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Journal of Biosocial Science

Jan Te Nijenhuis, Michael van den Hoek
SummaryWicherts (2018) criticizes the use of the method of correlated vectors when testing Spearman's hypothesis. It is argued that Wicherts ignores the psychometric meta-analytic method of correlated vectors hybrid model and so is attacking a strawman.
July 17, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Jelte M Wicherts
SummaryIn a recent study, te Nijenhuis et al. (2017) used a version of Jensen's method of correlated vectors to study the nature of ethnic group differences on Raven's Progressive Matrices test. In this comment, the author points out that this method has been shown to be psychometrically inappropriate in studying group differences in performance on dichotomous (correctly or incorrectly scored) items. Specifically, the method uses item statistics like the item-total correlation that necessarily differ across groups differing in ability and employs a linear model to test inherent non-linear relations...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Jelte M Wicherts
SummaryIn their response to my criticism of their recent article in Journal of Biosocial Science (te Nijenhuis et al., 2017), te Nijenhuis and van den Hoek (2018) raise four points none of which concerns my main point that the method of correlated vectors (MCV) applied to item-level data represents a flawed method. Here, I discuss te Nijenhuis and van den Hoek's four points. First, I argue that my previous application of MCV to item-level data showed that the method can yield nonsensical results. Second, I note that meta-analytic corrections for sampling error, imperfect measures, restriction of range and unreliability of the vectors are futile and cannot help fix the method...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Halimah Awang, Wah Yun Low, Wen Ting Tong, Lih Yoong Tan, Whye Lian Cheah, Helen Benedict Lasimbang, Hamizah Mohd Hassan
SummaryThe aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of East Malaysian adolescents on sexual and reproductive health issues. Data were collected in March-July 2015 from 2858 adolescents aged 13-18 years from selected East Malaysian secondary schools using a self-administered questionnaire. Twelve items relating to sexual and reproductive health were used to measure respondents' knowledge based on their responses 'True', 'False' or 'Don't know', with the proportion of correct answers being the variable of interest...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Basant Kumar Panda, Sanjay K Mohanty
SummaryThe Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are increasingly being used to measure developmental progress among and within countries. Achieving the health-related SDGs remains a primary concern of many developing countries. This study measured the progress in selected health-related indicators of SDGs in the states of India by social and economic groups, and predicted their likely progress by 2030. The health indicators analysed included health outcomes, nutrition, health care utilization and determinants of health...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Jelena Čvorović
SummaryThis paper reports on the association between early marriage, age at first reproduction and height, as an indicator of childhood environment, and maternal health outcomes among traditional Roma women in Serbia. Demographic data, marital and reproductive histories, height, weight and self-rated health were collected from 414 Roma women living in rural settlements in Serbia in 2015-2017. Data analysis showed that higher age and weight were associated with a greater risk of poor health, greater height contributed to reduced risk of poor health while reproductive variables were insignificant...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Howida Sirelkhatim Abdalrahim Toto, Davide Piffer, Omar Haroun Khaleefa, Rogai Al-Sayed Al-Tayeb Bader, Salaheldin Farah Attallah Bakhiet, Richard Lynn, Yossry Ahmed Sayed Essa
SummaryIntelligence was assessed using the Standard Progressive Matrices in 316 MZ and 550 same-sex DZ twins with a mean age of 10 years in Sudan. Heritability was estimated at 0.172 and shared environmental influences at 0.596.
May 23, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Derek Anamaale Tuoyire, Harold Ayetey
SummaryHypertension is a significant contributor to the global burden of cardiovascular and related target organ diseases such as heart failure, coronary heart disease, stroke and kidney failure, and their associated premature morbidity, mortality and disability. Marital status is an important social characteristic known to predict a range of health outcomes including cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about its impact on hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa. This study explored the relationship between marital status and hypertension among women and men in Ghana...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Seema Sharma, Muthusamy Sivakami
SummaryGlobal estimates suggest that over a billion people live with a disability that is significant enough to affect their daily lives. According to the 2011 Indian Census, India alone has about 26.8 million people with disabilities. Research suggests that persons with disabilities (PwDs) in India are among the most neglected, stigmatized, poor and least educated of the world's population, and women with disabilities in India are the most marginalized, both socially and economically. They bear the triple burden of being discriminated against through being 'women' (socially marginal beings), 'disabled' (incapacitated, inefficient and undesirable) and 'women with disabilities' (the weakest of the weak), often becoming socially invisible...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Victor Grech
SummaryMany factors influence the male:female birth ratio (number of male births divided by total births, M/T). Studies have suggested that this ratio may be positively correlated with the education levels of mothers. This study assessed the effect of maternal education on M/T in the US population overall and by racial group. Number of live births by sex of the child, maternal educational level reached and race were obtained from the Centres for Disease Control (CDC Wonder) for the period 2007-2015. The total study sample comprised 28,268,183 live births...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Edward Dutton, Salaheldin Farah Bakhiet, Khaled Elsayed Ziada, Yossry Ahmed Sayed Essa, Hamada Ali Abdelmuti Ali, Shehana Mohammed Alqafari
SummaryTwo administrations of the Coloured Progressive Matrices in Egypt were compared. The first was administered to a large, representative national sample between 2011 and 2013. The second was administered to primary school pupils in villages in Menoufia in northern Egypt in 2017. Adjusting for the Flynn Effect, the IQ of the rural northern Egyptians was shown to be statistically significantly higher than the national average. It is demonstrated that this is consistent with regional socioeconomic differences in Egypt, which strongly imply that northern Egypt has a higher average IQ than southern Egypt...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
M Mazharul Islam, Faisal M Ababneh, Md Hasinur Rahaman Khan
SummaryThis study examined the recent level, trends and determinants of consanguineous marriage in Jordan using time-series data from the Jordan Population and Family Health Surveys (JPFHSs). According to the 2012 JPFHS, 35% of all marriages were consanguineous in Jordan in 2012. There has been a declining trend in consanguinity in the country, with the rate decreasing from a level of 57% in 1990. Most consanguineous marriage in 2012 were first cousin marriages, constituting 23% of all marriages and 66% of all consanguineous marriages...
