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Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis

Julie E Cubicciotti, Jason C Vladescu, Kenneth F Reeve, Regina A Carroll, Lauren K Schnell
Children with autism spectrum disorder are typically taught conditional discriminations using a match-to-sample arrangement. Consideration should be given to the temporal order in which antecedent stimuli (the sample and comparison stimuli) are presented during match-to-sample trials, as various arrangements have been used in the extant literature. The purpose of the current study was to compare the effects of four stimulus presentation orders on the acquisition of auditory-visual conditional discriminations...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Trevor C Maxfield, Raymond G Miltenberger, Marissa A Novotny
There is limited research using small-scale simulation in applied behavior analysis. We used small-scale simulation to train firearm safety skills to 3- to 5-year-old children and assessed whether the skills generalized to the natural environment through in situ assessment. Three participants completed the training, and all participants learned the safety skills from simulation training. Two of the participants acquired the safety skills after the first simulation training, and the third participant required one booster training before demonstrating the safety skills in the natural environment...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Erica D Lozy, Jolene R Sy
If particular parameters (e.g., reinforcer quality) are found to be preferred in a concurrent-operant arrangement, then these should be incorporated into interventions for maintaining skills in individuals with intellectual disabilities. However, because results from a concurrent-operant arrangement may not predict those of a single-operant assessment, interventions with less preferred parameters may also be effective. The purpose of this study was to determine if preference for a particular parameter, determined via concurrent-operant arrangements, predicted responding when two values of highly and less preferred parameters were manipulated in a single-operant arrangement...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Sean P Peterson, Nicole M Rodriguez, Tamara L Pawich
Despite its advantages, discrete-trial instruction (DTI) has been criticized for producing rote responding. Although there is little research supporting this claim, if true, this may be problematic given the propensity of children with autism to engage in restricted and repetitive behavior. One feature that is common in DTI that may contribute to rote responding is the prompting and reinforcement of one correct response per discriminative stimulus. To evaluate the potential negative effects of rote prompts on varied responding, we compared the effects of modeling rote versus varied target responses during the teaching of intraverbal categorization...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jordan Belisle, Caleb R Stanley, Amani M Alholail, Megan E Galliford, Mark R Dixon
The present study evaluated the efficacy of a set of procedures for bringing tact extensions of abstract tactile properties under stimulus control. Two participants with disabilities who communicated via a picture-based communication system received reinforcement for tacts of tactile properties of four wet/dry and four hard/soft stimuli. Test trials were conducted to evaluate the extent to which the participants' correct responding generalized to novel stimuli with the same tactile properties. The results suggest that the procedures were effective in bringing tact extensions of abstract tactile properties under stimulus control...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Stephanie N Bentham, Stephen F Walker, Maria E Vander Pluym, Kristina N Tejeda
Behavior analysts typically teach conditional discriminations in a mixed-trial format but may switch to a blocked-trial format for learners displaying limited acquisition. No known research has shown that mixed-trial methods are more effective or efficient than blocked-trial methods for teaching discriminations, so it is not clear why this format has been adopted as the "first-line" intervention. We compared blocked and mixed-trial formats for teaching novel auditory-visual discriminations to three adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD)...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Sophie C Knutson, Tiffany Kodak, Dayna R Costello, Terra Cliett
The current study extends the literature on task interspersal (TI) by comparing the effects of four different TI ratios on the efficiency of skill acquisition and on levels of problem behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder and related disorders. The four ratios of TI were 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, and 0:1 mastered-to-acquisition tasks. An adapted alternating treatments design was implemented to compare the cumulative number of stimuli mastered, mean training time to mastery, rate of acquisition, and the level of problem behavior...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Tom Cariveau, Astrid La Cruz Montilla, Elizabeth Gonzalez, Sydney Ball
Error correction procedures are remedial strategies presented following an incorrect response that increases the probability that a correct response will occur in the future. Error correction is commonly used during skill acquisition programs for children with developmental disabilities; however, the specific strategy used may differ considerably. Recent comparative studies have examined the effect of numerous error correction procedures on the efficiency of acquisition for children with developmental disabilities...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Daniel E Conine, Timothy R Vollmer
Prior researchers have reported a tendency for individuals with developmental disabilities to select edible items more often than leisure items when those items are presented together in stimulus preference assessments. However, children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with whom many behavior analysts currently practice, are underrepresented in this body of literature. We conducted a replication of prior research with 26 children with ASD. Results indicated that edible items were more likely than leisure items to rank highly in our preference assessments, in concurrence with prior research...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Fernanda Welsh, Adel C Najdowski, Danielle Strauss, Lindabeth Gallegos, Jesse A Fullen
We evaluated procedures for teaching three children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder the perspective-taking component skill of tacting what others are sensing across all five senses: see, taste, feel, hear, and smell. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, we evaluated a training package consisting of multiple exemplar training, reinforcement, and error correction. The treatment package was implemented in the natural environment and was effective for teaching participants to tact what others sensed...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Sydney J Berkman, Eileen M Roscoe, Jason C Bourret
