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Journal of the History of Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119410/africanizing-science-in-post-colonial-kenya-long-term-field-research-in-the-amboseli-ecosystem-1963-1989
#1
Amanda E Lewis
Following Kenya's independence in 1963, scientists converged on an ecologically sensitive area in southern Kenya on the northern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro called Amboseli. This region is the homeland of the Ilkisongo Maasai who grazed this ecosystem along with the wildlife of interest to the scientists. Biologists saw opportunities to study this complex community, an environment rich in biological diversity. The Amboseli landscape proved to be fertile ground for testing new methods and lines of inquiry in the biological sciences that were generalizable and important for shaping natural resource management policies in Kenya...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098484/the-fate-of-the-method-of-paradigms-in-paleobiology
#2
Martin J S Rudwick
An earlier article described the mid-twentieth century origins of the method of "paradigms" in paleobiology, as a way of making testable hypotheses about the functional morphology of extinct organisms. The present article describes the use of "paradigms" through the 1970s and, briefly, to the end of the century. After I had proposed the paradigm method to help interpret the ecological history of brachiopods, my students developed it in relation to that and other invertebrate phyla, notably in Euan Clarkson's analysis of vision in trilobites...
November 2, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039112/james-cossar-ewart-and-the-origins-of-the-animal-breeding-research-department-in-edinburgh-1895-1920
#3
Clare Button
In 1919 the Animal Breeding Research Department was established in Edinburgh. This Department, later renamed the Institute of Animal Genetics, forged an international reputation, eventually becoming the centrepiece of a cluster of new genetics research units and institutions in Edinburgh after the Second World War. Yet despite its significance for institutionalising animal genetics research in the UK, the origins and development of the Department have not received as much scholarly attention as its importance warrants...
October 16, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027154/book-review
#4
Sophia Roosth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019114/looking-toward-the-next-fifty-years-at-the-journal-of-the-history-of-biology
#5
EDITORIAL
Michael R Dietrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019112/methodology-in-aristotle-s-theory-of-spontaneous-generation
#6
Karen R Zwier
Aristotle's theory of spontaneous generation offers many puzzles to those who wish to understand his theory both within the context of his biology and within the context of his more general philosophy of nature. In this paper, I approach the difficult and vague elements of Aristotle's account of spontaneous generation not as weaknesses, but as opportunities for an interesting glimpse into the thought of an early scientist struggling to reconcile evidence and theory. The paper has two goals: (1) to give as charitable and full an account as possible of what Aristotle's theory of spontaneous generation was, and to examine some of its consequences; and (2) to reflect on Aristotle as a scientist, and what his comments reveal about how he approached a difficult problem...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986915/globalizing-genomics-the-origins-of-the-international-nucleotide-sequence-database-collaboration
#7
Hallam Stevens
Genomics is increasingly considered a global enterprise - the fact that biological information can flow rapidly around the planet is taken to be important to what genomics is and what it can achieve. However, the large-scale international circulation of nucleotide sequence information did not begin with the Human Genome Project. Efforts to formalize and institutionalize the circulation of sequence information emerged concurrently with the development of centralized facilities for collecting that information...
October 6, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986914/reflections-on-50%C3%A2-years-of-the-journal-of-the-history-of-biology
#8
EDITORIAL
Everett Mendelsohn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986758/the-development-of-sociobiology-in-relation-to-animal-behavior-studies-1946-1975
#9
Clement Levallois
This paper aims at bridging a gap between the history of American animal behavior studies and the history of sociobiology. In the post-war period, ecology, comparative psychology and ethology were all investigating animal societies, using different approaches ranging from fieldwork to laboratory studies. We argue that this disunity in "practices of place" (Kohler, Robert E. Landscapes & Labscapes: Exploring the Lab-Field Border in Biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002) explains the attempts of dialogue between those three fields and early calls for unity through "sociobiology" by J...
October 6, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980196/the-experimental-study-of-bacterial-evolution-and-its-implications-for-the-modern-synthesis-of-evolutionary-biology
#10
Maureen A O'Malley
Since the 1940s, microbiologists, biochemists and population geneticists have experimented with the genetic mechanisms of microorganisms in order to investigate evolutionary processes. These evolutionary studies of bacteria and other microorganisms gained some recognition from the standard-bearers of the modern synthesis of evolutionary biology, especially Theodosius Dobzhansky and Ledyard Stebbins. A further period of post-synthesis bacterial evolutionary research occurred between the 1950s and 1980s. These experimental analyses focused on the evolution of population and genetic structure, the adaptive gain of new functions, and the evolutionary consequences of competition dynamics...
October 4, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871502/science-and-sentiment-grinnell-s-fact-based-philosophy-of-biodiversity-conservation
#11
Ayelet Shavit, James R Griesemer
At the beginning of the twentieth century, the biologist Joseph Grinnell made a distinction between science and sentiment for producing fact-based generalizations on how to conserve biodiversity. We are inspired by Grinnellian science, which successfully produced a century-long impact on studying and conserving biodiversity that runs orthogonal to some familiar philosophical distinctions such as fact versus value, emotion versus reason and basic versus applied science. According to Grinnell, unlike sentiment-based generalizations, a fact-based generalization traces its diverse commitments and thus becomes tractable for its audience...
