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Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Anthony P McLean, Randolph C Grace, Olesya T Shevchouk, Jacinta R Cording
In two experiments, experimentally naïve rats were trained in concurrent variable-interval schedules in which the reinforcer ratios changed daily according to a pseudorandom binary sequence. In Experiment 1, relative response rates showed clear sensitivity to current-session reinforcer ratios, but not to previous sessions' reinforcer ratios. Within sessions, sensitivity to the current session's reinforcement rates increased steadily, and by session end, response ratios approached matching to the current-session reinforcer ratios...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Vanessa Ayres-Pereira, Daniela S Canovas, André A B Varella, Deisy G de Souza
Generalized equivalence classes are stimulus classes that consist of equivalent stimuli and other physically similar class-member stimuli. The present study evaluated whether preschool children would form equivalence classes among photos of abstract objects (2D) and show equivalence generalization to the corresponding objects (3D), printed photos (2D stimuli), and to black-and-white drawn pictures (2D stimuli). Six typically developing children were taught arbitrary relations to establish three 3-member equivalence classes with 2D stimuli presented on a computer screen...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Peter R Killeen, John A Nevin
The persistence of operant responding in the context of distractors and opposing forces is of central importance to the success of behavioral interventions. It has been successfully analyzed with Behavioral Momentum Theory. Key data from the research inspired by that theory are reanalyzed in terms of more molecular behavioral mechanisms: the demotivational effects of disruptors, and their differential impacts on the target response and other responses that interact with them. Behavioral momentum is regrounded as a nonlinear effect of motivation and reinforcement rate on response probability and persistence...
January 11, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Joel E Ringdahl, Wendy K Berg, David P Wacker, Kayla Crook, Maggie A Molony, Kristina K Vargo, Jodi E Neurnberger, Karla Zabala, Christopher J Taylor
Treatments based on differential reinforcement of alternative behavior, such as functional communication training, are widely used. Research regarding the maintenance of related treatment effects is limited. Nevin and Wacker (2013) provided a conceptual framework, rooted in behavioral momentum theory, for the study of treatment maintenance that addressed two components: (a) reemergence of problem behavior, and (b) continued expression of appropriate behavior. In the few studies on this topic, focus has been on variables impacting the reemergence of problem behavior, with fewer studies evaluating the persistence of appropriate behavior...
January 10, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Jonathan W Pinkston, Erica K Foss
Behavior Momentum Theory has emerged as a prominent account of resistance to change in both basic and applied research. Although laboratory studies often define precise, repeatable responses, application research often deals with response classes that may vary widely along a number of dimensions. In general, Behavior Momentum Theory has not addressed how response dimensions impact resistance to change, providing an opportunity to expand the model in new directions. Four rats pressed a force transducer under a multiple variable interval (VI) 60-s VI 60-s schedule of reinforcement...
January 10, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Melissa Swisher, Peter J Urcuioli
Until now, the equivalence property of reflexivity-matching physically identical stimuli to themselves after training on a set of arbitrary matching relations-has not been demonstrated in any animal, human or nonhuman. Previous reports of reflexivity have either implicitly or explicitly involved reinforced training on other identity matching relations. Here we demonstrate reflexivity without prior identity matching training. Pigeons received concurrent successive matching training on three arbitrary matching tasks: AB (hue-form), BC (form-hue), and AC (hue-hue with different hues in the A and C sets)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
F Charles Mace
Here I summarize John A. "Tony" Nevin's evolution as a translational author. All of his publications were classified by title and content as being primarily experimental analysis of behavior or translational. Translational works were subtyped as interpretative, descriptive research, or experimental research. During the first 20 years of his publication career, Tony published exclusively experimental analysis of behavior work. In 1982, he began a series of interpretative translational analyses on topics of significant social importance...
January 10, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Eric A Thrailkill, Ryan T Kimball, Michael E Kelley, Andrew R Craig, Christopher A Podlesnik
Spontaneous recovery occurs when a previously reinforced and recently extinguished response reemerges over the course of time, often at the beginning of a new session of extinction. Spontaneous recovery could underlie instances of treatment relapse that threaten otherwise effective behavioral interventions for problem behavior. In two experiments, we arranged multiple schedules with pigeons and a human child to assess the effects of different training reinforcer rates on spontaneous recovery. In both experiments, responding was both more resistant to extinction and more likely to relapse following training with greater reinforcement rates upon returning to extinction after time off from extinction testing...
January 4, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Randolph C Grace
According to behavioral momentum theory (Nevin & Grace, 2000a), preference in concurrent chains and resistance to change in multiple schedules are independent measures of a common construct representing reinforcement history. Here I review the original studies on preference and resistance to change in which reinforcement variables were manipulated parametrically, conducted by Nevin, Grace and colleagues between 1997 and 2002, as well as more recent research. The cumulative decision model proposed by Grace and colleagues for concurrent chains is shown to provide a good account of both preference and resistance to change, and is able to predict the increased sensitivity to reinforcer rate and magnitude observed with constant-duration components...
