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Journal of Biosocial Science

Howida Sirelkhatim Abdalrahim Toto, Davide Piffer, Omar Haroun Khaleefa, Rogai Al-Sayed Al-Tayeb Bader, Salaheldin Farah Attallah Bakhiet, Richard Lynn, Yossry Ahmed Sayed Essa
SummaryIntelligence was assessed using the Standard Progressive Matrices in 316 MZ and 550 same-sex DZ twins with a mean age of 10 years in Sudan. Heritability was estimated at 0.172 and shared environmental influences at 0.596.
May 23, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Derek Anamaale Tuoyire, Harold Ayetey
SummaryHypertension is a significant contributor to the global burden of cardiovascular and related target organ diseases such as heart failure, coronary heart disease, stroke and kidney failure, and their associated premature morbidity, mortality and disability. Marital status is an important social characteristic known to predict a range of health outcomes including cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about its impact on hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa. This study explored the relationship between marital status and hypertension among women and men in Ghana...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Seema Sharma, Muthusamy Sivakami
SummaryGlobal estimates suggest that over a billion people live with a disability that is significant enough to affect their daily lives. According to the 2011 Indian Census, India alone has about 26.8 million people with disabilities. Research suggests that persons with disabilities (PwDs) in India are among the most neglected, stigmatized, poor and least educated of the world's population, and women with disabilities in India are the most marginalized, both socially and economically. They bear the triple burden of being discriminated against through being 'women' (socially marginal beings), 'disabled' (incapacitated, inefficient and undesirable) and 'women with disabilities' (the weakest of the weak), often becoming socially invisible...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Victor Grech
SummaryMany factors influence the male:female birth ratio (number of male births divided by total births, M/T). Studies have suggested that this ratio may be positively correlated with the education levels of mothers. This study assessed the effect of maternal education on M/T in the US population overall and by racial group. Number of live births by sex of the child, maternal educational level reached and race were obtained from the Centres for Disease Control (CDC Wonder) for the period 2007-2015. The total study sample comprised 28,268,183 live births...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Edward Dutton, Salaheldin Farah Bakhiet, Khaled Elsayed Ziada, Yossry Ahmed Sayed Essa, Hamada Ali Abdelmuti Ali, Shehana Mohammed Alqafari
SummaryTwo administrations of the Coloured Progressive Matrices in Egypt were compared. The first was administered to a large, representative national sample between 2011 and 2013. The second was administered to primary school pupils in villages in Menoufia in northern Egypt in 2017. Adjusting for the Flynn Effect, the IQ of the rural northern Egyptians was shown to be statistically significantly higher than the national average. It is demonstrated that this is consistent with regional socioeconomic differences in Egypt, which strongly imply that northern Egypt has a higher average IQ than southern Egypt...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Onipede Wusu, Uche C Isiugo-Abanihe
SummaryMost studies examining the association between female education and fertility have reported an inverse association. However, little is known about the consistency of the relationship, or what level of education triggers an inverse association. This study examined the consistency of the association between female education and fertility across the north-south demographic divide in Nigeria. Data on women aged 40-49 were taken from the 2003, 2008 and 2013 Nigerian DHS data sets. The results showed that female education remained significantly and consistently inversely related to fertility in both the north and south of Nigeria...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Clifford Odimegwu, Oluwaseyi Dolapo Somefun, Vesper H Chisumpa
SummaryThe question of youth sexual behaviour has been widely debated, with researchers such as Berhan and Berhan (2015) arguing that young adults aged 15-24 are more likely to engage in risky behaviours. However, research has not adequately addressed the issue of positive sexual behaviours, in particular among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. Adapting the compensatory model of risk and resiliency theory, this study examined the determinants of positive sexual behaviours among youth in sub-Saharan Africa...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Niru Sultana, Sadya Afroz, Nehlin Tomalika, Hasina Momtaz, Md Humayun Kabir
SummaryDespite the ongoing problems of undernutrition and infectious disease, obesity and overweight have become a major problem in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight among school children aged 6-12 years in Bangladesh. The study was conducted from June 2012 to May 2013 and the study sample comprised 1768 children (980 boys; 788 girls) from eight purposively selected schools in different areas of Dhaka city...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Martin Marufu Gazimbi, Monica Akinyi Magadi
This study contributes to the dialogue on the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) through the use of HIV and antenatal care (ANC) integrated services. The determinants of antenatal HIV testing in Zimbabwe were explored. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to data for 8471 women from 406 clusters who gave birth in the 5 years preceding Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2005/6 and 2010/11. The uptake of antenatal HIV testing was found to be determined by a wide range of individual-level factors relating to women's economic and demographic status, as well as HIV-related factors, including HIV awareness and stigma within the community...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Saifa Binte Sanawar, Mohammad Amirul Islam, Shankar Majumder, Farjana Misu
The aim of this study was to assess whether women's empowerment ensures reduced intimate partner violence (IPV). The differential relationship between women's empowerment and IPV among married women in Bangladesh was investigated using 2007 Demographic and Health Survey data. Logistic regression models were used to assess whether women's empowerment had any influence on their likelihood of experiencing IPV while controlling for other covariates. The analyses revealed that older cohorts of women, who were more empowered, were more vulnerable to physical violence than less-empowered, younger women...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Khaled Elsayed Ziada, Hanaa Abdelazim Mohamed Metwaly, Salaheldin Farah Bakhiet, Helen Cheng, Richard Lynn
This study was based on data for a sample of 1756 Egyptian primary school children (863 boys and 893 girls) aged 5-11 years assessed for intelligence with Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM). The results showed that boys obtained a slightly higher IQ than girls and had greater variance.
