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Journal of the History of Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631062/jhb-as-a-collaborative-effort
#1
EDITORIAL
Garland E Allen, Jane Maienschein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493180/erratum-to-the-molecular-basis-of-evolution-and-disease-a-cold-war-alliance
#2
Edna Suárez-Díaz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484858/functional-morphology-in-paleobiology-origins-of-the-method-of-paradigms
#3
Martin J S Rudwick
From the early nineteenth century, the successful use of fossils in stratigraphy oriented paleontology (and particularly the study of fossil invertebrates) towards geology. The consequent marginalising of biological objectives was countered in the twentieth century by the rise of 'Paläobiologie', first in the German cultural area and only later, as 'paleobiology', in the anglophone world. Several kinds of paleobiological research flourished internationally after the Second World War, among them the novel field of 'paleoecology'...
May 8, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382585/when-pasteurian-science-went-to-sea-the-birth-of-marine-microbiology
#4
Antony Adler, Erik Dücker
In the late nineteenth century, French naturalists were global leaders in microbial research. Louis Pasteur advanced sterilization techniques and demonstrated that dust particles in the air could contaminate a putrefiable liquid. Pasteur's discoveries prompted a new research program for the naturalists of the Talisman and Travailleur expeditions: to recover uncontaminated water and mud samples from the deep sea. French naturalists Adrien Certes and Paul Regnard both independently conducted experiments to address the question of whether microorganisms inhabited the oceans and whether organic material in the deep sea was subject to decomposition...
April 5, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353120/the-molecular-basis-of-evolution-and-disease-a-cold-war-alliance
#5
Edna Suárez-Díaz
This paper extends previous arguments against the assumption that the study of variation at the molecular level was instigated with a view to solving an internal conflict between the balance and classical schools of population genetics. It does so by focusing on the intersection of basic research in protein chemistry and the molecular approach to disease with the enactment of global health campaigns during the Cold War period. The paper connects advances in research on protein structure and function as reflected in Christian Anfinsen's The molecular basis of evolution, with a political reading of Emilé Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling's identification of molecular disease and evolution...
March 28, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220281/reflections
#6
REVIEW
Paul Lawrence Farber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317307/bergmann-s-rule-adaptation-and-thermoregulation-in-arctic-animals-conflicting-perspectives-from-physiology-evolutionary-biology-and-physical-anthropology-after-world-war-ii
#7
Joel B Hagen
Bergmann's rule and Allen's rule played important roles in mid-twentieth century discussions of adaptation, variation, and geographical distribution. Although inherited from the nineteenth-century natural history tradition these rules gained significance during the consolidation of the modern synthesis as evolutionary theorists focused attention on populations as units of evolution. For systematists, the rules provided a compelling rationale for identifying geographical races or subspecies, a function that was also picked up by some physical anthropologists...
May 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216739/biological-discourses-on-human-races-and-scientific-racism-in-brazil-1832-1911
#8
Juanma Sánchez Arteaga
This paper analyzes biological and scientific discourses about the racial composition of the Brazilian population, between 1832 and 1911. The first of these dates represents Darwin's first arrival in the South-American country during his voyage on H.M.S. Beagle. The study ends in 1911, with the celebration of the First universal Races congress in London, where the Brazilian physical anthropologist J.B. Lacerda predicted the complete extinction of black Brazilians by the year 2012. Contemporary European and North-American racial theories had a profound influence in Brazilian scientific debates on race and miscegenation...
May 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27098777/darwin-s-mr-arthrobalanus-sexual-differentiation-evolutionary-destiny-and-the-expert-eye-of-the-beholder
#9
Roderick D Buchanan
Darwin's Cirripedia project was an exacting exercise in systematics, as well as an encrypted study of evolution in action. Darwin had a long-standing interest and expertise in marine invertebrates and their sexual arrangements. The surprising and revealing sexual differentiation he would uncover amongst barnacles represented an important step in his understanding of the origins of sexual reproduction. But it would prove difficult to reconcile these findings with his later theorizing. Moreover, the road to discovery was hardly straightforward...
May 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27098776/population-cycles-disease-and-networks-of-ecological-knowledge
#10
Susan D Jones
Wildlife populations in the northern reaches of the globe have long been observed to fluctuate or cycle periodically, with dramatic increases followed by catastrophic crashes. Focusing on the early work of Charles S. Elton, this article analyzes how investigations into population cycles shaped the development of Anglo-American animal ecology during the 1920s-1930s. Population cycling revealed patterns that challenged ideas about the "balance" of nature; stimulated efforts to quantify population data; and brought animal ecology into conversation with intellectual debates about natural selection...
