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Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081961/environmental-factors-in-breast-cancer-invasion-a-mathematical-modelling-review
#1
REVIEW
Alex Simmons, Pamela M Burrage, Dan V Nicolau, Sunil R Lakhani, Kevin Burrage
This review presents a brief overview of breast cancer, focussing on its heterogeneity and the role of mathematical modelling and simulation in teasing apart the underlying biophysical processes. Following a brief overview of the main known pathophysiological features of ductal carcinoma, attention is paid to differential equation-based models (both deterministic and stochastic), agent-based modelling, multi-scale modelling, lattice-based models and image-driven modelling. A number of vignettes are presented where these modelling approaches have elucidated novel aspects of breast cancer dynamics, and we conclude by offering some perspectives on the role mathematical modelling can play in understanding breast cancer development, invasion and treatment therapies...
February 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069257/benign-breast-lesions-that-mimic-malignancy
#2
Vanda F Torous, Stuart J Schnitt, Laura C Collins
Many benign and reactive lesions of the breast show morphological overlap with malignant lesions. These benign mimics of malignancy often present diagnostic challenges to even the most experienced pathologists. This review focuses on several benign lesions of the breast that mimic malignant entities. For each of these lesions, we describe the key morphological and immunohistochemical features, potential diagnostic pitfalls, and our approach to arriving at the correct diagnosis.
February 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069256/current-topics-in-breast-pathology-expert-perspectives
#3
EDITORIAL
Jane E Dahlstrom, Emad A Rakha, Sunil R Lakhani, Stuart J Schnitt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065411/ki67-assessment-in-breast-cancer-an-update
#4
Frederique Penault-Llorca, Nina Radosevic-Robin
Although immunohistochemical detection of the Ki67 antigen has been used for many years to assess cancer proliferation, this marker is still not recommended for routine use in clinical management of breast cancer. The major reason for this situation is a lack of a standardised procedure for Ki67 assessment as well as persistence of several issues of debate with regards to the Ki67 assay interpretation and the marker's clinical utility. Nowadays Ki67 assessment is principally used for estimation of prognosis and guiding the decision on adjuvant treatment choice, as well as for prediction of response to neoadjuvant treatment in ER+/HER2- breast cancer...
February 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049579/tumour-infiltrating-lymphocytes-and-the-emerging-role-of-immunotherapy-in-breast-cancer
#5
Stephen J Luen, Peter Savas, Stephen B Fox, Roberto Salgado, Sherene Loi
Breast cancer has not previously been considered a highly immunogenic cancer. Observations of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in and around neoplastic cells in tumour samples, and associations with improved pathological complete response and clinical survival end points have changed our perspective on this. Lymphocytic infiltrates have long been observed in breast cancer; however, more recently, retrospective analysis of prospectively collected tissue samples from clinical trials has demonstrated the potential role of host immunosurveillance in influencing the biology of breast cancer...
February 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049578/vascular-tumours-of-the-breast-a-comprehensive-review-with-focus-on-diagnostic-challenges-encountered-in-the-core-biopsy-setting
#6
Paula S Ginter, Patrick J McIntire, Sandra J Shin
Vascular proliferations of the breast comprise a spectrum of benign and malignant lesions. In limited samples, such as core needle biopsies (CNB), these lesions may be difficult to distinguish due to significant overlap in morphological features. As the treatment and prognosis of these entities vary widely, it is important for pathologists to consider a complete differential diagnosis and correctly synthesise histological features, results of adjunctive immunohistochemical studies, and pertinent clinical and imaging information, to render an accurate diagnosis in such limited samples...
February 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043647/the-morphological-spectrum-of-salivary-gland-type-tumours-of-the-breast
#7
REVIEW
Maria P Foschini, Luca Morandi, Sofia Asioli, Gianluca Giove, Angelo G Corradini, Vincenzo Eusebi
Salivary gland like tumours of the breast constitute a wide spectrum of entities each one showing peculiar features and clinical behaviour. They can be subdivided as follows: (1) tumours showing pure myoepithelial cell differentiation, such as pure benign and malignant myoepitheliomas; (2) tumours with mixed epithelial and myoepithelial cell differentiation, such as pleomorphic adenoma, adenomyoepithelioma and adenoid cystic carcinoma; and (3) tumours with pure epithelial cell differentiation, such as acinic cell carcinoma, oncocytic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and polymorphous adenocarcinoma...
