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Journal of Biosocial Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930000/higher-parental-perceptions-of-wealth-associated-with-the-birth-of-more-sons-in-an-australian-population
#1
A M Behie, M H O'Donnell
Many industrialized nations are currently experiencing a decline in average secondary sex ratio (SSR) resulting in fewer boys being born relative to girls. While many potential factors may explain the decline in the birth of males relative to females, it seems most studies support the idea that male offspring are produced less often when environmental conditions are poor owing to males being more susceptible to loss in harsh environments. This study investigates the maternal factors that are associated with the sex of offspring in a cohort of the Australian population...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925345/differences-in-the-prevalence-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-5-to-14-year-old-children-in-krak%C3%A3-w-poland-using-three-national-bmi-cut-offs
#2
Renata Woźniacka, Aneta Bac, Małgorzata Kowal, Stanisław Matusik
The problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents has been noted in many different countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in the percentage occurrence of overweight and obesity in Polish children depending on the criteria used, and to evaluate the usefulness of the Polish national database. The study sample comprised 3405 children aged 5-14 years (1674 girls and 1731 boys) from the city of Kraków, Poland, in 2009-2010. The BMI of each child was calculated and classified as overweight or obese according to three different reference BMI cut-offs: the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Polish 2010 standard...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918764/fragile-environment-seasonality-and-maternal-and-childhood-undernutrition-in-bangladesh
#3
Masuda Mohsena, Mahabub Hossain, Barnali Chakraborty, Abdul Bayes, A N Mahfuzur Rahman
This study assessed whether agricultural and household incomes were the same across different agro-ecological environments in Bangladesh. An in-depth analysis of the effect of unfavourable ecologies on maternal and child malnutrition was carried out. Data were from a longitudinal data set comprising a nationally representative data sample collected in 2014 and the Food Security Nutrition Surveillance Project (FSNSP) conducted in 2011 and 2012. Anthropometric indices were used to assess the nutritional status of mothers and under-five children...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879818/high-prevalence-of-voluntary-sterilization-among-american-women-explained-by-trade-offs-resulting-from-male-parental-commitment
#4
Kermyt G Anderson
Tubal ligation is the modal form of family planning among American women aged 30 and older. As the preference for tubal ligation over cheaper, lower risk and more reliable methods, such as vasectomy, has puzzled experts, a theoretical approach that explains this preference would be useful. The present study investigates the high prevalence of voluntary sterilization among American women from the perspective of life history theory, arguing that the trade-offs between investing in current and future offspring will favour tubal ligation when women cannot obtain reliable male commitment to future parental investment...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828996/further-evidence-of-an-association-between-low-second-to-fourth-digit-ratio-2d-4d-and-selection-for-the-uniformed-services-a-study-among-police-personnel-in-wroc%C3%A5-aw-poland
#5
Sławomir Kozieł, Marek Kociuba, Raja Chakraborty, Aneta Sitek, Zofia Ignasiak
Males and females differ in their preference for occupations and sporting activities, and differ also in risk-taking attitudes. In addition to other explanations, prenatal hormone exposure has been implicated in these gender-associated differences. The ratio of the relative lengths of the second-to-fourth digits (2D:4D) is a proxy indicator of prenatal exposure to testosterone relative to oestrogen. The 2D:4D ratio has been found to be associated with choice of occupation, particularly among females. This study investigated whether 2D:4D differed between police officers and a control group of civilians in Wrocław, Poland...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803554/wealth-based-inequality-in-child-immunization-in-india-a-decomposition-approach
#6
Avijit Debnath, Nairita Bhattacharjee
Despite years of health and medical advancement, children still suffer from infectious diseases that are vaccine preventable. India reacted in 1978 by launching the Expanded Programme on Immunization in an attempt to reduce the incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Although the nation has made remarkable progress over the years, there is significant variation in immunization coverage across different socioeconomic strata. This study attempted to identify the determinants of wealth-based inequality in child immunization using a new, modified method...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793942/consanguineous-marriage-in-jordan-an-update
#7
M Mazharul Islam, Faisal M Ababneh, Md Hasinur Rahaman Khan
