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Journal of Biosocial Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502253/practice-of-consanguinity-and-attitudes-towards-risk-in-the-pashtun-population-of-khyber-pakhtunkhwa-pakistan
#1
Ruqiya Pervaiz, Faisal Faisal, Nedime Serakinci
This study aimed to investigate the frequency of consanguineous marriages and level of understanding of consanguinity-associated genetic risks in the Pashtun population, Pakistan. Information was gathered using a detailed questionnaire completed by 1500 individuals of both sexes over the 11-month period between April 2015 and February 2016. The mean inbreeding coefficient of the respondents was calculated and a five-point response scale was used to assess their understanding of consanguinity risks. The frequency of consanguineous marriages in the Pashtun population was found to be 58...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482949/predictors-of-male-circumcision-among-men-aged-15-35-years-in-harare-zimbabwe
#2
Kudzaishe Mangombe, Ishumael Kalule-Sabiti
Medical male circumcision has been recommended by the World Health Organization as part of a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. Zimbabwe is one of the fourteen sub-Saharan countries that embarked on the Medical Male Circumcision (MMC) programme. However, the country has not yet met male circumcision targets. This paper examines the predictors of male circumcision in Zimbabwe. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 784 men aged 15-35 years in Harare, Zimbabwe. Negative log-log logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of male circumcision...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482934/longevity-in-north-korea-and-south-korea-prevalence-of-centenarians-in-one-the-poorest-and-one-of-the-richest-nations
#3
Daniel Schwekendiek
Over recent decades, economic living conditions have dramatically improved in South Korea, which now represents one of the most developed nations. At the same time, its twin in the North remains one of the poorest countries on earth. Thus, the Korean peninsula represents a unique historical experiment that allows for study of the effects of environment on human development under a variety of ceteris paribus cultural, genetic and climatic conditions. Previous studies comparing the biosocial performances of the two Koreas have focused on indicators such as weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference and age at menarche...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478765/gender-equality-and-the-gender-gap-in-mathematics
#4
Hung-Lin Tao, Christos Michalopoulos
A gender gap has been found in mathematics (boys outperform girls) that has prevailed across countries for many decades. Whether this gap results from nature or nurture has been hotly debated. Using the evidence of PISA 2003 and the gender equality index of 2003, some researchers have argued that an improvement in gender equality reduces the gender gap in mathematics. This study used five waves of country-level PISA data and, controlling for country fixed effects, found no evidence to support this argument...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416040/effect-of-early-sexual-debut-on-high-school-completion-in-south-africa
#5
A V Bengesai, H T A Khan, R Dube
Early sexual debut is of major concern because it is a correlate for health and economic shocks experienced in adulthood. In South Africa, this concern has provided impetus for research directed at the HIV and AIDS epidemic, teenage pregnancy and the effect of adolescent sexual behaviour on persistence in school. Of interest to the present study is high school completion, which is a well-established empirical barometer of adult socioeconomic opportunities. Using data from the five waves of the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS), this paper examines the association between sexual behaviours initiated in pre- and early adolescence and high school completion rates...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416034/cohabitation-and-union-dissolution-in-central-uganda-differences-between-cohabitors-and-non-cohabitors
#6
Charles Lwanga, Ishmael Kalule-Sabiti, Natal Ayiga
The aim of this paper was to establish whether the differences in the risks of union dissolution between cohabitors and non-cohabitors in Uganda have converged over time using event history data. Data were collected in 2013 from 1200 women in central Uganda using retrospective methods. Of these, 839 provided information on three types of first union: women who married directly (without first cohabiting), those who married following cohabitation and those who were still cohabiting. The data were analysed using decrement lifetable analysis...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382871/timing-of-sexual-debut-among-unmarried-youths-aged-15-24-years-in-sub-saharan-africa
#7
Joshua Amo-Adjei, Derek Anamaale Tuoyire
