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Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226346/a-multicomponent-approach-to-thinning-reinforcer-delivery-during-noncontingent-reinforcement-schedules
#1
Sarah K Slocum, Emma Grauerholz-Fisher, Kerri P Peters, Timothy R Vollmer
We evaluated a noncontingent reinforcement procedure that involved initially providing three subjects with signaled, continuous access to the functional reinforcer for aggression and slowly increasing the amount of time subjects were exposed to the signaled unavailability of the reinforcer. Additionally, alternative potential reinforcers were available throughout the sessions. Results showed immediate and substantial reductions in aggression for all three subjects. The clinical utility of this intervention is discussed, and future research directions are recommended...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205337/prevention-of-the-development-of-problem-behavior-a-laboratory-model
#2
Tara A Fahmie, Anne C Macaskill, Ellie Kazemi, Uilani C Elmer
Few studies have isolated the preventive efficacy of common behavioral strategies like noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA). The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate a laboratory model of these two problem behavior prevention strategies. Undergraduate students participated in a computer simulation, in which clicks to a designated area of the computer screen were analogous to the emergence of problem behavior. The responding of participants in a control group, who experienced a percentile schedule used to mimic the shaping of problem behavior, was compared to that of participants in two experimental groups, each with a history of either DRA or NCR...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193060/using-progressive-ratio-schedules-to-evaluate-tokens-as-generalized-conditioned-reinforcers
#3
Danielle Russell, Einar T Ingvarsson, Jennifer L Haggar, Joshua Jessel
The properties of operant reinforcers are dynamic and dependent on a number of variables, such as schedule and effort. There has been sparse research on the generalized conditioned properties of token reinforcement. We evaluated leisure items, edible items, and tokens using a progressive ratio schedule with three children with diagnoses of ASD and developmental delays. The highest break points occurred during the token reinforcement condition for two out of three participants, but response rates tended to be higher with edibles...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086426/effects-of-computer-based-training-on-procedural-modifications-to-standard-functional-analyses
#4
Lauren K Schnell, Tina M Sidener, Ruth M DeBar, Jason C Vladescu, SungWoo Kahng
Few studies have evaluated methods for training decision-making when functional analysis data are undifferentiated. The current study evaluated computer-based training to teach 20 graduate students to arrange functional analysis conditions, analyze functional analysis data, and implement procedural modifications. Participants were exposed to training materials using interactive software during a 1-day session. Following the training, mean scores on the posttest, novel cases probe, and maintenance probe increased for all participants...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952144/teaching-children-with-autism-to-request-help-with-difficult-tasks
#5
Nicole M Rodriguez, Megan A Levesque, Victoria L Cohrs, Jessica J Niemeier
We taught three children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder to request help using an interrupted chain procedure during which we manipulated task materials such that the child was either incapable or capable of independently completing a link of a behavior chain. We initially observed undesirable generalization of requests for help during capable trials when teaching was introduced during incapable trials for two participants and to a lesser extent for the third participant. However, with repeated exposure to differential prompting and reinforcement across incapable and capable trials, differential responding was observed across EO-present and EO-absent trials for all three participants during both teaching sets and one generalization set that was never exposed to teaching procedures...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948611/transfers-of-stimulus-function-during-roulette-wagering
#6
Mark R Dixon, Mary Rachel Enoch, Jordan Belisle
