journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Journal of Biosocial Science

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724451/why-do-societies-with-higher-average-cognitive-ability-have-lower-income-inequality-the-role-of-redistributive-policies
#1
Raufhon Salahodjaev, Satoshi Kanazawa
Past studies suggest that, across nations, the average cognitive ability of a population is negatively associated with income inequality; societies with higher average cognitive ability tend to have lower levels of income inequality. However, it is not clear why. This paper proposes that social transfers from the wealthy to the poor may be a major mechanism by which some societies achieve lower income inequality than others, because more intelligent individuals may be more likely to have a preference for such transfers...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720152/using-couples-discordant-reports-to-estimate-female-covert-use-of-modern-contraception-in-sub-saharan-africa
#2
Natalie C Gasca, Stan Becker
Substantial numbers of married women use contraceptives without their partner's knowledge in sub-Saharan Africa, but studies of female covert use across time are rare. This study investigates the levels, trends and correlates of covert use in nine countries and determines which contraceptive methods are more frequently used covertly by women. Data from monogamous couples in Demographic and Health Surveys were used from nine sub-Saharan African countries that had experienced an increase of 10 percentage points in current modern contraceptive use between an earlier (1991-2004) and later (2007-2011) survey...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676131/association-of-age-at-menopause-with-post-menopausal-symptoms-menarche-age-and-other-reproductive-factors-among-rural-females-in-shimla-himachal-pradesh
#3
Krishan Sharma, Mayuk Bansal
This study analysed the association between menopause, menarche and number of live births using cross-sectional primary data for 75 post-menopausal rural women from Shimla in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. The mean/median ages at menarche of the 75 women were 14.23/14 years, and those at menopause 45.35/45 years. There were no significant differences in these values between women in the age groups 40-55 and 56-65 years. Age at menopause was found to be significantly associated with age at menarche and maternal age at birth of the first and last child, but not with menopausal symptom severity score...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641583/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-infertility-in-turkey-evidence-from-demographic-and-health-surveys-1993-2013
#4
Melike Sarac, Ismet Koc
The inability to have children affects couples worldwide and causes emotional and psychological distress in both men and women. Turkey is a country that lays particular emphasis on the issue of infertility, especially after experiencing a dramatic fertility decline over the last two decades. This study aimed to understand the changes in the prevalence of infertility in Turkey using three different approaches: the DHS Approach, the Constructed Approach and the Current Duration Approach. Furthermore, the factors contributing to elevated risks of infertility as derived from the Constructed Approach were investigated using four different logistic regression models...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625192/prolonged-birth-intervals-in-hamedan-iran-variations-and-determinants
#5
Amir Erfani, Marzieh Nojomi, Hatam Hosseini
The enduring sub-replacement level of fertility in Iran is the result of changing timing of births. Using data from the 2015 Hamedan Survey of Fertility, conducted in a representative sample of 3000 married women aged 15-49, this study examined variations in median lengths of birth intervals employing cumulative survival functions, and investigated the determinants of birth interval lengths using regression hazard models. The results showed that the median first, second and third birth intervals, estimated at 28, 74 and 136 months respectively, doubled between 1995 and 2015...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615082/differential-responses-in-first-birth-behaviour-to-economic-recession-in-the-united-kingdom
#6
Mark Lyons-Amos, Ingrid Schoon
Economic conditions have dramatic influences on fertility. This paper evaluates the effect of the 2008 'Great Recession' in the UK on first birth rate, which is the fertility behaviour most susceptible to external economic conditions. The key aim of the study was to assess the effect of the recession on fertility by individual-level characteristics, enabling variation in responses to economic hardship to be observed. Data were from the nationally representative UK Household Longitudinal Study (UK-HLS). Cumulative transition models were used to model the probability of first birth for women between the ages of 17 and 30 in three UK birth cohorts...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587684/caste-differentials-in-death-clustering-in-central-and-eastern-indian-states
#7
Mukesh Ranjan, Laxmi Kant Dwivedi, Rahul Mishra
