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Journal of the History of Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206738/sarah-s-richardson-and-hallam-stevens-eds-postgenomics-perspectives-on-biology-after-the-genome-durham-duke-university-press-2015-294-pp-99-95-cloth-isbn-9780822358947
#1
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203215/a-reappraisal-of-charles-darwin-s-engagement-with-the-work-of-william-sharp-macleay
#2
Aaron Novick
Charles Darwin, in his species notebooks, engaged seriously with the quinarian system of William Sharp Macleay. Much of the attention given to this engagement has focused on Darwin's attempt to explain, in a transmutationist framework, the intricate patterns that characterized the quinarian system. Here, I show that Darwin's attempt to explain these quinarian patterns primarily occurred before he had read any work by Macleay. By the time Darwin began reading Macleay's writings, he had already arrived at a skeptical view of the reality of these patterns...
September 10, 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30151778/lamarckism-by-other-means-interpreting-pavlov-s-conditioned-reflexes-in-twentieth-century-britain
#3
Oliver Hill-Andrews
This essay examines the reception of Ivan Pavlov's work on conditioned reflexes in early to mid-twentieth century Britain. Recent work on the political interpretation of biology has shown that the nineteenth-century strategy of "making socialists" was undermined by August Weismann's attacks on the inheritance of acquired characters. I argue that Pavlov's research reinvigorated socialist hopes of transforming society and the people in it. I highlight the work of Pavlov's interpreters, notably the scientific journalist J...
August 27, 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30140966/more-than-moore-s-mores-computers-genomics-and-the-embrace-of-innovation
#4
Joseph November
The genomics community has frequently compared advances in sequencing to advances in microelectronics. Lately there have been many claims, including by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), that genomics is outpacing developments in computing as measured by Moore's law - the notion that computers double in processing capability per dollar spent every 18-24 months. Celebrations of the "$1000 genome" and other speed-related sequencing milestones might be dismissed as a distraction from genomics' slowness in delivering clinical breakthroughs, but the fact that such celebrations have been persistently encouraged by the NHGRI reveals a great deal about the priorities and expectations of the American general public, the intended audience of the genomics-computing comparison...
August 23, 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062454/brad-peyton-dir-rampage-2018-film
#5
Christian Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 30, 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203156/jane-carruthers-national-park-science-a-century-of-research-in-south-africa-cambridge-cambridge-university-press-2017-554-pp-illus-bibl-67-72-hardback-isbn-9781107191440
#6
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623486/darwin-s-two-theories-1844-and-1859
#7
Derek Partridge
Darwin's first two, relatively complete, explicit articulations of his theorizing on evolution were his Essay of 1844 and On the Origin of Species published in 1859. A comparative analysis concludes that they espoused radically different theories despite exhibiting a continuity of strategy, much common structure and the same key idea. Both were theories of evolution by means of natural selection. In 1844, organic adaptation was confined to occasional intervals initiated and controlled by de-stabilization events...
September 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119410/africanizing-science-in-post-colonial-kenya-long-term-field-research-in-the-amboseli-ecosystem-1963-1989
#8
Amanda E Lewis
Following Kenya's independence in 1963, scientists converged on an ecologically sensitive area in southern Kenya on the northern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro called Amboseli. This region is the homeland of the Ilkisongo Maasai who grazed this ecosystem along with the wildlife of interest to the scientists. Biologists saw opportunities to study this complex community, an environment rich in biological diversity. The Amboseli landscape proved to be fertile ground for testing new methods and lines of inquiry in the biological sciences that were generalizable and important for shaping natural resource management policies in Kenya...
September 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098484/the-fate-of-the-method-of-paradigms-in-paleobiology
#9
Martin J S Rudwick
An earlier article described the mid-twentieth century origins of the method of "paradigms" in paleobiology, as a way of making testable hypotheses about the functional morphology of extinct organisms. The present article describes the use of "paradigms" through the 1970s and, briefly, to the end of the century. After I had proposed the paradigm method to help interpret the ecological history of brachiopods, my students developed it in relation to that and other invertebrate phyla, notably in Euan Clarkson's analysis of vision in trilobites...
September 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039112/james-cossar-ewart-and-the-origins-of-the-animal-breeding-research-department-in-edinburgh-1895-1920
#10
Clare Button
In 1919 the Animal Breeding Research Department was established in Edinburgh. This Department, later renamed the Institute of Animal Genetics, forged an international reputation, eventually becoming the centrepiece of a cluster of new genetics research units and institutions in Edinburgh after the Second World War. Yet despite its significance for institutionalising animal genetics research in the UK, the origins and development of the Department have not received as much scholarly attention as its importance warrants...
September 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986758/the-development-of-sociobiology-in-relation-to-animal-behavior-studies-1946-1975
#11
Clement Levallois
This paper aims at bridging a gap between the history of American animal behavior studies and the history of sociobiology. In the post-war period, ecology, comparative psychology and ethology were all investigating animal societies, using different approaches ranging from fieldwork to laboratory studies. We argue that this disunity in "practices of place" (Kohler, Robert E. Landscapes & Labscapes: Exploring the Lab-Field Border in Biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002) explains the attempts of dialogue between those three fields and early calls for unity through "sociobiology" by J...
