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Journal of Biosocial Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416040/effect-of-early-sexual-debut-on-high-school-completion-in-south-africa
#1
A V Bengesai, H T A Khan, R Dube
Early sexual debut is of major concern because it is a correlate for health and economic shocks experienced in adulthood. In South Africa, this concern has provided impetus for research directed at the HIV and AIDS epidemic, teenage pregnancy and the effect of adolescent sexual behaviour on persistence in school. Of interest to the present study is high school completion, which is a well-established empirical barometer of adult socioeconomic opportunities. Using data from the five waves of the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS), this paper examines the association between sexual behaviours initiated in pre- and early adolescence and high school completion rates...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416034/cohabitation-and-union-dissolution-in-central-uganda-differences-between-cohabitors-and-non-cohabitors
#2
Charles Lwanga, Ishmael Kalule-Sabiti, Natal Ayiga
The aim of this paper was to establish whether the differences in the risks of union dissolution between cohabitors and non-cohabitors in Uganda have converged over time using event history data. Data were collected in 2013 from 1200 women in central Uganda using retrospective methods. Of these, 839 provided information on three types of first union: women who married directly (without first cohabiting), those who married following cohabitation and those who were still cohabiting. The data were analysed using decrement lifetable analysis...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382871/timing-of-sexual-debut-among-unmarried-youths-aged-15-24-years-in-sub-saharan-africa
#3
Joshua Amo-Adjei, Derek Anamaale Tuoyire
This study aimed to contribute to the evidence on the timing of sexual debut in young people in sub-Saharan African countries. Data were extracted from 34 nationally representative surveys conducted in the region between 2006 and 2014. The study sample comprised unmarried women (n=167,932) and men (n=76,900) aged 15-24 years. Descriptive techniques and Cox proportional regression models were used to estimate the timing of sexual debut, and Kaplan-Meier hazard curves were used to describe the patterns of sexual debut in each country by sex...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367793/marriage-gap-in-christians-and-muslims
#4
Martin Fieder, Susanne Huber, Elmar Pichl, Bernard Wallner, Horst Seidler
For modern Western societies with a regime of monogamy, it has recently been demonstrated that the socioeconomic status of men is positively associated with being or having been married. This study aims to compare marriage patterns (if a person has been married at least once) for cultures with a tradition of monogamy and polygyny. As no worldwide data on polygyny exist, religion was used as a proxy for monogamy (Christians) vs polygyny (Muslims). The analyses were based on 2000-2011 census data from 39 countries worldwide for 52,339,594 men and women, controlling for sex, sex ratio, age, education, migration within the last 5 years and employment...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366175/maternal-activity-during-pregnancy-and-sexually-dimorphic-traits-in-offspring
#5
Lee Ellis, Russell Eisenman, Anthony Hoskin
Studies have found positive correlations between prenatal exposure to testosterone and masculinization of offspring traits, particularly among females. The present study sought to determine if physical or sexual activity by the mother during pregnancy was related to masculinized/defeminized offspring traits in adulthood. Data were obtained from a large sample of North American college students (offspring) and their mothers. Information about maternal activity levels during pregnancy were reported retrospectively by each mother...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285603/hiv-sti-risk-taking-sexual-behaviours-and-risk-perception-among-male-university-students-in-tehran-implications-for-hiv-prevention-among-youth
#6
Farideh Khalajabadi Farahani, Mohammad Mahdi Akhondi, Mehdi Shirzad, Ali Azin
Recent evidence indicates a rising trend in premarital sexual activity among young people in Iran. However, little is known about the extent to which young people's sexual behaviours expose them to HIV and STI risks. This study aimed to assess HIV/STI-related sexual risk-taking behaviours (correlates and determinants) and HIV/STI risk perception among male university students in Tehran. A representative sample of male university students (N=1322) studying in government and private Tehran universities completed an anonymous questionnaire survey in 2013-14...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270256/socioeconomic-status-and-adverse-birth-outcomes-a-population-based-canadian-sample
#7
Emily E Campbell, Jason Gilliland, Paula D N Dworatzek, Barbra De Vrijer, Debbie Penava, Jamie A Seabrook
This study assessed the strength of the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) in Southwestern Ontario. Utilizing perinatal and neonatal databases at the London Health Science Centre, maternal postal codes were entered into a Geographic Information System to determine home neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods were defined by dissemination areas (DAs). Median household income for each DA was extracted from the latest Canadian Census and linked to each mother...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238292/association-between-body-composition-somatotype-and-socioeconomic-status-in-chilean-children-and-adolescents-at-different-school-levels
