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Veterinaria Italiana

John Duncan Grewar
Bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) are considered the most important orbiviral diseases in Southern Africans countries. The general endemic status makes these diseases challenging to be quanti ed in terms of their economic impact. Using country reported data from BT and AHS outbreaks and cases, as well as international trade data, the economic impact of BT and AHS is evaluated on local, regional, and global scales. Local scale impact in the Southern African region is underestimated as shown by the underreporting of BT and AHS...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Prachi Sharma, David E Stallknech, Charlotte F Quist, Elizabeth W Howerth
Epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) is the most important infectious disease of white‑tailed deer (WTD), however little is known about the role of inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis. We characterized the expression of tumor necrosis factor‑alpha (TNF-α) ex vivo in tissues of WTD experimentally or naturally infected with EHD virus serotype 2 and in WTD peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected with EHD virus serotype 2 in vitro. Circulating levels of TNF-α were evaluated in serum from experimentally infected deer via cytotoxicity assay...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Prachi Sharma, David E Stallknecht, Elizabeth W Howerth
Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) replicates in endothelium and it has been shown that EHDV serotype 2 (Ibaraki) is able to cause cell death by apoptosis in cow pulmonary artery endothelial cells. However, the underlying mechanism has not been established. For some viruses, such as influenza, a p53 dependent mechanism has been demonstrated in viral induced apoptosis. In this study, we investigate the involvement of p53 in the induction of apoptosis in a US isolate of EHDV serotype 2 in cow endothelium...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Jacob Brenner, Ditza Rotenberg, Shami Jaakobi, Yehuda Stram, Merisol Guini-Rubinstein, Sofia Menasherov, Michel Bernstein, Yudith Yaakobovitch, Dan David, Samuel Perl
Viruses of the Simbu serogroup cause lesions to foetuses that are seen at birth and that correlate with the stage of pregnancy at which the dam first contracts the virus. The Simbu serogroup comprises arboviruses known to cause outbreaks of abnormal parturitions in domestic ruminants; these abnormalities include abortion, stillbirth, and congenitally deformed neonates. Simbu serogroup members include: Akabane virus (AKAV), Aino virus, Cache Valley virus, and Schmallenberg virus. Lately, dairy herds calf malformations have been observed in Europe, where there have been reports of clinical manifestations such as diarrhoea, fever, and reduced milk yield in adult lactating cows...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Velizar Bumbarov, Natalia Golender, Diza Rotenberg, Jacob Brenner
Orbiviruses, some of which are virulent in ruminant species, are transmitted by blood- sucking insects. They can cause the smallest blood vessels to leak, leading to oedema, which is presented as Bluetongue (BT) and/or Epizootic haemorrhagic diseases (EHD). Other clinical manifestations include big-muscle necrosis, excessive scialorrea, and coronitis. Pathology and laboratory testing can con rm the involvement of orbivirus. Bluetongue infection in naïve sheep can elicit the 'classical signs' of the disease and, therefore, can warn of Bluetongue virus' (BTV) attacks and of increased vector activity...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Natalia Golender, Alexander Panshin, Jacob Brenner, Ditza Rotenberg, Chris Oura, Evgeny Khinich, Velizar Bumbarov
Bluetongue (BT), an arthropod-borne viral disease of ruminants, a ects sheep most severely than other domestic animals. Bluetongue virus serotype 24 (BTV-24) is one of 26 known Bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes. In this article, we present data of phylogenetic analysis of 9 viral genes (Seg1, Seg2, Seg3, Seg4, Seg5, Seg6, Seg8, Seg9, and Seg10) from 8 Israeli BTV-24 isolates and relate the genotype of the BTV-24 isolates to their phenotype with regard to clinical manifestations. The high level of genetic identity (> 99...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Ana Carolina Diniz Matos, Mario Felipe Alvarez Balaro, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho Guedes, Erica Azevedo Costa, Ju Lio Ce Sar Ca Mara Rosa, Aristo Teles Gomes Costa, Felipe Zandonadi Branda O, Ze Lia Ine S Portela Lobato
