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Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis

Marlesha C Bell, Tara A Fahmie
The current study evaluated a screening procedure for multiple topographies of problem behavior in the context of an ongoing functional analysis. Experimenters analyzed the function of a topography of primary concern while collecting data on topographies of secondary concern. We used visual analysis to predict the function of secondary topographies and a subsequent functional analysis to test those predictions. Results showed that a general function was accurately predicted for five of six (83%) secondary topographies...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Layla A Sump, David M Richman, Anna Marie Schaefer, Laura M Grubb, Adam T Brewer
The efficacy and efficiency of telehealth and in-person training were compared while teaching seven undergraduate students to implement components of discrete trial training. A multiple-baseline design across skills with elements of multiple probe and delayed multiple baseline combined with an alternating-treatments design was used to evaluate the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on (a) implementing a multiple stimulus without replacement preference assessment, (b) setting up an instructional context, (c) delivering antecedent prompts, and (d) delivering consequences for accurate and inaccurate responding...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Kiley A Schneider, Bailey Devine, Gabriella Aguilar, Anna Ingeborg Petursdottir
Conflicting recommendations exist in the literature regarding the optimal order of stimulus presentation when teaching auditory-visual conditional discriminations. The present study examined the generality of a previously demonstrated advantage of presenting the auditory sample before visual comparisons (sample-first condition) over the reverse sequence (comparison-first condition). Participants were four typically developing 5- and 6-year-old boys. The procedures of Petursdottir and Aguilar (2016) were systematically replicated with the addition of a prompted error correction trial following each incorrect response...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Regina A Carroll, Jennifer Owsiany, Jessica M Cheatham
Previous research comparing the effectiveness of error-correction procedures has involved lengthy assessments that may not be practical in applied settings. We used an abbreviated assessment to compare the effectiveness of five error-correction procedures for four children with autism spectrum disorder or a developmental delay. During the abbreviated assessment, we sampled participants' responding with each procedure and completed the assessment before participants reached our mastery criterion. Then, we used the results of the abbreviated assessment to predict the most efficient procedure for each participant...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Christopher C Rubow, Timothy R Vollmer, P Raymond Joslyn
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a classroom behavior management procedure that has been shown to be effective in reducing disruptive behavior across many settings and populations (Flower, McKenna, Bunuan, Muething, & Vega, 2014). We investigated the effects of the GBG on student and teacher behavior in two classrooms containing fourth- to eighth-grade students in an alternative school for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Results indicated the GBG reduced disruption and increased the teacher's use of praise relative to reprimands...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Manuella E Oropeza, Jennifer N Fritz, Melissa A Nissen, Amy S Terrell, Lauren A Phillips
The effects of therapist-worn protective equipment (PE) on functional analysis (FA) outcomes for aggression were evaluated. Independent FAs with and without PE were conducted concurrently. Both FAs showed the same function of aggression for all participants. These results suggest that therapists may wear PE during FAs of aggression to reduce risk without altering the interpretation of the analysis.
March 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Katie Wolfe, Michael A Seaman, Erik Drasgow, Phillip Sherlock
The conservative dual-criterion (CDC) method was developed to standardize the analysis of single-subject experimental designs data, but to date its accuracy has been evaluated only by comparing results to the statistical parameters of graphs. Our study investigated agreement between expert visual analysts and the CDC method on 66 AB tiers from published multiple baseline graphs. We found strong agreement between the two methods for certain types of graphs and discuss implications of the findings and areas for future research...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Julia Vessells, Jolene R Sy, Alyssa Wilson, Leonard Green
The current study is a systematic replication and extension of work by Schweitzer & Sulzer-Azaroff (1988). The effects of delay fading alone and in combination with signals on choices between larger, delayed reinforcers and smaller, immediate reinforcers by four children with language deficits were examined. For one of the two children exposed to delay fading alone, larger reinforcers were selected at longer delays relative to the initial self-control assessment. For all four children, the delay-fading-plus-signal condition resulted in selection of larger reinforcers at considerably longer delays relative to the self-control assessment...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Michelle A Frank-Crawford, Mariana I Castillo, Iser G DeLeon
Predictions made under low response requirements inherent in most preference assessments (PAs) do not guarantee the utility of stimuli in treatments. We examined whether PA rank would predict how well stimuli supported compliance for children with escape-maintained problem behavior by examining the relation between PA rank and demand elasticity across five fixed-ratio values. Three patterns were observed: All stimuli were selected equally across values, higher ranked stimuli were selected more at higher values, and something other than the highest ranked stimulus was selected more at higher values (i...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Valdeep Saini, Wayne W Fisher, Billie J Retzlaff
Prior research has evaluated the reliability and validity of structured criteria for visually inspecting functional-analysis (FA) results on a post-hoc basis, after completion of the FA (i.e., post-hoc visual inspection [PHVI]; e.g., Hagopian et al., 1997). However, most behavior analysts inspect FAs using ongoing visual inspection (OVI) as the FA is implemented, and the validity of applying structured criteria during OVI remains unknown. In this investigation, we evaluated the predictive validity and efficiency of applying structured criteria on an ongoing basis by comparing the interim interpretations produced through OVI with (a) the final interpretations produced by PHVI, (b) the authors' post-hoc interpretations (PHAI) reported in the research studies, and (c) the consensus interpretations of these two post-hoc analyses...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
James E Carr, Melissa R Nosik, Molli M Luke
There exists a terminological problem in applied behavior analysis: the term frequency has been used as a synonym for both rate (the number of responses per time) and count (the number of responses). To guide decisions about the use and meaning of frequency, we surveyed the usage of frequency in contemporary behavior-analytic journals and textbooks and found that the predominant usage of frequency was as count, not rate. Thus, we encourage behavior analysts to use frequency as a synonym for count.