Twenty-five recreational gamblers were initially asked to place bets on either red or black positions on a roulette board in a simulated casino setting. Each participant was then exposed to a stimulus pairing observing procedure which attempted to develop equivalence classes between one color (black or red) and traditionally positive words (e.g., love, happy, sex) and another color (black or red) and traditionally negative words (e.g., death, cancer, taxes), in the absence of consequence manipulations. Twenty-one of the twenty-five participants demonstrated greater response allocation to the color position on the roulette board that participated in a relational network with the positive words...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940554/go-no-go-procedure-with-compound-stimuli-with-children-with-autism
#7
Rafael Augusto Silva, Paula Debert
The go/no-go with compound stimuli is an alternative to matching-to-sample to produce conditional and emergent relations in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this procedure with two children diagnosed with autism. We trained and tested participants to respond to conditional relations among arbitrary stimuli using the go/no-go procedure. Both learned all the trained conditional relations without developing response bias or responding to no-go trials. Participants demonstrated performance consistent with symmetry, but not equivalence...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940482/a-method-to-establish-stimulus-control-and-compliance-with-instructions
#8
John G Borgen, F Charles Mace, Brenna M Cavanaugh, Kenneth Shamlian, Keith R Lit, Jillian B Wilson, Stephanie L Trauschke
We evaluated a unique procedure to establish compliance with instructions in four young children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who had low levels of compliance. Our procedure included methods to establish a novel therapist as a source of positive reinforcement, reliably evoke orienting responses to the therapist, increase the number of exposures to instruction-compliance-reinforcer contingencies, and minimize the number of exposures to instruction-noncompliance-no reinforcer contingencies. We further alternated between instructions with a high probability of compliance (high-p instructions) with instructions that had a prior low probability of compliance (low-p instructions) as soon as low-p instructions lost stimulus control...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940459/parent-implemented-behavioral-skills-training-of-social-skills
#9
Rebecca K Dogan, Melissa L King, Anthony T Fischetti, Candice M Lake, Therese L Mathews, William J Warzak
Impairment in social skills is a primary feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Research indicates that social skills are intimately tied to social development and negative social consequences can persist if specific social behaviors are not acquired. The present study evaluated the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on teaching four parents of children with ASDs to be social skills trainers. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across parent-child dyads was employed and direct observation was used to assess parent and child behaviors Results demonstrated substantial improvement in social skills teaching for all participants for trained and untrained skills...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940381/evaluating-behavioral-skills-training-to-teach-safe-tackling-skills-to-youth-football-players
#10
Sharayah S M Tai, Raymond G Miltenberger
With concussion rates on the rise for football players, there is a need for further research to increase skills and decrease injuries. Behavioral skills training is effective in teaching a wide variety of skills but has yet to be studied in the sports setting. We evaluated behavioral skills training to teach safer tackling techniques to six participants from a Pop Warner football team. Safer tackling techniques increased during practice and generalized to games for the two participants who had opportunities to tackle in games...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940365/teaching-metaphorical-extensions-of-private-events-through-rival-model-observation-to-children-with-autism
#11
Mark R Dixon, Jordan Belisle, Bridget E Munoz, Caleb R Stanley, Kyle E Rowsey
The study evaluated the efficacy of observational learning using the rival-model technique in teaching three children with autism to state metaphorical statements about emotions when provided a picture, as well as to intraverbally state an appropriate emotion when provided a scenario and corresponding metaphorical emotion. The results provide a preliminary evaluation of how an observational teaching strategy may be effective in teaching children with autism to correctly tact emotions when given metaphors.
