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Medicina Nei Secoli

Lorenzo Capasso, Alessandro Rapinese, Antonietta Di Fabrizio, Marta Licata
Until the so-called sanitary reform (1978), which introduced a Beveridge' system, in Italy existed a peculiar kind of general practitioner, paid by municipalities, who ensured healthcare to those not covered by social insurance. In small towns those physicians also carried out the finction of Health Officers, performing Public Health duties. We had the possibility to study the very large archive of one of them, doctor Sgandurrafrom Farindola, a village in the Abruzzi Region (central Italy): in the paper we briefly analyse six public health acts that he issued in the first half of the 1950s...
2016: Medicina Nei Secoli
Lawrence Bliquez
This article discusses the hypothesis that the ram's heads on the speculum recovered in Pompeii in 1881-82 had some symbolic significance - on the basis of the connection between the ram and the human reproductive organs, well testified in Egyptian mythology. Infact, there is ample evidence of Egyptian influence in Pompeii, particularly nearby the houses where we presume the discovery of the speculum was made.
2016: Medicina Nei Secoli
Silvia De Zordo
This article discusses the issue of abortion stigma and conscientious objection based on the main results of a qualitative study carried out in hospitals providing abortion care in Italy and Spain (Catalunya). This study was aimed at examining obstetricians-gynaecologists' experiences and attitudes to abortion, or voluntary interruption of pregnancy. The abortion law is relatively liberal in these two Catholic countries (much more liberal in Spain than in Italy). However, abortion still is strongly stigmatized in the public debate on human and reproductive rights, whose focus has shifted, over the last decade, from women's rights to the "rights of the conceived"...
2016: Medicina Nei Secoli
Marilisa D'Amico
This essay aims at delving into the issues raised by the application of the Law No. 194/1978 in the matter of the voluntary termination of pregnancy, taking into account the constitutional principles, the judgments of the Italian Constitutional Court and the recent decision on the merit of the Collective Complaint No. 87/2012 (International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network v. Italy) adopted by the European Committee of Social Rights.
2016: Medicina Nei Secoli
Alessandra Pioggia
Often a woman's right to terminate a pregnancy for health reasons is considered as achieved by simply performing the intervention. But today isn't in doubt that the effective protection of health requires that health organizations carrying out performance which also affect other aspects: taking charge of women, information on services, respect for the dignity and autonomy of women, etc ... You could say that these are details, compared to the final performance. But, as we know, often the devil is in the details...
2016: Medicina Nei Secoli
Susanna Mancini
This article explores the origins and the development of women-protective anti-abortion arguments in a globalized world. Unlike fetus-base pro- life arguments, women protective ones focus on gender stereotypes and on the theory of gender complementarity. The article traces the influence of US conservative groups in spreading such arguments beyond the US borders, so that in today's globalized world, womnen-protective arguments have become central in abortion and contraception related legislation and litigation in the US, Europe and Russia...
2016: Medicina Nei Secoli
Silvia Niccolai
The right to abortion was the forerunner of a new idea of liberty, the liberty from gender roles which 'naturalize' oppressive social constructs. In Italy, in the Seventies of the 20th Century, some feminist opinions objected, in the name offemale liberty, to the battle for the right to abortion and against gender roles. This, they .argued, could cost women to disclaim their sex as a resource for self-identification and social change. Actually, forty years after its legalisation, abortion remains controversial, nor tells it much about female liberty...
2016: Medicina Nei Secoli
Paolo Veronesi
The paper examines the particular nature of the rights involved in disciplines related to the termination of pregnancy. It focuses on the ways by which these rights must be appropriately balanced with constitutional rights and values. It also stresses the need of a "botton-up" approach rather than a more restrictive and dangerous "top-down" approach. Only in this way it seems possible to tackle and appreciate the problem in all its actual complexity.
2016: Medicina Nei Secoli
Anna Pompili
Law 194 was introduced in Italy in 1978, following a campaign by women's groups, but alsofollowing the rise in illegal abortions and related deaths; after quite 40 years, we are now assisting to the dangerous return to illegality, related with the obstacles to the application of the law. The main causes of this phenomena are: the conscientious objection, the non- compliance of the law and the providers' "burn-out". The law permits to medical and non medical personnel to refuse to carry out abortions on conscientious groumds, but this right is greatly abused, with harmfil consequences on women's health...