September 4, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030836/quantitative-perspectives-on-fifty-years-of-the-journal-of-the-history-of-biology
#12
B R Erick Peirson, Erin Bottino, Julia L Damerow, Manfred D Laubichler
Journal of the History of Biology provides a fifty-year long record for examining the evolution of the history of biology as a scholarly discipline. In this paper, we present a new dataset and preliminary quantitative analysis of the thematic content of JHB from the perspectives of geography, organisms, and thematic fields. The geographic diversity of authors whose work appears in JHB has increased steadily since 1968, but the geographic coverage of the content of JHB articles remains strongly lopsided toward the United States, United Kingdom, and western Europe and has diversified much less dramatically over time...
November 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130697/blobel-and-sabatini-s-beautiful-idea-visual-representations-of-the-conception-and-refinement-of-the-signal-hypothesis
#13
Michelle Lynne LaBonte
In 1971, Günter Blobel and David Sabatini proposed a novel and quite speculative schematic model to describe how proteins might reach the proper cellular location. According to their proposal, proteins destined to be secreted from the cell contain a "signal" to direct their release. Despite the fact that Blobel and Sabatini presented their signal hypothesis as a "beautiful idea" not grounded in experimental evidence, they received criticism from other scientists who opposed such speculation. Following the publication of the 1971 model, Blobel persisted in conducting experiments and revising the model to incorporate new data...
November 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058657/a-two-ocean-bouillabaisse-science-politics-and-the-central-american-sea-level-canal-controversy
#14
Christine Keiner
As the Panama Canal approached its fiftieth anniversary in the mid-1960s, U.S. officials concerned about the costs of modernization welcomed the technology of peaceful nuclear excavation to create a new waterway at sea level. Biologists seeking a share of the funds slated for radiological-safety studies called attention to another potential effect which they deemed of far greater ecological and evolutionary magnitude - marine species exchange, an obscure environmental issue that required the expertise of underresourced life scientists...
November 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921231/the-cell-and-protoplasm-as-container-object-and-substance-1835-1861
#15
Daniel Liu
This article revisits the development of the protoplasm concept as it originally arose from critiques of the cell theory, and examines how the term "protoplasm" transformed from a botanical term of art in the 1840s to the so-called "living substance" and "the physical basis of life" two decades later. I show that there were two major shifts in biological materialism that needed to occur before protoplasm theory could be elevated to have equal status with cell theory in the nineteenth century. First, I argue that biologists had to accept that life could inhere in matter alone, regardless of form...
November 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822903/a-historical-taxonomy-of-origin-of-species-problems-and-its-relevance-to-the-historiography-of-evolutionary-thought
#16
Koen B Tanghe
Historians tend to speak of the problem of the origin of species or the species question, as if it were a monolithic problem. In reality, the phrase (or similar variants) refers to a, historically, surprisingly fluid and pluriform scientific issue. It has, in the course of the past five centuries, been used in no less than ten different ways or contexts. A clear taxonomy of these separate problems is useful or relevant in two ways. It certainly helps to disentangle confusions that have inevitably emerged in the literature in its absence...
November 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27480212/natural-selection-adaptive-topographies-and-the-problem-of-statistical-inference-the-moraba-scurra-controversy-under-the-microscope
#17
Jean-Baptiste Grodwohl
This paper gives a detailed narrative of a controversial empirical research in postwar population genetics, the analysis of the cytological polymorphisms of an Australian grasshopper, Moraba scurra. This research intertwined key technical developments in three research areas during the 1950s and 1960s: it involved Dobzhansky's empirical research program on cytological polymorphisms, the mathematical theory of natural selection in two-locus systems, and the building of reliable estimates of natural selection in the wild...
November 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785658/the-sparrow-question-social-and-scientific-accord-in-britain-1850-1900
#18
Matthew Holmes
During the latter-half of the nineteenth century, the utility of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) to humankind was a contentious topic. In Britain, numerous actors from various backgrounds including natural history, acclimatisation, agriculture and economic ornithology converged on the bird, as contemporaries sought to calculate its economic cost and benefit to growers. Periodicals and newspapers provided an accessible and anonymous means of expression, through which the debate raged for over 50 years...
August 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778199/the-watson-forbes-biogeographical-controversy-untangled-170%C3%A2-years-later
#19
Simone Fattorini
Hewett Cottrell Watson and Edward Forbes were two naturalists of the Victorian age. They were protagonists on a dispute that generated comment and serves as an illuminating case study of misunderstanding in priority issues. Watson accused Forbes of having plagiarized his original classification of the British plants into groups on the basis of their geographical distribution. This controversy originated mostly from a so-far-ignored basic difference in Watson's and Forbes' ideas about biogeographical regionalization...
August 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687557/cacogenic-cartographies-space-and-place-in-the-eugenic-family-study
#20
Ry Marcattilio-McCracken
Though only one component product of the larger eugenics movement, the eugenic family study proved to be, by far, its most potent ideological tool. The Kallikak Family, for instance, went through eight editions between 1913 and 1931. This essay argues that the current scholarship has missed important ways that the architects of the eugenic family studies theorized and described the subjects of their investigation. Using one sparsely interrogated work (sociologist Frank Wilson Blackmar's "The Smoky Pilgrims") and one previously unknown eugenic family study (biologist Frank Gary Brooks' untitled analysis of the flood-zone Oklahomans) from the Southern Plains, this essay aims to introduce "environment" as a schema that allows for how the subjects of the eugenic family study were conceptualized with respect to their surroundings...
August 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
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