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Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332715/teaching-identity-matching-of-braille-characters-to-beginning-braille-readers
#1
Karen A Toussaint, Mindy C Scheithauer, Jeffrey H Tiger, Kathryn J Saunders
We taught three children with visual impairments to make tactile discriminations of the braille alphabet within a matching-to-sample format. That is, we presented participants with a braille character as a sample stimulus, and they selected the matching stimulus from a three-comparison array. In order to minimize participant errors, we initially arranged braille characters into training sets in which there was a maximum difference in the number of dots comprising the target and nontarget comparison stimuli...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332710/improving-the-interview-skills-of-college-students-using-behavioral-skills-training
#2
Corey S Stocco, Rachel H Thompson, John M Hart, Heidi L Soriano
Obtaining a job as a college graduate is partly dependent on interview performance. We used a multiple baseline design across skills to evaluate the effects of behavioral skills training with self-evaluation for five college students. Training effects were evaluated using simulated interviews as baseline and posttraining assessments. All participants acquired targeted skills, but we observed some individual differences. Participants were satisfied with training outcomes and rated the procedures as acceptable...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304093/interview-informed-functional-analyses-a-comparison-of-synthesized-and-isolated-components
#3
Jessica D Slaton, Gregory P Hanley, Katherine J Raftery
Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, and Hanratty (2014) described a functional analysis (FA) format that relied on a synthesis of multiple contingencies described by caregivers during open-ended interviews. These interview-informed synthesized contingency analyses (IISCA) provided effective baselines from which to develop socially validated treatments, but the synthesis precluded a precise understanding of individual contingencies influencing problem behavior. We conducted IISCAs and standard FAs (Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1982/1994) for nine children with autism to evaluate the likelihood of differentiation given a number of synthesized versus isolated variables...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276581/application-of-the-matching-law-to-pitch-selection-in-professional-baseball
#4
David J Cox, Jacob Sosine, Jesse Dallery
This study applied the generalized matching equation (GME) to pitch selection in professional baseball. The GME was fitted to the relation between pitch selection and hitter outcomes for five professional baseball pitchers during the 2014 Major League Baseball season. The GME described pitch selection well. Pitch allocation varied across different game contexts such as inning, count, and number of outs in a manner consistent with the GME. Finally, within games, bias decreased for four of the five pitchers and the sensitivity parameter increased for three of the five pitchers...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276578/persistence-during-and-resurgence-following-noncontingent-reinforcement-implemented-with-and-without-extinction
#5
Valdeep Saini, Wayne W Fisher, Maegan D Pisman
Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is typically implemented with extinction (EXT) for destructive behavior reinforced by social consequences and without EXT for destructive behavior reinforced by sensory consequences. Behavioral momentum theory (BMT) predicts that responding will be more persistent, and treatment relapse in the form of response resurgence more likely, when NCR is implemented without EXT due to the greater overall rate of reinforcement associated with this intervention. We used an analogue arrangement to test these predictions of BMT by comparing NCR implemented with and without EXT...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276573/preference-and-reinforcer-efficacy-of-high-and-low-tech-items-a-comparison-of-item-type-and-duration-of-access
#6
Audrey N Hoffmann, Andrew L Samaha, Sarah E Bloom, Megan A Boyle
This study examined the interactions of stimulus type (high- vs. low-tech) and magnitude (duration of access) on preference and reinforcer efficacy. Two preference assessments were conducted to identify highly preferred high-tech and low-tech items for each participant. A subsequent assessment examined preference for those items when provided at 30-s and 600-s durations. We then evaluated reinforcer efficacy for those same items when provided for a range of durations using progressive-ratio schedules. Results suggested item type and access duration interacted to influence preference and reinforcer efficacy...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211949/internet-based-self-tailored-deposit-contracts-to-promote-smoking-reduction-and-abstinence
#7
Brantley P Jarvis, Jesse Dallery