This study assessed caste differentials in family-level death clustering, linked survival prospects of siblings (scarring) and mother-level unobserved heterogeneity affecting infant mortality risk in the central and eastern Indian states of Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Chhattisgarh. Family-level infant death clustering was examined using bivariate analysis, and the linkages between the survival prospects of siblings and mother-specific unobserved heterogeneity were captured by applying a random effects logit model in the selected Indian states using micro-data from the National Family Health Survey-III (2005-06)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585514/consanguineous-marriages-among-iranian-mandaeans-living-in-south-west-iran
#8
Mostafa Saadat, Mahdis Zarghami
Several studies have indicated that consanguineous marriages (unions between biologically related persons) are associated with increased risk of autosomal recessive diseases and several multifactorial traits. Mandaeans are a closed ethno-religious community living in areas of southern Iraq and Iran (Khuzestan Province). There are currently no data on the prevalence of consanguineous marriages among Mandaeans. The present study was carried out in 2016 to determine the prevalence of consanguinity among Iranian Mandaeans living in Khuzestan Province, south-west Iran...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578743/to-what-extent-do-couples-pre-marital-communications-affect-their-post-marital-fertility-behaviour-in-india
#9
Sayantani Chatterjee, Anshul Kastor
Reproduction in India is mainly confined to within marriage. The fertility preferences of spouses will not necessarily be the same, but discussion between couples creates scope for understanding between spouses after marriage. Knowing each other's opinions facilitates decision-making on sensitive matters such as contraception use and desired family size. This study used data from the India Human Development Survey-II (2011-12), and was based on a sample of 31,276 currently married women. The aim was to understand the role of pre-marital communication, studied through the choosing of husbands, mutual communication before marriage and duration of time spouses knew each other before marriage on the fertility preferences of couples post-marriage...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578715/mediation-models-of-pregnancy-desires-and-unplanned-pregnancy-in-young-unmarried-women
#10
Warren B Miller, Jennifer S Barber, Heather H Gatny
This paper examines the proposition that sexual and contraceptive behaviours mediate the relationship between the pregnancy desires of young, unmarried women and their having an unplanned pregnancy. The sample consisted of 854 18- to 19-year-old women living in Michigan, USA. First, the positive and negative pregnancy desires of these women were measured, as were the women's perceptions of the positive and negative desires of their sexual partners. Then the extent to which these four types of desires, as well as several types of interactions between them, prospectively predicted the occurrence of subsequent pregnancies were tested with logistic regression analyses, initially alone and then after the addition of several types of sexual and contraceptive mediator variables...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578714/intimate-partner-violence-and-contraceptive-use-in-india-the-moderating-influence-of-conflicting-fertility-preferences-and-contraceptive-intentions
#11
Walter Forrest, Dharmalingam Arunachalam, Kannan Navaneetham
Several studies report that women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) are less likely to use contraception, but the evidence that violence consistently constrains contraceptive use is inconclusive. One plausible explanation for this ambiguity is that the effects of violence on contraceptive use depend on whether couples are likely to have conflicting attitudes to it. In particular, although some men may engage in violence to prevent their partners from using contraception, they are only likely to do so if they have reason to oppose its use...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566101/from-motives-through-desires-to-intentions-investigating-the-reproductive-choices-of-childless-men-and-women-in-poland
#12
Monika Mynarska, Jolanta Rytel
This study examined the potential of the theoretical model proposed by Warren Miller (the Traits/Motives-Desires-Intentions-Behaviour or TDIB model) for investigating the involuntary-voluntary childlessness continuum. The first three stages of the theoretical motivational sequence (motives to desires to intentions) were examined using a purposive sample of 314 childless Polish men and women aged 30-39 (at the time of data collection in September 2013). In Poland, this is the age range when the final decision for or against parenthood is taken...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502253/practice-of-consanguinity-and-attitudes-towards-risk-in-the-pashtun-population-of-khyber-pakhtunkhwa-pakistan
#13
Ruqiya Pervaiz, Faisal Faisal, Nedime Serakinci
This study aimed to investigate the frequency of consanguineous marriages and level of understanding of consanguinity-associated genetic risks in the Pashtun population, Pakistan. Information was gathered using a detailed questionnaire completed by 1500 individuals of both sexes over the 11-month period between April 2015 and February 2016. The mean inbreeding coefficient of the respondents was calculated and a five-point response scale was used to assess their understanding of consanguinity risks. The frequency of consanguineous marriages in the Pashtun population was found to be 58...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482949/predictors-of-male-circumcision-among-men-aged-15-35-years-in-harare-zimbabwe
#14
Kudzaishe Mangombe, Ishumael Kalule-Sabiti