February 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040199/molecular-classification-of-breast-cancer-what-the-pathologist-needs-to-know
#8
Emad A Rakha, Andrew R Green
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease featuring distinct histological, molecular and clinical phenotypes. Although traditional classification systems utilising clinicopathological and few molecular markers are well established and validated, they remain insufficient to reflect the diverse biological and clinical heterogeneity of breast cancer. Advancements in high-throughput molecular techniques and bioinformatics have contributed to the improved understanding of breast cancer biology, refinement of molecular taxonomies and the development of novel prognostic and predictive molecular assays...
February 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040198/the-biological-and-clinical-significance-of-stromal-epithelial-interactions-in-breast-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Robert McCuaig, Fan Wu, Jenny Dunn, Sudha Rao, Jane E Dahlstrom
There is evidence that an aberrant tumour microenvironment (TME) facilitates cancer development, progression, and responses to treatment. While many of the mechanisms underlying the phenotype and cancer-promoting behaviour of the TME are unknown, epigenetic mechanisms in cancer cells and the TME are thought to play important roles. As a result, cancer profiling strategies for drug and biomarker development require a thorough understanding of both the epithelial tissue compartment and the TME. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of how cancer epithelial cells interact with their microenvironment and how this knowledge can be exploited clinically...
February 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034454/comprehensive-genomic-sequencing-and-the-molecular-profiles-of-clinically-advanced-breast-cancer
#10
Jeffrey S Ross, Laurie M Gay
Targeting specific mutations that have arisen within a tumour is a promising means of increasing the efficacy of treatments, and breast cancer is no exception to this new paradigm of personalised medicine. Traditional DNA sequencing methods used to characterise clinical cancer specimens and impact treatment decisions are highly sensitive, but are often limited in their scope to known mutational hot spots. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies can also test for these well-known hot spots, as well as identifying insertions and deletions, copy number changes such as ERBB2 (HER2) gene amplification, and a wide array of fusion or rearrangement events...
February 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034453/dna-damage-repair-in-breast-cancer-and-its-therapeutic-implications
#11
REVIEW
Reem Ali, Emad A Rakha, Srinivasan Madhusudan, Helen E Bryant
The DNA damage response (DDR) involves the activation of numerous cellular activities that repair DNA lesions and maintain genomic integrity, and is critical in preventing tumorigenesis. Inherited or acquired mutations in specific genes involved in the DNA damage response, for example the breast cancer susceptibility genes 1/2 (BRCA1/2), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and P53 are associated with various subtypes of breast cancer. Such changes can render breast cancer cells particularly sensitive to specific DNA damage response inhibitors, for example BRCA1/2 germline mutated cells are sensitive to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors...
February 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931720/a-rare-case-of-concurrent-myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-mpo-anca-associated-necrotising-and-crescentic-glomerulonephritis-and-membranous-glomerulonephritis
#12
LETTER
Chow Heok P'ng, Levina Dear, Richard Phoon, David Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931719/a-potential-pitfall-in-evaluating-her2-immunohistochemistry-for-gastric-signet-ring-cell-carcinomas
#13
Chang Gok Woo, Won Jin Ho, Young Soo Park, Sook Ryun Park, Min-Hee Ryu, Hwoon-Yong Jung, Yoon-Koo Kang
Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC) more commonly presents as metastatic disease and renders patients to be considered for chemotherapy. While treatment options are limited overall, trastuzumab has been shown to be effective for HER2 positive SRC cases. The current algorithm for HER2 evaluation heavily relies on positive membrane-specific staining by immunohistochemistry (IHC), but several anecdotal reports have suggested that SRCs may be susceptible to misinterpretation due to non-specific staining in the marginated cytoplasm with/without nucleus...
January 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923499/validation-of-34betae12-immunoexpression-in-clear-cell-papillary-renal-cell-carcinoma-as-a-sensitive-biomarker
#14
Guido Martignoni, Matteo Brunelli, Diego Segala, Enrico Munari, Stefano Gobbo, Luca Cima, Ioana Borze, Tina Wirtanen, Virinder Kaur Sarhadi, Lilit Atanesyan, Suvi Savola, Luisa Barzon, Giulia Masi, Matteo Fassan, John N Eble, Tom Bohling, Liang Cheng, Brett Delahunt, Sakari Knuutila
Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a recently recognised neoplasm with a broad spectrum of morphological characteristics, thus representing a challenging differential diagnosis, especially with the low malignant potential multicystic renal cell neoplasms and clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We selected 14 cases of CCPRCC with a wide spectrum of morphological features diagnosed on morphology and CK7 immunoreactivity and analysed them using a panel of immunohistochemical markers, focusing on 34βE12 and related CKs 1,5,10 and 14 and several molecular analyses such as fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH), VHL methylation, VHL and TCEB1 sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA)...