This study aimed to contribute to the evidence on the timing of sexual debut in young people in sub-Saharan African countries. Data were extracted from 34 nationally representative surveys conducted in the region between 2006 and 2014. The study sample comprised unmarried women (n=167,932) and men (n=76,900) aged 15-24 years. Descriptive techniques and Cox proportional regression models were used to estimate the timing of sexual debut, and Kaplan-Meier hazard curves were used to describe the patterns of sexual debut in each country by sex...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367793/marriage-gap-in-christians-and-muslims
#8
Martin Fieder, Susanne Huber, Elmar Pichl, Bernard Wallner, Horst Seidler
For modern Western societies with a regime of monogamy, it has recently been demonstrated that the socioeconomic status of men is positively associated with being or having been married. This study aims to compare marriage patterns (if a person has been married at least once) for cultures with a tradition of monogamy and polygyny. As no worldwide data on polygyny exist, religion was used as a proxy for monogamy (Christians) vs polygyny (Muslims). The analyses were based on 2000-2011 census data from 39 countries worldwide for 52,339,594 men and women, controlling for sex, sex ratio, age, education, migration within the last 5 years and employment...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366175/maternal-activity-during-pregnancy-and-sexually-dimorphic-traits-in-offspring
#9
Lee Ellis, Russell Eisenman, Anthony Hoskin
Studies have found positive correlations between prenatal exposure to testosterone and masculinization of offspring traits, particularly among females. The present study sought to determine if physical or sexual activity by the mother during pregnancy was related to masculinized/defeminized offspring traits in adulthood. Data were obtained from a large sample of North American college students (offspring) and their mothers. Information about maternal activity levels during pregnancy were reported retrospectively by each mother...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285603/hiv-sti-risk-taking-sexual-behaviours-and-risk-perception-among-male-university-students-in-tehran-implications-for-hiv-prevention-among-youth
#10
Farideh Khalajabadi Farahani, Mohammad Mahdi Akhondi, Mehdi Shirzad, Ali Azin
Recent evidence indicates a rising trend in premarital sexual activity among young people in Iran. However, little is known about the extent to which young people's sexual behaviours expose them to HIV and STI risks. This study aimed to assess HIV/STI-related sexual risk-taking behaviours (correlates and determinants) and HIV/STI risk perception among male university students in Tehran. A representative sample of male university students (N=1322) studying in government and private Tehran universities completed an anonymous questionnaire survey in 2013-14...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270256/socioeconomic-status-and-adverse-birth-outcomes-a-population-based-canadian-sample
#11
Emily E Campbell, Jason Gilliland, Paula D N Dworatzek, Barbra De Vrijer, Debbie Penava, Jamie A Seabrook
This study assessed the strength of the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) in Southwestern Ontario. Utilizing perinatal and neonatal databases at the London Health Science Centre, maternal postal codes were entered into a Geographic Information System to determine home neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods were defined by dissemination areas (DAs). Median household income for each DA was extracted from the latest Canadian Census and linked to each mother...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238292/association-between-body-composition-somatotype-and-socioeconomic-status-in-chilean-children-and-adolescents-at-different-school-levels
#12
Pablo A Lizana, Sofia González, Lydia Lera, Bárbara Leyton
This study examined the association between body composition, somatotype and socioeconomic status (SES) in Chilean children and adolescents by sex and school level (grade). The cross-sectional study was conducted on 1168 schoolchildren aged 6-18 years (572 males) from Valparaíso, Chile. Body composition, as assessed by percentage body fat (BF%) and somatotype, was evaluated using Ellis equations and the Heath-Carter method, respectively. The socioeconomic status of respondents was assessed using the ESOMAR survey...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238291/modelling-the-risk-factors-for-birth-weight-in-twin-gestations-a-quantile-regression-approach
#13
A John Michael, Belavendra Antonisamy, S Mahasampath Gowri, Ramasami Prakash
Birth weight is used as a proxy for the general health condition of newborns. Low birth weight leads to adverse events and its effects on child growth are both short- and long-term. Low birth weight babies are more common in twin gestations. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of maternal and socio-demographic risk factors at various quantiles of the birth weight distribution for twin gestations using quantile regression, a robust semi-parametric technique. Birth records of multiple pregnancies from between 1991 and 2005 were identified retrospectively from the birth registry of the Christian Medical College and hospitals in Vellore, India...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215213/state-level-dietary-diversity-as-a-contextual-determinant-of-nutritional-status-of-children-in-india-a-multilevel-approach
