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Journal of the History of Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744655/whose-turn-chromosome-research-and-the-study-of-the-human-genome
#1
Soraya de Chadarevian
A common account sees the human genome sequencing project of the 1990s as a "natural outgrowth" of the deciphering of the double helical structure of DNA in the 1950s. The essay aims to complicate this neat narrative by putting the spotlight on the field of human chromosome research that flourished at the same time as molecular biology. It suggests that we need to consider both endeavors - the human cytogeneticists who collected samples and looked down the microscope and the molecular biologists who probed the molecular mechanisms of gene function - to understand the rise of the human genome sequencing project and the current genomic practices...
July 25, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726021/how-fast-does-darwin-s-elephant-population-grow
#2
János Podani, Ádám Kun, András Szilágyi
In "The Origin of Species," Darwin describes a hypothetical example illustrating that large, slowly reproducing mammals such as the elephant can reach very large numbers if population growth is not affected by regulating factors. The elephant example has since been cited in various forms in a wide variety of books, ranging from educational material to encyclopedias. However, Darwin's text was changed over the six editions of the book, although some errors in the mathematics persisted throughout. In addition, full details of the problem remained hidden in his correspondence with readers of the Origin...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721604/a-space-of-one-s-own-barbosa-du-bocage-the-foundation-of-the-national-museum-of-lisbon-and-the-construction-of-a-career-in-zoology-1851-1907
#3
Daniel Gamito-Marques
This paper discusses the life and scientific work of José Vicente Barbosa du Bocage (1823-1907), a nineteenth-century Portuguese naturalist who carved a new place for zoological research in Portugal and built up a prestigious scientific career by securing appropriate physical and institutional spaces to the discipline. Although he was appointed professor of zoology at the Lisbon Polytechnic School, an institution mainly devoted to the preparatory training of military officers and engineers, he succeeded in creating the conditions that allowed him to develop consistent research in zoology at this institution...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721603/the-disadapted-animal-niko-tinbergen-on-human-nature-and-the-human-predicament
#4
Marga Vicedo
This paper explores ethologist Niko Tinbergen's path from animal to human studies in the 1960s and 1970s and his views about human nature. It argues, first, that the confluence of several factors explains why Tinbergen decided to cross the animal/human divide in the mid 1960s: his concern about what he called "the human predicament," his relations with British child psychiatrist John Bowlby, the success of ethological explanations of human behavior, and his professional and personal situation. It also argues that Tinbergen transferred his general adaptationist view of animal behavior to the realm of human biology; here, his concern about disadaptation led him to a view of human behavior that was strongly determined by the species' evolutionary past, a position that I call evolutionary determinism...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721602/book-review
#5
Paul D Brinkman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631062/jhb-as-a-collaborative-effort
#6
EDITORIAL
Garland E Allen, Jane Maienschein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785658/the-sparrow-question-social-and-scientific-accord-in-britain-1850-1900
#7
Matthew Holmes
During the latter-half of the nineteenth century, the utility of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) to humankind was a contentious topic. In Britain, numerous actors from various backgrounds including natural history, acclimatisation, agriculture and economic ornithology converged on the bird, as contemporaries sought to calculate its economic cost and benefit to growers. Periodicals and newspapers provided an accessible and anonymous means of expression, through which the debate raged for over 50 years...
August 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778199/the-watson-forbes-biogeographical-controversy-untangled-170%C3%A2-years-later
#8
Simone Fattorini
Hewett Cottrell Watson and Edward Forbes were two naturalists of the Victorian age. They were protagonists on a dispute that generated comment and serves as an illuminating case study of misunderstanding in priority issues. Watson accused Forbes of having plagiarized his original classification of the British plants into groups on the basis of their geographical distribution. This controversy originated mostly from a so-far-ignored basic difference in Watson's and Forbes' ideas about biogeographical regionalization...
August 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687557/cacogenic-cartographies-space-and-place-in-the-eugenic-family-study
#9
Ry Marcattilio-McCracken
Though only one component product of the larger eugenics movement, the eugenic family study proved to be, by far, its most potent ideological tool. The Kallikak Family, for instance, went through eight editions between 1913 and 1931. This essay argues that the current scholarship has missed important ways that the architects of the eugenic family studies theorized and described the subjects of their investigation. Using one sparsely interrogated work (sociologist Frank Wilson Blackmar's "The Smoky Pilgrims") and one previously unknown eugenic family study (biologist Frank Gary Brooks' untitled analysis of the flood-zone Oklahomans) from the Southern Plains, this essay aims to introduce "environment" as a schema that allows for how the subjects of the eugenic family study were conceptualized with respect to their surroundings...
August 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456967/building-a-science-of-animal-minds-lloyd-morgan-experimentation-and-morgan-s-canon
#10
Simon Fitzpatrick, Grant Goodrich
Conwy Lloyd Morgan (1852-1936) is widely regarded as the father of modern comparative psychology. Yet, Morgan initially had significant doubts about whether a genuine science of comparative psychology was even possible, only later becoming more optimistic about our ability to make reliable inferences about the mental capacities of non-human animals. There has been a fair amount of disagreement amongst scholars of Morgan's work about the nature, timing, and causes of this shift in Morgan's thinking. We argue that Morgan underwent two quite different shifts of attitude towards the proper practice of comparative psychology...
