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Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation

Rafal P Piprek
Current knowledge on gonadal development and sex determination is the product of many decades of research involving a variety of scientific methods from different biological disciplines such as histology, genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology. The earliest embryological investigations, followed by the invention of microscopy and staining methods, were based on histological examinations. The most robust development of histological staining techniques occurred in the second half of the nineteenth century and resulted in structural descriptions of gonadogenesis...
2016: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Anna Biason-Lauber
The process of sexual differentiation is central for reproduction of almost all metazoan and therefore for maintenance of practically all multicellular organisms. In sex development we can distinguish two different processes: First, sex determination is the developmental decision that directs the undifferentiated embryo into a sexually dimorphic individual. In mammals, sex determination equals gonadal development. The second process known as sex differentiation takes place once the sex determination decision has been made through factors produced by the gonads that determine the development of the phenotypic sex...
2016: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Hadas Grossman, Ruth Shalgi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small noncoding RNA molecules that play a major role in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression and are expressed in an organ-specific manner. One miRNA can potentially regulate the expression of several genes, depending on cell type and differentiation stage. miRNAs are differentially expressed in the male and female gonads and have an organ-specific reproductive function. Exerting their affect through germ cells and gonadal somatic cells, miRNAs regulate key proteins necessary for gonad development...
2016: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Ji Wu, Xinbao Ding, Jian Wang
Stem cells have great value in clinical application because of their ability to self-renew and their potential to differentiate into many different cell types. Mammalian gonads, including testes for males and ovaries for females, are composed of germline and somatic cells. In male mammals, spermatogonial stem cells maintain spermatogenesis which occurs continuously in adult testis. Likewise, a growing body of evidence demonstrated that female germline stem cells could be found in mammalian ovaries. Meanwhile, prior studies have shown that somatic stem cells exist in both testes and ovaries...
2016: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Jennifer M Mecklenburg, Brian P Hermann
Mammalian spermatogenesis is a complex and highly ordered process by which male germ cells proceed through a series of differentiation steps to produce haploid flagellated spermatozoa. Underlying this process is a pool of adult stem cells, the spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which commence the spermatogenic lineage by undertaking a differentiation fate decision to become progenitor spermatogonia. Subsequently, progenitors acquire a differentiating spermatogonia phenotype and undergo a series of amplifying mitoses while becoming competent to enter meiosis...
2016: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Katarzyna Chojnacka, Marta Zarzycka, Dolores D Mruk
A healthy man typically produces between 50 × 10(6) and 200 × 10(6) spermatozoa per day by spermatogenesis; in the absence of Sertoli cells in the male gonad, this individual would be infertile. In the adult testis, Sertoli cells are sustentacular cells that support germ cell development by secreting proteins and other important biomolecules that are essential for germ cell survival and maturation, establishing the blood-testis barrier, and facilitating spermatozoa detachment at spermiation. In the fetal testis, on the other hand, pre-Sertoli cells form the testis cords, the future seminiferous tubules...
2016: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Stephany El-Hayek, Hugh J Clarke
In the mammalian ovary, each oocyte grows and develops within its own structural and developmental niche-the follicle. Together with the female germ cell in the follicle are somatic granulosa cells, specialized companion cells that surround the oocyte and provide support to it, and an outer layer of thecal cells that serve crucial roles including steroid synthesis. These follicular compartments function as a single physiological unit whose purpose is to produce a healthy egg, which upon ovulation can be fertilized and give rise to a healthy embryo, thus enabling the female germ cell to fulfill its reproductive potential...
2016: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Nitzan Rimon-Dahari, Lia Yerushalmi-Heinemann, Liat Alyagor, Nava Dekel
The ovary, the female gonad, serves as the source for the germ cells as well as the major supplier of steroid sex hormones. During embryonic development, the primordial germ cells (PGCs) are specified, migrate to the site of the future gonad, and proliferate, forming structures of germ cells nests, which will eventually break down to generate the primordial follicles (PMFs). Each PMF contains an oocyte arrested at the first prophase of meiosis, surrounded by a flattened layer of somatic pre-granulosa cells...
2016: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Kellie S Agrimson, Cathryn A Hogarth
The core of the decision to commit to either oogenesis or spermatogenesis lies in the timing of meiotic entry. Primordial germ cells within the fetal ovary become committed to the female pathway prior to birth and enter meiosis during embryonic development. In the fetal testis, however, the germ cells are protected from this signal before birth and instead receive this trigger postnatally. There is a growing body of evidence to indicate that RA is the meiosis-inducing factor in both sexes, with the gender-specific timing of meiotic entry controlled via degradation of this molecule only within the fetal testis...
2016: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Sarah J Potter, Deepti Lava Kumar, Tony DeFalco
Sexual reproduction is dependent on the activity of androgenic steroid hormones to promote gonadal development and gametogenesis. Leydig cells of the testis and theca cells of the ovary are critical cell types in the gonadal interstitium that carry out steroidogenesis and provide key androgens for reproductive organ function. In this chapter, we will discuss important aspects of interstitial androgenic cell development in the gonad, including: the potential cellular origins of interstitial steroidogenic cells and their progenitors; the molecular mechanisms involved in Leydig cell specification and differentiation (including Sertoli-cell-derived signaling pathways and Leydig-cell-related transcription factors and nuclear receptors); the interactions of Leydig cells with other cell types in the adult testis, such as Sertoli cells, germ cells, peritubular myoid cells, macrophages, and vascular endothelial cells; the process of steroidogenesis and its systemic regulation; and a brief discussion of the development of theca cells in the ovary relative to Leydig cells in the testis...
