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Equine Veterinary Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679416/sequential-bacterial-sampling-of-the-midline-incision-in-horses-undergoing-exploratory-laparotomy
#1
C M Isgren, S E Salem, N B Townsend, D Timofte, T W Maddox, D C Archer
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about bacterial isolates that are present on the equine midline incision during and following exploratory laparotomy. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bacterial species cultured from the ventral midline pre-, intra- and post laparotomy, whether particular bacterial isolates are associated with the development of surgical site infections (SSIs) and to report the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of these isolates. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study...
April 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679404/paranasal-sinus-cysts-in-the-horse-complications-related-to-their-presence-and-surgical-treatment-in-37-cases
#2
M F Fenner, D Verwilghen, N Townsend, H Simhofer, J Schwarzer, D D Zani, A Bienert-Zeit
BACKGROUND: Paranasal sinus cysts (PSC) are a common cause of equine secondary sinusitis. The outcome and associated complications have not been frequently reported. OBJECTIVES: To review the associated clinical signs, associated morbidities and outcomes of horses treated for PSC. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective multicentre case series. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of case records and telephone follow up survey. RESULTS: Subjects were 37 horses 1 to 24 years old that were presented with nasal discharge (n = 31), facial swelling (n = 25) and epiphora (n = 19)...
April 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679400/the-development-of-hoof-balance-and-landing-preference-in-the-postnatal-period
#3
B M C Gorissen, F M Serra Bragança, C F Wolschrijn, W Back, P R van Weeren
BACKGROUND: Foals can follow the herd within hours of birth, but it has been shown that kinetic gait parameters and static balance still have to mature. However, development of dynamic balance has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: To objectively quantify landing and pressure pattern dynamics under the hoof during the first half year of life. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cohort study performed at a single stud farm. METHODS: Pressure plate measurements at walk and trot from ten Dutch warmblood foals during the first 24 weeks of life were used to quantify toe-heel and medial-lateral hoof balance asymmetry indexes and to determine preferred landing strategy...
April 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679396/validity-and-application-of-immunoturbidimetric-and-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assays-for-the-measurement-of-adiponectin-concentration-in-ponies
#4
N J Menzies-Gow, E J Knowles, I Rogers, D I Rendle
BACKGROUND: Circulating adiponectin concentrations were lower in ponies with a history of endocrinopathic laminitis and in non-laminitic ponies that subsequently developed laminitis. The assays used in these studies have been discontinued or are no longer valid. OBJECTIVES: i) To determine the validity of immunoturbidimetric (IT) and enzyme linkedimmunosorbent (ELISA) assays for equine total and high molecular weight (HMW) [adiponectin] measurement and ii) to investigate the association between [adiponectin] measured using these assays and endocrinopathic laminitis...
April 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675969/exercise-induced-pulmonary-haemorrhage-in-thoroughbred-racehorses-a-longitudinal-study
#5
E J Crispe, C J Secombe, D I Perera, A A Manderson, B A Turlach, G D Lester
BACKGROUND: Exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) is considered a progressive disease based on histopathology, but it is unknown if tracheobronchoscopic EIPH severity worsens over time. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine tracheobronchoscopic EIPH changes over time in a population of Thoroughbred racehorses. A secondary aim was to identify factors that affect changes in tracheobronchoscopic EIPH severity between observations. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal, observational cross-sectional study...
April 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675966/unilateral-cervical-plexus-block-for-prosthetic-laryngoplasty-in-the-standing-horse
#6
L Campoy, T Morris, N Ducharme, R Gleed, M Martin-Flores
BACKGROUND: Locoregional anaesthetic techniques can facilitate certain surgeries being performed under standing procedural sedation. The second and third spinal cervical nerves (C2, C3) are part of the cervical plexus and provide sensory innervation to the peri-laryngeal structures in people; block of these nerves might permit laryngeal lateralisation surgery in horses. OBJECTIVES: To describe the anatomical basis for an ultrasound-guided cervical plexus block in horses...
April 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672919/micrornas-in-equine-veterinary-science
#7
REVIEW
A R Hollis, M P Starkey
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play a pivotal role in diverse cellular processes through post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The dysregulation of specific microRNAs is associated with disease development and progression. In this review we summarise how microRNAs modulate gene expression, and explain microRNA nomenclature. We discuss the potential applications of microRNAs in equine disease diagnosis and treatment, in the context of the sum of current knowledge about microRNA expression in normal and diseased equine tissues...
