then, they were exposed to exclusion trials, without feedback, in which undefined stimuli had to be matched by rejecting the defined baseline stimuli. Finally, participants responded to test trials evaluating the emergence of symmetry and transitivity among the undefined stimuli from the exclusion trials...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Shawn P Gilroy, Donald A Hantula
A novel method for analyzing delay discounting data is proposed. This newer metric, a model-based Area Under Curve (AUC) combining approximate Bayesian model selection and numerical integration, was compared to the point-based AUC methods developed by Myerson, Green, and Warusawitharana (2001) and extended by Borges, Kuang, Milhorn, and Yi (2016). Using data from computer simulation and a published study, comparisons of these methods indicated that a model-based form of AUC offered a more consistent and statistically robust measurement of area than provided by using point-based methods alone...
March 2, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Tracy L Kettering, Nancy A Neef, Michael E Kelley, William L Heward
This study compared the effectiveness of two procedures to reduce behavior evoked by a reflexive conditioned motivating operation (CMO-R). Task demands were shown to evoke escape-maintained problem behavior for 4 students with disabilities. Alternative communication responses were taught as an appropriate method to request escape and this treatment combined with extinction for problem behavior led to decreases in problem behavior for all students. A beeping timer was then arranged to temporally precede the task demand to create a CMO-R that evoked communication responses...
March 2, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Ashley P Liggett, Regina Nastri, Christopher A Podlesnik
Resurgence and reinstatement are laboratory models of relapse following treatments for problem behavior that arrange alternative sources of reinforcement, such as differential reinforcement of alternative behavior and noncontingent reinforcement. Resurgence models the elimination or reduction of reinforcers during treatment and reinstatement models the re-presentation of reinforcers previously maintaining problem behavior. The present study examined individual and combined effects of resurgence and reinstatement in a translational model of treatment relapse with three children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder...
February 27, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Paulo César Morales Mayer, Marcus Bentes de Carvalho Neto, Jonathan L Katz
The present study examined punishment of responding with histamine injection, and its potential to generate avoidance of punishment. Sprague-Dawley rats were trained under concurrent schedules in which responses on one lever (the punishment lever) produced food under a variable-interval schedule, and under some conditions intermittent injections of histamine, which suppressed behavior. Responses on a second (avoidance) lever prevented histamine injections scheduled on the punishment lever. After stabilization of punished responding, a variable-interval 15-s schedule of cancellation of histamine (avoidance) was added for responding on the second/avoidance lever, without subsequent acquisition of responding on that lever...
February 27, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Michael E Young
Multilevel modeling provides the ability to simultaneously evaluate the discounting of individuals and groups by examining choices between smaller sooner and larger later rewards. A multilevel logistic regression approach is advocated in which sensitivity to relative reward magnitude and relative delay are considered as separate contributors to choice. Examples of how to fit choice data using multilevel logistic models are provided to help researchers in the adoption of these methods.
February 23, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Anthony P McLean, Randolph C Grace, Olesya T Shevchouk, Jacinta R Cording
In two experiments, experimentally naïve rats were trained in concurrent variable-interval schedules in which the reinforcer ratios changed daily according to a pseudorandom binary sequence. In Experiment 1, relative response rates showed clear sensitivity to current-session reinforcer ratios, but not to previous sessions' reinforcer ratios. Within sessions, sensitivity to the current session's reinforcement rates increased steadily, and by session end, response ratios approached matching to the current-session reinforcer ratios...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Vanessa Ayres-Pereira, Daniela S Canovas, André A B Varella, Deisy G de Souza
Generalized equivalence classes are stimulus classes that consist of equivalent stimuli and other physically similar class-member stimuli. The present study evaluated whether preschool children would form equivalence classes among photos of abstract objects (2D) and show equivalence generalization to the corresponding objects (3D), printed photos (2D stimuli), and to black-and-white drawn pictures (2D stimuli). Six typically developing children were taught arbitrary relations to establish three 3-member equivalence classes with 2D stimuli presented on a computer screen...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Eva M Krockow, Andrew M Colman, Briony D Pulford
Experimental games have previously been used to study principles of human interaction. Many such games are characterized by iterated or repeated designs that model dynamic relationships, including reciprocal cooperation. To enable the study of infinite game repetitions and to avoid endgame effects of lower cooperation toward the final game round, investigators have introduced random termination rules. This study extends previous research that has focused narrowly on repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games by conducting a controlled experiment of two-player, random termination Centipede games involving probabilistic reinforcement and characterized by the longest decision sequences reported in the empirical literature to date (24 decision nodes)...
March 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Wayne W Fisher, Brian D Greer, Andrew R Craig, Billie J Retzlaff, Ashley M Fuhrman, Katherine R Lichtblau, Valdeep Saini
We summarize the results of four recent translational studies from our lab that used the predictions of behavioral momentum theory to inform the development of more durable treatments for destructive behavior. Treatments informed by behavioral momentum theory generally showed better suppression of target responding during an extinction challenge than did a comparison treatment. We reanalyze data from each of the four studies to show that this general finding is apparent both at the aggregate (i.e., proportion of baseline response rates averaged across participants) and within participant (i...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Gregory A Lieving, Iser G DeLeon, Abbey B Carreau-Webster, Michelle A Frank-Crawford, Mandy M Triggs
Behavioral momentum theory is a quantitative framework used to characterize the persistence of behavior during response disruptors as a function of baseline stimulus-reinforcer relations. Results of several investigations have shown that alternative reinforcement can increase the resistance to change of a target response during extinction. In the present study, concomitant variable-interval fixed-time schedules of reinforcement for problem behavior were employed to simulate naturalistic situations involving the superimposition of response-independent reinforcers on a baseline schedule of reinforcement for problem behavior, as in the common use of noncontingent reinforcement treatments...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Amy L Odum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Ann Galizio, Charles C J Frye, Jeremy M Haynes, Jonathan E Friedel, Brooke M Smith, Amy L Odum
The present study examined persistence and relapse of reinforced behavioral variability in pigeons. Pigeons emitted four-response sequences across two keys. Sequences produced food according to a lag schedule, in which a response sequence was followed by food if it differed from a certain number of previous sequences. In Experiment 1, food was delivered for sequences that satisfied a lag schedule in both components of a multiple schedule. When reinforcement was removed for one component (i.e., extinction), levels of behavioral variability decreased for only that component...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
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