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Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209666/human-fetal-neural-stem-cells-for-neurodegenerative-disease-treatment
#1
Daniela Ferrari, Maurizio Gelati, Daniela Celeste Profico, Angelo Luigi Vescovi
Clinical trials for Parkinson's disease, which used primary brain fetal tissue, have demonstrated that neural stem cell therapy could be suitable for neurodegenerative diseases. The use of fetal tissue presents several issues that have hampered the clinical development of this approach. In addition to the ethical concerns related to the required continuous supply of fetal specimen, the necessity to use cells from multiple fetuses in a single graft greatly compounded the problem. Cell viability and composition vary in different donors, and, further, the heterogeneity in the donor cells increased the probability of immunological rejection or contamination...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209665/neural-stem-cell-dysfunction-in-human-brain-disorders
#2
Ewa Liszewska, Jacek Jaworski
Neural stem cells (NSCs) give rise to the entire nervous system. Animal models suggest that defects in NSC proliferation and differentiation contribute to several brain disorders (e.g., microcephaly, macrocephaly, autism, schizophrenia, and Huntington's disease). However, animal models of such diseases do not fully recapitulate all disease-related phenotypes because of substantial differences in brain development between rodents and humans. Therefore, additional human-based evidence is required to understand the mechanisms that are involved in the development of neurological diseases that result from human NSC (hNSC) dysfunction...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209664/modeling-complex-neurological-diseases-with-stem-cells-a-study-of-bipolar-disorder
#3
Cameron D Pernia, Neal H Nathan, Brian T D Tobe, Alicia M Winquist, Richard L Sidman, Yoshio Goshima, Evan Y Snyder
The pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BPD) is unknown. Using human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to unravel pathological mechanisms in polygenic diseases is challenging, with few successful studies to date. However, hiPSCs from BPD patients responsive to lithium have offered unique opportunities to discern lithium's mechanism of action and hence gain insight into BPD pathology. By profiling the proteomics of BPD-hiPSC-derived neurons, we found that lithium alters the phosphorylation state of collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2)...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209663/human-neural-stem-cells-for-ischemic-stroke-treatment
#4
Zaal Kokaia, Vladimer Darsalia
Ischemic stroke is the second most common cause of death worldwide and a major cause of disability. It takes place when the brain does not receive sufficient blood supply due to the blood clot in the vessels or narrowing of vessels' inner space due to accumulation of fat products. Apart from thrombolysis (dissolving of blood clot) and thrombectomy (surgical removal of blood clot or widening of vessel inner area) during the first hours after an ischemic stroke, no effective treatment to improve functional recovery exists in the post-ischemic phase...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209662/updates-on-human-neural-stem-cells-from-generation-maintenance-and-differentiation-to-applications-in-spinal-cord-injury-research
#5
Yang D Teng, Lei Wang, Xiang Zeng, Liquan Wu, Zafer Toktas, Serdar Kabatas, Ross D Zafonte
Human neural stem cells (hNSCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been the primary focuses in basic science and translational research as well as in investigative clinical applications. Therefore, the capability to perform reliable derivation, effective expansion, and long-term maintenance of uncommitted hNSCs and hiPSCs and their targeted phenotypic differentiations through applying chemically and biologically defined medium in vitro is essential for expanding and enriching the fundamental and technological capacities of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209661/bioengineering-of-the-human-neural-stem-cell-niche-a-regulatory-environment-for-cell-fate-and-potential-target-for-neurotoxicity
#6
Leonora Buzanska, Marzena Zychowicz, Agnieszka Kinsner-Ovaskainen