August 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412297/-the-theory-was-beautiful-indeed-rise-fall-and-circulation-of-maximizing-methods-in-population-genetics-1930-1980
#11
Jean-Baptiste Grodwohl
Describing the theoretical population geneticists of the 1960s, Joseph Felsenstein reminisced: "our central obsession was finding out what function evolution would try to maximize. Population geneticists used to think, following Sewall Wright, that mean relative fitness, W, would be maximized by natural selection" (Felsenstein 2000). The present paper describes the genesis, diffusion and fall of this "obsession", by giving a biography of the mean fitness function in population genetics. This modeling method devised by Sewall Wright in the 1930s found its heyday in the late 1950s and early 1960s, in the wake of Motoo Kimura's and Richard Lewontin's works...
August 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387704/charles-girard-relationships-and-representation-in-nineteenth-century-systematics
#12
Aleta Quinn
Early nineteenth century systematists sought to describe what they called the Natural System or the Natural Classification. In the nineteenth century, there was no agreement about the basis of observed patterns of similarity between organisms. What did these systematists think they were doing, when they named taxa, proposed relationships between taxa, and arranged taxa into representational schemes? In this paper I explicate Charles Frederic Girard's (1822-1895) theory and method of systematics. A student of Louis Agassiz, and subsequently (1850-1858) a collaborator with Spencer Baird, Girard claimed that natural classificatory methods do not presuppose either a special creationist or an evolutionary theory of the natural world...
August 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493180/erratum-to-the-molecular-basis-of-evolution-and-disease-a-cold-war-alliance
#13
Edna Suárez-Díaz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484858/functional-morphology-in-paleobiology-origins-of-the-method-of-paradigms
#14
Martin J S Rudwick
From the early nineteenth century, the successful use of fossils in stratigraphy oriented paleontology (and particularly the study of fossil invertebrates) towards geology. The consequent marginalising of biological objectives was countered in the twentieth century by the rise of 'Paläobiologie', first in the German cultural area and only later, as 'paleobiology', in the anglophone world. Several kinds of paleobiological research flourished internationally after the Second World War, among them the novel field of 'paleoecology'...
May 8, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220281/reflections
#15
REVIEW
Paul Lawrence Farber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317307/bergmann-s-rule-adaptation-and-thermoregulation-in-arctic-animals-conflicting-perspectives-from-physiology-evolutionary-biology-and-physical-anthropology-after-world-war-ii
#16
Joel B Hagen
Bergmann's rule and Allen's rule played important roles in mid-twentieth century discussions of adaptation, variation, and geographical distribution. Although inherited from the nineteenth-century natural history tradition these rules gained significance during the consolidation of the modern synthesis as evolutionary theorists focused attention on populations as units of evolution. For systematists, the rules provided a compelling rationale for identifying geographical races or subspecies, a function that was also picked up by some physical anthropologists...
May 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216739/biological-discourses-on-human-races-and-scientific-racism-in-brazil-1832-1911
#17
Juanma Sánchez Arteaga
This paper analyzes biological and scientific discourses about the racial composition of the Brazilian population, between 1832 and 1911. The first of these dates represents Darwin's first arrival in the South-American country during his voyage on H.M.S. Beagle. The study ends in 1911, with the celebration of the First universal Races congress in London, where the Brazilian physical anthropologist J.B. Lacerda predicted the complete extinction of black Brazilians by the year 2012. Contemporary European and North-American racial theories had a profound influence in Brazilian scientific debates on race and miscegenation...
May 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27098777/darwin-s-mr-arthrobalanus-sexual-differentiation-evolutionary-destiny-and-the-expert-eye-of-the-beholder
#18
Roderick D Buchanan
Darwin's Cirripedia project was an exacting exercise in systematics, as well as an encrypted study of evolution in action. Darwin had a long-standing interest and expertise in marine invertebrates and their sexual arrangements. The surprising and revealing sexual differentiation he would uncover amongst barnacles represented an important step in his understanding of the origins of sexual reproduction. But it would prove difficult to reconcile these findings with his later theorizing. Moreover, the road to discovery was hardly straightforward...
May 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27098776/population-cycles-disease-and-networks-of-ecological-knowledge
#19
Susan D Jones
Wildlife populations in the northern reaches of the globe have long been observed to fluctuate or cycle periodically, with dramatic increases followed by catastrophic crashes. Focusing on the early work of Charles S. Elton, this article analyzes how investigations into population cycles shaped the development of Anglo-American animal ecology during the 1920s-1930s. Population cycling revealed patterns that challenged ideas about the "balance" of nature; stimulated efforts to quantify population data; and brought animal ecology into conversation with intellectual debates about natural selection...
May 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27052510/making-space-for-red-tide-discolored-water-and-the-early-twentieth-century-bayscape-of-japanese-pearl-cultivation
#20
Kjell Ericson
"Red tide" has become a familiar shorthand for unusual changes in the color of ocean waters. It is intimately related both to blooms of creatures like dinoflagellates and to the devastating effects they pose to coastal fisheries. This essay tracks the early twentieth century emergence of discolored water as an aquacultural problem, known in Japan as akashio, and its trans-oceanic transformation into the terms and practices of "red tide" in the post-World War II United States. For Japan's "Pearl King" Mikimoto Kōkichi and his contacts in diverse marine scientific communities, the years-long cycle of guarding and cultivating a pearl oyster went together with the ascription of moral qualities to tiny creatures that posed a threat to farmed bayscapes of pearl monoculture...
May 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
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