This study examined the recent level, trends and determinants of consanguineous marriage in Jordan using time-series data from the Jordan Population and Family Health Surveys (JPFHSs). According to the 2012 JPFHS, 35% of all marriages were consanguineous in Jordan in 2012. There has been a declining trend in consanguinity in the country, with the rate decreasing from a level of 57% in 1990. Most consanguineous marriage in 2012 were first cousin marriages, constituting 23% of all marriages and 66% of all consanguineous marriages...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764819/sex-composition-of-twins-and-associations-with-morbidity-mortality-and-maternal-treatment-seeking-outcomes-in-resource-poor-settings
#8
Rob Stephenson, Mondie Blalock Tharp, John Mark Wiginton, Nicholas Metheny
Societal gender inequality and a preference for male children has been shown to be detrimental to girls' health. This is despite females' innate biological advantage early in life. The negative effects of gender inequity on female health are most pronounced in resource-poor countries, where cultural norms supporting a preference for male children are strongest. However, most of what is known about gender inequality and child health comes from studies of singleton births. There is little evidence for how, or if, the disadvantages associated with gender bias and son preference extend to multiple births, a population inherently at risk for a number of health challenges...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724451/why-do-societies-with-higher-average-cognitive-ability-have-lower-income-inequality-the-role-of-redistributive-policies
#9
Raufhon Salahodjaev, Satoshi Kanazawa
Past studies suggest that, across nations, the average cognitive ability of a population is negatively associated with income inequality; societies with higher average cognitive ability tend to have lower levels of income inequality. However, it is not clear why. This paper proposes that social transfers from the wealthy to the poor may be a major mechanism by which some societies achieve lower income inequality than others, because more intelligent individuals may be more likely to have a preference for such transfers...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720152/using-couples-discordant-reports-to-estimate-female-covert-use-of-modern-contraception-in-sub-saharan-africa
#10
Natalie C Gasca, Stan Becker
Substantial numbers of married women use contraceptives without their partner's knowledge in sub-Saharan Africa, but studies of female covert use across time are rare. This study investigates the levels, trends and correlates of covert use in nine countries and determines which contraceptive methods are more frequently used covertly by women. Data from monogamous couples in Demographic and Health Surveys were used from nine sub-Saharan African countries that had experienced an increase of 10 percentage points in current modern contraceptive use between an earlier (1991-2004) and later (2007-2011) survey...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676131/association-of-age-at-menopause-with-post-menopausal-symptoms-menarche-age-and-other-reproductive-factors-among-rural-females-in-shimla-himachal-pradesh
#11
Krishan Sharma, Mayuk Bansal
This study analysed the association between menopause, menarche and number of live births using cross-sectional primary data for 75 post-menopausal rural women from Shimla in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. The mean/median ages at menarche of the 75 women were 14.23/14 years, and those at menopause 45.35/45 years. There were no significant differences in these values between women in the age groups 40-55 and 56-65 years. Age at menopause was found to be significantly associated with age at menarche and maternal age at birth of the first and last child, but not with menopausal symptom severity score...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641583/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-infertility-in-turkey-evidence-from-demographic-and-health-surveys-1993-2013
#12
Melike Sarac, Ismet Koc
The inability to have children affects couples worldwide and causes emotional and psychological distress in both men and women. Turkey is a country that lays particular emphasis on the issue of infertility, especially after experiencing a dramatic fertility decline over the last two decades. This study aimed to understand the changes in the prevalence of infertility in Turkey using three different approaches: the DHS Approach, the Constructed Approach and the Current Duration Approach. Furthermore, the factors contributing to elevated risks of infertility as derived from the Constructed Approach were investigated using four different logistic regression models...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625192/prolonged-birth-intervals-in-hamedan-iran-variations-and-determinants
#13
Amir Erfani, Marzieh Nojomi, Hatam Hosseini
The enduring sub-replacement level of fertility in Iran is the result of changing timing of births. Using data from the 2015 Hamedan Survey of Fertility, conducted in a representative sample of 3000 married women aged 15-49, this study examined variations in median lengths of birth intervals employing cumulative survival functions, and investigated the determinants of birth interval lengths using regression hazard models. The results showed that the median first, second and third birth intervals, estimated at 28, 74 and 136 months respectively, doubled between 1995 and 2015...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615082/differential-responses-in-first-birth-behaviour-to-economic-recession-in-the-united-kingdom
#14
Mark Lyons-Amos, Ingrid Schoon
