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Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis

Nicole M Rodriguez, Megan A Levesque, Victoria L Cohrs, Jessica J Niemeier
We taught three children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder to request help using an interrupted chain procedure during which we manipulated task materials such that the child was either incapable or capable of independently completing a link of a behavior chain. We initially observed undesirable generalization of requests for help during capable trials when teaching was introduced during incapable trials for two participants and to a lesser extent for the third participant. However, with repeated exposure to differential prompting and reinforcement across incapable and capable trials, differential responding was observed across EO-present and EO-absent trials for all three participants during both teaching sets and one generalization set that was never exposed to teaching procedures...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Mark R Dixon, Mary Rachel Enoch, Jordan Belisle
Twenty-five recreational gamblers were initially asked to place bets on either red or black positions on a roulette board in a simulated casino setting. Each participant was then exposed to a stimulus pairing observing procedure which attempted to develop equivalence classes between one color (black or red) and traditionally positive words (e.g., love, happy, sex) and another color (black or red) and traditionally negative words (e.g., death, cancer, taxes), in the absence of consequence manipulations. Twenty-one of the twenty-five participants demonstrated greater response allocation to the color position on the roulette board that participated in a relational network with the positive words...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Rafael Augusto Silva, Paula Debert
The go/no-go with compound stimuli is an alternative to matching-to-sample to produce conditional and emergent relations in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this procedure with two children diagnosed with autism. We trained and tested participants to respond to conditional relations among arbitrary stimuli using the go/no-go procedure. Both learned all the trained conditional relations without developing response bias or responding to no-go trials. Participants demonstrated performance consistent with symmetry, but not equivalence...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
John G Borgen, F Charles Mace, Brenna M Cavanaugh, Kenneth Shamlian, Keith R Lit, Jillian B Wilson, Stephanie L Trauschke
We evaluated a unique procedure to establish compliance with instructions in four young children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who had low levels of compliance. Our procedure included methods to establish a novel therapist as a source of positive reinforcement, reliably evoke orienting responses to the therapist, increase the number of exposures to instruction-compliance-reinforcer contingencies, and minimize the number of exposures to instruction-noncompliance-no reinforcer contingencies. We further alternated between instructions with a high probability of compliance (high-p instructions) with instructions that had a prior low probability of compliance (low-p instructions) as soon as low-p instructions lost stimulus control...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Rebecca K Dogan, Melissa L King, Anthony T Fischetti, Candice M Lake, Therese L Mathews, William J Warzak
Impairment in social skills is a primary feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Research indicates that social skills are intimately tied to social development and negative social consequences can persist if specific social behaviors are not acquired. The present study evaluated the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on teaching four parents of children with ASDs to be social skills trainers. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across parent-child dyads was employed and direct observation was used to assess parent and child behaviors Results demonstrated substantial improvement in social skills teaching for all participants for trained and untrained skills...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Sharayah S M Tai, Raymond G Miltenberger
With concussion rates on the rise for football players, there is a need for further research to increase skills and decrease injuries. Behavioral skills training is effective in teaching a wide variety of skills but has yet to be studied in the sports setting. We evaluated behavioral skills training to teach safer tackling techniques to six participants from a Pop Warner football team. Safer tackling techniques increased during practice and generalized to games for the two participants who had opportunities to tackle in games...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Mark R Dixon, Jordan Belisle, Bridget E Munoz, Caleb R Stanley, Kyle E Rowsey
The study evaluated the efficacy of observational learning using the rival-model technique in teaching three children with autism to state metaphorical statements about emotions when provided a picture, as well as to intraverbally state an appropriate emotion when provided a scenario and corresponding metaphorical emotion. The results provide a preliminary evaluation of how an observational teaching strategy may be effective in teaching children with autism to correctly tact emotions when given metaphors.
