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Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis

Art Dowdy, Matt Tincani, Timothy Nipe, Mary Jane Weiss
Personal hygiene routines, such as nail cutting, are essential for maintaining good health. However, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities often struggle to comply with essential, personal hygiene routines. We conducted a systematic replication of, and to evaluate an intervention that did not require escape extinction for increasing compliance with nail cutting. With two adolescents diagnosed with ASD who resisted nail cutting, we evaluated the effects of delivering a preferred edible item contingent on compliance with nail cutting...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Joshua L Lipschultz, David A Wilder, Hallie Ertel, Amy Enderli
The high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence involves the delivery of a series of high-probability instructions immediately before delivery of a low-probability or target instruction. It has been shown to be efficacious for treating noncompliance among children and individuals with intellectual disabilities. Previous research (Esch & Fryling, ) has suggested that matching the topography of the response required to comply with high-p instructions with the topography of the response required to comply with the low-p instruction in the sequence may lead to greater increases in compliance with the low-p instruction...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Lauren K Schnell, Jason C Vladescu, Tiffany Kodak, Casey L Nottingham
Generalization is a critical outcome for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who display new skills in a limited range of contexts. In the absence of proper planning, generalization may not be observed. The purpose of the current study was to directly compare serial to concurrent multiple exemplar training using total training time per exemplar, mean total training time, and exposures to mastery across three children diagnosed with ASD. Additionally, we assessed the efficiency of presenting secondary targets in the antecedent and consequence portions of learning trials and evaluated generalization to tacts not associated with direct teaching...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jaime A DeQuinzio, Bridget A Taylor, Brittany J Tomasi
We extended past observational learning research by incorporating stimuli already known to participants into training. We used a multiple-baseline design across three participants to determine the effects of discrimination training on the discrimination of consequences applied to modeled responses using both known and unknown pictures. During baseline, participants were exposed to modeled correct and incorrect picture labels and were observed to imitate modeled responses that were incorrect and followed by negative feedback...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Ashley R Gibbs, Christopher A Tullis, Raven Thomas, Brittany Elkins
Vocal stereotypy is a commonly occurring challenging behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that is frequently maintained by automatic reinforcement and often interferes with skill acquisition. Matched stimulation (MS), and response interruption and redirection (RIRD) are two interventions that have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the occurrence of vocal stereotypy with participants with ASD. The current study sought to determine if the combination of MS (noncontingent music) and RIRD was more effective at reducing vocal stereotypy than RIRD alone and if the parents of children with ASD found the combination of MS and RIRD more socially valid than RIRD alone...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Tracy L Kettering, Wayne W Fisher, Michael E Kelley, Robert H LaRue
We examined the extent to which different sounds functioned as motivating operations (MO) that evoked problem behavior during a functional analysis for two participants. Results suggested that escape from loud noises reinforced the problem behavior for one participant and escape from arguing reinforced problem behavior for the other participant. Noncontingent delivery of preferred music through sound-attenuating headphones decreased problem behavior without the use of extinction for both participants. We discuss the results in terms of the abolishing effects of the intervention...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Kristin V Gunby, John T Rapp, Melissa M Bottoni
Gunby, Rapp, Bottoni, Marchese and Wu () taught three children with autism spectrum disorder to follow an instructor's gaze shift to select a specific item; however, Gunby et al. used different types of prompts with each participant. To address this limitation, we used a progressive training model for increasing gaze shift for three children with autism spectrum disorder. Results show that each participant learned to follow an adult's shift in gaze to make a correct selection. In addition, two participants displayed the skill in response to a parent's gaze shift and with only social consequences; however, the third participant required verbal instruction and tangible reinforcement to demonstrate the skill outside of training sessions...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Tina K Dass, April N Kisamore, Jason C Vladescu, Kenneth F Reeve, Sharon A Reeve, Catherine Taylor-Santa
Research on tact acquisition by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has often focused on teaching participants to tact visual stimuli. It is important to evaluate procedures for teaching tacts of nonvisual stimuli (e.g., olfactory, tactile). The purpose of the current study was to extend the literature on secondary target instruction and tact training by evaluating the effects of a discrete-trial instruction procedure involving (a) echoic prompts, a constant prompt delay, and error correction for primary targets; (b) inclusion of secondary target stimuli in the consequent portion of learning trials; and (c) multiple exemplar training on the acquisition of item tacts of olfactory stimuli, emergence of category tacts of olfactory stimuli, generalization of category tacts, and emergence of category matching, with three children diagnosed with ASD...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Valdeep Saini, William E Sullivan, Emily L Baxter, Nicole M DeRosa, Henry S Roane
Functional communication training (FCT) is one of the most commonly prescribed interventions for the treatment of severe destructive behavior exhibited by individuals with intellectual disabilities. Although highly effective, FCT has been shown to fail in some cases when treatment is introduced into the child's typical environment. Basic and translational research on renewal provides a model for studying the relapse of destructive behavior following successful response to treatment in clinic settings using FCT...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Louis P Hagopian, Griffin W Rooker, Gayane Yenokyan