Human neural stem/progenitor cells of the developing and adult organisms are surrounded by the microenvironment, so-called neurogenic niche. The developmental processes of stem cells, such as survival, proliferation, differentiation, and fate decisions, are controlled by the mutual interactions between cells and the niche components. Such interactions are tissue specific and determined by the biochemical and biophysical properties of the niche constituencies and the presence of other cell types. This dynamic approach of the stem cell niche, when translated into in vitro settings, requires building up "biomimetic" microenvironments resembling natural conditions, where the stem/progenitor cell is provided with diverse extracellular signals exerted by soluble and structural cues, mimicking those found in vivo...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209660/brain-organoids-expanding-our-understanding-of-human-development-and-disease
#7
L B Chuye, A Dimitri, A Desai, C Handelmann, Y Bae, P Johari, J M Jornet, I Klejbor, M K Stachowiak, E K Stachowiak
Stem cell-derived brain organoids replicate important stages of the prenatal human brain development and combined with the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology offer an unprecedented model for investigating human neurological diseases including autism and microcephaly. We describe the history and birth of organoids and their application, focusing on cerebral organoids derived from embryonic stem cells and iPSCs. We discuss new insights into organoid-based model of schizophrenia and shed light on challenges and future applications of organoid-based disease model system...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209659/genome-editing-in-human-neural-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#8
Raul Bardini Bressan, Steven M Pollard
Experimental tools for precise manipulation of mammalian genomes enable reverse genetic approaches to explore biology and disease. Powerful genome editing technologies built upon designer nucleases, such as CRISPR/Cas9, have recently emerged. Parallel progress has been made in methodologies for the expansion and differentiation of human pluripotent and tissue stem cells. Together these innovations provide a remarkable new toolbox for human cellular genetics and are opening up vast opportunities for discoveries and applications across the breadth of life sciences research...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209658/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-reveal-common-neurodevelopmental-genome-deprograming-in-schizophrenia
#9
Sridhar T Narla, Brandon Decker, Pinaki Sarder, Ewa K Stachowiak, Michal K Stachowiak
Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by complex aberrations in the structure, wiring, and chemistry of multiple neuronal systems. The abnormal developmental trajectory of the brain is established during gestation, long before clinical manifestation of the disease. Over 200 genes and even greater numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variations have been linked with schizophrenia. How does altered function of such a variety of genes lead to schizophrenia? We propose that the protein products of these altered genes converge on a common neurodevelopmental pathway responsible for the development of brain neural circuit and neurotransmitter systems...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209657/epigenetic-regulation-of-human-neural-stem-cell-differentiation
#10
Mizuki Honda, Kinichi Nakashima, Sayako Katada
Emerging evidence has demonstrated that epigenetic programs influence many aspects of neural stem cell (NSC) behavior, including proliferation and differentiation. It is becoming apparent that epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA expression, are spatiotemporally regulated and that these intracellular programs, in concert with extracellular signals, ensure appropriate gene activation. Here we summarize recent advances in understanding of the epigenetic regulation of human NSCs directly isolated from the brain or produced from pluripotent stem cells (embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, respectively)...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209656/generation-of-human-neural-stem-cells-by-direct-phenotypic-conversion
#11
Daekee Kwon, Hee-Jin Ahn, Kyung-Sun Kang
Human neural stem cells (hNSC) are multipotent adult stem cells. Various studies are underway worldwide to identify new methods for treatment of neurological diseases using hNSC. This chapter summarizes the latest research trends in and fields for application of patient-specific hNSC using direct phenotypic conversion technology. The aim of the study was to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of current technology and to suggest relevant directions for future hNSC research.