May 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27052510/making-space-for-red-tide-discolored-water-and-the-early-twentieth-century-bayscape-of-japanese-pearl-cultivation
#11
Kjell Ericson
"Red tide" has become a familiar shorthand for unusual changes in the color of ocean waters. It is intimately related both to blooms of creatures like dinoflagellates and to the devastating effects they pose to coastal fisheries. This essay tracks the early twentieth century emergence of discolored water as an aquacultural problem, known in Japan as akashio, and its trans-oceanic transformation into the terms and practices of "red tide" in the post-World War II United States. For Japan's "Pearl King" Mikimoto Kōkichi and his contacts in diverse marine scientific communities, the years-long cycle of guarding and cultivating a pearl oyster went together with the ascription of moral qualities to tiny creatures that posed a threat to farmed bayscapes of pearl monoculture...
May 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26892990/screening-out-controversy-human-genetics-emerging-techniques-of-diagnosis-and-the-origins-of-the-social-issues-committee-of-the-american-society-of-human-genetics-1964-1973
#12
M X Mitchell
In the years following World War II, and increasingly during the 1960s and 1970s, professional scientific societies developed internal sub-committees to address the social implications of their scientific expertise (Moore, Disrupting Science: Social Movements, American Scientists, and the Politics of the Military, 1945-1975. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008). This article explores the early years of one such committee, the American Society of Human Genetics' "Social Issues Committee," founded in 1967...
May 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321591/naked-in-the-old-and-the-new-world-differences-and-analogies-in-descriptions-of-european-and-american-herbae-nudae-in-the-sixteenth-century
#13
Lucie Čermáková, Jana Černá
The sixteenth century could be understand as a period of renaissance of interest in nature and as a period of development of natural history as a discipline. The spreading of the printing press was connected to the preparation of new editions of Classical texts and to the act of correcting and commenting on these texts. This forced scholars to confront texts with living nature and to subject it to more careful investigation. The discovery of America uncovered new horizons and brought new natural products, which were exotic and unknown to Classical tradition...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255641/moving-past-the-systematics-wars
#14
Beckett Sterner, Scott Lidgard
It is time to escape the constraints of the Systematics Wars narrative and pursue new questions that are better positioned to establish the relevance of the field in this time period to broader issues in the history of biology and history of science. To date, the underlying assumptions of the Systematics Wars narrative have led historians to prioritize theory over practice and the conflicts of a few leading theorists over the less-polarized interactions of systematists at large. We show how shifting to a practice-oriented view of methodology, centered on the trajectory of mathematization in systematics, demonstrates problems with the common view that one camp (cladistics) straightforwardly "won" over the other (phenetics)...
March 2, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247258/making-heredity-matter-samuel-butler-s-idea-of-unconscious-memory
#15
Cristiano Turbil
Butler's idea of evolution was developed over the publication of four books, several articles and essays between 1863 and 1890. These publications, although never achieving the success expected by Butler, proposed a psychological elaboration of evolution (robustly enforced by Lamarck's philosophy), called 'unconscious memory'. This was strongly in contrast with the materialistic approach suggested by Darwin's natural selection. Starting with a historical introduction, this paper aspires to ascertain the logic, meaning and significance of Butler's idea of 'unconscious memory' in the post-Darwinian physiological and psychological Pan-European discussion...
February 28, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247257/reflections-on-my-experience-of-the-journal-of-the-history-of-biology
#16
REVIEW
Paul Lawrence Farber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074317/the-first-everett-mendelsohn-prize
#17
Michael R Dietrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070805/the-journal-of-the-history-of-biology-at-50
#18
EDITORIAL
Michael R Dietrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26869464/remembering-our-forebears-albert-jan-kluyver-and-the-unity-of-life
#19
Rivers Singleton, David R Singleton
The Dutch microbiologist/biochemist Albert Jan Kluyver (1888-1956) was an early proponent of the idea of biochemical unity, and how that concept might be demonstrated through the careful study of microbial life. The fundamental relatedness of living systems is an obvious correlate of the theory of evolution, and modern attempts to construct phylogenetic schemes support this relatedness through comparison of genomes. The approach of Kluyver and his scientific descendants predated the tools of modern molecular biology by decades...
February 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26820266/conservation-compromises-the-mab-and-the-legacy-of-the-international-biological-program-1964-1974
#20
Simone Schleper
This article looks at the International Biological Program (IBP) as the predecessor of UNESCO's well-known and highly successful Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB). It argues that international conservation efforts of the 1970s, such as the MAB, must in fact be understood as a compound of two opposing attempts to reform international conservation in the 1960s. The scientific framework of the MAB has its origins in disputes between high-level conservationists affiliated with the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) about what the IBP meant for the future of conservation...
February 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
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