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Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis

Clare J Liddon, Michael E Kelley, Catalina N Rey, Ashley P Liggett, Aurelia Ribeiro
Following reduction, behavior may recur when organisms are exposed to new or different environments. Such recurrences, called treatment relapse, are characterized by an increase of a previously reduced behavior. Renewal is a type of treatment relapse resulting from changes in stimulus contexts despite the ongoing maintenance of treatment. Renewal types include varying arrangements, such as ABA and ABC renewal, where each letter represents a different context. In the present series of translational analyses, we evaluated both ABA and ABC renewal and assessed whether these two renewal arrangements may be present in a single participant's behavior...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jelisa Scott, Dorothea C Lerman, Kally Luck
Training teachers and paraprofessionals to detect and record putative antecedents and consequences of problem behavior in the classroom has a number of potential benefits. In this study, we evaluated the outcomes of a computer-based training program consisting of lectures, models, and practice. A total of 39 teachers and paraprofessionals participated. Participants scored videos of teacher-student interactions after completing components of the instruction. The study was designed to evaluate the incremental contribution of instruction focused on (a) single exemplars of antecedents and consequences, (b) multiple exemplars of antecedents and consequences, and (c) simultaneously occurring antecedents and consequences...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Antonia R Giannakakos, Jason C Vladescu, Rachel Simon
Correctly installed child passenger safety restraints may reduce the risk of child injury and death during accidents. The present study evaluated behavioral skills training and self-monitoring to teach correct installation and use of a child passenger safety restraint in the rear-facing position. Extension probes were conducted with untrained installations and harnessing positions. Training was successful in teaching participants all installation methods and harnessing positions.
July 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Adel C Najdowski, Megan St Clair, Jesse A Fullen, Amelia Child, Angela Persicke, Jonathan Tarbox
We observed three children with autism spectrum disorder during structured play dates in which play partners displayed interest or disinterest in the toys with which they were playing. We then taught subjects to identify play partners' preferences and to make appropriate toy offers using a multiple-exemplar training package consisting of rules, midplay preference questions, prompting, and praise with observed generalization across untrained partners.
July 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Griffin W Rooker, Andrew C Bonner, Christopher M Dillon, Jennifer R Zarcone
Some individuals diagnosed with intellectual and developmental disabilities engage in automatically reinforced self-injurious behavior (SIB). For these individuals, identifying effective treatments may be difficult due to the nature of the reinforcement contingency. The purpose of this study was to review the literature on the treatment of automatically reinforced SIB to determine commonalities in procedures that produced effective and ineffective treatment outcomes, as well as historical trends in the treatment of this class of SIB...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Daniel R Mitteer, Brian D Greer, Wayne W Fisher, Victoria L Cohrs
In this investigation, we (a) define the desirable features of publication-quality, single-case design graphs based on recommendations in the scholarly literature, (b) suggest GraphPad Prism as a suitable graphing program for creating graphs with those features, and (c) develop and validate a video-modeling tutorial designed to train behavior technicians to create such graphs. Our review identified nine commonly recommended features, and Prism facilitated the creation of graphs with those features. We evaluated the effects of a video-modeling tutorial on graphing performance in Prism using a multiple-baseline design...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Ashley M Fuhrman, Brian D Greer, Amanda N Zangrillo, Wayne W Fisher
Arranging periods in which requests for reinforcement are denied in a multiple schedule may result in increased destructive behavior during these periods for individuals who receive functional communication training (FCT) as treatment for severe destructive behavior. Providing access to competing activities during periods of reinforcer unavailability has been shown to minimize destructive behavior. We evaluated methods to identify effective competing activities for use when thinning reinforcement availability in a multiple schedule and compared competing activities embedded within the multiple schedule using an alternating-treatments design...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Art Dowdy, Matt Tincani, Timothy Nipe, Mary Jane Weiss
Personal hygiene routines, such as nail cutting, are essential for maintaining good health. However, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities often struggle to comply with essential, personal hygiene routines. We conducted a systematic replication of Schumacher and Rapp (2011), Shabani and Fisher (2006), and Bishop et al. (2013) to evaluate an intervention that did not require escape extinction for increasing compliance with nail cutting. With two adolescents diagnosed with ASD who resisted nail cutting, we evaluated the effects of delivering a preferred edible item contingent on compliance with nail cutting...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Joshua L Lipschultz, David A Wilder, Hallie Ertel, Amy Enderli
The high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence involves the delivery of a series of high-probability instructions immediately before delivery of a low-probability or target instruction. It has been shown to be efficacious for treating noncompliance among children and individuals with intellectual disabilities. Previous research (Esch & Fryling, ) has suggested that matching the topography of the response required to comply with high-p instructions with the topography of the response required to comply with the low-p instruction in the sequence may lead to greater increases in compliance with the low-p instruction...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Lauren K Schnell, Jason C Vladescu, Tiffany Kodak, Casey L Nottingham
Generalization is a critical outcome for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who display new skills in a limited range of contexts. In the absence of proper planning, generalization may not be observed. The purpose of the current study was to directly compare serial to concurrent multiple exemplar training using total training time per exemplar, mean total training time, and exposures to mastery across three children diagnosed with ASD. Additionally, we assessed the efficiency of presenting secondary targets in the antecedent and consequence portions of learning trials and evaluated generalization to tacts not associated with direct teaching...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jaime A DeQuinzio, Bridget A Taylor, Brittany J Tomasi
We extended past observational learning research by incorporating stimuli already known to participants into training. We used a multiple-baseline design across three participants to determine the effects of discrimination training on the discrimination of consequences applied to modeled responses using both known and unknown pictures. During baseline, participants were exposed to modeled correct and incorrect picture labels and were observed to imitate modeled responses that were incorrect and followed by negative feedback...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Ashley R Gibbs, Christopher A Tullis, Raven Thomas, Brittany Elkins
Vocal stereotypy is a commonly occurring challenging behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that is frequently maintained by automatic reinforcement and often interferes with skill acquisition. Matched stimulation (MS), and response interruption and redirection (RIRD) are two interventions that have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the occurrence of vocal stereotypy with participants with ASD. The current study sought to determine if the combination of MS (noncontingent music) and RIRD was more effective at reducing vocal stereotypy than RIRD alone and if the parents of children with ASD found the combination of MS and RIRD more socially valid than RIRD alone...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Benjamin N Witts
Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge-Direct Training Module (PEAK-DTM) is a commercially available assessment and curriculum for individuals whose language skills are not developmentally adequate. In their review of PEAK-DTM, Reed and Luiselli (2016) analyzed the extant literature on PEAK-DTM and concluded that it has a sound and growing body of empirical support on its efficacy, usability, and psychometric properties. Similar conclusions are mirrored in the PEAK-DTM literature and promotional material...
