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Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409352/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-emt-and-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-endmt-role-and-implications-in-kidney-fibrosis
#1
Ana S Cruz-Solbes, Keith Youker
Tubulointerstitial injury is one of the hallmarks of renal disease. In particular, interstitial fibrosis has a prominent role in the development and progression of kidney injury. Collagen-producing fibroblasts are responsible for the ECM deposition. However, the origin of those activated fibroblasts is not clear. This chapter will discuss in detail the concept of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in the context of fibrosis and kidney disease. In short, EMT and EndMT involve a change in cell shape, loss of polarity and increased motility associated with increased collagen production...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409351/inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-polycystic-kidney-disease
#2
Cheng Jack Song, Kurt A Zimmerman, Scott J Henke, Bradley K Yoder
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a commonly inherited disorder characterized by cyst formation and fibrosis (Wilson, N Engl J Med 350:151-164, 2004) and is caused by mutations in cilia or cilia-related proteins, such as polycystin 1 or 2 (Oh and Katsanis, Development 139:443-448, 2012; Kotsis et al., Nephrol Dial Transplant 28:518-526, 2013). A major pathological feature of PKD is the development of interstitial inflammation and fibrosis with an associated accumulation of inflammatory cells (Grantham, N Engl J Med 359:1477-1485, 2008; Zeier et al...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409350/primary-cilia-in-cystic-kidney-disease
#3
Prachee Avasthi, Robin L Maser, Pamela V Tran
Primary cilia are small, antenna-like structures that detect mechanical and chemical cues and transduce extracellular signals. While mammalian primary cilia were first reported in the late 1800s, scientific interest in these sensory organelles has burgeoned since the beginning of the twenty-first century with recognition that primary cilia are essential to human health. Among the most common clinical manifestations of ciliary dysfunction are renal cysts. The molecular mechanisms underlying renal cystogenesis are complex, involving multiple aberrant cellular processes and signaling pathways, while initiating molecular events remain undefined...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409349/genetic-syndromes-affecting-kidney-development
#4
Abhijeet Pal, Kimberly J Reidy
Renal anomalies are common birth defects that may manifest as a wide spectrum of anomalies from hydronephrosis (dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces) to renal aplasia (complete absence of the kidney(s)). Aneuploidies and mosaicisms are the most common syndromes associated with CAKUT. Syndromes with single gene and renal developmental defects are less common but have facilitated insight into the mechanism of renal and other organ development. Analysis of underlying genetic mutations with transgenic and mutant mice has also led to advances in our understanding of mechanisms of renal development...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409348/imaging-analysing-and-interpreting-branching-morphogenesis-in-the-developing-kidney
#5
Kieran M Short, Ian M Smyth
The kidney develops as an outgrowth of the epithelial nephric duct known as the ureteric bud, in a position specified by a range of rostral and caudal factors which serve to ensure two kidneys form in the appropriate positions in the body. At its simplest level, kidney development can be viewed as the process by which this single bud then undergoes a process of arborisation to form a complex connected network of ducts which will serve to drain urine from the nephrons in the adult organ. The process of bud elaboration is dictated by factors expressed by both the bud itself and by surrounding cells of the metanephric mesenchyme which control cell division and bifurcation...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409347/origin-and-function-of-the-renal-stroma-in-health-and-disease
#6
Christopher J Rowan, Sepideh Sheybani-Deloui, Norman D Rosenblum
The renal stroma is defined as a heterogeneous population of cells that serve both as a supportive framework and as a source of specialized cells in the renal capsule, glomerulus, vasculature, and interstitium. In this chapter, we review published evidence defining what, where, and why stromal cells are important. We describe the functions of the renal stroma andhow stromal derivatives are crucial for normal kidney function. Next, we review the specification of stromal cells from the Osr1+ intermediate mesoderm and T+ presomitic mesoderm during embryogenesis and stromal cell differentiation...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409346/development-and-diseases-of-the-collecting-duct-system
#7
Lihe Chen, Paul J Higgins, Wenzheng Zhang