Deposit contracting may reduce costs and increase efficacy in contingency management interventions. We evaluated two Internet-based deposit contract arrangements for smoking. In Experiment 1, nine participants deposited self-selected amounts that could be earned back for meeting goals. During treatment, participants were reimbursed for breath samples with less than or equal to 6 parts per million carbon monoxide and met the criterion for 47% of samples compared to 1% during baseline. In Experiment 2, 10 participants' deposits were matched up to $50...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211940/instructive-feedback-embedded-within-group-instruction-for-children-diagnosed-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Justin B Leaf, Joseph H Cihon, Aditt Alcalay, Erin Mitchell, Donna Townley-Cochran, Kevin Miller, Ronald Leaf, Mitchell Taubman, John McEachin
The present study evaluated the effects of instructive feedback embedded within a group discrete trial teaching to teach tact relations to nine children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder using a nonconcurrent multiple-baseline design. Dependent variables included correct responses for: primary targets (directly taught), secondary targets (taught via instructive feedback), primary observational targets (directly taught to other members of the group), and secondary observational targets (taught via instructive feedback provided to other members of the group)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211576/a-multidisciplinary-treatment-for-encopresis-in-children-with-developmental-disabilities
#9
Nathan A Call, Joanna Lomas Mevers, Barbara O McElhanon, Mindy C Scheithauer
Achieving continence of one's bowel movements is a key step in development and failure to do so leads to many negative consequences. Treatments for encopresis appearing in the literature have employed behavioral strategies; medications such as suppositories, laxatives, or enemas; and in some studies a combination of these approaches. To date, attempts to extend successful treatments for encopresis in typically developing children to those with developmental disabilities have been limited. The current study included three participants diagnosed with developmental disabilities who had a history of encopresis...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177122/assessment-and-treatment-of-automatically-reinforced-self-induced-emesis
#10
Kara L Wunderlich, Timothy R Vollmer, Karla A Zabala
Frequent emesis can cause substantial deleterious effects to a child's health and environment. We conducted a functional analysis of a 3-year-old girl's self-induced emesis and confirmed that emesis was maintained by automatic reinforcement. In a reversal design, we evaluated the efficacy of implementing response blocking at 100% and 50% treatment integrity levels on both attempts and successful production of emesis. One hundred percent blocking, but not 50% blocking, was successful in reducing attempts and emesis below baseline levels...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177118/noncontingent-reinforcement-for-the-treatment-of-severe-problem-behavior-an-analysis-of-27-consecutive-applications
#11
Cara L Phillips, Julia A Iannaccone, Griffin W Rooker, Louis P Hagopian
Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is a commonly used treatment for severe problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The current study sought to extend the literature by reporting outcomes achieved with 27 consecutive applications of NCR as the primary treatment for severe problem behavior. All applications of NCR were included regardless of treatment outcome to minimize selection bias favoring successful cases. Participants ranged in age from 5 to 33 years. We analyzed the results across behavioral function and with regard to the use of functional versus alternative reinforcers...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177117/recent-research-on-the-high-probability-instructional-sequence-a-brief-review
#12
REVIEW
Joshua Lipschultz, David A Wilder
The high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence consists of the delivery of a series of high-probability instructions immediately before delivery of a low-probability or target instruction. It is commonly used to increase compliance in a variety of populations. Recent research has described variations of the high-p instructional sequence and examined the conditions under which the sequence is most effective. This manuscript reviews the most recent research on the sequence and identifies directions for future research...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128451/teaching-complex-verbal-operants-to-children-with-autism-and-establishing-generalization-using-the-peak-curriculum
#13
Mark R Dixon, Jacqueline Peach, Jacob H Daar, Cindy Penrod
The present study evaluated the feasibility of the PEAK Relational Training System's Generalization Module (Dixon, 2014b) to teach and establish generalization of autoclitic mands, distorted tacts, and creative path finding in three children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Using a multiple-baseline design across behaviors, each participant was provided with differential reinforcement and a least-to-most prompting hierarchy for correct responses to a subset of stimuli, and responses to other similar stimulus sets were probed for emergent generalization...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128442/a-microswitch-based-program-for-promoting-initial-ambulation-responses-an-evaluation-with-two-girls-with-multiple-disabilities