April 19, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672910/ontario-racehorse-death-registry-2003-2015-descriptive-analysis-and-rates-of-mortality
#8
P W Physick-Sheard, A Avison, E Chappell, M MacIver
BACKGROUND: The Province of Ontario maintains a registry of racehorse deaths occurring within 60 days of a race or trial entry that provides insight into mortality rates and costs of competition. OBJECTIVES: To characterise and quantify mortality and identify breed differences. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective annualised cohort study. METHODS: The Ontario Death Registry for 2003-2015, containing 1713 cases, was audited and information on the relationship between death and official work added...
April 19, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672909/non-catastrophic-and-catastrophic-fractures-in-racing-thoroughbreds-at-the-hong-kong-jockey-club
#9
T C Sun, C M Riggs, N Cogger, J Wright, J I Al-Alawneh
BACKGROUND: Reports of fractures in racehorses have predominantly focused on catastrophic injuries, and there is limited data identifying the location and incidence of fractures that did not result in a fatal outcome. OBJECTIVE: To describe the nature and the incidence of non-catastrophic and catastrophic fractures in Thoroughbreds racing at the Hong Kong Jockey Club (HKJC) over seven racing seasons. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
April 19, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665126/prophylactic-therapy-with-omeprazole-for-prevention-of-equine-gastric-ulcer-syndrome-egus-in-horses-in-active-training-a-meta-analysis
#10
L V Mason, J R Moroney, R J Mason
BACKGROUND: Guidelines regarding the impact and value of prophylaxis or maintenance therapy in Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome (EGUS) are not well established or defined. The merits and the magnitude of effects of prophylaxis for spontaneous or recurrent squamous gastric ulceration in horses in training are uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To pool data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to eliminate reporting bias and evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic omeprazole in the prevention of EGUS in training horses, and secondarily to compare prophylactic dosages of omeprazole...
April 17, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665061/contracting-for-care-the-construction-of-the-farrier-role-in-supporting-horse-owners-to-prevent-laminitis
#11
J Lynden, J Ogden, T Hollands
BACKGROUND: Emerging research highlights how, due to demographic changes in horse owner populations in Western societies, complex owner-horse relationships are leading to inappropriate horse care, including over-nutrition, which in turn can lead to laminitis. Farriers, due to their regular visits, may be in a position to support owners in dealing with this problem. OBJECTIVES: This study explored whether UK farriers have a role in working with horse owners to support horse welfare and prevent laminitis...
April 17, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665054/does-hacking-surface-type-affect-equine-forelimb-foot-placement-movement-symmetry-or-hoof-impact-deceleration-during-ridden-walk-and-trot-exercise
#12
A Barstow, J Bailey, J Campbell, C Harris, R Weller, T Pfau
BACKGROUND: Both pleasure and competition horses regularly exercise on surfaces such as tarmac, gravel, and turf during 'hacking'. Despite this, there is limited evidence relating to the effect of these surfaces upon foot-surface interaction. OBJECTIVES: To investigate forelimb foot placement, hoof vibration and movement symmetry in pleasure horses on three commonly encountered hacking surfaces. STUDY DESIGN: Quantitative gait study in a convenience sample...
April 17, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660168/risk-factors-for-equine-glandular-and-squamous-gastric-disease-in-show-jumping-warmbloods
#13
S K Pedersen, A E Cribb, M C Windeyer, E K Read, D French, H E Banse
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of, and risk factors for, equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD) are well established. Limited data exists on risk factors for equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD). OBJECTIVES: To identify management factors associated with EGGD in show jumping Warmbloods in training. A secondary objective was to identify management factors associated with ESGD. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Gastroscopies were performed in horses following a 12-16 hour fast...
April 16, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660161/the-fgf-23-klotho-axis-and-its-relationship-with-phosphorus-calcium-vitamin-d-pth-aldosterone-severity-of-disease-and-outcome-in-hospitalised-foals
#14
A M Kamr, K A Dembek, B E Hildreth, P R Morresey, R A Rathgeber, T A Burns, A A Zaghawa, R E Toribio
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) and klotho are key regulators of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) synthesis as well as phosphorus and calcium homeostasis; however, information on the FGF-23/klotho axis in healthy and hospitalised foals is lacking. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to measure serum FGF-23 and klotho concentrations and determine their association with serum phosphorus, total calcium (TCa), vitamin D metabolite [25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2 D], PTH, and aldosterone concentrations, disease severity, and mortality in hospitalised foals...
