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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449000/an-immunohistochemical-and-molecular-analysis-of-papillary-proliferation-of-the-endometrium
#1
Colin J R Stewart, Susan Bigby, Tino Giardina, Fabienne Grieu-Iacopetta, Benhur Amanuel
Papillary proliferations of the endometrium (PPEs) are uncommon lesions that are often associated with endometrial polyps. PPEs occasionally precede or co-exist with atypical endometrial hyperplasia or adenocarcinoma, but their pathogenesis and relationship to endometrial neoplasia is uncertain. In the present study 11 PPEs, including eight benign papillary proliferations (BPPs) and three complex papillary hyperplasias (CPHs) were examined immunohistochemically for expression of PAX2, BAF250a, p16, β-catenin and DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins...
February 12, 2018: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448999/quantitative-perineural-invasion-is-a-prognostic-marker-in-prostate-cancer
#2
Sabine Lubig, Thore Thiesler, Stefan Müller, Roland Vorreuther, Norbert Leipner, Glen Kristiansen
This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of a quantitative, detailed, yet practical analysis of perineural invasion in radical prostatectomy specimens in a high-risk prostate cancer cohort. A total of 114 patients with prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy between 2000 and 2013 were analysed. Using S100 protein immunohistochemistry assisted in the detection of nerves. In the area of closest proximity of the tumour to the dorso-lateral margins, nerves were counted and the infiltration of nerves was categorised (0-3)...
February 12, 2018: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448998/cardiac-amyloidosis-from-clinical-suspicion-to-morphological-diagnosis
#3
REVIEW
Pavla Flodrova, Patrik Flodr, Tomas Pika, Jiri Vymetal, Dusan Holub, Petr Dzubak, Marian Hajduch, Vlastimil Scudla
Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by extracellular accumulation of amyloid in various tissues and organs of the body, leading to alteration and destruction of tissues. Heart involvement is the most important prognostic factor in patients with systemic amyloidosis and the diagnosis and typing of amyloid must be made properly. The clinical picture shows congestive heart failure with predominant right-sided heart failure symptoms in fully developed disease, various types of arrhythmias and characteristic electrocardiography and echocardiography findings...
February 12, 2018: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429740/an-automated-staining-protocol-for-seven-colour-immunofluorescence-of-human-tissue-sections-for-diagnostic-and-prognostic-use
#4
Jeffrey Chun Tatt Lim, Joe Poh Sheng Yeong, Chun Jye Lim, Clara Chong Hui Ong, Siew Cheng Wong, Valerie Suk Peng Chew, Syed Salahuddin Ahmed, Puay Hoon Tan, Jabed Iqbal
Multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF) allows simultaneous antibody-based detection and quantification of the expression of up to six markers, plus a nuclear counterstain, on a single tissue section. Recent studies have shown the potential for mIF to advance our understanding of complex disease processes, including cancer. It is important that the technique be standardised and validated to facilitate its transition into clinical use. Traditional approaches to mIF rely on manual processing of sections, which is time-consuming and a source of significant variation between samples/individuals...
February 8, 2018: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428179/the-diagnosis-of-mucinous-lesions-in-endometrial-samplings-by-gynaecological-pathologists-an-analysis%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-diagnostic-reproducibility
#5
Oluwole Fadare, Andres A Roma, Paulette Mhawech-Fauceglia, Vinita Parkash, Joseph T Rabban
The purpose of this study is to assess the reproducibility among gynaecological pathologists in their diagnosis of mucinous alterations in endometrial sampling specimens. Twenty-six cases were independently reviewed by four experienced gynaecological pathologists from four academic medical centres. Pathologists were asked to classify each case into one of four groups, including three World Health Organization (WHO)-recognised categories: (1) mucinous metaplasia; (2) atypical mucinous glandular proliferation; (3) carcinoma; and (4) 'other' (absence of a true mucinous alteration and/or an alteration of non-endometrial origin)...
February 8, 2018: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373116/uncommon-hereditary-gynaecological-tumour-syndromes-pathological-features-in-tumours-that-may-predict-risk-for-a-germline-mutation
#6
REVIEW
Karuna Garg, Anthony N Karnezis, Joseph T Rabban
The most common hereditary gynaecological tumour syndromes are hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome and Lynch syndrome. However, pathologists also may encounter gynaecological tumours in women with rare hereditary syndromes. Many of these tumours exhibit distinctive gross and microscopic features that are associated with a risk for an inherited gene mutation. The sensitivity and specificity of these tumour pathology features for predicting an inherited mutation vary depending on the syndrome. By recognising these tumour features, pathologists may potentially contribute to the diagnosis of an unsuspected syndrome by recommending referral of the patient for formal risk assessment by genetic counselling...