Economic conditions have dramatic influences on fertility. This paper evaluates the effect of the 2008 'Great Recession' in the UK on first birth rate, which is the fertility behaviour most susceptible to external economic conditions. The key aim of the study was to assess the effect of the recession on fertility by individual-level characteristics, enabling variation in responses to economic hardship to be observed. Data were from the nationally representative UK Household Longitudinal Study (UK-HLS). Cumulative transition models were used to model the probability of first birth for women between the ages of 17 and 30 in three UK birth cohorts...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587684/caste-differentials-in-death-clustering-in-central-and-eastern-indian-states
#15
Mukesh Ranjan, Laxmi Kant Dwivedi, Rahul Mishra
This study assessed caste differentials in family-level death clustering, linked survival prospects of siblings (scarring) and mother-level unobserved heterogeneity affecting infant mortality risk in the central and eastern Indian states of Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Chhattisgarh. Family-level infant death clustering was examined using bivariate analysis, and the linkages between the survival prospects of siblings and mother-specific unobserved heterogeneity were captured by applying a random effects logit model in the selected Indian states using micro-data from the National Family Health Survey-III (2005-06)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585514/consanguineous-marriages-among-iranian-mandaeans-living-in-south-west-iran
#16
Mostafa Saadat, Mahdis Zarghami
Several studies have indicated that consanguineous marriages (unions between biologically related persons) are associated with increased risk of autosomal recessive diseases and several multifactorial traits. Mandaeans are a closed ethno-religious community living in areas of southern Iraq and Iran (Khuzestan Province). There are currently no data on the prevalence of consanguineous marriages among Mandaeans. The present study was carried out in 2016 to determine the prevalence of consanguinity among Iranian Mandaeans living in Khuzestan Province, south-west Iran...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578743/to-what-extent-do-couples-pre-marital-communications-affect-their-post-marital-fertility-behaviour-in-india
#17
Sayantani Chatterjee, Anshul Kastor
Reproduction in India is mainly confined to within marriage. The fertility preferences of spouses will not necessarily be the same, but discussion between couples creates scope for understanding between spouses after marriage. Knowing each other's opinions facilitates decision-making on sensitive matters such as contraception use and desired family size. This study used data from the India Human Development Survey-II (2011-12), and was based on a sample of 31,276 currently married women. The aim was to understand the role of pre-marital communication, studied through the choosing of husbands, mutual communication before marriage and duration of time spouses knew each other before marriage on the fertility preferences of couples post-marriage...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578715/mediation-models-of-pregnancy-desires-and-unplanned-pregnancy-in-young-unmarried-women
#18
Warren B Miller, Jennifer S Barber, Heather H Gatny
This paper examines the proposition that sexual and contraceptive behaviours mediate the relationship between the pregnancy desires of young, unmarried women and their having an unplanned pregnancy. The sample consisted of 854 18- to 19-year-old women living in Michigan, USA. First, the positive and negative pregnancy desires of these women were measured, as were the women's perceptions of the positive and negative desires of their sexual partners. Then the extent to which these four types of desires, as well as several types of interactions between them, prospectively predicted the occurrence of subsequent pregnancies were tested with logistic regression analyses, initially alone and then after the addition of several types of sexual and contraceptive mediator variables...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578714/intimate-partner-violence-and-contraceptive-use-in-india-the-moderating-influence-of-conflicting-fertility-preferences-and-contraceptive-intentions
#19
Walter Forrest, Dharmalingam Arunachalam, Kannan Navaneetham
Several studies report that women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) are less likely to use contraception, but the evidence that violence consistently constrains contraceptive use is inconclusive. One plausible explanation for this ambiguity is that the effects of violence on contraceptive use depend on whether couples are likely to have conflicting attitudes to it. In particular, although some men may engage in violence to prevent their partners from using contraception, they are only likely to do so if they have reason to oppose its use...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566101/from-motives-through-desires-to-intentions-investigating-the-reproductive-choices-of-childless-men-and-women-in-poland
#20
Monika Mynarska, Jolanta Rytel
This study examined the potential of the theoretical model proposed by Warren Miller (the Traits/Motives-Desires-Intentions-Behaviour or TDIB model) for investigating the involuntary-voluntary childlessness continuum. The first three stages of the theoretical motivational sequence (motives to desires to intentions) were examined using a purposive sample of 314 childless Polish men and women aged 30-39 (at the time of data collection in September 2013). In Poland, this is the age range when the final decision for or against parenthood is taken...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
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