January 4, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Andrew R Craig, Timothy A Shahan
Resistance to extinction in a target multiple-schedule component varies inversely with the rate of reinforcement arranged in an alternative component during baseline. The present experiment asked whether changing the reinforcer rate in an alternative component would impact extinction of target component responding if those changes occurred in an off-baseline phase during which the target component was never experienced. Pigeons' key pecking was studied in three types of conditions, and each condition consisted of three phases...
January 2, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
K Geoffrey White
Atypical forgetting functions have been demonstrated in several recent studies of delayed matching to sample, in which experimental conditions are altered partway through the retention interval. The forgetting functions are atypical in that accuracy or discriminability is not always a negatively accelerated monotonic function of increasing retention interval duration, but may increase at later times in the retention interval. Atypical forgetting functions reflect changes in levels of discrimination. A switch from a lower level to a higher level of discrimination, or vice versa, can occur at any time in the retention interval...
January 2, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Anthony A Wright
This article describes an approach for assessing and comparing complex cognition in rhesus monkeys and pigeons by training them in a sequence of synergistic tasks, each yielding a whole function for enhanced comparisons. These species were trained in similar same/different tasks with expanding training sets (8, 16, 32, 64, 128 … 1024 pictures) followed by novel-stimulus transfer eventually resulting in full abstract-concept learning. Concept-learning functions revealed better rhesus transfer throughout and full concept learning at the 128 set, versus pigeons at the 256 set...
January 2, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Michael Davison
Responding on concurrent schedules produced a conditional discrimination (Phases 1 and 2), asking either which peck produced the event, or which color the keys were when the event was produced. In Phases 3 and 4, reinforcer delivery or a delay in blackout was interpolated between responding and the conditional discrimination. In Phase 1, location versus color discrimination accuracy was controlled by the relative reinforcer frequency for correct responses to these questions (divided stimulus control). In Phases 2 to 4, relative reinforcer frequency for correct responses to these questions was ...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Wayne W Fisher, Brian D Greer, Andrew R Craig, Billie J Retzlaff, Ashley M Fuhrman, Katherine R Lichtblau, Valdeep Saini
We summarize the results of four recent translational studies from our lab that used the predictions of behavioral momentum theory to inform the development of more durable treatments for destructive behavior. Treatments informed by behavioral momentum theory generally showed better suppression of target responding during an extinction challenge than did a comparison treatment. We reanalyze data from each of the four studies to show that this general finding is apparent both at the aggregate (i.e., proportion of baseline response rates averaged across participants) and within participant (i...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Gregory A Lieving, Iser G DeLeon, Abbey B Carreau-Webster, Michelle A Frank-Crawford, Mandy M Triggs
Behavioral momentum theory is a quantitative framework used to characterize the persistence of behavior during response disruptors as a function of baseline stimulus-reinforcer relations. Results of several investigations have shown that alternative reinforcement can increase the resistance to change of a target response during extinction. In the present study, concomitant variable-interval fixed-time schedules of reinforcement for problem behavior were employed to simulate naturalistic situations involving the superimposition of response-independent reinforcers on a baseline schedule of reinforcement for problem behavior, as in the common use of noncontingent reinforcement treatments...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Amy L Odum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Ann Galizio, Charles C J Frye, Jeremy M Haynes, Jonathan E Friedel, Brooke M Smith, Amy L Odum
The present study examined persistence and relapse of reinforced behavioral variability in pigeons. Pigeons emitted four-response sequences across two keys. Sequences produced food according to a lag schedule, in which a response sequence was followed by food if it differed from a certain number of previous sequences. In Experiment 1, food was delivered for sequences that satisfied a lag schedule in both components of a multiple schedule. When reinforcement was removed for one component (i.e., extinction), levels of behavioral variability decreased for only that component...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Edward K Morris, Charryse F Luckey
This is a historical note on a precursor of the concept of behavioral momentum in the late 1950s and early 1960s, in particular, Charles B. description of it in terms of behavioral durability. The note is based largely on two email exchanges we had with John A. (Tony) Nevin, who offered insights on behavioral momentum as a term and a concept that are fit to be public on the occasion of this issue of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior in his honor. Nevin addressed graduate work at Columbia University, the Newtonian analogy, the term behavioral momentum, and precursors of his work that are now lost in history...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Rachel Young, T Mary Foster, Lewis A Bizo
Hens responded under multiple fixed-ratio schedules with equal response requirements and either a 1-s or a 6-s reinforcer. Upcoming reinforcer size was indicated by key color. Components were presented in a quasirandom series so that all four component transitions occurred. Postreinforcement pauses were affected by the upcoming and preceding reinforcer size, with longer pauses after large reinforcers followed by small reinforcers than when followed by large ones, and longer pauses after small reinforcers that were followed by small reinforcers rather than large ones...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Paul M Guinther
This paper introduces the relational triangulation framework as a functional contextual expansion of the established Relational Frame Theory (Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001) account of perspective-taking. Initial support for the new framework is provided through data collected with a novel relational triangulation perspective-taking protocol configured in the present study to show contextual influence over deriving true belief in others following the direct training of a "seeing leads to knowing" repertoire (Leslie & Frith, 1988)...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
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