January 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916317/high-intratumoural-but-not-peritumoural-inflammatory-host-response-is-associated-with-better-prognosis-in-primary-resected-oesophageal-adenocarcinomas
#15
Alexandra V Stein, Bastian Dislich, Annika Blank, Lars Guldener, Dino Kröll, Christian A Seiler, Rupert Langer
The host inflammatory response plays an important role in many solid malignancies. Studies on oesophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs) point towards a beneficial role of pronounced immunoreaction, however, congruent results have yet to be obtained. We analysed 111 primary resected EAC using a tissue microarray containing three cores of the tumour centre and the periphery per case. Overall inflammation was assessed by histomorphology. Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were characterised by immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD8 and FoxP3, and evaluated by image analysis (Aperio ImageScope)...
January 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916316/melanotic-neuroectodermal-tumour-of-infancy-presenting-as-an-undifferentiated-round-cell-tumour-in-the-soft-tissue-of-the-forearm
#16
LETTER
David Creytens, Liesbeth Ferdinande, Evelyne Lecoutere, Jo Van Dorpe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914687/braf-nras-kit-tert-gnaq-gna11-mutation-profile-analysis-of-head-and-neck-mucosal-melanomas-a-study-of-42-cases
#17
Şule Öztürk Sari, İsmaİl Yilmaz, Orhun Çiğ Taşkin, Gİzem Narli, Fatma Şen, Şenol Çomoğlu, Pinar Firat, Bİlge Bİlgİç, Dİlek Yilmazbayhan, Yasemİn Özlük, Nesİmİ Büyükbabanİ
Head and neck mucosal melanoma (HNMuM), which occurs mostly in the sinonasal and oral cavity, constitutes less than 1% of all malignant melanomas. Treatment options fail to improve the prognosis of this aggressive tumour that has low overall survival rates. Thus, development of new targeted therapies is essential. Unfortunately, limited data exist regarding their molecular profile. BRAF, NRAS, KIT, TERT and GNAQ/GNA11 oncogene mutations were investigated in 42 HNMuMs (28 sinonasal, 13 oral, 1 nasopharyngeal)...
January 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914686/breakthrough-fusariosis-presenting-initially-with-pyomyositis
#18
LETTER
Andros Zhu, Swe Htet, Akash Kalro, Ferenc Szabo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914685/protein-gene-product-9-5-pgp9-5-expression-in-benign-cutaneous-mesenchymal-histiocytic-and-melanocytic-lesions-comparison-with-cellular-neurothekeoma
#19
Grace Y Wang, Rosalynn M Nazarian, Lili Zhao, Alexandra C Hristov, Rajiv M Patel, Douglas R Fullen, May P Chan
Cellular neurothekeoma (CNTK) frequently enters the differential diagnosis of a benign dermal cellular proliferation. Diagnosis often relies on immunohistochemistry including the use of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5). A previous study demonstrated PGP9.5 expression across a wide variety of soft tissue neoplasms. We explored the utility of this antibody in distinguishing CNTK from other benign dermal-based lesions. A cohort of CNTK (n=7) and benign cutaneous lesions of neural (n=28), fibrohistiocytic (n=23), fibroblastic (n=25), histiocytic (n=18), myofibroblastic (n=7), smooth muscle (n=14), and melanocytic (n=12) differentiations were immunostained with PGP9...
January 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914684/sickle-cell-disease-in-the-older-adult
#20
REVIEW
Mya S Thein, Norris E Igbineweka, Swee Lay Thein
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited haemoglobin disorder, associated with recurrent painful episodes, ongoing haemolytic anaemia and progressive multi-organ damage. Until the early 1990s, survival beyond the fourth decade for a patient with SCD was considered unusual and prompted case reports. Nowadays, in countries with developed health care systems, more than 90 percent of newborns with SCD survive into adulthood. Nevertheless, their life expectancy is still shortened by more than two decades compared to the general population...
January 2017: Pathology
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