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Sara Beth Tung, Jeanne M Donaldson, SungWoo Kahng
Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities who engage in problem behavior maintained by access to tangibles may exhibit more problem behavior during certain preference assessments. We compared three common preference assessments to determine which resulted in fewer problem behaviors. The paired stimulus and multiple-stimulus without replacement assessments produced higher rates of problem behavior than the free operant (FO) assessment, suggesting that the FO assessment may be the most appropriate assessment for individuals who engage in problem behavior maintained by access to tangibles...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Adel C Najdowski, Ryan Bergstrom, Jonathan Tarbox, Megan St Clair
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulty inferring the private events of others, including private verbal behavior (e.g., thoughts), private emotional responses, and private establishing operations, often referred to as "perspective taking" by the general psychology community. Children with ASD also have difficulty responding to disguised mands. Skinner's description of the "disguised mand" is verbal behavior wherein the speaker's mand directly describes neither its reinforcer nor the corresponding establishing operations...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Tracy L Lepper, Anna Ingeborg Petursdottir
Research on stimulus-stimulus pairing to induce novel vocalizations in nonverbal children has typically employed response-independent pairing (RIP) procedures to condition speech sounds as reinforcers. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a response-contingent pairing (RCP) procedure on the vocalizations of three nonverbal boys diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. During RCP, adult-delivered sounds that were either paired with a preferred item (target sounds) or not (nontarget sounds) were presented contingent on a button-press response...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jennifer N Fritz, Danielle L Dupuis, Wai-Ling Wu, Ashley E Neal, Lisa A Rettig, Renée E Lastrapes
An evaluation of increased response effort to dispose of items was conducted to improve recycling at a university. Signs prompting individuals to recycle and notifying them of the location of trash and recycling receptacles were posted in each phase. During the intervention, trashcans were removed from the classrooms, and one large trashcan was available in the hallway next to the recycling receptacles. Results showed that correct recycling increased, and trash left in classrooms increased initially during the second intervention phase before returning to baseline levels...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Daniel M Fienup, Julia Brodsky
In this study, we manipulated mastery criterion form (rolling or block) and stringency (across 6 or 12 trials) and measured the emergence of derived relations. College students learned neuroanatomy equivalence classes and experienced one of two rolling mastery criteria (6 or 12 consecutive correct responses) or a block mastery criterion (12 trials in a block) during training. The study found that block and rolling mastery criteria produced similar outcomes. Effectiveness was hampered when the criterion was less stringent...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
John M Ferron, Seang-Hwane Joo, Joel R Levin
We developed masked visual analysis (MVA) as a structured complement to traditional visual analysis. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the effects of computer-simulated MVA of a four-case multiple-baseline (MB) design in which the phase lengths are determined by an ongoing visual analysis (i.e., response-guided) versus those in which the phase lengths are established a priori (i.e., fixed criteria). We observed an acceptably low probability (less than .05) of false detection of treatment effects...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Denise Grosberg, Marjorie H Charlop
The present study was designed to teach conversational speech using text-message prompts to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in home play settings with siblings and peers. A multiple baseline design across children was used. Children learned conversational speech through the text-message prompts, and the behavior generalized across peers and settings. Maintenance of treatment gains was seen at 1-month follow-up probes. Social validity measures indicated that parents of typically developing children viewed the participants' conversational speech as much improved after the intervention...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Shimin Bao, Kristin T Sweatt, Sarah A Lechago, Sarah Antal
Many Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) curricula recommend teaching receptive responding before targeting expressive responding (Leaf & McEachin, 1999; Lovaas, 2003). However, a small literature base suggests that teaching expressive responses first may be more efficient when teaching children with ASD and other developmental disabilities (Petursdottir & Carr, 2011). The present study employed an alternating treatments design to compare the effects of three instructional sequences to teach feature, function, and class to three children diagnosed with ASD: (a) receptive-expressive, (b) expressive-receptive, and (c) mixed...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Leslie A Galbraith, Matthew P Normand
We evaluated the effects of a modified version of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) on the number of steps taken by students during school recess. We divided a class into two teams, and awarded the team with the highest step counts at the end of each game raffle tickets for a school-wide lottery. The GBG was compared to recess periods without the game using an alternating-treatments design. Students took more steps while playing the GBG than they did during recess periods without the game.
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Christopher A Podlesnik, Michael E Kelley, Corina Jimenez-Gomez, Mark E Bouton
Behavioral treatment gains established in one setting do not always maintain in other settings. The present review examines the relevance of basic and translational research to understanding failures to maintain treatment gains across settings. Specifically, studies of the renewal effect examine how transitioning away from a treatment setting could evoke a return of undesirable behavior, rather than newly trained appropriate behavior. Studies of renewal typically arrange three phases, with a response trained and reinforced under a particular set of contextual stimuli in the first phase...
July 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Diego Valbuena, Bryon G Miller, Andrew L Samaha, Raymond G Miltenberger
This paper presents seven tactics for managing the variability evident in some physical activity data. High levels of variability in daily step-count data from pedometers or accelerometers can make typical visual inspection difficult. Therefore, the purpose of the current paper is to discuss several strategies that might facilitate the visual interpretation of highly variable data. The seven strategies discussed in this paper are phase mean and median lines, daily average per week, weekly cumulative, proportion of baseline, 7-day moving average, change point detection, and confidence intervals...
July 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Kara L Wunderlich, Timothy R Vollmer
The current study compared the use of serial and concurrent methods to train multiple exemplars when teaching receptive language skills, providing a systematic replication of Wunderlich, Vollmer, Donaldson, and Phillips (2014). Five preschoolers diagnosed with developmental delays or autism spectrum disorders were taught to receptively identify letters or letter sounds. Subjects learned the target stimuli slightly faster in concurrent training and a high degree of generalization was obtained following both methods of training, indicating that both the serial and concurrent methods of training are efficient and effective instructional procedures...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Joseph M Lambert, John E Staubitz, Jessica Torelli Roane, Nealetta J Houchins-Juárez, A Pablo Juárez, Kevin B Sanders, Zachary E Warren
Latency-based functional analysis (FA) may be a viable alternative to the standard, rate-based, FA when frequently evoking problem behavior is not advisable. We conducted 18 latency-based FAs of the problem behavior of children diagnosed with autism in inpatient hospital settings and identified functional relations during 44.4% (8 of 18) of latency-based FAs. Implications for conducting FAs of severe problem behavior are discussed.
May 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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