The collecting duct of the mammalian kidney is important for the regulation of extracellular volume, osmolarity, and pH. There are two major structurally and functionally distinct cell types: principal cells and intercalated cells. The former regulates Na(+) and water homeostasis, while the latter participates in acid-base homeostasis. In vivo lineage tracing using Cre recombinase or its derivatives such as CreGFP and CreER(T2) is a powerful new technique to identify stem/progenitor cells in their native environment and to decipher the origins of the tissue that they give rise to...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409345/growth-factor-regulation-in-the-nephrogenic-zone-of-the-developing-kidney
#8
Leif Oxburgh, Sree Deepthi Muthukrishnan, Aaron Brown
New nephrons are induced by the interaction between mesenchymal progenitor cells and collecting duct tips, both of which are located at the outer edge of the kidney. This leading edge of active nephron induction is known as the nephrogenic zone. Cell populations found within this zone include collecting duct tips, cap mesenchyme cells, pretubular aggregates, nephrogenic zone interstitium, hemoendothelial progenitor cells, and macrophages. The close association of these dynamic progenitor cell compartments enables the intricate and synchronized patterning of the epithelial and the vascular components of the nephron...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409344/tissue-specific-functions-of-p53-during-kidney-development
#9
Zubaida Saifudeen
p53 is best identified as a tumor suppressor for its transcriptional control of genes involved in cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Beyond its irrefutable involvement in restraining unchecked cell proliferation, research over the past several years has indicated a requirement for p53 function in sustaining normal development. Here I summarize the role of p53 in embryonic development, with a focus on knowledge gained from p53 loss and overexpression during kidney development. In contrast to its classical role in suppressing proliferative pathways, p53 positively regulates nephron progenitor cell (NPC) renewal...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409343/use-of-xenopus-frogs-to-study-renal-development-repair
#10
Shoshoni T Droz, Kelly A McLaughlin
The Xenopus genus includes several members of aquatic frogs native to Africa but is perhaps best known for the species Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis. These species were popularized as model organisms from as early as the 1800s and have been instrumental in expanding several biological fields including cell biology, environmental toxicology, regenerative biology, and developmental biology. In fact, much of what we know about the formation and maturation of the vertebrate renal system has been acquired by examining the intricate genetic and morphological patterns that epitomize nephrogenesis in Xenopus...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409342/zebrafish-as-a-model-of-kidney-disease
#11
Elvin E Morales, Rebecca A Wingert
Animal models have been an invaluable means to advance biomedical research as they provide experimental avenues for cellular and molecular investigations of disease pathology. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a good alternative to mammalian models that can be used to apply powerful genetic experimental methods normally used in invertebrates to answer questions about vertebrate development and disease. In the case of the kidney, the zebrafish has proven itself to be an applicable and versatile experimental system, mainly due to the simplicity of its pronephros, which contains two nephrons that possess conserved structural and physiological aspects with mammalian nephrons...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409341/zebrafish-pronephros-development
#12
Richard W Naylor, Sarah S Qubisi, Alan J Davidson
The pronephros is the first kidney type to form in vertebrate embryos. The first step of pronephrogenesis in the zebrafish is the formation of the intermediate mesoderm during gastrulation, which occurs in response to secreted morphogens such as BMPs and Nodals. Patterning of the intermediate mesoderm into proximal and distal cell fates is induced by retinoic acid signaling with downstream transcription factors including wt1a, pax2a, pax8, hnf1b, sim1a, mecom, and irx3b. In the anterior intermediate mesoderm, progenitors of the glomerular blood filter migrate and fuse at the midline and recruit a blood supply...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409340/drosophila-malpighian-tubules-a-model-for-understanding-kidney-development-function-and-disease
#13
Naveen Kumar Gautam, Puja Verma, Madhu G Tapadia
The Malpighian tubules of insects are structurally simple but functionally important organs, and their integrity is important for the normal excretory process. They are functional analogs of human kidneys which are important physiological organs as they maintain water and electrolyte balance in the blood and simultaneously help the body to get rid of waste and toxic products after various metabolic activities. In addition, it receives early indications of insults to the body such as immune challenge and other toxic components and is essential for sustaining life...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409315/molecular-programs-underlying-asymmetric-stem-cell-division-and-their-disruption-in-malignancy
#14
Subhas Mukherjee, Daniel J Brat