March 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Kelly A Carlile, Ruth M DeBar, Sharon A Reeve, Kenneth F Reeve, Linda S Meyer
Deficits in safety skills and communication deficits place individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at an increased risk of danger. We used a multiple-probe across-participants design to evaluate the effects of video modeling and programming common stimuli to teach low- and high-tech help-seeking responses to children with ASD when lost. Participants acquired answering or making a FaceTime® call and exchanging an identification card in contrived and natural settings. Responses generalized to novel community settings and maintained during a one- and two-week follow-up...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Sarah E Frampton, M Alice Shillingsburg
Few studies have applied Skinner's (1953) conceptualization of problem solving to teach socially significant behaviors to individuals with developmental disabilities. The current study used a multiple probe design across behavior (sets) to evaluate the effects of problem-solving strategy training (PSST) on the target behavior of explaining how to complete familiar activities. During baseline, none of the three participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could respond to the problems presented to them (i...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Wayne W Fisher, Brian D Greer, Daniel R Mitteer, Ashley M Fuhrman, Patrick W Romani, Amanda N Zangrillo
Recent research findings (DeRosa, Fisher, & Steege, ) suggest that minimizing exposure to the establishing operation (EO) for destructive behavior when differential reinforcement interventions like functional communication training (FCT) are introduced may produce more immediate reductions in destructive behavior and prevent or mitigate extinction bursts. We directly tested this hypothesis by introducing FCT with extinction in two conditions, one with limited exposure to the EO (limited EO) and one with more extended exposure to the EO (extended EO) using a combined reversal and multielement design...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Mark R Dixon, Scott H Wiggins, Jordan Belisle
The current investigation sought to extend prior research evaluating the use of the PEAK Relational Training System as a comprehensive treatment model in improving language skills demonstrated by individuals with autism. Baseline PEAK-Direct Training and Verbal Behavior Milestone Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP) assessments were conducted across 3 adult male participants, and scores on the PEAK-Direct Training assessment were used to select targets for intervention. Language instruction guided by the PEAK-Direct Training module was implemented for 45 to 69 days across participants...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Caleb R Stanley, Jordan Belisle, Mark R Dixon
This study evaluated the efficacy of three equivalence-based instruction procedures on the acquisition of novel academic skills by 3 adolescents diagnosed with autism in a school setting. The skills targeted for instruction were related to topics in history, science, and mathematics, and were taught using different training structures from the PEAK-E curriculum. All participants demonstrated mastery of the trained relations and the tested derived relations following all variants of equivalence-based instruction...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Kaneen B Geiger, Linda A LeBlanc, Katie Hubik, Sarah R Jenkins, James E Carr
Discrete-trial teaching is an effective teaching procedure that must be implemented with high integrity to produce optimal learning. Behavioral Skills Training (BST) has proven effective for staff training; however, BST is time and labor intensive. Computer-based instruction (CBI) programs may provide a more efficient and cost-effective alternative to live training if the CBI program is as effective as BST in producing accurate implementation. The current study compared CBI to BST to train novice undergraduate students to conduct discrete-trial teaching...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Kristin R Griffith, Amber L Ramos, Kelli E Hill, Caio F Miguel
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of equivalence-based instruction (EBI) on the emergence of basic music reading and piano playing skills. Six female college students learned to identify three musical chord notations given their respective dictated names. Participants also learned to play chords on the piano following the dictated name of the chord, and to play the chords to a song on a keyboard. Results are consistent with past research, in that stimuli became substitutable for each other and acquired a common behavioral function...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
S Shanun Kunnavatana, Sarah E Bloom, Andrew L Samaha, Timothy A Slocum, Casey J Clay
Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) most often includes extinction as a treatment component. However, extinction is not always feasible and it can be counter-therapeutic if implemented without optimal treatment integrity. Researchers have successfully implemented DRA without extinction by manipulating various parameters of reinforcement such that alternative behavior is favored. We extended previous research by assessing three participants' sensitivities to quality, magnitude, and immediacy using arbitrary responses and reinforcers that maintain problem behavior...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Timothy D Hackenberg
The present paper provides an integrative review of research on token reinforcement systems, organized in relation to basic behavioral functions and economic variables. This type of functional taxonomy provides a useful way to organize the literature, bringing order to a wide range of findings across species and settings, and revealing gaps in the research and areas especially ripe for analysis and application. Unlike standard translational research, based on a unidirectional model in which the analysis moves from laboratory to the applied realm, work in the area of token systems is best served by a bidirectional interplay between laboratory and applied research, where applied questions inspire research on basic mechanisms...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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