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Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis

Brantley P Jarvis, Jesse Dallery
Deposit contracting may reduce costs and increase efficacy in contingency management interventions. We evaluated two Internet-based deposit contract arrangements for smoking. In Experiment 1, nine participants deposited self-selected amounts that could be earned back for meeting goals. During treatment, participants were reimbursed for breath samples with less than or equal to 6 parts per million carbon monoxide and met the criterion for 47% of samples compared to 1% during baseline. In Experiment 2, 10 participants' deposits were matched up to $50...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Justin B Leaf, Joseph H Cihon, Aditt Alcalay, Erin Mitchell, Donna Townley-Cochran, Kevin Miller, Ronald Leaf, Mitchell Taubman, John McEachin
The present study evaluated the effects of instructive feedback embedded within a group discrete trial teaching to teach tact relations to nine children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder using a nonconcurrent multiple-baseline design. Dependent variables included correct responses for: primary targets (directly taught), secondary targets (taught via instructive feedback), primary observational targets (directly taught to other members of the group), and secondary observational targets (taught via instructive feedback provided to other members of the group)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Nathan A Call, Joanna Lomas Mevers, Barbara O McElhanon, Mindy C Scheithauer
Achieving continence of one's bowel movements is a key step in development and failure to do so leads to many negative consequences. Treatments for encopresis appearing in the literature have employed behavioral strategies; medications such as suppositories, laxatives, or enemas; and in some studies a combination of these approaches. To date, attempts to extend successful treatments for encopresis in typically developing children to those with developmental disabilities have been limited. The current study included three participants diagnosed with developmental disabilities who had a history of encopresis...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Kara L Wunderlich, Timothy R Vollmer, Karla A Zabala
Frequent emesis can cause substantial deleterious effects to a child's health and environment. We conducted a functional analysis of a 3-year-old girl's self-induced emesis and confirmed that emesis was maintained by automatic reinforcement. In a reversal design, we evaluated the efficacy of implementing response blocking at 100% and 50% treatment integrity levels on both attempts and successful production of emesis. One hundred percent blocking, but not 50% blocking, was successful in reducing attempts and emesis below baseline levels...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Cara L Phillips, Julia A Iannaccone, Griffin W Rooker, Louis P Hagopian
Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is a commonly used treatment for severe problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The current study sought to extend the literature by reporting outcomes achieved with 27 consecutive applications of NCR as the primary treatment for severe problem behavior. All applications of NCR were included regardless of treatment outcome to minimize selection bias favoring successful cases. Participants ranged in age from 5 to 33 years. We analyzed the results across behavioral function and with regard to the use of functional versus alternative reinforcers...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Joshua Lipschultz, David A Wilder
The high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence consists of the delivery of a series of high-probability instructions immediately before delivery of a low-probability or target instruction. It is commonly used to increase compliance in a variety of populations. Recent research has described variations of the high-p instructional sequence and examined the conditions under which the sequence is most effective. This manuscript reviews the most recent research on the sequence and identifies directions for future research...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Mark R Dixon, Jacqueline Peach, Jacob H Daar, Cindy Penrod
The present study evaluated the feasibility of the PEAK Relational Training System's Generalization Module (Dixon, 2014b) to teach and establish generalization of autoclitic mands, distorted tacts, and creative path finding in three children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Using a multiple-baseline design across behaviors, each participant was provided with differential reinforcement and a least-to-most prompting hierarchy for correct responses to a subset of stimuli, and responses to other similar stimulus sets were probed for emergent generalization...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Fabrizio Stasolla, Alessandro O Caffò, Viviana Perilli, Adele Boccasini, Anna Stella, Rita Damiani, Vincenza Albano, Concetta Damato
We assessed the use of a microswitch-based program for promoting ambulation responses by two children with multiple disabilities. The goals of the study were to: (a) evaluate the importance of the contingency between the target behavior (forward step) and the programmed consequence (preferred stimuli), (b) measure effects of the intervention on indices of happiness, and (c) assess the social validation of the procedure using 20 physiotherapists as external raters. The intervention involved the automatic delivery of preferred stimuli contingent on forward steps...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Kate A Johnson, Jason C Vladescu, Tiffany Kodak, Tina M Sidener
Differential reinforcement procedures may promote unprompted correct responding, resulting in a quicker transfer of stimulus control than nondifferential reinforcement. Recent studies that have compared reinforcement arrangements have found that the most effective arrangement may differ across participants. The current study conducted an assessment of differential reinforcement arrangements (i.e., quality, schedule, and magnitude) and nondifferential reinforcement to identify the most effective arrangement for each participant...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
William J Higgins, Kevin C Luczynski, Regina A Carroll, Wayne W Fisher, Oliver C Mudford
