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Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis

Melissa A Drifke, Jeffrey H Tiger, Margaret R Gifford
Children of both typical and atypical cognitive development tend to prefer contexts in which their behavior results in a choice of reinforcers rather than a single reinforcer, even when the reinforcer accessed is identical across conditions. The origin of this preference has been attributed speculatively to behavioral histories in which choice making tends to be associated with differentially beneficial outcomes. Few studies have evaluated this claim, and those that have, have yielded mixed results. We provided five preschool-aged children experiences in which choice-making and no-choice contexts were differentially associated with higher preference and larger magnitude reinforcers, and we assessed changes in their preference for choice and no-choice contexts in which outcomes were equated...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jordan Belisle, Dana Paliliunas, Mark R Dixon, Ryan C Speelman
Twenty-one recreational gamblers were randomly assigned to two groups; one group was exposed to a conditional discrimination relational training task to bias choice allocation to a black machine presented concurrently with a red machine, and the other group underwent the same relational training task immediately followed by a defusion procedure, designed to expand upon the relations developed in the initial relational task. Both groups completed a simulated slot-machine task before and after the relational training task, with or without the defusion procedure...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Laci Watkins, Mark O'Reilly, Michelle Kuhn, Katherine Ledbetter-Cho
The literature suggests that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) educated in inclusive settings generally do not interact with typically developing classmates during social activities. This study assessed whether an intervention package consisting of interest-based structured play activities involving adult instruction, modeling, and response to child questions would result in an increase in social interaction with typically developing peers. A multiple baseline design across four participants with an embedded reversal was used to demonstrate the effects of the intervention on social interaction during structured play sessions...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Emily A Groves, Jennifer L Austin
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a classroom management system that employs an interdependent group contingency, whereby students work as a team to win the game. Although previous anecdotal data have suggested that this arrangement may promote prosocial behavior, teachers may have concerns about its fairness and potential to evoke negative peer interactions (especially toward students who break the rules). We evaluated disruptive behaviors and social interactions during the GBG in a secondary classroom for students with emotional and behavioral disorders, as well as in a primary classroom for students with mild developmental disabilities...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Kathryn R Glodowski, Rachel H Thompson, Lauren Martel
Experts in infant health and development consider the rooting reflex a cue of a baby's hunger and recommend feeding the infant when this reflex occurs. However, the relation between rooting and infant feeding status has not been well established in the literature. In the current study, seven parents documented the occurrence of their newborns' rooting, crying, and a control reflex (palmar grasp) before, after, and between naturally occurring feedings. For all participants, rooting occurred during a greater percentage of reflex checks prior to feedings, whereas the palmar grasp occurred during a similar percentage of checks across these time periods...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Mychal A Machado, Kevin C Luczynski, Stephanie A Hood
Technological advances have allowed professionals to obtain extended recordings of caregiver-client interactions in natural settings, but scoring recorded video at normal speed to identify instances of low-rate problem behavior is impractical in terms of scoring time. Fast forwarding is a continuous measurement system in which all seconds of an observation are viewed at a speed faster than normal. In Study 1, we evaluated whether three groups of five observers could discriminate problem behavior at three fast-forwarding speeds across 10-min observations...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Elizabeth A Foley, Claudia L Dozier, Amber L Lessor
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is an effective intervention package for decreasing disruptive behavior in various populations and environments. There is, however, limited research evaluating the GBG with preschoolers. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated the effects of components of the GBG, and of those that have, most have done so only after exposure to the GBG package. We evaluated the effects (a) of the GBG on disruptive behavior of preschoolers during group instruction and (b) the major components of the GBG before and after implementation of the GBG package (c) at both the group and individual level...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Holly C Gover, Tara A Fahmie, Ciobha A McKeown
We reviewed studies that used environmental enrichment as treatment for problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. A search of behavior analytic journals produced 71 publications with a total of 265 applications of environmental enrichment used alone or in conjunction with alternative behavior manipulations (e.g., prompting, reinforcement) and problem behavior manipulations (e.g., blocking, restraint). Environmental enrichment, as a sole intervention, was efficacious in 41% of the sample. Alternative behavior manipulations, problem behavior manipulations, and a combination of both improved the overall efficacy of environmental enrichment...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jordan Chusid Rose, Lauren Beaulieu
Due to the limited research demonstrating socially valid outcomes of function-based treatments in ecologically relevant environments (Santiago, Hanley, Moore, & Jin, 2016), we replicated and extended the effects of the interview-informed functional analysis and skill-based treatment procedure described by Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, and Hanratty (2014) with two children diagnosed with autism in a home setting. The assessment and treatment was implemented by a home-based service provider and treatment was extended to the participants' parents...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Amanda L Verriden, Eileen M Roscoe
