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Journal of Biosocial Science

Victor Grech, Dorota Zammit, Hagen Scherb
Males are usually born in excess of females. The sex ratio at birth (SR) is often expressed as the ratio of male to total births. A wide variety of factors have been shown to influence SR, including terrorist attacks, which have been shown to reduce SR. This paper reviews the effects on SR outcomes of the stressful events in France in 1968 (in association with the student and worker riots) and in Japan following the Aum Shinrikyo religious cult's attack on the Tokyo subway using sarin nerve gas in 1995. Both countries displayed seasonal variation in SR...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
José Edgardo Dipierri, Alvaro Rodríguez-Larralde, Italo Barrai, Esperanza Gutiérrez Redomero, Concepción Alonso-Rodríguez, Emma Laura Alfaro
In human populations various flexible, labile and interdependent structures (genetic, demographic, socioeconomic) co-exist, each of which can be organized in an hierarchical order corresponding to administrative entities. The relationship between consanguinity, as estimated by random isonymy (F ST), and socioeconomic conditions was analysed at different levels of political and administrative organization in Argentina. From the surnames of 22,666,139 voters from the 2001 electoral roll, F ST was estimated for 510 Argentinian departments...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Marek Kociuba, Slawomir Kozieł, Raja Chakraborty, Zofia Ignasiak
Humans exhibit sex differences in competitiveness, sensation seeking and risk-taking attitude, which are required in sports. These attributes are often linked to prenatal testosterone (PT) exposure. The second-to-fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D) is an indicator of PT exposure. A lower 2D:4D indicates higher PT exposure and vice versa. Males generally have a lower 2D:4D than females. Sensation- and/or thrill-seeking behaviours have also been found to be negatively associated with 2D:4D. Boxing and judo are considered to be high-risk sports...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Zbigniew Czapla, Grażyna Liczbińska, Janusz Piontek
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social and occupational status on the BMI of the gentry and peasantry in the Kingdom of Poland at the turn of 19th and early 20th centuries. Use was made of data on the height and weight of 304 men, including 200 peasants and 104 gentlemen, and 275 women, including 200 from the peasantry and 75 from the gentry. Gentlemen were characterized by a greater body height than peasants (169.40 cm and 166.96 cm, respectively), a greater body weight (67.09 kg and 60.99 kg, respectively) and a higher BMI (23...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Eva Pölzlberger, Beda Hartmann, Erich Hafner, Ingrid Stümpflein, Sylvia Kirchengast
The impact of maternal height, pre-pregnancy weight status and gestational weight gain on fetal growth patterns and newborn size was analysed using a dataset of 4261 singleton term births taking place at the Viennese Danube Hospital between 2005 and 2013. Fetal growth patterns were reconstructed from three ultrasound examinations carried out at the 11th/12th, 20th/21th and 32th/33th weeks of gestation. Crown-rump length, biparietal diameter, fronto-occipital diameter, head circumference, abdominal transverse diameter, abdominal anterior-posterior diameter, abdominal circumference and femur length were determined...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Agnes Ebotabe Arrey, Johan Bilsen, Patrick Lacor, Reginald Deschepper
Stigma and discrimination within health care settings remain a public health challenge across diverse cultural environments and may have deleterious effects on mental and physical health. This study explores the causes, forms and consequences of HIV-related stigma and discrimination among migrant sub-Saharan African women living with HIV in Belgium. A qualitative study was conducted with 44 HIV-positive sub-Saharan African migrant women between April 2013 and December 2014 in health care settings in Belgium...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Mamta Rajbhar, Sanjay K Mohanty
This study examined the effect of reproductive and child health (RCH) services on fertility and child mortality in the districts of Uttar Pradesh. It specifically measured the effect of antenatal care, medical assistance at birth, child immunization and use of modern methods of contraception on Total Fertility Rate (TFR), Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) and Under-five Morality Rate (U5MR) before and after the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) period. Data from the 2002-04 District Level Household Survey (DLHS-2), 2012-13 Annual Health Survey (AHS) and the 2001 and 2011 Censuses of India were used...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Abiodun Idowu Adanikin, Pipeloluwa Oluwayemisi Adanikin, Ernest Okechukwu Orji, Benedict Tolulope Adeyanju
This study sought to characterize sexual behaviour, contraceptive use and contributory upbringing factors among young people who had dropped out of school or college in a Nigerian setting. A community-based, cross-sectional sexual survey of 161 young people aged between 15 and 35 who had dropped out of school or college was performed in Ado-Ekiti, south-west Nigeria, in April 2015. One hundred and nineteen of the respondents (73.9%) had had sexual intercourse. Mean age at sexual debut was 19.08±3.5 years. Of those with sexual experience, 79 (66...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Sylvia Esther Gyan, Collins Ahorlu, Dan-Bright S Dzorgbo, Clara K Fayorsey
This study focuses on how older adolescent girls access and utilize social capital to develop resilience against teenage pregnancy in Begoro, Ghana. A survey of 419 non-pregnant girls aged 15-19 years, selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique, was conducted in 2012. Qualitative data were gathered through in-depth interviews with ten girls purposively selected from the survey respondents. Parents, relatives, teachers and religious groups were found to be important sources of social capital for the non-pregnant girls in developing resilience against teenage pregnancy...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Acheampong Yaw Amoateng, Phidelia Theresa Doegah, Christopher Udomboso
This study used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to investigate the association between selected socio-demographic factors and dietary behaviour as measured by fruit and vegetable consumption among a sample of 6139 young people aged 15-34 years in Ghana. Overall, fruit and vegetable consumption was low in young people, but females were likely to consume more fruit and vegetables than their male counterparts. Respondents from the Mande ethnic group, those who resided in rural areas and those living in the Brong/Ahafo, Ashanti and the Eastern regions consumed more fruit and vegetables than those from other regions...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Salaheldin F Bakhiet, Ismael S Albursan, Mohammad F Al Qudah, Adel S Abduljabbar, Suliman S Aljomaa, Howida Sirelkhatim Abdalrahim Toto, Richard Lynn
The sex differences on the WISC-III are reported for the thirteen subtests, the Verbal and Performance IQs, the four Index IQs and the Full Scale IQs in Sudan and the United States. The sex differences are closely similar in the two samples with a correlation of 0.878 (p<0.001) for the thirteen subtests. Males obtained significantly higher Full Scale IQs in the two samples of 0.23d and 0.11d, respectively.