Predictive biomarkers (PBioMs) are objective biological measures that predict response to medical treatments for diseases. The current study translates methods used in the field of precision medicine to identify PBioMs to identify parallel predictive behavioral markers (PBMs), defined as objective behavioral measures that predict response to treatment. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by examining the accuracy of two PBMs for automatically reinforced self-injurious behavior (ASIB). Results of the analysis indicated both functioned as good to excellent PBMs...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Adam M Briggs, Wayne W Fisher, Brian D Greer, Ryan T Kimball
Functional communication training is a well-established treatment for socially reinforced destructive behavior that typically includes differential reinforcement of the functional communication response (FCR) in combination with extinction of destructive behavior. However, when the schedule of reinforcement for the FCR is thinned, destructive behavior may resurge (e.g., Greer, Fisher, Saini, Owen, & Jones, 2016). Currently, data are unavailable on the prevalence and characteristics of resurgence during reinforcement schedule thinning...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Tiffany A Stauch, Joshua B Plavnick, Sudha Sankar, Annie C Gallagher
Few interventions focus on teaching social skills to adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID) that are consistently used during interactions with peers ( Carter et al., 2014). The present study evaluated the effects of video-based group instruction (VGI) on the acquisition of social perception skills of five adolescents with ASD or ID in a public school setting. Social perception involves observing affective behaviors of others, discriminating relevant environmental stimuli, and differentially reinforcing the affective behavior of another person...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Candice Hansard, Ellie Kazemi
We trained four undergraduate students who reported no prior experience implementing behavior-analytic procedures to conduct a paired-stimulus preference assessment using a video self-instruction package. The package was composed of several components from prior research (i.e., a voice-over script, written instructions, multiple video models per step, and instructions for the trainee to rehearse throughout the video presentation). We used a nonconcurrent, multiple-baseline-across-participants design and found that all participants accurately implemented the preference assessment with a simulated client after viewing the video once...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Megan A Boyle, Audrey N Hoffmann, Joseph M Lambert
Behavioral contrast occurs when a change in reinforcement rate in one context results in a change in behavior in the opposite direction in an unchanged context. Despite decades of study by basic researchers, behavioral contrast has remained largely an unstudied phenomenon among applied researchers. The purpose of this paper is to occasion translational and applied research on behavioral contrast with the aim of predicting and controlling socially significant behavior in unchanged contexts. We present a brief history of contrast and related definitions, review research with human and nonhuman subjects, and suggest future directions for applied and translational researchers...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Michael E May, Ashley M Shayter, Ayla Schmick, Becky Barron, Meghan Doherty, Matthew Johnson
Law enforcement agencies stress that public reporting of terror-related crime is the predominant means for disrupting these actions. However, schools may be unprepared because the majority of the populace may not understand the threat of suspicious materials or what to do when they are found on school grounds. The purpose of this study was to systematically teach preschool children to identify and report suspicious packages across three experiments. In the first experiment, we used multiple exemplar training to teach children to identify the characteristics of safe and unsafe packages...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jessica S Akers, Thomas S Higbee, Kristina R Gerencser, Azure J Pellegrino
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have deficits in social skills and may avoid engaging in play activities with typically developing peers. The purpose of this study was to identify the utility of activity schedules, with embedded scripts, to teach three children with ASD to play a complex social game. Specifically, children with ASD were taught to play hide-and-seek with typically developing peers. Once the activity schedules were introduced, participants began engaging in independent hide-and-seek behaviors...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Mahshid Ghaemmaghami, Gregory P Hanley, Joshua Jessel, Robin Landa
Response efficiency plays an important role in the initial success of functional communication training (FCT). Although low-effort functional communication responses (FCRs) have been shown to be most effective in replacing problem behavior; more developmentally advanced FCRs are favored later in the treatment process. Attempts to teach these more complex FCRs, however, often lead to the resurgence of problem behavior. In this study, we provide a detailed description of an effective shaping process applied within a changing criterion design to develop complex FCRs from simple FCRs without resurgence of problem behavior...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Boyoon Choi, Kyehoon Lee, Kwansu Moon, Shezeen Oah
We compared the effects of prompts versus feedback on handwashing behavior across six restrooms at a large university. We evaluated the effects using two separate multiple baseline designs across three men's and three women's restrooms. Results indicate that feedback was more effective for increasing handwashing.
May 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Joshua Garner, Nancy A Neef, Ralph Gardner
This study determined if previously reinforced academic responding recurred when alternative responses were differentially reinforced and subsequently placed on extinction, and whether the magnitude of resurgence was related to the rate of differential reinforcement for the alternative behavior. Three kindergarten students read Greek letters aloud as arbitrary consonant-vowel blends. Resurgence was reliably demonstrated within and across participants, and the magnitude of resurgence was related to the prior rate of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Varsovia Hernández, Jonathan K Fernand, Timothy R Vollmer, Sarah K Slocum
We observed changes in the rates of response topographies during the demand condition of functional analyses for participants who demonstrated problem behavior maintained by escape. Over the course of the functional analysis for each participant, the number of topographies decreased from the first to the last session. Additionally, after the first session of the demand condition the rate of responding for one topography increased or remained at high levels while the rates of all other topographies decreased...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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