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940362/the-effects-of-preference-assessment-type-on-problem-behavior
#12
Sara Beth Tung, Jeanne M Donaldson, SungWoo Kahng
Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities who engage in problem behavior maintained by access to tangibles may exhibit more problem behavior during certain preference assessments. We compared three common preference assessments to determine which resulted in fewer problem behaviors. The paired stimulus and multiple-stimulus without replacement assessments produced higher rates of problem behavior than the free operant (FO) assessment, suggesting that the FO assessment may be the most appropriate assessment for individuals who engage in problem behavior maintained by access to tangibles...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901545/teaching-children-with-autism-to-respond-to-disguised-mands
#13
Adel C Najdowski, Ryan Bergstrom, Jonathan Tarbox, Megan St Clair
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulty inferring the private events of others, including private verbal behavior (e.g., thoughts), private emotional responses, and private establishing operations, often referred to as "perspective taking" by the general psychology community. Children with ASD also have difficulty responding to disguised mands. Skinner's description of the "disguised mand" is verbal behavior wherein the speaker's mand directly describes neither its reinforcer nor the corresponding establishing operations...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901542/effects-of-response-contingent-stimulus-pairing-on-vocalizations-of-nonverbal-children-with-autism
#14
Tracy L Lepper, Anna Ingeborg Petursdottir
Research on stimulus-stimulus pairing to induce novel vocalizations in nonverbal children has typically employed response-independent pairing (RIP) procedures to condition speech sounds as reinforcers. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a response-contingent pairing (RCP) procedure on the vocalizations of three nonverbal boys diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. During RCP, adult-delivered sounds that were either paired with a preferred item (target sounds) or not (nontarget sounds) were presented contingent on a button-press response...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901539/evaluating-increased-effort-for-item-disposal-to-improve-recycling-at-a-university
#15
Jennifer N Fritz, Danielle L Dupuis, Wai-Ling Wu, Ashley E Neal, Lisa A Rettig, Renée E Lastrapes
An evaluation of increased response effort to dispose of items was conducted to improve recycling at a university. Signs prompting individuals to recycle and notifying them of the location of trash and recycling receptacles were posted in each phase. During the intervention, trashcans were removed from the classrooms, and one large trashcan was available in the hallway next to the recycling receptacles. Results showed that correct recycling increased, and trash left in classrooms increased initially during the second intervention phase before returning to baseline levels...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901531/effects-of-mastery-criterion-on-the-emergence-of-derived-equivalence-relations
#16
Daniel M Fienup, Julia Brodsky
In this study, we manipulated mastery criterion form (rolling or block) and stringency (across 6 or 12 trials) and measured the emergence of derived relations. College students learned neuroanatomy equivalence classes and experienced one of two rolling mastery criteria (6 or 12 consecutive correct responses) or a block mastery criterion (12 trials in a block) during training. The study found that block and rolling mastery criteria produced similar outcomes. Effectiveness was hampered when the criterion was less stringent...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887866/a-monte-carlo-evaluation-of-masked-visual-analysis-in-response-guided-versus-fixed-criteria-multiple-baseline-designs
#17
John M Ferron, Seang-Hwane Joo, Joel R Levin
We developed masked visual analysis (MVA) as a structured complement to traditional visual analysis. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the effects of computer-simulated MVA of a four-case multiple-baseline (MB) design in which the phase lengths are determined by an ongoing visual analysis (i.e., response-guided) versus those in which the phase lengths are established a priori (i.e., fixed criteria). We observed an acceptably low probability (less than .05) of false detection of treatment effects...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869292/teaching-conversational-speech-to-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-text-message-prompting
#18
Denise Grosberg, Marjorie H Charlop
The present study was designed to teach conversational speech using text-message prompts to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in home play settings with siblings and peers. A multiple baseline design across children was used. Children learned conversational speech through the text-message prompts, and the behavior generalized across peers and settings. Maintenance of treatment gains was seen at 1-month follow-up probes. Social validity measures indicated that parents of typically developing children viewed the participants' conversational speech as much improved after the intervention...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833111/the-effects-of-receptive-and-expressive-instructional-sequences-on-varied-conditional-discriminations
#19
Shimin Bao, Kristin T Sweatt, Sarah A Lechago, Sarah Antal
Many Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) curricula recommend teaching receptive responding before targeting expressive responding (Leaf & McEachin, 1999; Lovaas, 2003). However, a small literature base suggests that teaching expressive responses first may be more efficient when teaching children with ASD and other developmental disabilities (Petursdottir & Carr, 2011). The present study employed an alternating treatments design to compare the effects of three instructional sequences to teach feature, function, and class to three children diagnosed with ASD: (a) receptive-expressive, (b) expressive-receptive, and (c) mixed...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801941/step-it-up-using-the-good-behavior-game-to-increase-physical-activity-with-elementary-school-students-at-recess
#20
Leslie A Galbraith, Matthew P Normand
We evaluated the effects of a modified version of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) on the number of steps taken by students during school recess. We divided a class into two teams, and awarded the team with the highest step counts at the end of each game raffle tickets for a school-wide lottery. The GBG was compared to recess periods without the game using an alternating-treatments design. Students took more steps while playing the GBG than they did during recess periods without the game.
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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