An important skill for behavior analysts is creating graphs that clearly convey outcomes and conform to publication conventions. GraphPad Prism is software designed for creating scientific graphs, but no prior research has empirically evaluated training graphing skills using Prism. Two effective training methods are enhanced written instructions (EWI) and video modeling with voiceover instructions (VMVO), but no single-subject studies have compared the effects of these methods. In this study, we compared the efficacy and social validity of EWI and VMVO for training staff to create graphs using Prism...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Kimberley L M Zonneveld, Pamela L Neidert, Claudia L Dozier, Danielle L Gureghian, Makenzie W Bayles
Researchers have identified an unbalanced diet as a key risk factor in the etiology of many chronic diseases (World Health Organization, ). Although researchers have found that numerous factors influence children's food choices, no assessment exists to identify these factors. In Experiment 1, we established preliminary empirical evidence of children's preferences for healthier and less-healthy foods, and found that 16 of 21 children preferred less-healthy foods to healthier foods. In Experiment 2, we established the utility of an analogue, competing parameters assessment designed to approximate children's food choices in the natural environment...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jacqueline A Pachis, Kimberley L M Zonneveld
The Internet and information and communications technologies (ICTs) have been found to produce meaningful social interactions and greater social support among older adults (White et al., ). Despite these benefits, the Internet and ICTs are not widely used among the older-adult population (Cresci, Yarandi, & Morrell, ). The purpose of the current study was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of video prompting and text-based instructions on the acquisition of three tablet-based tasks: emailing, video calling (FaceTime® application), and searching for a YouTube™ video...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Andresa A DeSouza, Wayne W Fisher, Nicole M Rodriguez
Convergent intraverbals represent a specific type of intraverbal in which multiple components of one speaker's verbal behavior control a specific verbal response from another speaker (e.g., Speaker 1: What wooly, horned animal lives in the high country? Speaker 2: Bighorn sheep). To foster the development of advanced language, Sunderbeg and Sundberg (2011) proposed prerequisite skills that may engender the emergence of novel, convergent intraverbals. We used a multiple-probe design with both nonconcurrent (across participants) and concurrent (across stimulus sets) components to evaluate the effects of training these prerequisite skills on the emergence of convergent intraverbals with four children with autism...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
James W Moore, Laura M Quintero
The popularity of Olympic-style weightlifting in fitness routines is growing, but participating in these exercises with improper technique places lifters at increased risk for injury. Fitness training professionals have developed multiple teaching strategies, but have not subjected these strategies to systematic evaluation, particularly with novice lifters. Two strategies recommended by professional training organizations are akin to forward and backward chaining, which have been shown effective at teaching other novel, complex behaviors...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Madelynn A Lillie, Jeffrey H Tiger
Previous researchers have taught sighted adults to match braille sample stimuli to print comparisons in a matching-to-sample (MTS) format and assessed the emergence of other braille repertoires, such as transcribing and reading braille following this training. Although participants learned to match to sample with braille, they displayed limited emergence of other braille repertoires. Lack of generative responding may have resulted from participants' over-selective attending to components of compound braille characters during instruction...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Melissa A Drifke, Jeffrey H Tiger, Margaret R Gifford
Children of both typical and atypical cognitive development tend to prefer contexts in which their behavior results in a choice of reinforcers rather than a single reinforcer, even when the reinforcer accessed is identical across conditions. The origin of this preference has been attributed speculatively to behavioral histories in which choice making tends to be associated with differentially beneficial outcomes. Few studies have evaluated this claim, and those that have, have yielded mixed results. We provided five preschool-aged children experiences in which choice-making and no-choice contexts were differentially associated with higher preference and larger magnitude reinforcers, and we assessed changes in their preference for choice and no-choice contexts in which outcomes were equated...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jordan Belisle, Dana Paliliunas, Mark R Dixon, Ryan C Speelman
Twenty-one recreational gamblers were randomly assigned to two groups; one group was exposed to a conditional discrimination relational training task to bias choice allocation to a black machine presented concurrently with a red machine, and the other group underwent the same relational training task immediately followed by a defusion procedure, designed to expand upon the relations developed in the initial relational task. Both groups completed a simulated slot-machine task before and after the relational training task, with or without the defusion procedure...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Laci Watkins, Mark O'Reilly, Michelle Kuhn, Katherine Ledbetter-Cho
The literature suggests that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) educated in inclusive settings generally do not interact with typically developing classmates during social activities. This study assessed whether an intervention package consisting of interest-based structured play activities involving adult instruction, modeling, and response to child questions would result in an increase in social interaction with typically developing peers. A multiple baseline design across four participants with an embedded reversal was used to demonstrate the effects of the intervention on social interaction during structured play sessions...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Emily A Groves, Jennifer L Austin
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a classroom management system that employs an interdependent group contingency, whereby students work as a team to win the game. Although previous anecdotal data have suggested that this arrangement may promote prosocial behavior, teachers may have concerns about its fairness and potential to evoke negative peer interactions (especially toward students who break the rules). We evaluated disruptive behaviors and social interactions during the GBG in a secondary classroom for students with emotional and behavioral disorders, as well as in a primary classroom for students with mild developmental disabilities...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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