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Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233547/the-developing-spectrum-of-gastric-type-cervical-glandular-lesions
#1
REVIEW
Karen L Talia, W Glenn McCluggage
Adenocarcinoma of the cervix is less common than squamous cell carcinoma, although its relative prevalence is increasing. Oncogenic (high-risk) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is implicated in the development of approximately 90% of all cervical adenocarcinomas. Of the remaining non-HPV associated tumours, the most frequent is gastric-type adenocarcinoma (GAS), which is recognised by the World Health Organization as a form of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) of mucinous type (adenoma malignum) is considered an extremely well differentiated variant of GAS and is encompassed within the category of GAS...
December 9, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199015/contemporary-prognostic-indicators-for-prostate-cancer-incorporating-international-society-of-urological-pathology-recommendations
#2
REVIEW
Lars Egevad, Brett Delahunt, Glen Kristiansen, Hemamali Samaratunga, Murali Varma
Prognostic assessment is a key element in the management of patients with prostate cancer as it informs both treatment, follow-up and outcome prediction. Tumour grade should be based upon the novel and evidence-based recommendations of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference of 2014, with ISUP grades 1-5 being derived from 2005 ISUP modified Gleason grading, i.e., ISUP grade 1 (3 + 3 = 6), grade 2 (3 + 4 = 7), grade 3 (4 + 3 = 7), grade 4 (3 + 5 = 8, 5 + 3 = 8, 4 + 4 = 8), and grade 5 (4 + 5 = 9 5 + 4 = 9, 5 + 5 = 10)...
November 30, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179906/diagnostic-challenges-in-papillary-lesions-of-the-breast
#3
REVIEW
Emad A Rakha, Ian O Ellis
Papillary lesions of the breast comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases ranging from benign and atypical lesions to malignant tumours including non-invasive and invasive entities. Although diagnosis of papillary lesions featuring typical histological features is straightforward, a proportion shows overlapping features, posing diagnostic challenges. In addition to being uncommon, the excellent behaviour of papillary tumours reduces the distinguishing value of individual histological features and increases the subjectivity of interpretation of various diagnostic features...
November 24, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179905/pathology-enters-its-golden-era
#4
EDITORIAL
Bruce Latham, Michael Harrison, Debra Graves
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169633/pathology-and-genetics-of-hereditary-colorectal-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Huiying Ma, Lodewijk A A Brosens, G Johan A Offerhaus, Francis M Giardiello, Wendy W J de Leng, Elizabeth A Montgomery
Colorectal cancer (CRC) accounts for over 8% of all deaths annually worldwide. Between 2 and 5% of all CRCs occur due to inherited syndromes, including Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenile polyposis and Cowden/PTEN hamartoma syndrome. In addition, serrated polyposis is a clinically defined condition characterised by multiple colorectal serrated polyps and an increased risk of CRC but the genetics are not known. In most hereditary CRC syndromes, polyps undergo carcinogenesis, but the exact route to carcinoma seems to differ between the conditions...
November 20, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167021/diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#6
REVIEW
Shaoying Li, Ken H Young, L Jeffrey Medeiros
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma worldwide, representing approximately 30-40% of all cases in different geographic regions. Patients most often present with a rapidly growing tumour mass in single or multiple, nodal or extranodal sites. The most common type of DLBCL, designated as not otherwise specified, represents 80-85% of all cases and is the focus of this review. There are also rare types of lymphoma composed of large B-cells, in aggregate about 15-20% of all neoplasms that are sufficiently distinctive to recognise separately...
November 19, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162288/pathology-50-years-on
#7
EDITORIAL
Brett Delahunt, Belinda Neill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132724/emerging-entities-in-renal-cell-neoplasia-thyroid-like-follicular-renal-cell-carcinoma-and-multifocal-oncocytoma-like-tumours-associated-with-oncocytosis
#8
REVIEW
John N Eble, Brett Delahunt
The list of accepted entities of renal cell neoplasia has burgeoned since the turn of the century through recognition of rare tumour types and the discovery of genetic mutations driving renal neoplasia syndromes. This growth has not finished and in this report we present examples of each of these types which were not included in the 2016 World Health Organization classification of renal neoplasia, but are candidates for inclusion in the next edition of the classification. Thyroid-like follicular renal cell carcinoma is a rare tumour type with a distinctive microscopic appearance resembling follicles of the thyroid gland...
November 10, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132723/ovarian-sex-cord-stromal-tumours-and-their-mimics
#9
REVIEW
Robert H Young
Sex cord-stromal tumours of the ovary include many of the most morphologically intriguing ovarian neoplasms and albeit many of them are rare, they factor into the differential diagnosis more often than their frequency might suggest. The most common malignant form, the adult granulosa cell tumour, may grossly simulate various surface epithelial neoplasms. Microscopically, confusion with endometrioid carcinoma may occur because the cords and microfollicles of the granulosa cell tumour may be mimicked by endometrioid carcinoma and the latter may have pale nuclei with nuclear grooves...
November 10, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132722/trajectories-of-premalignancy-during-the-journey-from-melanocyte-to-melanoma
#10
REVIEW
Andrew J Colebatch, Richard A Scolyer
A stepwise progression from melanocytic precursors to cutaneous melanoma is a well-established model, based on decades of careful observation and morphological analysis. The steps identified are benign melanocytic naevus, dysplastic naevus, 'radial growth phase' melanoma (including melanoma in situ) and 'vertical growth phase' melanoma (also termed tumourigenic melanoma). Recent genomic data have refined the understanding of the steps of melanoma development and their relationship to one another. These data support the existence of dysplastic naevi as distinct lesions; suggest the importance of clonal dynamics in the precursor steps of melanoma; and confirm the carcinogenic role of ultraviolet radiation throughout early melanoma development and progression...
