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Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis

Siri Ming, Ian Stewart
Responding to stimuli as same and different can be considered a critical component of a variety of language and academic repertoires. Whereas responding to "sameness" and generalized identity matching (i.e., coordination) have been studied extensively, there appears to be a significant gap in behavior analytic research and educational programs with regard to nonmatching relations or relations of difference. We review research on difference relations from a variety of domains, including comparative psychology, as well as experimental, and translational behavior analysis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Misty Jo Dickson, Kristina K Vargo
During situations in which a gunman is present on a school campus, lockdowns are initiated until the threat is removed. However, there are no data demonstrating an effective teaching strategy to increase students' correct responding during a lockdown. We evaluated the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to teach three groups of kindergarten students how to respond during lockdown drills. Results showed that participant groups displayed increases in correct steps and decreases in noise levels after BST was implemented; these effects maintained following training...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Louis P Hagopian, Griffin W Rooker, Jennifer R Zarcone, Andrew C Bonner, Alexander R Arevalo
Hagopian, Rooker, and Zarcone (2015) evaluated a model for subtyping automatically reinforced self-injurious behavior (SIB) based on its sensitivity to changes in functional analysis conditions and the presence of self-restraint. The current study tested the generality of the model by applying it to all datasets of automatically reinforced SIB published from 1982 to 2015. We identified 49 datasets that included sufficient data to permit subtyping. Similar to the original study, Subtype-1 SIB was generally amenable to treatment using reinforcement alone, whereas Subtype-2 SIB was not...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jordan Belisle, Kelti Owens, Mark R Dixon, Albert Malkin, Sam D Jordan
Twenty-three university students completed a simulated slot machine task involving the concurrent presentation of two slot machines that were varied both in win density and the inclusion of a bonus round feature to evaluate the effect of embedded bonus rounds on participant response allocation. The results suggest that participants allocated a greater percentage of responses to machines with embedded bonus rounds across both dense (Bonus: M = 68.4, SD = 19.2; No Bonus: M = 51.2; 9.6) and lean (Bonus: M = 48...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Kathryn Glodowski, Rachel Thompson
Professionals recommend parents engage in distracting activities to mitigate negative effects of inconsolable infant crying (e.g., Deyo, Skybo, & Carroll, 2008; Goulet et al., 2009). We evaluated the availability of alternative activities on six undergraduates' tolerance for a recorded infant cry; three students tolerated the cry longer when distracting activities were available. Our results show that distracting activities could decrease the aversiveness of inconsolable infant crying for some individuals; additional research in natural caregiving situations will help determine the generality and social validity of this finding...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Matthew T Brodhead, Gina Warren Abston, Meredith Mates, Emily A Abel
We compared the results of a brief video-based multiple-stimulus without replacement preference assessment with no access to chosen activities (MSWO-NO) to the results of the same assessment with access (MSWO-WA) with four children with autism. We also compared instructor rankings of activities to MSWO-WA results. Strong to moderate correlations between MSWO-NO and MSWO-WA assessment results were found across all participants. The correlation between MSWO-WA and instructor rankings ranged from strong to low across all participants...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Claire Spieler, Raymond Miltenberger
This study evaluated the effectiveness of awareness training for the reduction of three nervous habits that manifest during public speaking: filled pauses, tongue clicks, and inappropriate use of the word "like." Four university students delivered short speeches during baseline and assessment sessions. Awareness training resulted in meaningful reductions in target behaviors for all participants. Booster awareness training sessions were necessary for all participants to achieve further reductions in target behaviors...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jorge R Reyes, Timothy R Vollmer, Astrid Hall
We compared outcomes of arousal and preference assessments for five adult male alleged sexual offenders with intellectual disabilities. Arousal assessments involved the use of the penile plethysmograph to measure changes in penile circumference to both deviant (males and females under the age of 18) and nondeviant (males and females over the age of 18) video clips. Paired-stimulus preference assessments were arranged to present still images from the video clips used in the arousal assessments. Results showed correspondence between the assessments for four out of the five participants...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Mark R Dixon, Jordan Belisle, Caleb R Stanley, Ryan C Speelman, Kyle E Rowsey, Dena Kime, Jacob H Daar
The purpose of the study was to evaluate a procedure to generate derived categorical responding by three children with disabilities and to promote the emergence of untrained intraverbal categorical responses. In the study, three 4-member equivalence classes including three stimuli (A, B, and C) and a category name (D) for each class were trained using a match-to-sample procedure. Test probes were conducted for categorical responding, including both a trained (D-A) and two derived (D-B, D-C) relational responses, as well as the emergence of untrained intraverbal categorical responding (D-A/B/C) throughout the study...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Gregory P Hanley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Rachel S Farber, Chata A Dickson, William V Dube
Overselective stimulus control refers to discriminative control in which the number of controlling stimuli is too limited for effective behavior. Experiment 1 included 22 special-education students who exhibited overselective stimulus control on a two-sample delayed matching task. An intervention added a compound identity matching opportunity within the sample observation period of the matching trials. The compound matching functioned as a differential observing response (DOR) in that high accuracy verified observation and discrimination of both sample stimuli...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jessica D Slaton, Gregory P Hanley