Asymmetric division of stem cells is a highly conserved and tightly regulated process by which a single stem cell produces two unequal daughter cells. One retains its stem cell identity while the other becomes specialized through a differentiation program and loses stem cell properties. Coordinating these events requires control over numerous intra- and extracellular biological processes and signaling networks. In the initial stages, critical events include the compartmentalization of fate determining proteins within the mother cell and their subsequent passage to the appropriate daughter cell in order to direct their destiny...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409314/regulation-of-asymmetric-cell-division-in-mammalian-neural-stem-and-cancer-precursor-cells
#15
Mathieu Daynac, Claudia K Petritsch
Stem and progenitor cells are characterized by their abilities to self-renew and produce differentiated progeny. The balance between self-renewal and differentiation is achieved through control of cell division mode, which can be either asymmetric or symmetric. Failure to properly control cell division mode may result in premature depletion of the stem/progenitor cell pool or abnormal growth and impaired differentiation. In many tissues, including the brain, stem cells and progenitor cells undergo asymmetric cell division through the establishment of cell polarity...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409313/extracellular-regulation-of-the-mitotic-spindle-and-fate-determinants-driving-asymmetric-cell-division
#16
Prestina Smith, Mark Azzam, Lindsay Hinck
Stem cells use mode of cell division, symmetric (SCD) versus asymmetric (ACD), to balance expansion with self-renewal and the generation of daughter cells with different cell fates. Studies in model organisms have identified intrinsic mechanisms that govern this process, which involves partitioning molecular components between daughter cells, frequently through the regulation of the mitotic spindle. Research performed in vertebrate tissues is revealing both conservation of these intrinsic mechanisms and crucial roles for extrinsic cues in regulating the frequency of these divisions...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409312/a-comparative-perspective-on-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signalling-in-cell-fate-determination
#17
Clare L Garcin, Shukry J Habib
The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is an ancient and highly conserved signalling pathway that plays fundamental roles in the regulation of embryonic development and adult homeostasis. This pathway has been implicated in numerous cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, morphological changes and apoptosis. In this chapter, we aim to illustrate with specific examples the involvement of Wnt/β-catenin signalling in cell fate determination. We discuss the roles of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in specifying cell fate throughout evolution, how its function in patterning during development is often reactivated during regeneration and how perturbation of this pathway has negative consequences for the control of cell fate...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409311/symmetry-does-not-come-for-free-cellular-mechanisms-to-achieve-a-symmetric-cell-division
#18
Damian Dudka, Patrick Meraldi
During mitosis cells can divide symmetrically to proliferate or asymmetrically to generate tissue diversity. While the mechanisms that ensure asymmetric cell division have been extensively studied, it is often assumed that a symmetric cell division is the default outcome of mitosis. Recent studies, however, imply that the symmetric nature of cell division is actively controlled, as they reveal numerous mechanisms that ensure the formation of equal-sized daughter cells as cells progress through cell division...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409310/asymmetries-and-symmetries-in-the-mouse-oocyte-and-zygote
#19
Agathe Chaigne, Marie-Emilie Terret, Marie-Hélène Verlhac
Mammalian oocytes grow periodically after puberty thanks to the dialogue with their niche in the follicle. This communication between somatic and germ cells promotes the accumulation, inside the oocyte, of maternal RNAs, proteins and other molecules that will sustain the two gamete divisions and early embryo development up to its implantation. In order to preserve their stock of maternal products, oocytes from all species divide twice minimizing the volume of their daughter cells to their own benefit. For this, they undergo asymmetric divisions in size where one main objective is to locate the division spindle with its chromosomes off-centred...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409309/asymmetric-and-unequal-cell-divisions-in-ascidian-embryos
#20
Takefumi Negishi, Hiroki Nishida
Asymmetric cell division during embryogenesis contributes to cell diversity by generating daughter cells that adopt distinct developmental fates. In this chapter, we summarize current knowledge of three examples of asymmetric cell division occurring in ascidian early embryos: (1) Three successive cell divisions that are asymmetric in terms of cell fate and unequal in cell size in the germline lineage at the embryo posterior pole. A subcellular structure, the centrosome-attracting body (CAB), and maternal PEM mRNAs localized within it control both the positioning of the cell division planes and segregation of the germ cell fates...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
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