journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Journal of the History of Biology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926225/how-seeing-became-knowing-the-role-of-the-electron-microscope-in-shaping-the-modern-definition-of-viruses
#1
Ton van Helvoort, Neeraja Sankaran
This paper examines the vital role played by electron microscopy toward the modern definition of viruses, as formulated in the late 1950s. Before the 1930s viruses could neither be visualized by available technologies nor grown in artificial media. As such they were usually identified by their ability to cause diseases in their hosts and defined in such negative terms as "ultramicroscopic" or invisible infectious agents that could not be cultivated outside living cells. The invention of the electron microscope, with magnification and resolution powers several orders of magnitude better than that of optical instruments, opened up possibilities for biological applications...
June 20, 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873001/between-social-and-biological-heredity-cope-and-baldwin-on-evolution-inheritance-and-mind
#2
David Ceccarelli
In the years of the post-Darwinian debate, many American naturalists invoked the name of Lamarck to signal their belief in a purposive and anti-Darwinian view of evolution. Yet Weismann's theory of germ-plasm continuity undermined the shared tenet of the neo-Lamarckian theories as well as the idea of the interchangeability between biological and social heredity. Edward Drinker Cope, the leader of the so-called "American School," defended his neo-Lamarckian philosophy against every attempt to redefine the relationship between behavior, development, and heredity beyond the epigenetic model of inheritance...
June 5, 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761288/the-handmaid-s-tale-hulu-season-1-april-june-2017-television
#3
Jenna Tonn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736877/editorial-introducing-biology-in-culture-reviews
#4
EDITORIAL
Lijing Jiang, Karen Rader, Marsha Richmond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725900/charles-darwin-richard-owen-and-natural-selection-a-question-of-priority
#5
Curtis N Johnson
No single author presented Darwin with a more difficult question about his priority in discovering natural selection than the British comparative anatomist and paleontologist Richard Owen. Owen was arguably the most influential biologist in Great Britain in Darwin's time. Darwin wanted his approbation for what he believed to be his own theory of natural selection. Unfortunately for Darwin, when Owen first commented in publication about Darwin's theory of descent he was openly hostile (Edinb. Rev. vol. 111, Article VIII, 1860, pp...
May 3, 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019112/methodology-in-aristotle-s-theory-of-spontaneous-generation
#6
Karen R Zwier
Aristotle's theory of spontaneous generation offers many puzzles to those who wish to understand his theory both within the context of his biology and within the context of his more general philosophy of nature. In this paper, I approach the difficult and vague elements of Aristotle's account of spontaneous generation not as weaknesses, but as opportunities for an interesting glimpse into the thought of an early scientist struggling to reconcile evidence and theory. The paper has two goals: (1) to give as charitable and full an account as possible of what Aristotle's theory of spontaneous generation was, and to examine some of its consequences; and (2) to reflect on Aristotle as a scientist, and what his comments reveal about how he approached a difficult problem...
June 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980196/the-experimental-study-of-bacterial-evolution-and-its-implications-for-the-modern-synthesis-of-evolutionary-biology
#7
Maureen A O'Malley
Since the 1940s, microbiologists, biochemists and population geneticists have experimented with the genetic mechanisms of microorganisms in order to investigate evolutionary processes. These evolutionary studies of bacteria and other microorganisms gained some recognition from the standard-bearers of the modern synthesis of evolutionary biology, especially Theodosius Dobzhansky and Ledyard Stebbins. A further period of post-synthesis bacterial evolutionary research occurred between the 1950s and 1980s. These experimental analyses focused on the evolution of population and genetic structure, the adaptive gain of new functions, and the evolutionary consequences of competition dynamics...
June 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871502/science-and-sentiment-grinnell-s-fact-based-philosophy-of-biodiversity-conservation
#8
Ayelet Shavit, James R Griesemer
At the beginning of the twentieth century, the biologist Joseph Grinnell made a distinction between science and sentiment for producing fact-based generalizations on how to conserve biodiversity. We are inspired by Grinnellian science, which successfully produced a century-long impact on studying and conserving biodiversity that runs orthogonal to some familiar philosophical distinctions such as fact versus value, emotion versus reason and basic versus applied science. According to Grinnell, unlike sentiment-based generalizations, a fact-based generalization traces its diverse commitments and thus becomes tractable for its audience...
June 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726021/how-fast-does-darwin-s-elephant-population-grow
#9
János Podani, Ádám Kun, András Szilágyi
In "The Origin of Species," Darwin describes a hypothetical example illustrating that large, slowly reproducing mammals such as the elephant can reach very large numbers if population growth is not affected by regulating factors. The elephant example has since been cited in various forms in a wide variety of books, ranging from educational material to encyclopedias. However, Darwin's text was changed over the six editions of the book, although some errors in the mathematics persisted throughout. In addition, full details of the problem remained hidden in his correspondence with readers of the Origin...
June 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721604/a-space-of-one-s-own-barbosa-du-bocage-the-foundation-of-the-national-museum-of-lisbon-and-the-construction-of-a-career-in-zoology-1851-1907
#10
Daniel Gamito-Marques
This paper discusses the life and scientific work of José Vicente Barbosa du Bocage (1823-1907), a nineteenth-century Portuguese naturalist who carved a new place for zoological research in Portugal and built up a prestigious scientific career by securing appropriate physical and institutional spaces to the discipline. Although he was appointed professor of zoology at the Lisbon Polytechnic School, an institution mainly devoted to the preparatory training of military officers and engineers, he succeeded in creating the conditions that allowed him to develop consistent research in zoology at this institution...