#14
Fabrizio Stasolla, Alessandro O Caffò, Viviana Perilli, Adele Boccasini, Anna Stella, Rita Damiani, Vincenza Albano, Concetta Damato
We assessed the use of a microswitch-based program for promoting ambulation responses by two children with multiple disabilities. The goals of the study were to: (a) evaluate the importance of the contingency between the target behavior (forward step) and the programmed consequence (preferred stimuli), (b) measure effects of the intervention on indices of happiness, and (c) assess the social validation of the procedure using 20 physiotherapists as external raters. The intervention involved the automatic delivery of preferred stimuli contingent on forward steps...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101892/an-assessment-of-differential-reinforment-procedures-for-learners-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Kate A Johnson, Jason C Vladescu, Tiffany Kodak, Tina M Sidener
Differential reinforcement procedures may promote unprompted correct responding, resulting in a quicker transfer of stimulus control than nondifferential reinforcement. Recent studies that have compared reinforcement arrangements have found that the most effective arrangement may differ across participants. The current study conducted an assessment of differential reinforcement arrangements (i.e., quality, schedule, and magnitude) and nondifferential reinforcement to identify the most effective arrangement for each participant...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090644/evaluation-of-a-telehealth-training-package-to-remotely-train-staff-to-conduct-a-preference-assessment
#16
William J Higgins, Kevin C Luczynski, Regina A Carroll, Wayne W Fisher, Oliver C Mudford
Recent advancements in telecommunication technologies make it possible to conduct a variety of healthcare services remotely (e.g., behavioral-analytic intervention services), thereby bridging the gap between qualified providers and consumers in isolated locations. In this study, web-based telehealth technologies were used to remotely train direct-care staff to conduct a multiple-stimulus-without-replacement preference assessment. The training package included three components: (a) a multimedia presentation; (b) descriptive feedback from previously recorded baseline sessions; and (c) scripted role-play with immediate feedback...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078688/when-things-are-not-the-same-a-review-of-research-into-relations-of-difference
#17
Siri Ming, Ian Stewart
Responding to stimuli as same and different can be considered a critical component of a variety of language and academic repertoires. Whereas responding to "sameness" and generalized identity matching (i.e., coordination) have been studied extensively, there appears to be a significant gap in behavior analytic research and educational programs with regard to nonmatching relations or relations of difference. We review research on difference relations from a variety of domains, including comparative psychology, as well as experimental, and translational behavior analysis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078673/training-kindergarten-students-lockdown-drill-procedures-using-behavioral-skills-training
#18
Misty Jo Dickson, Kristina K Vargo
During situations in which a gunman is present on a school campus, lockdowns are initiated until the threat is removed. However, there are no data demonstrating an effective teaching strategy to increase students' correct responding during a lockdown. We evaluated the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to teach three groups of kindergarten students how to respond during lockdown drills. Results showed that participant groups displayed increases in correct steps and decreases in noise levels after BST was implemented; these effects maintained following training...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083903/editor-s-note
#19
EDITORIAL
Gregory P Hanley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032344/further-analysis-of-subtypes-of-automatically-reinforced-sib-a-replication-and-quantitative-analysis-of-published-datasets
#20
Louis P Hagopian, Griffin W Rooker, Jennifer R Zarcone, Andrew C Bonner, Alexander R Arevalo
Hagopian, Rooker, and Zarcone (2015) evaluated a model for subtyping automatically reinforced self-injurious behavior (SIB) based on its sensitivity to changes in functional analysis conditions and the presence of self-restraint. The current study tested the generality of the model by applying it to all datasets of automatically reinforced SIB published from 1982 to 2015. We identified 49 datasets that included sufficient data to permit subtyping. Similar to the original study, Subtype-1 SIB was generally amenable to treatment using reinforcement alone, whereas Subtype-2 SIB was not...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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