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Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis

Matthew T Brodhead, Gina Warren Abston, Meredith Mates, Emily A Abel
We compared the results of a brief video-based multiple-stimulus without replacement preference assessment with no access to chosen activities (MSWO-NO) to the results of the same assessment with access (MSWO-WA) with four children with autism. We also compared instructor rankings of activities to MSWO-WA results. Strong to moderate correlations between MSWO-NO and MSWO-WA assessment results were found across all participants. The correlation between MSWO-WA and instructor rankings ranged from strong to low across all participants...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Claire Spieler, Raymond Miltenberger
This study evaluated the effectiveness of awareness training for the reduction of three nervous habits that manifest during public speaking: filled pauses, tongue clicks, and inappropriate use of the word "like." Four university students delivered short speeches during baseline and assessment sessions. Awareness training resulted in meaningful reductions in target behaviors for all participants. Booster awareness training sessions were necessary for all participants to achieve further reductions in target behaviors...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jorge R Reyes, Timothy R Vollmer, Astrid Hall
We compared outcomes of arousal and preference assessments for five adult male alleged sexual offenders with intellectual disabilities. Arousal assessments involved the use of the penile plethysmograph to measure changes in penile circumference to both deviant (males and females under the age of 18) and nondeviant (males and females over the age of 18) video clips. Paired-stimulus preference assessments were arranged to present still images from the video clips used in the arousal assessments. Results showed correspondence between the assessments for four out of the five participants...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Mark R Dixon, Jordan Belisle, Caleb R Stanley, Ryan C Speelman, Kyle E Rowsey, Dena Kime, Jacob H Daar
The purpose of the study was to evaluate a procedure to generate derived categorical responding by three children with disabilities and to promote the emergence of untrained intraverbal categorical responses. In the study, three 4-member equivalence classes including three stimuli (A, B, and C) and a category name (D) for each class were trained using a match-to-sample procedure. Test probes were conducted for categorical responding, including both a trained (D-A) and two derived (D-B, D-C) relational responses, as well as the emergence of untrained intraverbal categorical responding (D-A/B/C) throughout the study...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Alison D Cox, Javier Virues-Ortega, Flavia Julio, Toby L Martin
Excessive motion makes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) extremely challenging among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The medical risks of sedation establish the need for behavioral interventions to promote motion control among children with ASD undergoing MRI scans. We present a series of experiments aimed at establishing both tolerance of the MRI environment and a level of motion control that would be compatible with a successful MRI. During Study 1, we evaluated the effects of prompting and contingent reinforcement on compliance with a sequence of successive approximations to an MRI using a mock MRI...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Allison Levy, Iser G DeLeon, Catherine K Martinez, Nathalie Fernandez, Nicholas A Gage, Sigurdur Óli Sigurdsson, Michelle A Frank-Crawford
The overjustification hypothesis suggests that extrinsic rewards undermine intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic rewards are common in strengthening behavior in persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities; we examined overjustification effects in this context. A literature search yielded 65 data sets permitting comparison of responding during an initial no-reinforcement phase to a subsequent no-reinforcement phase, separated by a reinforcement phase. We used effect sizes to compare response levels in these two no-reinforcement phases...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Matthew R Capriotti, Jennifer E Turkel, Rachel A Johnson, Flint M Espil, Douglas W Woods
Chronic tic disorders (CTDs) involve motor and/or vocal tics that often cause substantial distress and impairment. Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) schedules of reinforcement produce robust, but incomplete, reductions in tic frequency in youth with CTDs; however, a more robust reduction may be needed to affect durable clinical change. Standard, fixed-amount DRO schedules have not commonly yielded such reductions, so we evaluated a novel, progressive-amount DRO schedule, based on its ability to facilitate sustained abstinence from functionally similar behaviors...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Brittany Pennington, Jennifer J McComas
The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a well-researched classroom group contingency, is typically played for brief periods of time, which raises questions about the effects on subsequent contexts. This study used a multiple baseline design and showed that when the GBG was implemented in one context, behavior improved in only that context. Behavior improved in the subsequent activity only when the GBG was implemented.
October 10, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Alan Poling, Emilio Valverde, Negussie Beyene, Christiaan Mulder, Christophe Cox, Georgies Mgode, Timothy L Edwards
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major problem in poor countries because sensitive diagnostic tools are unavailable. In 2014, our pouched rats evaluated sputum from 21,600 Tanzanians and 9,048 Mozambicans whose sputum had previously been evaluated by microscopy, the standard diagnostic for TB. Evaluation by the rats revealed 1,412 new patients with active TB in Tanzania and 645 new patients in Mozambique, increases of 39% and 53%, respectively, when compared to detections by microscopy alone. These results provide further support for the applied use of scent-detecting rats...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Tom Cariveau, Tiffany Kodak
Low levels of academic engagement may impede students' acquisition of skills. Intervening on student behavior using group contingencies may be a feasible way to increase academic engagement during group instruction. The current study examined the effect of a randomized dependent group contingency on levels of academic engagement for second-grade participants receiving small-group reading and writing instruction. The results showed that a randomized dependent group contingency increased the academic engagement of primary participants and several of the other participants during small-group instruction...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Lina M Majdalany, David A Wilder, Jesse Allgood, Latasha Sturkie
We evaluated a preliminary method for examining the antecedent and consequent contributions to noncompliance exhibited by two children with disabilities. In Phase 1, we assessed whether noncompliance was a result of a skill deficit. For one participant, we then conducted a functional analysis to determine the variables maintaining noncompliance in Phase 2. In Phase 3, we conducted a treatment evaluation to increase compliance for each participant. We identified the antecedent and consequent variables responsible for noncompliance and developed an effective intervention for both participants...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
John C Ward-Horner, Mirela Cengher, Robert K Ross, Daniel M Fienup
Recent research has demonstrated that some participants prefer to complete a larger series of responses in exchange for a longer duration of reinforcer access, rather than completing fewer tasks associated with smaller, but more frequent, reinforcer access. This review provides a summary of this line of research, examines variables contributing to participant preference and performance under different response-reinforcer arrangements, and discusses limitations and areas for future research.