We extended research on the identification and evaluation of potential punishers for decreasing automatically reinforced problem behavior in four individuals with autism spectrum disorder. A punisher selection interview was conducted with lead clinicians to identify socially acceptable punishers. During the treatment evaluation, treatment phases were introduced sequentially and included noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), NCR and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), and NCR-and-DRA with punishment...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Matthew T Brodhead, So Yeon Kim, Mandy J Rispoli
The first purpose of this study was to attempt to replicate previous findings that video-based preference assessments without access to selected stimuli may accurately predict relative reinforcing efficacy of stimuli. To do this, we conducted a concurrent operant reinforcer assessment in which we evaluated the relative reinforcing value of highly preferred and less preferred items identified in a video-based preference assessment. The second purpose of this study was to begin to evaluate the potential behavioral mechanisms responsible for the validity of this assessment...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Meghan A Deshais, Alyssa B Fisher, SungWoo Kahng
We used a reversal design with an embedded multielement design to compare the effects of an independent group contingency and a randomized dependent group contingency on compliance with assigned literacy worksheets in a first-grade general education classroom. Nine participants were selected based on low levels of compliance in baseline or by teacher identification. Results indicated that both group contingencies increased compliance relative to baseline for the majority of participants. The independent condition produced higher levels of compliance for four students and the randomized dependent condition produced higher levels of compliance for one student...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Carolyn M Grob, Dorothea C Lerman, Channing A Langlinais, Natalie K Villante
Few studies have evaluated interventions to improve the job-related social skills of adults with autism spectrum disorder. In this study, we examined the efficacy of a treatment package for teaching several social skills that are critical to job success, such as responding appropriately to feedback and asking for a task model from the supervisor. Three adults, aged 19 to 27 years, participated. Initial training of each skill consisted of verbal explanations, modeling, and role-play with feedback, along with stimulus prompts to promote generalization to a different setting...
September 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Audrey N Hoffmann, Tyra P Sellers, Hayley Halversen, Sarah E Bloom
Individuals who engage in problem behavior may also engage in precursor behavior maintained by the same functional reinforcers as the more severe target problem behavior. This study replicates and extends previous research by examining precursor assessments and interventions with three preschool-aged children. We conducted assessments to identify precursor behavior, and conducted subsequent functional analyses targeting the precursor behavior. We then implemented function-based interventions to address the precursor behavior, resulting in reductions in precursor behavior and continued low or zero rates of severe problem behavior...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jessica D Slaton, Gregory P Hanley
Functional analysis (FA) of problem behavior typically includes the contingent delivery of a single reinforcer following problem behavior. However, the FA literature also includes examples of analyses that have delivered multiple reinforcers, arranged multiple establishing operations in one or more test conditions, or both. These analyses have been successfully applied under heterogeneous conditions over several decades and with various synthesized establishing operations and reinforcers, but their qualitative details, outcomes, and contributions to the literature have never been described in a comprehensive manner...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Rebecca L Stannis, Kimberly A Crosland, Raymond Miltenberger, Diego Valbuena
This study evaluated behavioral skills training (BST) and in situ training (IST) to teach a response to bullying (RtB) to four adults with intellectual disabilities who were victims of bullying. The RtB consisted of refraining from retaliating, stating disapproval, walking away, and telling a staff member. In situ assessments were conducted in the natural setting to assess the effects of BST and IST. BST alone was successful in teaching the RtB to two participants. When BST did not result in the use of the RtB, IST was effective for one participant, and IST plus an incentive was effective for the other participant...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Katie M Wiskow, Ashley L Matter, Jeanne M Donaldson
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a popular group contingency implemented to decrease disruptive behavior in classrooms. However, despite numerous replications of the GBG, there are few direct comparisons evaluating the effectiveness of specific components of the GBG. In the present study, we directly compared the type of feedback delivered during the GBG on the effectiveness of the GBG to reduce disruptive behavior in two preschool classrooms. Results showed that delivering vocal feedback (e.g., "raise your hand") alone or in combination with visual feedback (i...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Ozlem Toper-Korkmaz, Dorothea C Lerman, Loukia Tsami
Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of response interruption and redirection (RIRD) for reducing vocal stereotypy in children with autism. However, the procedure can be time-consuming to implement. Results of Saini, Gregory, Uran, and Fantetti (2015) suggested that an abbreviated variation of RIRD was just as effective as the commonly used variation of RIRD, but further research is needed. In addition, no studies have evaluated the role of toy removal on the efficacy of RIRD even though this procedural component is frequently combined with RIRD...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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October 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Wayne W Fisher, Brian D Greer, Ashley M Fuhrman, Valdeep Saini, Christina A Simmons
The resurgence of destructive behavior can occur during functional communication training (FCT) if the alternative response contacts a challenge (e.g., extinction). Behavioral momentum theory (BMT) suggests that refinements to FCT could mitigate resurgence of destructive behavior during periods of extinction. Following a functional analysis and treatment with FCT, we combined three refinements to FCT (i.e., the use of a lean schedule of reinforcement for destructive behavior during baseline, a lean schedule for the alternative response during FCT, and an increase in the duration of treatment) and compared the magnitude of resurgence relative to a condition in which FCT was implemented in a traditional manner...
October 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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