In January 2013, an outbreak of Bluetongue (BT) a ecting a Lacaune sheep ock occurred in Vassouras, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. From March to August 2013, blood samples collection and clinical examination were performed monthly, in order to monitor the epidemiological pro le of Bluetongue virus (BTV) circulation and clinical disease in the ock. Agar gel immunodi usion (AGID) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting BTV segment 10 were used as diagnostic assays. Additionally, insect trapping was conducted in the farm from May to July 2013...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Adriana Hellmeister de Campos Nogueira, Eliana De Stefano, Maira de Souza Nunes Martins, Liria Hiromi Okuda, Michele Dos Santos Lima, Thais da Silva Garcia, Otto Heinz Hellwig, José Eduardo Alves de Lima, Giovanni Savini, Edviges Maristela Pituco
Bluetongue (BT) is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. The State of Sao Paulo was divided into 7 cattle production regions (circuits) according the different systems of breeding, operational and logistical capacity of the state veterinary service. At least 1 animal from each property (a total of 1,716 farms) was tested by competitive ELISA for the presence of antibodies against BTV. Sero‑positive sera were subsequently also tested by virus neutralization tests (VNT) using serial dilutions from 1:10 (cutoff) up to 1:640 (in MEM)...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Doj Raj Khanal, Meera Prajapati, Prazila Shrestha, Madhav Prasad Acharya, Narayan Paudyal, Richard Bowen, Upendra Man Singh, Bhoj Raj Joshi
Bluetongue (BT) is one of the most economically important transboundary animal diseases. In recent years, it has been considered a disease related to climate change. A study was undertaken in 2013 in Nepal to measure the prevalence of Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection among domestic ruminants inhabiting the 3 agro-climatic zones with altitudes ranging from 150 to 2,400 metres above sea level. Twelve clusters representing the 3 altitudes were selected. The presence of antibodies against BTV was demonstrated in serum samples of sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes, yaks/chauries, and chyangra goats (Himalayan goat) of Nepal...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Anjaneya Ayanur, Karam Pal Singh, Susan Cherian, Vidya Singh, Sukdeb Nandi, Mani Saminathan, Khorajiya Jaynudin, Jeet SinghYadav, Rajendra Singh, Ashok Kumar Tiwari
Bluetongue (BT) is a non‑contagious arthropod‑borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. It is endemic to India and clinical outbreaks of disease have been reported mainly in sheep, although BT is often asymptomatic in other ruminant species. In the present serological survey, a total of 576 serum samples, comprising of 416 cattle and 160 sheep, covering different agro‑climatic zones of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Karnataka states, were screened for the presence of Bluetongue virus (BTV) specific antibodies using competitive enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay (c‑ELISA)...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Panduranga Rao, Yadlapati Krishnajyoth, Vishnuvardhan Reddy, Birru Susmitha, Hanmanth Reddy, Daggupati Sreenivasulu, Nagendra Hegde, Narasimha Reddy
High sheep population density, congenial climatic conditions for Culicoides propagation, and susceptible sheep breeds may be contributing to the higher incidence of Bluetongue (BT) in Southern states of India. Sheep farming in this part of the country is nomadic in nature and BT is one of the major infectious diseases inflicting huge losses. Andhra Pradesh is one of the Southern states with high sheep population in India. Although isolation studies in this region were started in 1993, concerted efforts only began in 2002...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Y Krishnamohan Reddy, K Brindha, P I Ganesan, K Srinivas, G S Reddy, P Minakshi
Tamil Nadu is located in the South-Eastern part of Indian peninsula, between 8.087° and 13.09°N and 76.50° and 80.27°E. Bluetongue (BT) was first reported in this region in sheep during 1982 with regular occurrence thereafter. In 1989-1990, 1997-1998 and 2005-2006, there was wide spread occurrence of BT resulting in huge mortality of sheep. The present study had the goal of isolating the BTV from outbreaks in sheep occurred in Tamil Naadu between 2003-2011 and comparing the VP2 gene sequences of the BTV isolates involved in such outbreaks...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Sophette Gers, Christiaan Potgieter, Isabella Wright, Belinda Peyrot
Bluetongue virus (BTV) was sporadically isolated over a four year period (2010-2014) from several alpaca carcasses that were presented for necropsy at the Western Cape Provincial Veterinary Laboratory, South Africa. Typically, the a ected animals had a history of acute dyspnoea and progressive weakness before death. Consistent hydrothorax and severe lung oedema in all lead to a preliminary diagnosis of Bluetongue, despite the absence of ulceration and hyperaemia of the oral mucosa which is characteristic of this viral infection in sheep...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Christie Mayo, Estelle Venter, Jumari Steyn, Peter Coetzee, Moritz van Vuuren, Jan Crafford, Christine Schütte, Gert Venter