January 17, 2018: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336823/a-reliable-and-easy-to-transport-quality-control-method-for-chlamydia-and-gonorrhoea-molecular-point-of-care-testing
#7
S G Badman, L M Causer, R Guy, H Wand, B Donovan, S N Tabrizi, D Speers, M D Shephard, A Vallely, D Whiley
Quality control (QC) is an essential component of point-of-care testing programs. In the context of a randomised-controlled trial (TTANGO) using GeneXpert (Xpert) Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (CT/NG) point-of-care testing in remote areas of Australia, we aimed to develop and utilise a stable positive control material. Bacterial cultures of CT and NG were resuspended together to provide cycle threshold (Ct) values of approximately 25 cycles for both CT and NG when tested on the Xpert CT/NG assay...
January 11, 2018: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289348/prognostic-indicators-in-ovarian-serous-borderline-tumours
#8
REVIEW
Anais Malpica, Teri A Longacre
There have been great strides in our understanding of the serous group of borderline and malignant pelvic epithelial neoplasms in the past decade. While most serous borderline tumours have a favourable prognosis, recurrences and progression to carcinoma occur, often following a protracted clinical course. Clinical and pathological risk factors tend to co-vary, but the presence and type of extraovarian disease is the most important predictor for progression. Progression usually takes the form of low-grade serous carcinoma, although transformation to high-grade carcinoma is occasionally seen...
December 28, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287922/gynaecological-neoplasms-in-common-familial-syndromes-lynch-and-hboc
#9
REVIEW
Carla Bartosch, Blaise Clarke, Tjalling Bosse
Recognising hereditary predisposition in a cancer patient has implications both for the patient and the patient's kindred. For the latter, cascade germline testing can reassure those not-at-risk family members while carriers can be enrolled in cancer screening and prevention programs that are medically effective and economically sustainable for health care systems. Furthermore, in many of these syndromes, ramifications of molecular phenotypes are increasing, and it is now emerging that, in addition, they convey prognostic and predictive information...
December 26, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275930/ovarian-sex-cord-stromal-tumours-an-update-in-recent-molecular-advances
#10
REVIEW
Diana Lim, Esther Oliva
Sex cord-stromal tumours (SCSTs) consist of a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with diverse clinicopathological features and biological behaviour. They often present as a diagnostic challenge as they have varied and occasionally overlapping histomorphology and some may even mimic non-SCSTs. An accurate diagnosis is important for therapeutic and prognostic purposes. The use of a panel of immunohistochemical markers which are sensitive and specific for sex cord-stromal differentiation such as α-inhibin, calretinin, SF-1 and FOXL2, may be helpful in confirming the cellular lineage of these tumours, but is of limited utility in distinguishing between the different tumour types within this category...
December 21, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275929/endometrial-stromal-sarcomas-and-related-neoplasms-new-developments-and-diagnostic-considerations
#11
REVIEW
Lien Hoang, Sarah Chiang, Cheng-Han Lee
Our understanding of endometrial stromal sarcomas has evolved dramatically since their earliest descriptions from over a century ago. Initial studies focused on establishing the relationship between histological appearances of endometrial stromal sarcomas and their clinical outcomes. Studies performed in the last decade have uncovered several recurrent cytogenetic aberrations occurring in low- and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas bear close histopathological resemblance to proliferative-type endometrial stroma, and approximately half harbour t(7;17)(p15;q21) resulting in JAZF1-SUZ12 gene fusion...
December 21, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29269125/targeted-molecular-profiling-reveals-genetic-heterogeneity-of-poromas-and-porocarcinomas
#12
Martina Bosic, Martina Kirchner, Dimitrije Brasanac, Jonas Leichsenring, Amelie Lier, Anna-Lena Volckmar, Cristiano Oliveira, Ivo Buchhalter, Fabian Stögbauer, Snezana Zivkovic-Perisic, Benjamin Goeppert, Peter Schirmacher, Roland Penzel, Volker Endris, Albrecht Stenzinger
The genetic landscape of rare benign tumours and their malignant counterparts is still largely unexplored. While recent work showed that mutant HRAS is present in subsets of poromas and porocarcinomas, a more comprehensive genetic view on these rare adnexal neoplasms is lacking. Using high-coverage next generation sequencing, we investigated the mutational profile of 50 cancer-related genes in 12 cases (six poromas and six porocarcinomas). Non-synonymous mutations were found in two-thirds of both poromas and porocarcinomas...