April 16, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660154/local-mepivacaine-before-castration-of-horses-under-medetomidine-isoflurane-balanced-anaesthesia-is-effective-to-reduce-perioperative-nociception-and-cytokine-release
#15
M Abass, S Picek, J F Glaus Carzòn, C Kühnle, A Zaghlou, R Bettschart-Wolfensberger
BACKGROUND: In horses castration with primary intention healing is usually performed under balanced inhalation anaesthesia. To optimise analgesia, the use of local anaesthesia was tested. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of local mepivacaine before castration with first intention healing under balanced medetomidine-isoflurane anaesthesia and flunixin meglumine, morphine analgesia on perioperative cytokine levels and pain in horses. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective blinded clinical study...
April 16, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660153/subchondral-bone-microdamage-accumulation-in-distal-metacarpus-of-thoroughbred-racehorses
#16
R C Whitton, B A Ayodele, P L Hitchens, E J Mackie
BACKGROUND: Microdamage accumulation leads to subchondral bone injury and/or fracture in racehorses. An understanding of this process is essential for developing strategies for injury prevention. OBJECTIVES: To quantify subchondral bone microdamage in the third metacarpal bone of Thoroughbred racehorses at different stages of the training cycle. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Bone blocks from the palmar aspect of the medial condyles of third metacarpal bones from 46 racing Thoroughbred horses undergoing post mortem were examined with micro computed tomography (microCT) to detect calcified microcracks, and light microscopy to quantify bulk stained microcracks...
April 16, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658149/coagulation-parameters-following-ehv-1-infection-in-horses
#17
M E Wilson, C L Holz, A K Kopec, J J Dau, J P Luyendyk, G Soboll Hussey
BACKGROUND: Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is the cause of respiratory disease, abortion storms, and outbreaks of herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM). Infection of the spinal cord is characterised by multifocal regions of virally infected vascular endothelia, associated with vasculitis, thrombosis and haemorrhage that result in ischaemia and organ dysfunction. However, the mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity and thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT) levels in horses following infection with EHV-1...
April 15, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658148/biochemical-and-biomechanical-characterization-of-equine-cervical-facet-joint-cartilage
#18
S A O'Leary, J L White, J C Hu, K A Athanasiou
BACKGROUND: The equine cervical facet joint is a site of significant pathology. Located bilaterally on the dorsal spine, these diarthrodial joints work in conjunction with the intervertebral disc to facilitate appropriate spinal motion. Despite the high prevalence of pathology in this joint, the facet joint is understudied and thus lacking in viable treatment options. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to characterise equine facet joint cartilage and provide a comprehensive database describing the morphological, histological, biochemical, and biomechanical properties of this tissue...
April 15, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658147/vertical-movement-symmetry-of-the-withers-in-horses-with-induced-forelimb-and-hindlimb-lameness-at-trot
#19
M Rhodin, E Persson-Sjodin, A Egenvall, F M Serra Bragança, T Pfau, L Roepstorff, M A Weishaupt, M H Thomsen, P R van Weeren, E Hernlund
BACKGROUND: The main criteria for lameness assessment in horses are head movement for forelimb lameness and pelvic movement for hindlimb lameness. However, compensatory head nod in horses with primary hindlimb lameness is a well-known phenomenon. This compensatory head nod movement can be easily misinterpreted as a sign of primary ipsilateral forelimb lameness. Therefore, discriminating compensatory asymmetries from primary directly pain-related movement asymmetries is a prerequisite for successful lameness assessment...
April 15, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29654624/the-development-of-in-vitro-embryo-production-in-the-horse
#20
REVIEW
L H A Morris
The development of techniques to produce equine embryos in vitro is reviewed with specific reference to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Unexplored 50 years ago, this technology has progressed rapidly in the last 20 years to become a commercial reality for the equine breeding industry. Improvements in our understanding of oocyte and embryo competence in the horse have been key factors in overcoming some of the initial problems associated with ICSI. It is now possible to obtain high nuclear maturation and cleavage rates in vitro and the most limiting factor, presently, is the low rate of development to the blastocyst stage...
April 13, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
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