November 10, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132721/endocrine-pathology-past-present-and-future
#11
REVIEW
Sylvia L Asa, Ozgur Mete
Endocrine pathology is the subspecialty of diagnostic pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterisation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the endocrine system. This relatively young subspecialty was initially focused mainly on thyroid and parathyroid pathology, with some participants also involved in studies of the pituitary, the endocrine pancreas, and the adrenal glands. However, the endocrine system involves much more than these traditional endocrine organs and the discipline has grown to encompass lesions of the dispersed neuroendocrine cells, including neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, thymus, breast and prostate, as well as paraganglia throughout the body, not just in the adrenals...
November 10, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129333/pitfalls-in-the-interpretation-of-specimens-from-patients-with-testicular-tumours-with-an-emphasis-on-variant-morphologies
#12
REVIEW
Thomas M Ulbright
Accurate diagnosis of primary and metastatic tumours is essential in testicular cancer. While many cases are straightforward, some pose difficulties, especially when variant morphologies occur. Seminoma with 'atypical' features, including increased nuclear pleomorphism and crowding and greater cytoplasmic density with loss of membrane definition, mimics embryonal carcinoma, although ancillary features (fibrous septa, lymphocytes) and immunohistochemistry are of great help. Other deceptive seminoma features include prominent to exclusive intertubular growth, microcystic/tubular patterns, and signet-ring tumour cells...
November 9, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108654/atypical-cutaneous-melanocytic-tumours-arising-in-two-patients-with-li-fraumeni-syndrome
#13
LETTER
Julien Jacquemus, Emilie Perron, Daniel Pissaloux, Laurent Alberti, Arnaud de la Fouchardière
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102510/secondary-haemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-a-young-adult
#14
LETTER
Jayson Moloney, Matthew Denton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100713/a-hrm-assay-for-identification-of-low-level-braf-v600e-and-v600k-mutations-using-the-cadma-principle-in-ffpe-specimens
#15
Claudia Huebner, Remeny Weber, Richard Lloydd
Melanoma patients with BRAF V600E and V600K mutations show complete or partial response to vemurafenib. Detection assays often scan for the common V600E mutation rather than the rare V600K variant, although this mutation can be found in a high proportion of melanoma patients in the South Pacific. Herein, we describe a BRAF high resolution melting (HRM) assay that can differentiate low level of V600E and V600K mutations using formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) reference standards for assay validation. The assay is based on the competitive amplification of differentially melting amplicons (CADMA principle) and has a limit of detection of 0...
October 31, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096880/multi-organ-vaso-occlusive-disease-buerger-s-or-kohlmeier-degos-disease
#16
LETTER
Shi Z Choo, Ian Simpson, Moira J Finlay, William R Mulley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096879/non-invasive-fetal-rhd-genotyping-for-rhd-negative-women-stratified-into-rhd-gene-deletion-or-variant-groups-comparative-accuracy-using-two-blood-collection-tube-types
#17
Catherine A Hyland, Glenda M Millard, Helen O'Brien, Elizna M Schoeman, Genghis H Lopez, Eunike C McGowan, Anne Tremellen, Rachel Puddephatt, Kirsten Gaerty, Robert L Flower, Jonathan A Hyett, Glenn J Gardener
Non-invasive fetal RHD genotyping in Australia to reduce anti-D usage will need to accommodate both prolonged sample transport times and a diverse population demographic harbouring a range of RHD blood group gene variants. We compared RHD genotyping accuracy using two blood sample collection tube types for RhD negative women stratified into deleted RHD gene haplotype and RHD gene variant cohorts. Maternal blood samples were collected into EDTA and cell-free (cf)DNA stabilising (BCT) tubes from two sites, one interstate...
October 30, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110880/primary-pulmonary-myxoid-sarcoma-a-potential-mimic-of-metastatic-extraskeletal-myxoid-chondrosarcoma
#18
LETTER
Roh Yanagida, Bonnie L Balzer, Robert J Mckenna, Clark B Fuller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110879/a-diagnostic-approach-to-bone-tumours
#19
REVIEW
Adrienne M Flanagan, Daniel Lindsay
In this review we discuss an approach to diagnosing primary bone tumours, namely the cartilaginous, bone-forming, giant cell-rich, fibro-osseous and round cell neoplasms. Less common lesions including chordoma are also discussed. The value of integrating clinical, histopathological and relevant radiological features is emphasised with a view to providing the general histopathologist with a methodical approach to reaching an accurate diagnosis.
October 27, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102042/the-prognostic-value-of-cancer-stem-like-cell-markers-sox2-and-cd133-in-stage-iii-colon-cancer-is-modified-by-expression-of-the-immune-related-markers-foxp3-pd-l1-and-cd3
#20
T J Miller, M J McCoy, C Hemmings, M K Bulsara, B Iacopetta, C F Platell
Cancer stem-like cells are highly tumourigenic cells that can repopulate entire tumours after apparent successful treatment. Recent evidence suggests they interact with other cells in the tumour microenvironment, including immune cell subsets, to enhance their survival. The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression of immune cell markers in primary colon cancer impacts the prognostic significance of cancer stem-like cell marker expression. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the expression of putative stem cell markers (ALDH1, CD44v6, CD133, Lgr5, SOX2) and immune cell related markers (CD3, CD8, FoxP3, PD-L1) in 104 patients with stage III colon cancer...
October 25, 2017: Pathology
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