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Medicina Nei Secoli

Marco Cilione
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Silvia Marinozzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Franco Giorgianni, Antonietta Provenza
This article aims at dealing with the historical development and the terminology of the notion of generation in ancient Greece, taking as well into consideration several aspects of the notion of heredity, for, at present, research in this field lacks a consistent encyclopedic entry on such subjects. The Presocratic - mainly Empedoclean - notions of 'mixing' and 'separation' lurk behind the Hippocratic treatise De genitura/De natura pueri, in which the process of generation is explained through the 'mixing' mechanism of a female semen and a male one...
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Gilberto Corbellini, Elisabetta Sirgiovanni
The term "enhancement" has come to represent a very precise form of improving individual skills. By means of pharmaceutics, surgery, and reproductive technology, all originally intended for clinical use, healthy individuals may improve their cognitive and emotional capacities for many reasons, such as to gain a competitive edge. In today's society, cognitive performance and mood assume a more relevant role than physical ability if one aspires to emerge above the average. In this paper, we present and discuss common views on "neuroenhancement," a term often used to describe the use of artificial means that interfer with brain function to improve cognitive skills...
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Stefania Di Giannantonio, Andrea Iorio, Sara Serafino
In the area of Rome object of study, the cremations account for 10% of total burials (522 cremation burials of 4758), unlike the contemporary cemeteries of French and Cispadane areas where they are well over 30%. Detailed analysis of the cemeteries, confirms that the indirect cremations (urns and graves) represent over 85% of the sample, while direct cremations (busta sepulcra) are under-represented. For a selected sample of 69 cremations, demographic analysis was performed and it shows a discrete prevalence of women and an almost equal distribution of males and subadults...
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Simona Minozzi, Gino Fornaciari
Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades...
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Romina Mosticone, Lisa Pescucci, Flavia Porreca
Trauma, diseases, diet, daily work and environmental factors shape bodies. From birth to death, these processes leave on the skeleton markers that can be recognized and studied, thus providing an overview of the health conditions of past populations. The present work analyzes data collected in seven necropolises. During our study, we exploited nonspecific stress and dental pathologies as key indicators of health conditions. In particula; we analyzed the three most common indicators of stress: porotic hyperostosis; enamel hypoplasia; and Harris lines on shins...
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Carla Caldarini, Federica Zavaroni, Valentina Benassi
The bone tissue remodeling due to strong physical/working activity is defined as ergonomic markers or MSM (Muscoloskeletal Stress Markers) (Capasso et al. 1999) and MOS (Markers of Occupational Stress). Among them we can find: enthesopaties, arthropaties, non metrical stress and traumas markers. In the present study, the analysis of these traits has been used to clarify habitual activity patterns of four imperial populations from Suburbium: Castel Malnome, Casal Bertone area Q, Via Padre Semeria e Quarto Cappello del Prete...
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Gianna Tartaglia, Alessia Nava
In the paleobiological studies, the osteometry is a method for gaining insight into human populations of the past. The analysis of the data obtained from measurements of the skeleton can be applied in the determination of sex and degree of sexual dimorphism intra and interpopulation. The results obtained from osteometrical data of postcranial allow us to formulate hypotheses on certain aspects related to the living conditions of the people who lived in the urban and suburban area of ancient Rome.
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Flavio De Angelis, Walter Pantano, Andrea Battistini
Demography evaluates the traits of human populations mainly by measuring their sizes and fluctuations. Due to their features, the archeological population structures refer to the distribution of people based both on sex and age at death. These parameters have a direct impact on the risk of death because they vary significantly with age and sex and this is reflected in a proportional sharing of deaths in several groups at risk. This chapter deals with the demographic structure of several imperial communities scattered through the roman Suburbium...
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Giordana Amicucci, Loredana Carboni
They analyzed the data of excavation of eleven Roman necropolis of the territory of the imperial age. The funeral rite most widespread is inhiumation; cremation is generally around 10% of the total sample. The burials are generally primary and single, more rarely bisome or multiple. The body was placed without a specific orientation, almost always supine, with arms either stretched or flexed and lower limbs generally relaxed. Sometimes the body was wrapped in a shroud or in a tight bandage. The state of preservation of the skeletal remains is very variable as influenced by soil type...