September 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926225/how-seeing-became-knowing-the-role-of-the-electron-microscope-in-shaping-the-modern-definition-of-viruses
#12
Ton van Helvoort, Neeraja Sankaran
This paper examines the vital role played by electron microscopy toward the modern definition of viruses, as formulated in the late 1950s. Before the 1930s viruses could neither be visualized by available technologies nor grown in artificial media. As such they were usually identified by their ability to cause diseases in their hosts and defined in such negative terms as "ultramicroscopic" or invisible infectious agents that could not be cultivated outside living cells. The invention of the electron microscope, with magnification and resolution powers several orders of magnitude better than that of optical instruments, opened up possibilities for biological applications...
June 20, 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873001/between-social-and-biological-heredity-cope-and-baldwin-on-evolution-inheritance-and-mind
#13
David Ceccarelli
In the years of the post-Darwinian debate, many American naturalists invoked the name of Lamarck to signal their belief in a purposive and anti-Darwinian view of evolution. Yet Weismann's theory of germ-plasm continuity undermined the shared tenet of the neo-Lamarckian theories as well as the idea of the interchangeability between biological and social heredity. Edward Drinker Cope, the leader of the so-called "American School," defended his neo-Lamarckian philosophy against every attempt to redefine the relationship between behavior, development, and heredity beyond the epigenetic model of inheritance...
June 5, 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019112/methodology-in-aristotle-s-theory-of-spontaneous-generation
#14
Karen R Zwier
Aristotle's theory of spontaneous generation offers many puzzles to those who wish to understand his theory both within the context of his biology and within the context of his more general philosophy of nature. In this paper, I approach the difficult and vague elements of Aristotle's account of spontaneous generation not as weaknesses, but as opportunities for an interesting glimpse into the thought of an early scientist struggling to reconcile evidence and theory. The paper has two goals: (1) to give as charitable and full an account as possible of what Aristotle's theory of spontaneous generation was, and to examine some of its consequences; and (2) to reflect on Aristotle as a scientist, and what his comments reveal about how he approached a difficult problem...
June 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980196/the-experimental-study-of-bacterial-evolution-and-its-implications-for-the-modern-synthesis-of-evolutionary-biology
#15
Maureen A O'Malley
Since the 1940s, microbiologists, biochemists and population geneticists have experimented with the genetic mechanisms of microorganisms in order to investigate evolutionary processes. These evolutionary studies of bacteria and other microorganisms gained some recognition from the standard-bearers of the modern synthesis of evolutionary biology, especially Theodosius Dobzhansky and Ledyard Stebbins. A further period of post-synthesis bacterial evolutionary research occurred between the 1950s and 1980s. These experimental analyses focused on the evolution of population and genetic structure, the adaptive gain of new functions, and the evolutionary consequences of competition dynamics...
June 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871502/science-and-sentiment-grinnell-s-fact-based-philosophy-of-biodiversity-conservation
#16
Ayelet Shavit, James R Griesemer
At the beginning of the twentieth century, the biologist Joseph Grinnell made a distinction between science and sentiment for producing fact-based generalizations on how to conserve biodiversity. We are inspired by Grinnellian science, which successfully produced a century-long impact on studying and conserving biodiversity that runs orthogonal to some familiar philosophical distinctions such as fact versus value, emotion versus reason and basic versus applied science. According to Grinnell, unlike sentiment-based generalizations, a fact-based generalization traces its diverse commitments and thus becomes tractable for its audience...
June 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726021/how-fast-does-darwin-s-elephant-population-grow
#17
János Podani, Ádám Kun, András Szilágyi
In "The Origin of Species," Darwin describes a hypothetical example illustrating that large, slowly reproducing mammals such as the elephant can reach very large numbers if population growth is not affected by regulating factors. The elephant example has since been cited in various forms in a wide variety of books, ranging from educational material to encyclopedias. However, Darwin's text was changed over the six editions of the book, although some errors in the mathematics persisted throughout. In addition, full details of the problem remained hidden in his correspondence with readers of the Origin...
June 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721604/a-space-of-one-s-own-barbosa-du-bocage-the-foundation-of-the-national-museum-of-lisbon-and-the-construction-of-a-career-in-zoology-1851-1907
#18
Daniel Gamito-Marques
This paper discusses the life and scientific work of José Vicente Barbosa du Bocage (1823-1907), a nineteenth-century Portuguese naturalist who carved a new place for zoological research in Portugal and built up a prestigious scientific career by securing appropriate physical and institutional spaces to the discipline. Although he was appointed professor of zoology at the Lisbon Polytechnic School, an institution mainly devoted to the preparatory training of military officers and engineers, he succeeded in creating the conditions that allowed him to develop consistent research in zoology at this institution...
June 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721603/the-disadapted-animal-niko-tinbergen-on-human-nature-and-the-human-predicament
#19
Marga Vicedo
This paper explores ethologist Niko Tinbergen's path from animal to human studies in the 1960s and 1970s and his views about human nature. It argues, first, that the confluence of several factors explains why Tinbergen decided to cross the animal/human divide in the mid 1960s: his concern about what he called "the human predicament," his relations with British child psychiatrist John Bowlby, the success of ethological explanations of human behavior, and his professional and personal situation. It also argues that Tinbergen transferred his general adaptationist view of animal behavior to the realm of human biology; here, his concern about disadaptation led him to a view of human behavior that was strongly determined by the species' evolutionary past, a position that I call evolutionary determinism...
June 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761288/the-handmaid-s-tale-hulu-season-1-april-june-2017-television
#20
Jenna Tonn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
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