Recent advancements in telecommunication technologies make it possible to conduct a variety of healthcare services remotely (e.g., behavioral-analytic intervention services), thereby bridging the gap between qualified providers and consumers in isolated locations. In this study, web-based telehealth technologies were used to remotely train direct-care staff to conduct a multiple-stimulus-without-replacement preference assessment. The training package included three components: (a) a multimedia presentation; (b) descriptive feedback from previously recorded baseline sessions; and (c) scripted role-play with immediate feedback...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Siri Ming, Ian Stewart
Responding to stimuli as same and different can be considered a critical component of a variety of language and academic repertoires. Whereas responding to "sameness" and generalized identity matching (i.e., coordination) have been studied extensively, there appears to be a significant gap in behavior analytic research and educational programs with regard to nonmatching relations or relations of difference. We review research on difference relations from a variety of domains, including comparative psychology, as well as experimental, and translational behavior analysis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Misty Jo Dickson, Kristina K Vargo
During situations in which a gunman is present on a school campus, lockdowns are initiated until the threat is removed. However, there are no data demonstrating an effective teaching strategy to increase students' correct responding during a lockdown. We evaluated the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to teach three groups of kindergarten students how to respond during lockdown drills. Results showed that participant groups displayed increases in correct steps and decreases in noise levels after BST was implemented; these effects maintained following training...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jordan Belisle, Kelti Owens, Mark R Dixon, Albert Malkin, Sam D Jordan
Twenty-three university students completed a simulated slot machine task involving the concurrent presentation of two slot machines that were varied both in win density and the inclusion of a bonus round feature to evaluate the effect of embedded bonus rounds on participant response allocation. The results suggest that participants allocated a greater percentage of responses to machines with embedded bonus rounds across both dense (Bonus: M = 68.4, SD = 19.2; No Bonus: M = 51.2; 9.6) and lean (Bonus: M = 48...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Gregory P Hanley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Louis P Hagopian, Griffin W Rooker, Jennifer R Zarcone, Andrew C Bonner, Alexander R Arevalo
Hagopian, Rooker, and Zarcone (2015) evaluated a model for subtyping automatically reinforced self-injurious behavior (SIB) based on its sensitivity to changes in functional analysis conditions and the presence of self-restraint. The current study tested the generality of the model by applying it to all datasets of automatically reinforced SIB published from 1982 to 2015. We identified 49 datasets that included sufficient data to permit subtyping. Similar to the original study, Subtype-1 SIB was generally amenable to treatment using reinforcement alone, whereas Subtype-2 SIB was not...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Rachel S Farber, Chata A Dickson, William V Dube
Overselective stimulus control refers to discriminative control in which the number of controlling stimuli is too limited for effective behavior. Experiment 1 included 22 special-education students who exhibited overselective stimulus control on a two-sample delayed matching task. An intervention added a compound identity matching opportunity within the sample observation period of the matching trials. The compound matching functioned as a differential observing response (DOR) in that high accuracy verified observation and discrimination of both sample stimuli...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Kathryn Glodowski, Rachel Thompson
Professionals recommend parents engage in distracting activities to mitigate negative effects of inconsolable infant crying (e.g., Deyo, Skybo, & Carroll, 2008; Goulet et al., 2009). We evaluated the availability of alternative activities on six undergraduates' tolerance for a recorded infant cry; three students tolerated the cry longer when distracting activities were available. Our results show that distracting activities could decrease the aversiveness of inconsolable infant crying for some individuals; additional research in natural caregiving situations will help determine the generality and social validity of this finding...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Alan Poling, Emilio Valverde, Negussie Beyene, Christiaan Mulder, Christophe Cox, Georgies Mgode, Timothy L Edwards
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major problem in poor countries because sensitive diagnostic tools are unavailable. In 2014, our pouched rats evaluated sputum from 21,600 Tanzanians and 9,048 Mozambicans whose sputum had previously been evaluated by microscopy, the standard diagnostic for TB. Evaluation by the rats revealed 1,412 new patients with active TB in Tanzania and 645 new patients in Mozambique, increases of 39% and 53%, respectively, when compared to detections by microscopy alone. These results provide further support for the applied use of scent-detecting rats...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jessica D Slaton, Gregory P Hanley
We evaluated rates of automatically reinforced stereotypy and item engagement for 2 children with autism under multiple and chained schedules in a multielement design. Each schedule included components during which stereotypy was blocked (S-) or allowed (S+), and we used colored cards as schedule-correlated stimuli. We report rates of stereotypy and item engagement during S- and S+ components, as well as the percentage of component time that elapsed before the first instances of stereotypy and item engagement...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Tara A Fahmie, Brian A Iwata, Sarah C Mead
Although decades of research on functional analysis methodology have identified common contingencies that maintain problem behavior and effective interventions, relatively little research has been conducted on strategies to prevent the initial development of problem behavior. We conducted a 2-part case study, the purposes of which were to illustrate the use of sensitivity tests as the bases for intervention (Study 1) and subsequently to assess the efficacy of a prevention strategy using a single-subject design (Study 2)...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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