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Journal of the History of Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321591/naked-in-the-old-and-the-new-world-differences-and-analogies-in-descriptions-of-european-and-american-herbae-nudae-in-the-sixteenth-century
#1
Lucie Čermáková, Jana Černá
The sixteenth century could be understand as a period of renaissance of interest in nature and as a period of development of natural history as a discipline. The spreading of the printing press was connected to the preparation of new editions of Classical texts and to the act of correcting and commenting on these texts. This forced scholars to confront texts with living nature and to subject it to more careful investigation. The discovery of America uncovered new horizons and brought new natural products, which were exotic and unknown to Classical tradition...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255641/moving-past-the-systematics-wars
#2
Beckett Sterner, Scott Lidgard
It is time to escape the constraints of the Systematics Wars narrative and pursue new questions that are better positioned to establish the relevance of the field in this time period to broader issues in the history of biology and history of science. To date, the underlying assumptions of the Systematics Wars narrative have led historians to prioritize theory over practice and the conflicts of a few leading theorists over the less-polarized interactions of systematists at large. We show how shifting to a practice-oriented view of methodology, centered on the trajectory of mathematization in systematics, demonstrates problems with the common view that one camp (cladistics) straightforwardly "won" over the other (phenetics)...
March 2, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247258/making-heredity-matter-samuel-butler-s-idea-of-unconscious-memory
#3
Cristiano Turbil
Butler's idea of evolution was developed over the publication of four books, several articles and essays between 1863 and 1890. These publications, although never achieving the success expected by Butler, proposed a psychological elaboration of evolution (robustly enforced by Lamarck's philosophy), called 'unconscious memory'. This was strongly in contrast with the materialistic approach suggested by Darwin's natural selection. Starting with a historical introduction, this paper aspires to ascertain the logic, meaning and significance of Butler's idea of 'unconscious memory' in the post-Darwinian physiological and psychological Pan-European discussion...
February 28, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247257/reflections-on-my-experience-of-the-journal-of-the-history-of-biology
#4
REVIEW
Paul Lawrence Farber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220281/reflections
#5
REVIEW
Paul Lawrence Farber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130697/blobel-and-sabatini-s-beautiful-idea-visual-representations-of-the-conception-and-refinement-of-the-signal-hypothesis
#6
Michelle Lynne LaBonte
In 1971, Günter Blobel and David Sabatini proposed a novel and quite speculative schematic model to describe how proteins might reach the proper cellular location. According to their proposal, proteins destined to be secreted from the cell contain a "signal" to direct their release. Despite the fact that Blobel and Sabatini presented their signal hypothesis as a "beautiful idea" not grounded in experimental evidence, they received criticism from other scientists who opposed such speculation. Following the publication of the 1971 model, Blobel persisted in conducting experiments and revising the model to incorporate new data...
January 27, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074317/the-first-everett-mendelsohn-prize
#7
Michael R Dietrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070805/the-journal-of-the-history-of-biology-at-50
#8
EDITORIAL
Michael R Dietrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058657/a-two-ocean-bouillabaisse-science-politics-and-the-central-american-sea-level-canal-controversy
#9
Christine Keiner
As the Panama Canal approached its fiftieth anniversary in the mid-1960s, U.S. officials concerned about the costs of modernization welcomed the technology of peaceful nuclear excavation to create a new waterway at sea level. Biologists seeking a share of the funds slated for radiological-safety studies called attention to another potential effect which they deemed of far greater ecological and evolutionary magnitude - marine species exchange, an obscure environmental issue that required the expertise of underresourced life scientists...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26869464/remembering-our-forebears-albert-jan-kluyver-and-the-unity-of-life
#10
Rivers Singleton, David R Singleton
The Dutch microbiologist/biochemist Albert Jan Kluyver (1888-1956) was an early proponent of the idea of biochemical unity, and how that concept might be demonstrated through the careful study of microbial life. The fundamental relatedness of living systems is an obvious correlate of the theory of evolution, and modern attempts to construct phylogenetic schemes support this relatedness through comparison of genomes. The approach of Kluyver and his scientific descendants predated the tools of modern molecular biology by decades...
February 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26820266/conservation-compromises-the-mab-and-the-legacy-of-the-international-biological-program-1964-1974
#11
Simone Schleper
This article looks at the International Biological Program (IBP) as the predecessor of UNESCO's well-known and highly successful Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB). It argues that international conservation efforts of the 1970s, such as the MAB, must in fact be understood as a compound of two opposing attempts to reform international conservation in the 1960s. The scientific framework of the MAB has its origins in disputes between high-level conservationists affiliated with the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) about what the IBP meant for the future of conservation...