#8
Pablo A Lizana, Sofia González, Lydia Lera, Bárbara Leyton
This study examined the association between body composition, somatotype and socioeconomic status (SES) in Chilean children and adolescents by sex and school level (grade). The cross-sectional study was conducted on 1168 schoolchildren aged 6-18 years (572 males) from Valparaíso, Chile. Body composition, as assessed by percentage body fat (BF%) and somatotype, was evaluated using Ellis equations and the Heath-Carter method, respectively. The socioeconomic status of respondents was assessed using the ESOMAR survey...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238291/modelling-the-risk-factors-for-birth-weight-in-twin-gestations-a-quantile-regression-approach
#9
A John Michael, Belavendra Antonisamy, S Mahasampath Gowri, Ramasami Prakash
Birth weight is used as a proxy for the general health condition of newborns. Low birth weight leads to adverse events and its effects on child growth are both short- and long-term. Low birth weight babies are more common in twin gestations. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of maternal and socio-demographic risk factors at various quantiles of the birth weight distribution for twin gestations using quantile regression, a robust semi-parametric technique. Birth records of multiple pregnancies from between 1991 and 2005 were identified retrospectively from the birth registry of the Christian Medical College and hospitals in Vellore, India...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215213/state-level-dietary-diversity-as-a-contextual-determinant-of-nutritional-status-of-children-in-india-a-multilevel-approach
#10
Kakoli Borkotoky, Sayeed Unisa, Ashish Kumar Gupta
This study aimed to identify the determinants of nutritional status of children in India with a special focus on dietary diversity at the state level. Household-level consumption data from three rounds of the Consumer Expenditure Survey of the National Sample Survey Organization (1993-2012) were used. Information on the nutritional status of children was taken from the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). Dietary diversity indices were constructed at the state level to examine diversity in quantity of food consumed and food expenditure...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183370/factors-associated-with-women-s-health-care-decision-making-autonomy-empirical-evidence-from-nigeria
#11
Pauline Osamor, Christine Grady
Women's decision-making autonomy has been poorly studied in most developing countries. The few existing studies suggest that it is closely linked to women's socio-demographic characteristics and the social settings in which they live. This study examined Nigerian women's perceived decision-making autonomy about their own health care using nationally representative data from the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey. The study sample consisted of 27,135 women aged 15-49 years who lived with their husbands/partners...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069079/do-the-sex-composition-of-living-children-and-the-desire-for-additional-children-affect-future-intention-to-use-contraception-in-ethiopia
#12
Rajesh Kumar Rai
Information on future intention to use contraceptives is a potential programme indicator for family planning services. Using three consecutive rounds of Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) data collected in 2000, 2005 and 2011, this study examined whether the sex composition of living children and future desire for additional children were associated with the intention to use contraceptives among Ethiopian women aged 15-49 years who were not using any method of contraception at the time of the survey...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069078/women-s-empowerment-and-family-planning-a-review-of-the-literature
#13
Ndola Prata, Ashley Fraser, Megan J Huchko, Jessica D Gipson, Mellissa Withers, Shayna Lewis, Erica J Ciaraldi, Ushma D Upadhyay
This paper reviews the literature examining the relationship between women's empowerment and contraceptive use, unmet need for contraception and related family planning topics in developing countries. Searches were conducted using PubMed, Popline and Web of Science search engines in May 2013 to examine literature published between January 1990 and December 2012. Among the 46 articles included in the review, the majority were conducted in South Asia (n=24). Household decision-making (n=21) and mobility (n=17) were the most commonly examined domains of women's empowerment...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067193/the-causal-relationship-between-consanguineous-marriages-and-infant-mortality-in-turkey
#14
Ismet Koç, Mehmet Ali Eryurt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126276/local-government-and-community-leaders-perspectives-on-child-health-and-mortality-and-inequity-issues-in-rural-eastern-indonesia
#15
Jerico Franciscus Pardosi, Nick Parr, Salut Muhidin
Since 2001 a decentralization policy has increased the responsibility placed on local government for improving child health in Indonesia. This paper explores local government and community leaders' perspectives on child health in a rural district in Indonesia, using a qualitative approach. Focus group discussions were held in May 2013. The issues probed relate to health personnel skills and motivation, service availability, the influence of traditional beliefs, and health care and gender inequity. The participants identify weak leadership, inefficient health management and inadequate child health budgets as important issues...