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Paola Catalano
The recent excavations carried out by the Superintendence for the Colosseum, the Roman National Museum and the Archaeological Area of Rome allowed to uncover a large number of burial grounds of Imperial Age. In this work we present the data for 11 cemeteries scattered throughout the Suburbiumn, dating between 1st and 3rd centuries AD. A whole sample of 6061 tombs has been investigated and 5280 skeletons were anthropologically analyzed. All the field data have been scored in appropriate standardized charts in order to make easy their storage and processing in a dedicated database...
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Paola Catalano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Silvia Marinozzi
The first specific techniques and triages for medical resuscitation developed in the XVIII century, specifically to rescue the drowned persons. The topic of resuscitation in strictly connected to the theme of the apparent death, to the dread of the "buried alive", to the progress of forensic medicine and to the administrative and legislative policies. The contribute aims to focus on the contribution of the medical and pathologic nosology about the conception of the apparent death, read as asphyxia.
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Mariano Martini, Francesco De Stefano, Michele Schia-Vonea, Rosagemma Ciliberti
Ethical issues always played an important role in the historical development in psychiatry. As wll known, many ancient cultures associated mental illness with gods and divine punishments. In the first centuries of the Christian Era, mental illness is often interpreted according to demonological views and in connection with theological conceptions of sin. The article briefly examines the history of mental illness medical and cultural interpretations, focusing on medieval medicine and the treatment of psychiatric patients from Antiquity to the Early modern Period...
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Carla Serarcangeli
Starting from archive documents, the present article aims to retrace the history of a once well-known pharmacy based in S. Eustachio square, in Rome, and then commonly denominated Corsi's. Thanks to the information gathered in Roman archives, it is possible to throw light on the events related to this apothecary, whose activity, as found out, lasted since the XVIII until the first decades of the XX century, under the property of two families, first the Conti and then the Corsi. Notwithstanding its long establishment, this pharmacy seems to have suddenly vanished from the official documents registered within the archives...
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Alessandro Bencivenga, Gianluca Di Luigi
Ex voto are devotional objects, widely used in Italy as a form of prayer or wish, or as thanksgiving for a grace received. In a broader historical perspective, votive offerings are hung in Greek, Etruscan, Roman shrines and later in churches or to show gratitude for miracles obtained, healing from illness or infirmity, or as a simple supplication and prayer. The ex voto here presented seem to be unique in the world: made of majolica, they come from the church of St. Roch in Castelli (Abruzzo). They depict breast benign and malignant lesions (mastitis, abscess, fat necrosis, inflammatory cancer, infiltrating carcinoma) in three dimensions, performing an accurate and personalized portrait of breast diseases (in some cases with the depicted name of the sick woman), showing fine details of each disease, and demonstrating accurate knowledge of the female anatomy and pathology...
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Paulina Oszajca, Zbigniew Bela
The article discusses the main changes in legislation concerning granting the licenses for opening a new pharmacy in Bologna in the Middle Ages and Early Modern period. The organization of all traders, including apothecaries, was subordinated, as almost everywhere in Italy, to the Guilds. In the 2nd half of 16th century the Arte de' Speziali of Bologna came under the jurisdiction of the Collegio di Medicina, leading to disagreements between the two corporations. Giovanni Baldi, in his Notizie storiche su la farmacia bolognese (Bologna, 1955) mentioned one of these controversies, dating on the second half of 18th century...
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Maria Carmela De Marino, Giuseppe Schiena
Ettore Biocca's archive reflects the liveliness of scientific interests and the extreme political and social sensibility that distinguished the personality to confirin the image, still alive in the memories of those who knew him, of a free spirit, impulsive, independent; a character incapable of compromise, always ready to hear his voice everywhere warned the environment threatened or violated human rights. His archive provides interesting ideas for historical research, especially the study of Parasitology in Italy and world...
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
Viola Feti
Boethius of Dacia's opera "De somnis" can be defined as a brief treaty that partially follows the traditional quaestio scheme. It includes a passage that seems to copy Etienne Tempier's proposition number sixty-five, which condemns the importance attributed to astrology by many medieval authors. Boethius moves off Aristotle's "De somno et vigilia" idea of physiological dreams to assert a new kind of oneiric phenomena linked to constellations, that, according to the author, aren't divinely inspired, whereas they are to be considered as natural events...
2015: Medicina Nei Secoli
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