August 30, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Anna Kasielska-Trojan, Piotr Stabryła, Bogusław Antoszewski
The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is claimed to be a biomarker of prenatal sex steroids. This study compared 2D:4D and waist-hip ratio (WHR) in men and women with nose deformity caused by injuries suggesting risky behaviour with those of unaffected controls. This kind of facial trauma was accepted as an indicator of risk-taking behaviour. The study involved 100 patients (50 women aged 30.74±8.09 years and 50 men aged 30.98±10.86 years) who underwent rhinoplasty due to nose trauma in a hospital in Łódź, Poland, in 2015...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Neil Small, Alan H Bittles, Emily S Petherick, John Wright
The biraderi (brotherhood) is a long-established, widely prevalent dimension of social stratification in Pakistani communities worldwide. Alongside consanguinity, it offers a route for cementing social solidarities and so has strong socio-biological significance. A detailed breakdown of biraderi affiliation among participants in an ongoing birth cohort study in the northern English city of Bradford is presented. There is historical resilience of intra-biraderi marriage, but with a secular decline in prevalence across all biraderi and considerable reductions in some...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Michel Garenne
This study analysed sex ratios at birth (defined as the number of male births per 100 female births) using data on children ever-born from three censuses conducted in Ethiopia in 1984, 1994 and 2007. The results showed very high values by any standard, with an average of 108.4 for a sample of some 8.2 million births, with somewhat lower values in urban areas. Analysis of socioeconomic correlates revealed that the sex ratio varied very much by household wealth, from about 110 for very poor women to about 102 for wealthier women...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Abhishek Singh, P Arokiasamy, Jalandhar Pradhan, Kshipra Jain, Sangram Kishor Patel
Child undernutrition remains a major child health and developmental issue in low- and middle-income countries. The concentration (clustering) of underweight children among siblings at the family level is known to exist in India. This study examined the extent and covariates of clustering of underweight children at the sibling and family level in Uttar Pradesh, the largest state of northern India. Clustering of underweight (low weight-for-age) children was assessed using data on 7533 under-five children from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted in 2005-06, analysed using binary logistic and binomial regression models...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Sarah R Blackstone
Gender inequality is often cited as a barrier to improving women's sexual and reproductive health outcomes, including contraceptive use, in low- and middle-income countries such as those in sub-Saharan Africa. To date there is limited, recent, evidence available regarding women's empowerment, household status and contraceptive use in Ghana. The objective of this study was to investigate whether women's empowerment and status in the household were associated with contraceptive use and unmet need for contraception using the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Jamila L Kwarteng, Amy J Schulz, Graciela B Mentz, Barbara A Israel, Trina R Shanks, Denise White Perkins
This study examines the independent effects of neighbourhood context (i.e. neighbourhood poverty) and exposure to perceived discrimination in shaping risk of obesity over time. Weighted three-level hierarchical linear regression models for a continuous outcome were used to assess the independent effects of neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination on obesity over time in a sample of 157 non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White and Hispanic adults in Detroit, USA, in 2002/2003 and 2007/2008. Independent associations were found between neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination with central adiposity over time...
November 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Nilesh C Gawde, Muthusamy Sivakami, Bontha V Babu
This study aimed to understand access to maternal health care and the factors shaping it amongst poor migrants in Mumbai, India. A cross-sectional mixed methods approach was used. It included multistage cluster sampling and face-to-face interviews, through structured interview schedules, of 234 migrant women who had delivered in the two years previous to the date they were interviewed. Qualitative in-depth interviews of migrant women, health care providers and health officials were also conducted to understand community and provider perspectives...
November 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Heini Väisänen
The proportion of repeat abortions among all abortions has increased over the last decades in Finland. This study examined the association of education with the likelihood of repeat abortion, and the change in this association over time using reliable longitudinal data. A unique set of register data from three birth cohorts were followed from age 20 to 45, including about 22,000 cases of repeat abortion, and analysed using discrete-time event-history models. Low education was found to be associated with a higher likelihood of repeat abortion...
November 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Omran Bakoush, Amin Bredan, Srdjan Denic
Human consanguinity is often attributed to poverty, lack of education and social insecurity. Nevertheless, kin unions continue to be arranged in socioeconomically transformed societies. This study examined the structure of families and marriages in the rich tribal society of the United Arab Emirates, which has had a high gross domestic product for the last two generations and currently has one of the highest in the world. The respondents were 217 national medical students whose families are proportionally distributed to the population of the country emirates...
November 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
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