July 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Rob Stephenson, Mondie Blalock Tharp, John Mark Wiginton, Nicholas Metheny
SummarySocietal gender inequality and a preference for male children has been shown to be detrimental to girls' health. This is despite females' innate biological advantage early in life. The negative effects of gender inequity on female health are most pronounced in resource-poor countries, where cultural norms supporting a preference for male children are strongest. However, most of what is known about gender inequality and child health comes from studies of singleton births. There is little evidence for how, or if, the disadvantages associated with gender bias and son preference extend to multiple births, a population inherently at risk for a number of health challenges...
July 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Melike Sarac, Ismet Koc
SummaryThe inability to have children affects couples worldwide and causes emotional and psychological distress in both men and women. Turkey is a country that lays particular emphasis on the issue of infertility, especially after experiencing a dramatic fertility decline over the last two decades. This study aimed to understand the changes in the prevalence of infertility in Turkey using three different approaches: the DHS Approach, the Constructed Approach and the Current Duration Approach. Furthermore, the factors contributing to elevated risks of infertility as derived from the Constructed Approach were investigated using four different logistic regression models...
July 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Amir Erfani, Marzieh Nojomi, Hatam Hosseini
SummaryThe enduring sub-replacement level of fertility in Iran is the result of changing timing of births. Using data from the 2015 Hamedan Survey of Fertility, conducted in a representative sample of 3000 married women aged 15-49, this study examined variations in median lengths of birth intervals employing cumulative survival functions, and investigated the determinants of birth interval lengths using regression hazard models. The results showed that the median first, second and third birth intervals, estimated at 28, 74 and 136 months respectively, doubled between 1995 and 2015...
July 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Mostafa Saadat, Mahdis Zarghami
SummarySeveral studies have indicated that consanguineous marriages (unions between biologically related persons) are associated with increased risk of autosomal recessive diseases and several multifactorial traits. Mandaeans are a closed ethno-religious community living in areas of southern Iraq and Iran (Khuzestan Province). There are currently no data on the prevalence of consanguineous marriages among Mandaeans. The present study was carried out in 2016 to determine the prevalence of consanguinity among Iranian Mandaeans living in Khuzestan Province, south-west Iran...
July 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Sayantani Chatterjee, Anshul Kastor
SummaryReproduction in India is mainly confined to within marriage. The fertility preferences of spouses will not necessarily be the same, but discussion between couples creates scope for understanding between spouses after marriage. Knowing each other's opinions facilitates decision-making on sensitive matters such as contraception use and desired family size. This study used data from the India Human Development Survey-II (2011-12), and was based on a sample of 31,276 currently married women. The aim was to understand the role of pre-marital communication, studied through the choosing of husbands, mutual communication before marriage and duration of time spouses knew each other before marriage on the fertility preferences of couples post-marriage...
July 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Mercy Shoko, Latifat Ibisomi, Jonathan Levin, Carren Ginsburg
SummaryThis study examined the relationship between orphanhood status, living arrangements and sexual debut. The study is important in the context of southern Africa, where a substantial number of children live apart from their parents because the parent is dead or living elsewhere, and where female adolescents face disproportionate sexual and reproductive health risks. Data for female adolescents were taken from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in seven southern African countries. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios of sexual debut were estimated using Cox Proportional Hazard models...
May 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
D J Nithya, R V Bhavani
SummaryDietary diversity is associated with household or individual food availability and intake of nutrients from different food groups and is an important component of nutritional outcome. This study examined the Nutrient Adequacy Ratio (NAR) and the Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR) of three dietary diversity indices and their relationship with the nutritional status of adolescents and adults in rural regions of two states in India, Wardha district in Maharashtra and Koraput district in Odisha, in 2014. Individual dietary diversity was calculated using 24-hour diet recall (FS24hr) data and household dietary diversity was measured with food frequency data using Berry's index (DDI) and food scores (FSFFQ)...
May 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Renata Woźniacka, Aneta Bac, Małgorzata Kowal, Stanisław Matusik
SummaryThe problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents has been noted in many different countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in the percentage occurrence of overweight and obesity in Polish children depending on the criteria used, and to evaluate the usefulness of the Polish national database. The study sample comprised 3405 children aged 5-14 years (1674 girls and 1731 boys) from the city of Kraków, Poland, in 2009-2010. The BMI of each child was calculated and classified as overweight or obese according to three different reference BMI cut-offs: the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Polish 2010 standard...
May 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
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