July 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Tracy L Kettering, Wayne W Fisher, Michael E Kelley, Robert H LaRue
We examined the extent to which different sounds functioned as motivating operations (MO) that evoked problem behavior during a functional analysis for two participants. Results suggested that escape from loud noises reinforced the problem behavior for one participant and escape from arguing reinforced problem behavior for the other participant. Noncontingent delivery of preferred music through sound-attenuating headphones decreased problem behavior without the use of extinction for both participants. We discuss the results in terms of the abolishing effects of the intervention...
July 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Kristin V Gunby, John T Rapp, Melissa M Bottoni
Gunby, Rapp, Bottoni, Marchese and Wu (2017) taught three children with autism spectrum disorder to follow an instructor's gaze shift to select a specific item; however, Gunby et al. used different types of prompts with each participant. To address this limitation, we used a progressive training model for increasing gaze shift for three children with autism spectrum disorder. Results show that each participant learned to follow an adult's shift in gaze to make a correct selection. In addition, two participants displayed the skill in response to a parent's gaze shift and with only social consequences; however, the third participant required verbal instruction and tangible reinforcement to demonstrate the skill outside of training sessions...
July 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Tina K Dass, April N Kisamore, Jason C Vladescu, Kenneth F Reeve, Sharon A Reeve, Catherine Taylor-Santa
Research on tact acquisition by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has often focused on teaching participants to tact visual stimuli. It is important to evaluate procedures for teaching tacts of nonvisual stimuli (e.g., olfactory, tactile). The purpose of the current study was to extend the literature on secondary target instruction and tact training by evaluating the effects of a discrete-trial instruction procedure involving (a) echoic prompts, a constant prompt delay, and error correction for primary targets; (b) inclusion of secondary target stimuli in the consequent portion of learning trials; and (c) multiple exemplar training on the acquisition of item tacts of olfactory stimuli, emergence of category tacts of olfactory stimuli, generalization of category tacts, and emergence of category matching, with three children diagnosed with ASD...
July 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Valdeep Saini, William E Sullivan, Emily L Baxter, Nicole M DeRosa, Henry S Roane
Functional communication training (FCT) is one of the most commonly prescribed interventions for the treatment of severe destructive behavior exhibited by individuals with intellectual disabilities. Although highly effective, FCT has been shown to fail in some cases when treatment is introduced into the child's typical environment. Basic and translational research on renewal provides a model for studying the relapse of destructive behavior following successful response to treatment in clinic settings using FCT...
July 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Louis P Hagopian, Griffin W Rooker, Gayane Yenokyan
Predictive biomarkers (PBioMs) are objective biological measures that predict response to medical treatments for diseases. The current study translates methods used in the field of precision medicine to identify PBioMs to identify parallel predictive behavioral markers (PBMs), defined as objective behavioral measures that predict response to treatment. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by examining the accuracy of two PBMs for automatically reinforced self-injurious behavior (ASIB). Results of the analysis indicated both functioned as good to excellent PBMs...
July 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Adam M Briggs, Wayne W Fisher, Brian D Greer, Ryan T Kimball
Functional communication training is a well-established treatment for socially reinforced destructive behavior that typically includes differential reinforcement of the functional communication response (FCR) in combination with extinction of destructive behavior. However, when the schedule of reinforcement for the FCR is thinned, destructive behavior may resurge (e.g., Greer, Fisher, Saini, Owen, & Jones, 2016). Currently, data are unavailable on the prevalence and characteristics of resurgence during reinforcement schedule thinning...
July 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Tiffany A Stauch, Joshua B Plavnick, Sudha Sankar, Annie C Gallagher
Few interventions focus on teaching social skills to adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID) that are consistently used during interactions with peers ( Carter et al., 2014). The present study evaluated the effects of video-based group instruction (VGI) on the acquisition of social perception skills of five adolescents with ASD or ID in a public school setting. Social perception involves observing affective behaviors of others, discriminating relevant environmental stimuli, and differentially reinforcing the affective behavior of another person...
July 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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