February 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26791017/-plants-that-remind-me-of-home-collecting-plant-geography-and-a-forgotten-expedition-in-the-darwinian-revolution
#12
Kuang-Chi Hung
In 1859, Harvard botanist Asa Gray (1810-1888) published an essay of what he called "the abstract of Japan botany." In it, he applied Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory to explain why strong similarities could be found between the flora of Japan and that of eastern North America, which provoked his famous debate with Louis Agassiz (1807-1873) and initiated Gray's efforts to secure a place for Darwinian biology in the American sciences. Notably, although the Gray-Agassiz debate has become one of the most thoroughly studied scientific debates, historians of science remain unable to answer one critical question: How was Gray able to acquire specimens from Japan? Making use of previously unknown archival materials, this article scrutinizes the institutional, instrumental, financial, and military settings that enabled Gray's collector, Charles Wright (1811-1885), to travel to Japan, as well as examine Wright's collecting practices in Japan...
February 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26754289/the-impact-of-lamarck-s-theory-of-evolution-before-darwin-s-theory
#13
Andrés Galera
This paper analyzes the impact that Lamarckian evolutionary theory had in the scientific community during the period between the advent of Zoological Philosophy and the publication Origin of Species. During these 50 years Lamarck's model was a well known theory and it was discussed by the scientific community as a hypothesis to explain the changing nature of the fossil record throughout the history of Earth. Lamarck's transmutation theory established the foundation of an evolutionary model introducing a new way to research in nature...
February 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26732271/the-contributions-and-collapse-of-lamarckian-heredity-in-pasteurian-molecular-biology-1-lysogeny-1900-1960
#14
Laurent Loison, Jean Gayon, Richard M Burian
This article shows how Lamarckism was essential in the birth of the French school of molecular biology. We argue that the concept of inheritance of acquired characters positively shaped debates surrounding bacteriophagy and lysogeny in the Pasteurian tradition during the interwar period. During this period the typical Lamarckian account of heredity treated it as the continuation of protoplasmic physiology in daughter cells. Félix d'Hérelle applied this conception to argue that there was only one species of bacteriophage and Jules Bordet applied it to develop an account of bacteriophagy as a transmissible form of autolysis and to analyze the new phenomenon of lysogeny...
February 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921231/the-cell-and-protoplasm-as-container-object-and-substance-1835-1861
#15
Daniel Liu
This article revisits the development of the protoplasm concept as it originally arose from critiques of the cell theory, and examines how the term "protoplasm" transformed from a botanical term of art in the 1840s to the so-called "living substance" and "the physical basis of life" two decades later. I show that there were two major shifts in biological materialism that needed to occur before protoplasm theory could be elevated to have equal status with cell theory in the nineteenth century. First, I argue that biologists had to accept that life could inhere in matter alone, regardless of form...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942910/reflections-on-the-history-of-biology-as-a-field-1966-2014
#16
Garland E Allen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942909/garland-allen-an-appreciation
#17
Everett Mendelsohn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848059/the-creativity-of-natural-selection-part-i-darwin-darwinism-and-the-mutationists
#18
John Beatty
This is the first of a two-part essay on the history of debates concerning the creativity of natural selection, from Darwin through the evolutionary synthesis and up to the present. Here I focus on the mid-late nineteenth century to the early twentieth, with special emphasis on early Darwinism and its critics, the self-styled "mutationists." The second part focuses on the evolutionary synthesis and some of its critics, especially the "neutralists" and "neo-mutationists." Like Stephen Gould, I consider the creativity of natural selection to be a key component of what has traditionally counted as "Darwinism...
December 2016: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815730/introduction-revisiting-garland-allen-s-views-on-the-history-of-the-life-sciences-in-the-twentieth-century
#19
EDITORIAL
Michael R Dietrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435870/niko-tinbergen-a-message-in-the-archives
#20
Richard W Burkhardt
Just as biologists have their favored places for doing research, so do historians. As someone who likes working in archives, the most surprising thing the present author ever found was a particular letter that had been written to him by the ethologist Niko Tinbergen-but that Tinbergen had never sent. The letter included a detailed critique of the intellectual style and conceptual shortcomings of Tinbergen's career-long friend and colleague Konrad Lorenz. The present author first saw the letter 3 years after Tinbergen's death and 10 years after the letter was composed...
December 2016: Journal of the History of Biology
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