January 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102952/socioeconomic-variations-in-induced-abortion-in-turkey
#16
Hasan Giray Ankara
This study aimed to identify the levels of, and socioeconomic variations in, income-related inequality in induced abortion among Turkish women. The study included 15,480 ever-married women of reproductive age (15-49) from the 2003 and 2008 waves of the Turkish Demographic and Health Survey. The measured inequalities in abortion levels and their changes over time were decomposed into the percentage contributions of selected socioeconomic factors using ordinary least square analysis and concentration indices were calculated...
January 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27088672/role-of-community-and-context-in-contraceptive-behaviour-in-rural-west-bengal-india-a-multilevel-multinomial-approach
#17
Saswata Ghosh, Md Zakaria Siddiqui
Studies examining the influence of community-level interactions and contextual/supply-side factors in determining contraceptive choices have yielded mixed results in the context of rural India. Using small-scale survey data of 1348 women from rural West Bengal and by employing multilevel multinomial logit models, this study tested the influence of these factors after controlling for various socio-demographic and individual-level socioeconomic factors. The study reveals that supply-side intervention strategies, i...
January 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26924236/control-of-schistosomiasis-in-the-gezira-irrigation-scheme-sudan
#18
Mutamad Amin, Hwiada Abubaker
This paper analyses the changing patterns of infection with Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in the Gezira Irrigation Scheme, Sudan. Taking a historical perspective, it shows the way in which factors such as ecology, biology, social and economic variables and politics have shaped patterns of infection, and how different kinds of strategies have been developed to control schistosomal infection over time. Wider political and economic issues at both national and international levels have shaped these strategies, influencing the prevalence and intensity of schistosomal infection at a local level...
January 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26883942/changes-in-the-genetic-structure-of-a-valley-in-the-pyrenees-catalonia-spain
#19
Alejandra Toledo, Leyre Pámpanas, David García, Davide Pettener, Antonio González-Martin
In some situations the use of isonymy is the best strategy for studying the genetic structure of a population and its biological history. In this study different population parameters were calculated for one of the most isolated valleys in the Pyrenees - the region of the Alta Ribagorça in Catalonia, Spain. Surnames from marriage records covering the continuous period from 1638 to 1988 were used. From 1950 onwards this region underwent important social, economic and biological changes related to the introduction of hydroelectric and mining industries, and the change from livestock farming to a society based on services...
January 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26864328/sibling-conflicts-in-full-and-half-sibling-households-in-the-uk
#20
Antti O Tanskanen, Mirkka Danielsbacka, Markus Jokela, Anna Rotkirch
Sibling relations are by nature ambivalent with high levels of both altruistic helping and competition. Higher relatedness is often assumed to reduce the occurrence of conflicts between siblings, but evidence of this has been scarce and mixed. Siblings typically compete over resources and parental attention, and parental constellations vary with sibship types. Since full-siblings compete over the same two biological parents, while half-siblings have only one shared biological parent and often a higher number of parents overall, it is hypothesized that conflicts are more common between full- than half-siblings...
January 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
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