October 4, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Amy R Richardson, Dorothea C Lerman, Melissa A Nissen, Kally M Luck, Ashley E Neal, Shimin Bao, Loukia Tsami
Sight-word instruction can be a useful supplement to phonics-based methods under some circumstances. Nonetheless, few studies have evaluated the conditions under which pictures may be used successfully to teach sight-word reading. In this study, we extended prior research by examining two potential strategies for reducing the effects of overshadowing when using picture prompts. Five children with developmental disabilities and two typically developing children participated. In the first experiment, the therapist embedded sight words within pictures but gradually faded in the pictures as needed using a least-to-most prompting hierarchy...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jessica D Slaton, Gregory P Hanley
We evaluated rates of automatically reinforced stereotypy and item engagement for 2 children with autism under multiple and chained schedules in a multielement design. Each schedule included components during which stereotypy was blocked (S-) or allowed (S+), and we used colored cards as schedule-correlated stimuli. We report rates of stereotypy and item engagement during S- and S+ components, as well as the percentage of component time that elapsed before the first instances of stereotypy and item engagement...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Tara A Fahmie, Brian A Iwata, Sarah C Mead
Although decades of research on functional analysis methodology have identified common contingencies that maintain problem behavior and effective interventions, relatively little research has been conducted on strategies to prevent the initial development of problem behavior. We conducted a 2-part case study, the purposes of which were to illustrate the use of sensitivity tests as the bases for intervention (Study 1) and subsequently to assess the efficacy of a prevention strategy using a single-subject design (Study 2)...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Marnie Shapiro, Ellie Kazemi, Meline Pogosjana, Denice Rios, Melissa Mendoza
We examined the effects of a self-instructional and feedback package on participants' implementation of a paired-stimulus preference assessment. Specifically, in Experiment 1, we used a multiple baseline design across participants to replicate and extend the results of Graff and Karsten (2012) by evaluating the effectiveness of their self-instructional manual. A majority of the participants (i.e., 5 of 7 undergraduate students and 4 of 5 in-home behavior technicians) achieved mastery with the self-instructional package...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Megan R Heinicke, James E Carr, Sacha T Pence, Danika R Zias, Amber L Valentino, John M Falligant
Past research has demonstrated that pictorial preference assessments can predict subsequent reinforcement effects for individuals with developmental disabilities only when access to the selected stimulus is provided contingent on a pictorial selection. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess more comprehensively the feasibility of the pictorial format with children with developmental disabilities. In Experiment 1, prerequisite skill assessments were conducted, and the role of a contingent reinforcer was assessed by comparing the results from the pictorial assessment without contingent access to a reinforcer assessment...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
April N Kisamore, Amanda M Karsten, Charlotte C Mann
Reciprocal conversations, instructional activities, and other social interactions are replete with multiply controlled intraverbals, examples of which have been conceptualized in terms of conditional discriminations. Although the acquisition of conditional discriminations has been examined extensively in the behavior-analytic literature, little research has evaluated procedures to establish multiply controlled intraverbals. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of procedures based on conditional discrimination training on the acquisition of multiply controlled intraverbals with 7 participants who had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Nathan A Call, Sarah J Miller, Joslyn Cynkus Mintz, Joanna Lomas Mevers, Mindy C Scheithauer, Julie E Eshelman, Gracie A Beavers
Unlike potential tangible positive reinforcers, which are typically identified for inclusion in functional analyses empirically using preference assessments, demands are most often selected arbitrarily or based on caregiver report. The present study evaluated the use of a demand assessment with 12 participants who exhibited escape-maintained problem behavior. Participants were exposed to 10 demands, with aversiveness measured by average latency to the first instance of problem behavior. In subsequent functional analyses, results of a demand condition that included the demand with the shortest latency to problem behavior resulted in identification of an escape function for 11 of the participants...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Sarah E Frampton, Sarah C Wymer, Bethany Hansen, M Alice Shillingsburg
Matrix training consists of planning instruction by arranging components of desired skills across 2 axes. After training with diagonal targets that each combine 2 unique skill components, responses to nondiagonal targets, consisting of novel combinations of the components, may emerge. A multiple-probe design across participants was used to evaluate matrix training with known nouns (e.g., cat) and verbs (e.g., jumping) with 5 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Following baseline of Matrix 1 and a generalization matrix, diagonal targets within Matrix 1 were trained as noun-verb combinations (e...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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