The seasonal abundance of Culicoides midges, the vector of Bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses (BTV/AHSV) and the presence of viruses in midges were determined in 3 geographic areas in South Africa. In the Onderstepoort area, more than 500,000 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were collected. Eighteen midge species were collected throughout Winter and the presence of AHSV and BTV RNA in midges was detected using real time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The nucleic acid of AHSV was found in 12 pools out of total pools of 35 Culicoides...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Valentina Federici, Carla Ippoliti, Monica Catalani, Andrea Di Provvido, Adriana Santilli, Michela Quaglia, Giuseppe Mancini, Francesca Di Nicola, Annapia Di Gennaro, Alessandra Leone, Liana Teodori, Annamaria Conte, Giovanni Savini
Epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) is an infectious non-contagious viral disease transmitted by Culicoides, which affects wild and domestic ruminants. The disease has never been reported in Europe, however recently outbreaks of EHD occurred in the Mediterranean Basin. Consequently, the risk that Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) might spread in Italy cannot be ignored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of EHDV transmission in Italy, in case of introduction, through indigenous potential vectors...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Lee William Cohnstaedt, Darren Snyder
Insecticidal sugar baits for mosquitoes and house ies have proven e cacy to reduce insect populations and consequently, disease transmission rates. The new insecticidal sugar trap (IST) is designed speci cally for controlling biting midge disease vector populations around livestock and near larval habitats. The trap operates by combining light-emitting diode (LED) technology with insecticidal sugar baits. The positive photo attraction of Culicoides elicited by the LEDs, draws the insects to the insecticidal sugar bait, which can be made from various commercial insecticide formulations (pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, etc...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Lara Harrup, Miguel Miranda, Simon Carpenter
In most instances, vaccination is accepted to be the most effective method of preventing Culicoides-borne arbovirus transmission, as it has proven to be successful in large-scale campaigns. Under certain scenarios, however, vaccines require time to be developed and deployed or are not used due to financial, logistical or trade constraints. In the absence of vaccines, animal movement restrictions and techniques to reduce either the number of Culicoides biting livestock or their subsequent survival are the only responses available to prevent or reduce arbovirus transmission and spread...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Christie Mayo, Bradley Mullens, E Paul Gibbs, N James MacLachlan
Within Northern California, Culicoides sonorensis is the major vector of Bluetongue virus (BTV) and annual infection of livestock is distinctly seasonal (typically July‑November). Our recent studies compare the population dynamics of C. sonorensis midges with occurrence of BTV infection of C. sonorensis and sentinel dairy cattle throughout both the seasonal and interseasonal ('overwintering') periods of BTV activity. Spring emergence and seasonal abundance of adult C. sonorensis on the sampled farms coincided with rising vernal temperature...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Maria Goffredo, Rudy Meiswinkel, Valentina Federici, Francesca Di Nicola, Giuseppe Mancini, Carla Ippoliti, Alessio Di Lorenzo, Michela Quaglia, Adriana Santilli, Annamaria Conte, Giovanni Savini
As Bluetongue virus (BTV) spread in Italy following its first incursion in 2000, it soon became apparent that, besides Culicoides imicola, additional species of the subgenus Avaritia were involved as vectors, namely one or more of the species that belong to the so-called 'Culicoides obsoletus group', which comprises C. dewulfi, C. chiopterus, C. obsoletus sensu stricto, C. scoticus and C. montanus; the three last named species are considered generally as forming the Obsoletus complex. This study presents the findings made over the last decade and more, within the Italian entomological surveillance program for Bluetongue...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Alexander Sprygin, Olga Fiodorova, Yurii Babin, Vasilii Pavelko, Glenn Bellis, Alexander Kononov
Light trapping for biting midges was performed on cattle farms in 3 provinces of Western Russia in 2013. A total of 9,272, 2,457, and 10,245 Culicoides midges were collected from farms in Smolenskaya, Pskovskaya, and Vladimirskaya provinces, respectively. More than 99% of collected midges belonged to either the Obsoletus or Pulicaris complexes. Species belonging to the Obsoletus complex were the most abundant in Pskovskaya, whereas species from the Pulicaris complex dominated the catches in Vladimirskaya and Smolenskaya provinces...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
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