Medical male circumcision has been recommended by the World Health Organization as part of a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. Zimbabwe is one of the fourteen sub-Saharan countries that embarked on the Medical Male Circumcision (MMC) programme. However, the country has not yet met male circumcision targets. This paper examines the predictors of male circumcision in Zimbabwe. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 784 men aged 15-35 years in Harare, Zimbabwe. Negative log-log logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of male circumcision...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482934/longevity-in-north-korea-and-south-korea-prevalence-of-centenarians-in-one-the-poorest-and-one-of-the-richest-nations
#15
Daniel Schwekendiek
Over recent decades, economic living conditions have dramatically improved in South Korea, which now represents one of the most developed nations. At the same time, its twin in the North remains one of the poorest countries on earth. Thus, the Korean peninsula represents a unique historical experiment that allows for study of the effects of environment on human development under a variety of ceteris paribus cultural, genetic and climatic conditions. Previous studies comparing the biosocial performances of the two Koreas have focused on indicators such as weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference and age at menarche...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478765/gender-equality-and-the-gender-gap-in-mathematics
#16
Hung-Lin Tao, Christos Michalopoulos
A gender gap has been found in mathematics (boys outperform girls) that has prevailed across countries for many decades. Whether this gap results from nature or nurture has been hotly debated. Using the evidence of PISA 2003 and the gender equality index of 2003, some researchers have argued that an improvement in gender equality reduces the gender gap in mathematics. This study used five waves of country-level PISA data and, controlling for country fixed effects, found no evidence to support this argument...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725003/consanguinity-by-random-isonymy-and-socioeconomic-development-in-argentina-a-population-study
#17
José Edgardo Dipierri, Alvaro Rodríguez-Larralde, Italo Barrai, Esperanza Gutiérrez Redomero, Concepción Alonso-Rodríguez, Emma Laura Alfaro
In human populations various flexible, labile and interdependent structures (genetic, demographic, socioeconomic) co-exist, each of which can be organized in an hierarchical order corresponding to administrative entities. The relationship between consanguinity, as estimated by random isonymy (F ST), and socioeconomic conditions was analysed at different levels of political and administrative organization in Argentina. From the surnames of 22,666,139 voters from the 2001 electoral roll, F ST was estimated for 510 Argentinian departments...
May 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724998/body-mass-index-values-in-the-gentry-and-peasantry-in-nineteenth-and-early-twentieth-century-poland
#18
Zbigniew Czapla, Grażyna Liczbińska, Janusz Piontek
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social and occupational status on the BMI of the gentry and peasantry in the Kingdom of Poland at the turn of 19th and early 20th centuries. Use was made of data on the height and weight of 304 men, including 200 peasants and 104 gentlemen, and 275 women, including 200 from the peasantry and 75 from the gentry. Gentlemen were characterized by a greater body height than peasants (169.40 cm and 166.96 cm, respectively), a greater body weight (67.09 kg and 60.99 kg, respectively) and a higher BMI (23...
May 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692008/maternal-height-and-pre-pregnancy-weight-status-are-associated-with-fetal-growth-patterns-and-newborn-size
#19
Eva Pölzlberger, Beda Hartmann, Erich Hafner, Ingrid Stümpflein, Sylvia Kirchengast
The impact of maternal height, pre-pregnancy weight status and gestational weight gain on fetal growth patterns and newborn size was analysed using a dataset of 4261 singleton term births taking place at the Viennese Danube Hospital between 2005 and 2013. Fetal growth patterns were reconstructed from three ultrasound examinations carried out at the 11th/12th, 20th/21th and 32th/33th weeks of gestation. Crown-rump length, biparietal diameter, fronto-occipital diameter, head circumference, abdominal transverse diameter, abdominal anterior-posterior diameter, abdominal circumference and femur length were determined...
May 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644124/social-capital-and-adolescent-girls-resilience-to-teenage-pregnancy-in-begoro-ghana
#20
Sylvia Esther Gyan, Collins Ahorlu, Dan-Bright S Dzorgbo, Clara K Fayorsey
This study focuses on how older adolescent girls access and utilize social capital to develop resilience against teenage pregnancy in Begoro, Ghana. A survey of 419 non-pregnant girls aged 15-19 years, selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique, was conducted in 2012. Qualitative data were gathered through in-depth interviews with ten girls purposively selected from the survey respondents. Parents, relatives, teachers and religious groups were found to be important sources of social capital for the non-pregnant girls in developing resilience against teenage pregnancy...
May 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
journal
journal
22095
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"