December 18, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29269124/mesonephric-proliferations-of-the-female-genital-tract
#13
REVIEW
Brooke E Howitt, Marisa R Nucci
The mesonephric (Wolffian) duct regresses in females during embryological development. Remnants of this duct may persist typically along the lateral walls of the cervix, vagina, adnexa, and uterine corpus. These mesonephric epithelia may expand into hyperplastic proliferations and rarely form neoplasms. The spectrum of morphology, immunophenotype, clinical presentation, and molecular characteristics of mesonephric lesions is reviewed, with attention to distinction from entities in the differential diagnosis...
December 18, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258703/gynaecological-pathology-problematic-areas-new-concepts-and-emerging-developments
#14
EDITORIAL
W Glenn McCluggage, Esther Oliva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 16, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249564/synchronous-tumours-of-the-female-reproductive-tract
#15
REVIEW
C Blake Gilks, Friedrich Kommoss
Many ovarian endometrioid carcinomas present with concurrent endometrial carcinoma, and these organ-confined, low-grade synchronous endometrial and ovarian tumours consistently behave as independent primary tumours, rather than a single advanced-stage carcinoma; they are associated with a very favourable prognosis and there is no need for adjuvant treatment. This phenomenon of synchronous tumours involving two or more sites within the female reproductive tract is well recognised, occurring in 1-2% of cases...
December 14, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246451/molecular-insights-into-the-classification-of-high-grade-endometrial-carcinoma
#16
REVIEW
Yaser R Hussein, Robert A Soslow
Endometrial carcinoma, which is associated with a mortality rate of approximately 20%, is the most common gynecological malignancy in the Western world. It is a heterogeneous disease, with multiple histotypes, each constituting a different disease entity. However, interobserver diagnostic agreement is suboptimal, particularly among the most lethal histotypes. Most recent data also indicate that histotype assignment is not independently associated with survival, while in contrast, clinicopathological risk stratification and genomic classification are significantly prognostic...
December 12, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241974/endometriosis-associated-ovarian-neoplasia
#17
REVIEW
Xavier Matias-Guiu, Colin J R Stewart
This article reviews the most relevant pathological and molecular features of ovarian tumours that are associated with endometriosis. Endometriosis is a common condition, affecting 5-15% of all women, and it has been estimated that 0.5-1% of cases are complicated by neoplasia. The most common malignant tumours in this setting are endometrioid adenocarcinoma and clear cell adenocarcinoma, each accounting for approximately 10% of ovarian carcinomas in Western countries. A minority of cases are associated with Lynch syndrome...
December 11, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241973/pattern-based-classification-of-endocervical-adenocarcinoma-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Kay J Park, Andres A Roma
While endocervical adenocarcinoma is comprised of several histological subtypes, the most common subtype is human papillomavirus-associated usual type, and management of these tumours is primarily determined by FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage, a clinically based staging system. Early stage cervical cancer is determined by the pathological evaluation of tumour microscopic measurement (depth of invasion), which can be particularly challenging because of the lack of a defined point of origin...
December 11, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233547/the-developing-spectrum-of-gastric-type-cervical-glandular-lesions
#19
REVIEW
Karen L Talia, W Glenn McCluggage
Adenocarcinoma of the cervix is less common than squamous cell carcinoma, although its relative prevalence is increasing. Oncogenic (high-risk) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is implicated in the development of approximately 90% of all cervical adenocarcinomas. Of the remaining non-HPV associated tumours, the most frequent is gastric-type adenocarcinoma (GAS), which is recognised by the World Health Organization as a form of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) of mucinous type (adenoma malignum) is considered an extremely well differentiated variant of GAS and is encompassed within the category of GAS...
December 9, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199015/contemporary-prognostic-indicators-for-prostate-cancer-incorporating-international-society-of-urological-pathology-recommendations
#20
REVIEW
Lars Egevad, Brett Delahunt, Glen Kristiansen, Hemamali Samaratunga, Murali Varma
Prognostic assessment is a key element in the management of patients with prostate cancer as it informs both treatment, follow-up and outcome prediction. Tumour grade should be based upon the novel and evidence-based recommendations of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference of 2014, with ISUP grades 1-5 being derived from 2005 ISUP modified Gleason grading, i.e., ISUP grade 1 (3 + 3 = 6), grade 2 (3 + 4 = 7), grade 3 (4 + 3 = 7), grade 4 (3 + 5 = 8, 5 + 3 = 8, 4 + 4 = 8), and grade 5 (4 + 5 = 9 5 + 4 = 9, 5 + 5 = 10)...
November 30, 2017: Pathology
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