2016: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Sarah M Romereim, Andrea S Cupp
Testis morphogenesis requires the integration and reorganization of multiple cell types from several sources, one of the more notable being the mesonephric-derived cell population. One of the earliest sex-specific morphogenetic events in the gonad is a wave of endothelial cell migration from the mesonephros that is crucial for (1) partitioning the gonad into domains for testis cords, (2) providing the vasculature of the testis, and (3) signaling to cells both within the gonad and beyond it to coordinately regulate testis development...
2016: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Gwenn-Aël Carré, Andy Greenfield
The supporting cell lineage plays a crucial role in nurturing the development of germ cells in the adult gonad. Sertoli cells in the testis support the progression of spermatogonial stem cells through meiosis to the production of motile spermatozoa. Granulosa cells, meanwhile, are a critical component of the ovarian follicle that produces the mature oocyte. It is a distinctive feature of the embryonic gonad that at least some of the supporting cells are derived from a single sexually bipotential precursor lineage...
2016: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Massimo De Felici
In most multicellular organisms, including mammals, germ cells are at the origin of new organisms and ensure the continuation of the genetic and epigenetic information across the generations.In the mammalian germ line, the primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the precursors of the primary oocytes and prospermatogonia of fetal ovaries and testes, respectively. In mammals such as the primates, in which the formation of the primary oocytes is largely asynchronous and occurs during a relatively long period, PGCs after the arrival into the XX gonadal ridges are termed oogonia which then become primary oocytes when entering into meiotic prophase I...
2016: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Rafal P Piprek, Malgorzata Kloc, Jacek Z Kubiak
The earliest manifestation of gonadogenesis in vertebrates is the formation of the genital ridges. The genital ridges form through the transformation of monolayer coelomic epithelium into a cluster of somatic cells. This process depends on increased proliferation of coelomic epithelium and disintegration of its basement membrane, which is foreshadowed by the expression of series of regulatory genes. The earliest expressed gene is Gata4, followed by Sf1, Lhx9, Emx2, and Cbx2. The early genital ridge is a mass of somatic SF1-positive cells (gonadal precursor cells) that derive from proliferating coelomic epithelium...
2016: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Ellen Hsu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Kate Senger, Jason Hackney, Jian Payandeh, Ali A Zarrin
The humoral or antibody-mediated immune response in vertebrates has evolved to respond to diverse antigenic challenges in various anatomical locations. Diversification of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) constant region via isotype switching allows for remarkable plasticity in the immune response, including versatile tissue distribution, Fc receptor binding, and complement fixation. This enables antibody molecules to exert various biological functions while maintaining antigen-binding specificity. Different immunoglobulin (Ig) classes include IgM, IgD, IgG, IgE, and IgA, which exist as surface-bound and secreted forms...
2015: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Dennis K Lanning, Katherine L Knight
Gene conversion, mediated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), has been found to contribute to generation of the primary antibody repertoire in several vertebrate species. Generation of the primary antibody repertoire by gene conversion of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes occurs primarily in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) and is best described in chicken and rabbit. Here, we discuss current knowledge of the mechanism of gene conversion as well as the contribution of the microbiota in promoting gene conversion of Ig genes...
2015: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Victoria L Hansen, Robert D Miller
The T cell receptor structure and genetic organization have been thought to have been stable in vertebrate evolution relative to the immunoglobulins. For the most part, this has been true and the content and organization of T cell receptor genes has been fairly conserved over the past 400 million years of gnathostome evolution. Analyses of TCRδ chains in a broad range of vertebrate lineages over the past decade have revealed a remarkable and previously unrealized degree of plasticity. This plasticity can generally be described in two forms...
2015: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Susana Magadan, Oriol J Sunyer, Pierre Boudinot
Fishes (i.e., teleost fishes) are the largest group of vertebrates. Although their immune system is based on the fundamental receptors, pathways, and cell types found in all groups of vertebrates, fishes show a diversity of particular features that challenge some classical concepts of immunology. In this chapter, we discuss the particularities of fish immune repertoires from a comparative perspective. We examine how allelic exclusion can be achieved when multiple Ig loci are present, how isotypic diversity and functional specificity impact clonal complexity, how loss of the MHC class II molecules affects the cooperation between T and B cells, and how deep sequencing technologies bring new insights about somatic hypermutation in the absence of germinal centers...
2015: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Eva Bengtén, Melanie Wilson
As in mammals, cartilaginous and teleost fishes possess adaptive immune systems based on antigen recognition by immunoglobulins (Ig), T cell receptors (TCR), and major histocompatibility complex molecules (MHC) I and MHC II molecules. Also it is well established that fish B cells and mammalian B cells share many similarities, including Ig gene rearrangements, and production of membrane Ig and secreted Ig forms. This chapter provides an overview of the IgH and IgL chains in cartilaginous and bony fish, including their gene organizations, expression, diversity of their isotypes, and development of the primary repertoire...
2015: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
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