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Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis

Jennifer R Weyman, Jolene R Sy
Previous research has shown that praise is an effective reinforcer; however, few researchers have evaluated whether qualitative differences in praise affect responding. The purpose of the current study was to compare the effects of neutral, enthusiastic, and no praise on the rate of matching-to-sample acquisition during discrete-trial training with adults diagnosed with autism and an intellectual disability. In addition, we evaluated preference for neutral, enthusiastic, and no praise. All three participants acquired responses slightly faster during the enthusiastic praise condition...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Colin S Muething, Terry S Falcomata, Raechal Ferguson, Samantha Swinnea, Cayenne Shpall
Children with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities often exhibit invariant responding (i.e., restricted behavioral repertoires), deficits in communication, and challenging behavior. Approaches demonstrated in the basic and applied literature to increase response variability include extinction, lag schedules of reinforcement, and percentile schedules of reinforcement. Results of basic studies have also indicated that delays to reinforcement often produce increases in response variability...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Joshua Jessel, Einar T Ingvarsson, Rachel Metras, Hillary Kirk, Ruth Whipple
Jessel, Hanley, and Ghaemmaghami (2016) reported the results of 30 interview-informed, synthesized contingency analyses (IISCAs) and found the IISCAs to be an effective tool for identifying the functions of problem behavior across a variety of topographies, participants, and settings. Jessel et al. did not, however, include data on the effectiveness of the corresponding treatments. In the current study, we collected and summarized 25 additional applications, from analysis to treatment, in which the IISCA was applied in an outpatient clinic...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jeanne M Donaldson, Ashley L Matter, Katie M Wiskow
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a classwide group contingency shown to reduce disruptive student behavior. We examined the feasibility of training young students to lead the GBG in one first-grade and three kindergarten classes. We also examined teacher preference for teacher-led GBG, student-led GBG, or no GBG using a concurrent chains procedure. We successfully trained students in all classes to lead the GBG, and the GBG reduced disruptive behavior regardless of who implemented it. Preference for who implemented the game varied across teachers...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Mariana Torres-Viso, Craig W Strohmeier, Jennifer R Zarcone
This study is a systematic replication of a functional analysis (FA) of the relation between mands and problem behavior. We extended treatment approaches for this problem behavior function, and describe the treatment of problem behavior related to mands for rearrangement demonstrated by a 12-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder and Smith-Magenis syndrome. The mands consisted of requests for others to change their body positioning or proximity, or rearrange items back to their original position. An FA confirmed the relation between problem behavior and mand compliance, and functional communication training with extinction decreased problem behavior and increased functional communication responses...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Rebecca A Shalev, Suzanne M Milnes, Cathleen C Piazza, Jennifer M Kozisek
In the current investigation, we compared and evaluated the effects of two intervention procedures, a modified chin prompt and reclined seating, on the liquid expulsion of 2 children with feeding disorders. For both participants, expulsion decreased to clinically meaningful levels when we added the modified chin prompt or reclined seating to a treatment package consisting of differential reinforcement of acceptance, nonremoval of the cup, and re-presentation. We discuss possible mechanisms underlying the effects of the 2 interventions and areas for future research...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jessica L Becraft, John C Borrero, Barbara J Davis, Amber E Mendres-Smith, Mariana I Castillo
Differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedules are used to decrease the overall rate of, but not eliminate, a target response. Two variations of DRL, spaced-responding and full-session, exist. Preliminary comparative analyses suggest that the two schedules function differently when unsignaled. We compared response rates under these two DRL variations with and without signals. In Experiment 1, five preschool students played a game in which points were earned under DRL schedules. In some sessions, a stimulus signaled when responses would be reinforced (S+) or not reinforced (S-)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Melissa Bowe, Tyra P Sellers
The Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services (PDC-HS) has been used to assess variables contributing to undesirable staff performance. In this study, three preschool teachers completed the PDC-HS to identify the factors contributing to four paraprofessionals' inaccurate implementation of error-correction procedures during discrete trial training sessions. The PDC-HS indicated insufficient training as a contributing factor. We then implemented a nonindicated intervention (posting reminders), followed by an indicated intervention (behavioral skills training)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Sarah K Slocum, Emma Grauerholz-Fisher, Kerri P Peters, Timothy R Vollmer
We evaluated a noncontingent reinforcement procedure that involved initially providing three subjects with signaled, continuous access to the functional reinforcer for aggression and slowly increasing the amount of time subjects were exposed to the signaled unavailability of the reinforcer. Additionally, alternative potential reinforcers were available throughout the sessions. Results showed immediate and substantial reductions in aggression for all three subjects. The clinical utility of this intervention is discussed, and future research directions are recommended...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Tara A Fahmie, Anne C Macaskill, Ellie Kazemi, Uilani C Elmer
Few studies have isolated the preventive efficacy of common behavioral strategies like noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA). The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate a laboratory model of these two problem behavior prevention strategies. Undergraduate students participated in a computer simulation, in which clicks to a designated area of the computer screen were analogous to the emergence of problem behavior. The responding of participants in a control group, who experienced a percentile schedule used to mimic the shaping of problem behavior, was compared to that of participants in two experimental groups, each with a history of either DRA or NCR...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Danielle Russell, Einar T Ingvarsson, Jennifer L Haggar, Joshua Jessel
The properties of operant reinforcers are dynamic and dependent on a number of variables, such as schedule and effort. There has been sparse research on the generalized conditioned properties of token reinforcement. We evaluated leisure items, edible items, and tokens using a progressive ratio schedule with three children with diagnoses of ASD and developmental delays. The highest break points occurred during the token reinforcement condition for two out of three participants, but response rates tended to be higher with edibles...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Amber L Valentino, Linda A LeBlanc, Paige B Raetz
This study assessed the effects of a vibrating pager on reduction of rapid eating. The study also evaluated two strategies for fading the pager, by intensity and by frequency. The pager was successful in decreasing the pace of eating to an appropriate level and the pager prompt was successfully faded. Fading by frequency was ineffective in maintaining an appropriate pace of eating while intensity fading was successful.