We evaluated rates of automatically reinforced stereotypy and item engagement for 2 children with autism under multiple and chained schedules in a multielement design. Each schedule included components during which stereotypy was blocked (S-) or allowed (S+), and we used colored cards as schedule-correlated stimuli. We report rates of stereotypy and item engagement during S- and S+ components, as well as the percentage of component time that elapsed before the first instances of stereotypy and item engagement...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Tara A Fahmie, Brian A Iwata, Sarah C Mead
Although decades of research on functional analysis methodology have identified common contingencies that maintain problem behavior and effective interventions, relatively little research has been conducted on strategies to prevent the initial development of problem behavior. We conducted a 2-part case study, the purposes of which were to illustrate the use of sensitivity tests as the bases for intervention (Study 1) and subsequently to assess the efficacy of a prevention strategy using a single-subject design (Study 2)...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Marnie Shapiro, Ellie Kazemi, Meline Pogosjana, Denice Rios, Melissa Mendoza
We examined the effects of a self-instructional and feedback package on participants' implementation of a paired-stimulus preference assessment. Specifically, in Experiment 1, we used a multiple baseline design across participants to replicate and extend the results of Graff and Karsten (2012) by evaluating the effectiveness of their self-instructional manual. A majority of the participants (i.e., 5 of 7 undergraduate students and 4 of 5 in-home behavior technicians) achieved mastery with the self-instructional package...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Megan R Heinicke, James E Carr, Sacha T Pence, Danika R Zias, Amber L Valentino, John M Falligant
Past research has demonstrated that pictorial preference assessments can predict subsequent reinforcement effects for individuals with developmental disabilities only when access to the selected stimulus is provided contingent on a pictorial selection. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess more comprehensively the feasibility of the pictorial format with children with developmental disabilities. In Experiment 1, prerequisite skill assessments were conducted, and the role of a contingent reinforcer was assessed by comparing the results from the pictorial assessment without contingent access to a reinforcer assessment...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
April N Kisamore, Amanda M Karsten, Charlotte C Mann
Reciprocal conversations, instructional activities, and other social interactions are replete with multiply controlled intraverbals, examples of which have been conceptualized in terms of conditional discriminations. Although the acquisition of conditional discriminations has been examined extensively in the behavior-analytic literature, little research has evaluated procedures to establish multiply controlled intraverbals. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of procedures based on conditional discrimination training on the acquisition of multiply controlled intraverbals with 7 participants who had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Nathan A Call, Sarah J Miller, Joslyn Cynkus Mintz, Joanna Lomas Mevers, Mindy C Scheithauer, Julie E Eshelman, Gracie A Beavers
Unlike potential tangible positive reinforcers, which are typically identified for inclusion in functional analyses empirically using preference assessments, demands are most often selected arbitrarily or based on caregiver report. The present study evaluated the use of a demand assessment with 12 participants who exhibited escape-maintained problem behavior. Participants were exposed to 10 demands, with aversiveness measured by average latency to the first instance of problem behavior. In subsequent functional analyses, results of a demand condition that included the demand with the shortest latency to problem behavior resulted in identification of an escape function for 11 of the participants...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Sarah E Frampton, Sarah C Wymer, Bethany Hansen, M Alice Shillingsburg
Matrix training consists of planning instruction by arranging components of desired skills across 2 axes. After training with diagonal targets that each combine 2 unique skill components, responses to nondiagonal targets, consisting of novel combinations of the components, may emerge. A multiple-probe design across participants was used to evaluate matrix training with known nouns (e.g., cat) and verbs (e.g., jumping) with 5 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Following baseline of Matrix 1 and a generalization matrix, diagonal targets within Matrix 1 were trained as noun-verb combinations (e...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Ashley M Fuhrman, Wayne W Fisher, Brian D Greer
Despite the effectiveness and widespread use of functional communication training (FCT), resurgence of destructive behavior can occur if the functional communication response (FCR) contacts a challenge, such as lapses in treatment integrity. We evaluated a method to mitigate resurgence by conducting FCT using a multiple schedule of reinforcement prior to extinction. After functional analyses of 2 boys' destructive behavior and treatment with FCT (Study 1), we compared levels of resurgence during an extinction challenge either after a typical FCT sequence or after exposure to schedule thinning in the context of a multiple-schedule arrangement (Study 2)...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Bethany R Raiff, Brantley P Jarvis, Jesse Dallery
Some adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus have difficulty adhering to their oral medication regimens. The current study used a multiple baseline design with 3 adults with Type 2 diabetes. Medication taking was monitored remotely in real time via an electronic pill bottle. During the intervention, monetary incentives were delivered contingent on evidence of adherence to taking medication at specified times. Text-message reminders were also sent if medication was not taken. Adherence increased for all participants...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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