#14
Kakoli Borkotoky, Sayeed Unisa, Ashish Kumar Gupta
This study aimed to identify the determinants of nutritional status of children in India with a special focus on dietary diversity at the state level. Household-level consumption data from three rounds of the Consumer Expenditure Survey of the National Sample Survey Organization (1993-2012) were used. Information on the nutritional status of children was taken from the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). Dietary diversity indices were constructed at the state level to examine diversity in quantity of food consumed and food expenditure...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183370/factors-associated-with-women-s-health-care-decision-making-autonomy-empirical-evidence-from-nigeria
#15
Pauline Osamor, Christine Grady
Women's decision-making autonomy has been poorly studied in most developing countries. The few existing studies suggest that it is closely linked to women's socio-demographic characteristics and the social settings in which they live. This study examined Nigerian women's perceived decision-making autonomy about their own health care using nationally representative data from the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey. The study sample consisted of 27,135 women aged 15-49 years who lived with their husbands/partners...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069079/do-the-sex-composition-of-living-children-and-the-desire-for-additional-children-affect-future-intention-to-use-contraception-in-ethiopia
#16
Rajesh Kumar Rai
Information on future intention to use contraceptives is a potential programme indicator for family planning services. Using three consecutive rounds of Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) data collected in 2000, 2005 and 2011, this study examined whether the sex composition of living children and future desire for additional children were associated with the intention to use contraceptives among Ethiopian women aged 15-49 years who were not using any method of contraception at the time of the survey...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069078/women-s-empowerment-and-family-planning-a-review-of-the-literature
#17
Ndola Prata, Ashley Fraser, Megan J Huchko, Jessica D Gipson, Mellissa Withers, Shayna Lewis, Erica J Ciaraldi, Ushma D Upadhyay
This paper reviews the literature examining the relationship between women's empowerment and contraceptive use, unmet need for contraception and related family planning topics in developing countries. Searches were conducted using PubMed, Popline and Web of Science search engines in May 2013 to examine literature published between January 1990 and December 2012. Among the 46 articles included in the review, the majority were conducted in South Asia (n=24). Household decision-making (n=21) and mobility (n=17) were the most commonly examined domains of women's empowerment...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067193/the-causal-relationship-between-consanguineous-marriages-and-infant-mortality-in-turkey
#18
Ismet Koç, Mehmet Ali Eryurt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126276/local-government-and-community-leaders-perspectives-on-child-health-and-mortality-and-inequity-issues-in-rural-eastern-indonesia
#19
Jerico Franciscus Pardosi, Nick Parr, Salut Muhidin
Since 2001 a decentralization policy has increased the responsibility placed on local government for improving child health in Indonesia. This paper explores local government and community leaders' perspectives on child health in a rural district in Indonesia, using a qualitative approach. Focus group discussions were held in May 2013. The issues probed relate to health personnel skills and motivation, service availability, the influence of traditional beliefs, and health care and gender inequity. The participants identify weak leadership, inefficient health management and inadequate child health budgets as important issues...
January 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102952/socioeconomic-variations-in-induced-abortion-in-turkey
#20
Hasan Giray Ankara
This study aimed to identify the levels of, and socioeconomic variations in, income-related inequality in induced abortion among Turkish women. The study included 15,480 ever-married women of reproductive age (15-49) from the 2003 and 2008 waves of the Turkish Demographic and Health Survey. The measured inequalities in abortion levels and their changes over time were decomposed into the percentage contributions of selected socioeconomic factors using ordinary least square analysis and concentration indices were calculated...
January 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
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