2016: Medicina Nei Secoli
Mirella Parachini
After an analysis of the history of the introduction of the so called "abortion pill" in various countries included Italy, it is analyzed the substantial differences between the two procedures of medical abortion comparing with surgical abortion.
2016: Medicina Nei Secoli
Alessandra Gissi
Perception of guilt and remorse is tied to the complicated question of what is an abortion. There is no doubt that abortion practices have had a long and complex history. Abortion is, in fact, a 'mobile' category, whose definition and identification depends on several factors and is related to the context and - not least - the complex question of identifying the actual voluntariness of the act. The frequency of spontaneous abortions, due to -excessive force or working conditions, and the inevitability of the appeal to the interruption of pregnancy in the absence of other means of fertility control methods, allowed a widespread lack of guilt, testified also by language even in the mid-twenties, when the fascist regime begins to structure a policy that culminates, during the thirties, in unprecedented emphasis on the role and the female body in an exclusively procreative function and configuration of maternity as a patriotic duty particularly enshrined in the new Penal code of 1930...
2016: Medicina Nei Secoli
Marco Cilione
In the society of the ancient Greece sacred laws on the abortion are a typical example of a mixture between the temple wisdom tradition and the medical tugvr. The epigraphic discoveries made between the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century in Cos and Cyrene offered meaningfid evidences of the cooperation between priests and physicians to evaluate each single case of abortion and impose the right atonement. This contribution aims at showing how firm the line of continuity between medicine as wisdom and medicine as T Xvn was in the ancient Greece, focusing on the hot topic of the abortion...
2016: Medicina Nei Secoli
Chiara Lalli
Abortion has become something to hide, something you can't tell other people, something you have to expiate forever. Besides, abortion is more and more difficult to achieve because of the raising average of consciencious objection (from 70 to 90% of health care providers are conscientious objectors, 2014 data, Ministero della Salute) and illegal abortion is "coming back"from the 70s, when abortion was a crime (Italian law n. 194/1978). Abortion is often blamed as a murder, an unforgivenable sin, even as genocide...
2016: Medicina Nei Secoli
Marco Cilione
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Silvia Marinozzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Franco Giorgianni, Antonietta Provenza
This article aims at dealing with the historical development and the terminology of the notion of generation in ancient Greece, taking as well into consideration several aspects of the notion of heredity, for, at present, research in this field lacks a consistent encyclopedic entry on such subjects. The Presocratic - mainly Empedoclean - notions of 'mixing' and 'separation' lurk behind the Hippocratic treatise De genitura/De natura pueri, in which the process of generation is explained through the 'mixing' mechanism of a female semen and a male one...
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Gilberto Corbellini, Elisabetta Sirgiovanni
The term "enhancement" has come to represent a very precise form of improving individual skills. By means of pharmaceutics, surgery, and reproductive technology, all originally intended for clinical use, healthy individuals may improve their cognitive and emotional capacities for many reasons, such as to gain a competitive edge. In today's society, cognitive performance and mood assume a more relevant role than physical ability if one aspires to emerge above the average. In this paper, we present and discuss common views on "neuroenhancement," a term often used to describe the use of artificial means that interfer with brain function to improve cognitive skills...
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Stefania Di Giannantonio, Andrea Iorio, Sara Serafino
In the area of Rome object of study, the cremations account for 10% of total burials (522 cremation burials of 4758), unlike the contemporary cemeteries of French and Cispadane areas where they are well over 30%. Detailed analysis of the cemeteries, confirms that the indirect cremations (urns and graves) represent over 85% of the sample, while direct cremations (busta sepulcra) are under-represented. For a selected sample of 69 cremations, demographic analysis was performed and it shows a discrete prevalence of women and an almost equal distribution of males and subadults...
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Simona Minozzi, Gino Fornaciari
Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades...
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Romina Mosticone, Lisa Pescucci, Flavia Porreca
Trauma, diseases, diet, daily work and environmental factors shape bodies. From birth to death, these processes leave on the skeleton markers that can be recognized and studied, thus providing an overview of the health conditions of past populations. The present work analyzes data collected in seven necropolises. During our study, we exploited nonspecific stress and dental pathologies as key indicators of health conditions. In particula; we analyzed the three most common indicators of stress: porotic hyperostosis; enamel hypoplasia; and Harris lines on shins...
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
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