March 5, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Rosemary L Hopcroft
Fitness is always relative to the fitness of others in the group or breeding population. Even in very low-fertility societies, individual fitness as measured by the share of genes in subsequent generations may still be maximized. Further, sexual selection theory from evolutionary biology suggests that the relationship between status and fertility will differ for males and females. For this reason it is important to examine the relationship between status and fertility separately for males and females-something few demographic studies of fertility do...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Warren B Miller, Jennifer S Barber, Heather H Gatny
SummaryThis paper examines the proposition that sexual and contraceptive behaviours mediate the relationship between the pregnancy desires of young, unmarried women and their having an unplanned pregnancy. The sample consisted of 854 18- to 19-year-old women living in Michigan, USA. First, the positive and negative pregnancy desires of these women were measured, as were the women's perceptions of the positive and negative desires of their sexual partners. Then the extent to which these four types of desires, as well as several types of interactions between them, prospectively predicted the occurrence of subsequent pregnancies were tested with logistic regression analyses, initially alone and then after the addition of several types of sexual and contraceptive mediator variables...
May 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Mark Lyons-Amos, Ingrid Schoon
Economic conditions have dramatic influences on fertility. This paper evaluates the effect of the 2008 'Great Recession' in the UK on first birth rate, which is the fertility behaviour most susceptible to external economic conditions. The key aim of the study was to assess the effect of the recession on fertility by individual-level characteristics, enabling variation in responses to economic hardship to be observed. Data were from the nationally representative UK Household Longitudinal Study (UK-HLS). Cumulative transition models were used to model the probability of first birth for women between the ages of 17 and 30 in three UK birth cohorts...
March 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Mukesh Ranjan, Laxmi Kant Dwivedi, Rahul Mishra
This study assessed caste differentials in family-level death clustering, linked survival prospects of siblings (scarring) and mother-level unobserved heterogeneity affecting infant mortality risk in the central and eastern Indian states of Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Chhattisgarh. Family-level infant death clustering was examined using bivariate analysis, and the linkages between the survival prospects of siblings and mother-specific unobserved heterogeneity were captured by applying a random effects logit model in the selected Indian states using micro-data from the National Family Health Survey-III (2005-06)...
March 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Walter Forrest, Dharmalingam Arunachalam, Kannan Navaneetham
Several studies report that women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) are less likely to use contraception, but the evidence that violence consistently constrains contraceptive use is inconclusive. One plausible explanation for this ambiguity is that the effects of violence on contraceptive use depend on whether couples are likely to have conflicting attitudes to it. In particular, although some men may engage in violence to prevent their partners from using contraception, they are only likely to do so if they have reason to oppose its use...
March 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Kudzaishe Mangombe, Ishumael Kalule-Sabiti
Medical male circumcision has been recommended by the World Health Organization as part of a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. Zimbabwe is one of the fourteen sub-Saharan countries that embarked on the Medical Male Circumcision (MMC) programme. However, the country has not yet met male circumcision targets. This paper examines the predictors of male circumcision in Zimbabwe. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 784 men aged 15-35 years in Harare, Zimbabwe. Negative log-log logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of male circumcision...
March 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Daniel Schwekendiek
Over recent decades, economic living conditions have dramatically improved in South Korea, which now represents one of the most developed nations. At the same time, its twin in the North remains one of the poorest countries on earth. Thus, the Korean peninsula represents a unique historical experiment that allows for study of the effects of environment on human development under a variety of ceteris paribus cultural, genetic and climatic conditions. Previous studies comparing the biosocial performances of the two Koreas have focused on indicators such as weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference and age at menarche...
March 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Hung-Lin Tao, Christos Michalopoulos
A gender gap has been found in mathematics (boys outperform girls) that has prevailed across countries for many decades. Whether this gap results from nature or nurture has been hotly debated. Using the evidence of PISA 2003 and the gender equality index of 2003, some researchers have argued that an improvement in gender equality reduces the gender gap in mathematics. This study used five waves of country-level PISA data and, controlling for country fixed effects, found no evidence to support this argument...
March 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Charles Lwanga, Ishmael Kalule-Sabiti, Natal Ayiga
The aim of this paper was to establish whether the differences in the risks of union dissolution between cohabitors and non-cohabitors in Uganda have converged over time using event history data. Data were collected in 2013 from 1200 women in central Uganda using retrospective methods. Of these, 839 provided information on three types of first union: women who married directly (without first cohabiting), those who married following cohabitation and those who were still cohabiting. The data were analysed using decrement lifetable analysis...
March 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
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