June 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721603/the-disadapted-animal-niko-tinbergen-on-human-nature-and-the-human-predicament
#11
Marga Vicedo
This paper explores ethologist Niko Tinbergen's path from animal to human studies in the 1960s and 1970s and his views about human nature. It argues, first, that the confluence of several factors explains why Tinbergen decided to cross the animal/human divide in the mid 1960s: his concern about what he called "the human predicament," his relations with British child psychiatrist John Bowlby, the success of ethological explanations of human behavior, and his professional and personal situation. It also argues that Tinbergen transferred his general adaptationist view of animal behavior to the realm of human biology; here, his concern about disadaptation led him to a view of human behavior that was strongly determined by the species' evolutionary past, a position that I call evolutionary determinism...
June 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623486/darwin-s-two-theories-1844-and-1859
#12
Derek Partridge
Darwin's first two, relatively complete, explicit articulations of his theorizing on evolution were his Essay of 1844 and On the Origin of Species published in 1859. A comparative analysis concludes that they espoused radically different theories despite exhibiting a continuity of strategy, much common structure and the same key idea. Both were theories of evolution by means of natural selection. In 1844, organic adaptation was confined to occasional intervals initiated and controlled by de-stabilization events...
April 6, 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392525/2017-everett-mendelsohn-prize
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230600/inaugural-editorial
#14
EDITORIAL
Karen Rader, Marsha Richmond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484858/functional-morphology-in-paleobiology-origins-of-the-method-of-paradigms
#15
Martin J S Rudwick
From the early nineteenth century, the successful use of fossils in stratigraphy oriented paleontology (and particularly the study of fossil invertebrates) towards geology. The consequent marginalising of biological objectives was countered in the twentieth century by the rise of 'Paläobiologie', first in the German cultural area and only later, as 'paleobiology', in the anglophone world. Several kinds of paleobiological research flourished internationally after the Second World War, among them the novel field of 'paleoecology'...
March 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382585/when-pasteurian-science-went-to-sea-the-birth-of-marine-microbiology
#16
Antony Adler, Erik Dücker
In the late nineteenth century, French naturalists were global leaders in microbial research. Louis Pasteur advanced sterilization techniques and demonstrated that dust particles in the air could contaminate a putrefiable liquid. Pasteur's discoveries prompted a new research program for the naturalists of the Talisman and Travailleur expeditions: to recover uncontaminated water and mud samples from the deep sea. French naturalists Adrien Certes and Paul Regnard both independently conducted experiments to address the question of whether microorganisms inhabited the oceans and whether organic material in the deep sea was subject to decomposition...
March 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321591/naked-in-the-old-and-the-new-world-differences-and-analogies-in-descriptions-of-european-and-american-herbae-nudae-in-the-sixteenth-century
#17
Lucie Čermáková, Jana Černá
The sixteenth century could be understand as a period of renaissance of interest in nature and as a period of development of natural history as a discipline. The spreading of the printing press was connected to the preparation of new editions of Classical texts and to the act of correcting and commenting on these texts. This forced scholars to confront texts with living nature and to subject it to more careful investigation. The discovery of America uncovered new horizons and brought new natural products, which were exotic and unknown to Classical tradition...
March 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255641/moving-past-the-systematics-wars
#18
Beckett Sterner, Scott Lidgard
It is time to escape the constraints of the Systematics Wars narrative and pursue new questions that are better positioned to establish the relevance of the field in this time period to broader issues in the history of biology and history of science. To date, the underlying assumptions of the Systematics Wars narrative have led historians to prioritize theory over practice and the conflicts of a few leading theorists over the less-polarized interactions of systematists at large. We show how shifting to a practice-oriented view of methodology, centered on the trajectory of mathematization in systematics, demonstrates problems with the common view that one camp (cladistics) straightforwardly "won" over the other (phenetics)...
March 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247258/making-heredity-matter-samuel-butler-s-idea-of-unconscious-memory
#19
Cristiano Turbil
Butler's idea of evolution was developed over the publication of four books, several articles and essays between 1863 and 1890. These publications, although never achieving the success expected by Butler, proposed a psychological elaboration of evolution (robustly enforced by Lamarck's philosophy), called 'unconscious memory'. This was strongly in contrast with the materialistic approach suggested by Darwin's natural selection. Starting with a historical introduction, this paper aspires to ascertain the logic, meaning and significance of Butler's idea of 'unconscious memory' in the post-Darwinian physiological and psychological Pan-European discussion...
March 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468432/seed-sperma-and-ku%C3%A3%C2%AAma-in-aristotle-s-generation-of-animals
#20
Ignacio De Ribera-Martin
There are two different notions of seed (sperma) at work in the Generation of Animals: seed as the spermatic residue (perittôma), which concerns only the male and the female generative contributions, and seed as the kuêma and first mixture of the two generative contributions. The latter is a notion of seed common to plants and animals. The passage in GA I.18, 724b12-22 where Aristotle distinguishes between these two notions of seed has been mistakenly discredited as inauthentic or simply as irrelevant for understanding the seeds of animals...
February 21, 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
journal
journal
22128
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"