January 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Mariana I Castillo, Daniel R Clark, Erin A Schaller, Jeanne M Donaldson, Iser G DeLeon, SungWoo Kahng
Transitions from one activity to another may evoke problem behavior from individuals with intellectual disabilities. One explanation for the occurrence of problem behavior could be the change in relative densities of reinforcement between the two activities. We conducted a descriptive assessment of problem behavior with four children during transitions to and from several different contexts. We observed that, in most cases, the probability of problem behavior was greater during a transition to an activity with a lower density of reinforcement than during a transition to an activity with a higher density of reinforcement...
January 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Matthew T Brodhead, William Timothy Courtney, Jackie R Thaxton
We evaluated the effects of an activity schedule embedded within an iPad on varied play across applications. After establishing a pattern of repetitive gameplay, we taught three children with autism to follow the activity schedule using physical guidance. All participants increased their varied play to four applications per session and demonstrated independent and accurate activity schedule usage. The activity schedule was removed, and responding decreased to baseline levels, demonstrating the activity schedule's control over varied responding...
January 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Tara A Fahmie, Kevin C Luczynski
Over the past decade, researchers have replicated and extended research on the preschool life skills (PLS) program developed by Hanley, Heal, Tiger, and Ingvarsson (2007). This review summarizes recent research with respect to maximizing skill acquisition, improving generality, evaluating feasibility and acceptability, and testing predictions of the initial PLS study. For each area, we suggest directions for future research.
January 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Siri Ming, Teresa Mulhern, Ian Stewart, Laura Moran, Kellie Bynum
In a class inclusion task, a child must respond to stimuli as being involved in two different though hierarchically related categories. This study used a Relational Frame Theory (RFT) paradigm to assess and train this ability in three typically developing preschoolers and three individuals with autism spectrum disorder, all of whom had failed class inclusion tests. For all subjects, relational training successfully established the target repertoire and subsequent testing demonstrated both maintenance and generalization...
January 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Lauren K Schnell, Tina M Sidener, Ruth M DeBar, Jason C Vladescu, SungWoo Kahng
Few studies have evaluated methods for training decision-making when functional analysis data are undifferentiated. The current study evaluated computer-based training to teach 20 graduate students to arrange functional analysis conditions, analyze functional analysis data, and implement procedural modifications. Participants were exposed to training materials using interactive software during a 1-day session. Following the training, mean scores on the posttest, novel cases probe, and maintenance probe increased for all participants...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Nicole M Rodriguez, Megan A Levesque, Victoria L Cohrs, Jessica J Niemeier
We taught three children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder to request help using an interrupted chain procedure during which we manipulated task materials such that the child was either incapable or capable of independently completing a link of a behavior chain. We initially observed undesirable generalization of requests for help during capable trials when teaching was introduced during incapable trials for two participants and to a lesser extent for the third participant. However, with repeated exposure to differential prompting and reinforcement across incapable and capable trials, differential responding was observed across EO-present and EO-absent trials for all three participants during both teaching sets and one generalization set that was never exposed to teaching procedures...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Mark R Dixon, Mary Rachel Enoch, Jordan Belisle
Twenty-five recreational gamblers were initially asked to place bets on either red or black positions on a roulette board in a simulated casino setting. Each participant was then exposed to a stimulus pairing observing procedure which attempted to develop equivalence classes between one color (black or red) and traditionally positive words (e.g., love, happy, sex) and another color (black or red) and traditionally negative words (e.g., death, cancer, taxes), in the absence of consequence manipulations. Twenty-one of the twenty-five participants demonstrated greater response allocation to the color position on the roulette board that participated in a relational network with the positive words...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Rafael Augusto Silva, Paula Debert
The go/no-go with compound stimuli is an alternative to matching-to-sample to produce conditional and emergent relations in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this procedure with two children diagnosed with autism. We trained and tested participants to respond to conditional relations among arbitrary stimuli using the go/no-go procedure. Both learned all the trained conditional relations without developing response bias or responding to no-go trials. Participants demonstrated performance consistent with symmetry, but not equivalence...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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