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209655/neural-stem-cells-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-their-use-in-models-of-cns-injury
#12
Pavla Jendelova, Eva Sykova, Slaven Erceg
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are derived from differentiated cells by different reprogramming techniques, by introducing specific transcription factors responsible for pluripotency. Induced pluripotent stem cells can serve as an excellent source for differentiated neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPs). Several methods and protocols are utilized to create a robust number of NSCs/NPs without jeopardizing the safety issues required for in vivo applications. A variety of disease-specific iPS cells have been used to study nervous system diseases...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209654/human-somatic-stem-cell-neural-differentiation-potential
#13
David J Eve, Paul R Sanberg, Leonora Buzanska, Anna Sarnowska, Krystyna Domanska-Janik
Human somatic stem cells can be identified and isolated from different types of tissues and are grouped here based on their developmental maturation and ability to undergo neural differentiation. The first group will represent afterbirth somatic tissues, which are perinatal stem cells including placental blood and tissue, amniotic fluid and tissue, and umbilical cord blood- and umbilical cord tissue-derived cells. The second group of cells discussed in this chapter is the adult stem cells, generally those in a transient period of development, thus placing them in the special position of transitioning from the perinatal to young somatic tissue, and they include the menstrual blood-, the peripheral blood-, and the bone marrow-derived stem cells...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209653/derivation-of-neural-stem-cells-from-the-developing-and-adult-human-brain
#14
Claire M Kelly, Maeve A Caldwell
Neural stem cells isolated from the developing and adult brain are an ideal source of cells for use in clinical applications such as cell replacement therapy. The clear advantage of these cells over the more commonly utilised embryonic and pluripotent stem cells is that they are already neurally committed. Of particular importance is the fact that these cells don't require the same level of in vitro culture that can be cost and labour intensive. Foetal neural stem cells can be readily derived from the foetal brain and expand in culture over time...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083938/vision-made-easy-cubozoans-can-advance-our-understanding-of-systems-level-visual-information-processing
#15
Jan Bielecki, Anders Garm
Animals relying on vision as their main sensory modality reserve a large part of their central nervous system to appropriately navigate their environment. In general, neural involvement correlates to the complexity of the visual system and behavioural repertoire. In humans, one third of the available neural capacity supports our single-chambered general-purpose eyes, whereas animals with less elaborate visual systems need less computational power, and generally have smaller brains, and thereby lack in visual behaviour...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083937/octopus-vulgaris-an-alternative-in-evolution
#16
Anna Di Cosmo, Valeria Maselli, Gianluca Polese
Octopus vulgaris underwent a radical modification to cope with the benthic lifestyle. It diverged from other cephalopods in terms of body plan, anatomy, behavior, and intelligence. It independently evolved the largest and most complex nervous system and sophisticated behaviors among invertebrates in a separate evolutionary lineage. It is equipped with unusual traits that confer it an incredible evolutionary success: arms capable of a wide range of movements with no skeletal support; developed eyes with a complex visual behavior; vestibular system; primitive "hearing" system; chemoreceptors located in epidermis, suckers, and mouth; and a discrete olfactory organ...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083936/structures-and-composition-of-the-crab-carapace-an-archetypal-material-in-biomimetic-mechanical-design
#17
Parvez Alam
The structures and composition of crab carapaces are of interest to biomimetic designers and materials scientists as they are hierarchically optimised to dissipate fracture energies through molecular to macroscopic length scales. At each length scale, mechanical energy is absorbed and redirected, circumventing thus catastrophic fracture through the carapace cross-section on impact. The objective of this section is to elucidate the structural, chemical and compositional makeup of crab carapaces, to provide links between their architectures and mechanical properties, and to discuss highlight papers where attempts have been made to mimic the structure-property characteristics of crab carapaces in modern engineering composites...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083935/the-crown-of-thorns-starfish-from-coral-reef-plague-to-model-system
#18
Kenneth W Baughman
Acanthaster planci, commonly known as the "crown-of-thorns starfish" (COTS) are famous for decimating coral reefs, yet the unique features of the COTS genome make the starfish a useful system for genomic and evolutionary developmental research. The COTS genome assembly is an order of magnitude more highly contiguous than other recently sequenced echinoderm genome assemblies. The high resolution of the COTS assembly is likely related to low heterozygosity resulting from historical population dynamics and possibly a recent population expansion...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083934/reef-building-corals-as-a-tool-for-climate-change-research-in-the-genomics-era
#19
Filipa Godoy-Vitorino, Carlos Toledo-Hernandez
Coral reef ecosystems are among the most biodiverse habitats in the marine realm. They not only contribute with a plethora of ecosystem services, but they also are beneficial to humankind via nurturing marine fisheries and sustaining recreational activities. We will discuss the biology of coral reefs and their ecophysiology including the complex bacterial microbiota associated with them.
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083933/these-colors-don-t-run-regulation-of-pigment-biosynthesis-in-echinoderms
#20
Cristina Calestani, Gary M Wessel
Pigment production is an important biological process throughout the tree of life. Some pigments function for collecting light energy, or for visual identification, while others have dramatic antimicrobial functions, or camouflage capabilities. The functions of these pigments and their biosynthesis are of great interest if only because of their diversity. The biochemistry of echinoderm pigmentation has been intensively studied for many years, and with more recent technologies, the origin and functions of these pigments are being exposed...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
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