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Equine Veterinary Journal

S Hinton, O Schroeder, H Aceto, S Berkowitz, D Levine
BACKGROUND: Castration is one of the most common surgical procedures performed in the horse. Complication rate and types of complications associated with use of the Henderson equine castrating instrument have not been determined. OBJECTIVE: To determine the complication rate and type of complications encountered when using the Henderson equine castrating instrument in equine ambulatory practice. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Medical records of horses undergoing routine castration using the Henderson drill were identified and evaluated for the occurrence of complications...
June 21, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
N Anne-Archard, G Martel, U Fogarty, H Richard, G Beauchamp, S Laverty
BACKGROUND: The aetiology of equine metacarpal condylar fractures is not completely understood and a developmental cause has been postulated. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the subchondral bone trabecular microarchitecture of the lateral parasagittal groove and condyle in equine neonates and its adaptation with maturation and athletic activity. STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo observational study. METHODS: Distal metacarpi of neonates, yearlings and adult racehorses (n = 24) were harvested...
June 19, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
S du Preez, S L Raidal, G S Doran, M Prescott, K J Hughes
BACKGROUND: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis is a non-invasive method to assess the lower respiratory tract. In humans, EBC hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), pH and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 ) are useful for detection and monitoring of inflammatory lung diseases, including asthma. OBJECTIVES: To determine associations between EBC biomarkers and cytological and endoscopic definitions of lower airway inflammation whilst controlling for sampling and environmental variables...
June 19, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
T Vandecasteele, P Cornillie, G van Steenkiste, K Vandevelde, I Gielen, K Vanderperren, G van Loon
BACKGROUND: Echocardiography is the imaging technique of choice for the equine heart. Nevertheless, knowledge about ulrasonographic identification of dorsally located structures and vessels, related to the atria, in horses is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To describe the echocardiographic approach and the identification of structures and vessels in relation to the atria in healthy horses. METHODS: CT images from two equine hearts, casted with self-expanding foam, were segmented and used to identify atrial-related structures and vessels...
May 28, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
S M Rosanowski, Y M Chang, A J Stirk, K L P Verheyen
BACKGROUND: A key focus of the racing industry is to minimise the number of race-day distal limb fractures, although no studies have identified risk factors for both fatal and non-fatal distal limb fractures. OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors for race-day distal limb fractures experienced by Thoroughbred racehorses participating in flat racing in Great Britain (GB). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. METHODS: Information was collected from all flat racing starts occurring on GB racecourses between 2000 and 2013, including horse, race, course, trainer and jockey data for each horse start and race-day injury data as reported by on-course veterinarians...
May 28, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
T M Rossi, P A Kavsak, M G Maxie, D L Pearl, W G Pyle, P W Physick-Sheard
BACKGROUND: There are currently no studies detailing cardiac troponin I (cTnI) release in normal horses post-exercise using an analytically validated assay. These data are essential for selecting appropriate sampling times in equine athletes with suspected myocardial injury. OBJECTIVE: To plot the magnitude and time course of cTnI release after maximal effort, using validated cTnI assays. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive longitudinal study. METHODS: Five clinically normal Standardbred racehorses in race training were included in the study...
May 28, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
E M Tadros, J G Fowlie, K R Refsal, J Marteniuk, H C Schott
BACKGROUND: Hyperinsulinemia is the suspected component of insulin dysregulation having the strongest association with laminitis and occurs variably in equids with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID). OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that magnitude of hyperinsulinemia correlates with laminitis severity in PPID-affected equids. Furthermore, we hypothesised that owners can be unaware of chronic endocrinopathic laminitis. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
May 14, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
E N Cresswell, S P McDonough, S E Palmer, C J Hernandez, H L Reesink
BACKGROUND: Fracture of the proximal sesamoid bones continues to be the most common fatal musculoskeletal injury in US racehorses. Identifying factors that influence fracture risk could lead to screening techniques to reduce catastrophic injury rates and improve animal welfare. OBJECTIVES: To identify morphological differences between proximal sesamoid bones of the contralateral limb of fracture and control horses and assess the feasibility of computed tomography (CT) to detect traits associated with proximal sesamoid bone fracture...
May 14, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
C Sandow, L A Fugler, B Leise, L Riggs, W T Monroe, N Totaro, J Belknap, S Eades
BACKGROUND: Laminitis has a considerable impact on the equine industry. Endocrinopathic laminitis is the most common form and affected horses often have hyperinsulinaemia due to an underlying metabolic disorder. OBJECTIVES: To determine if insulin weakens the structural integrity of digital lamellae and to develop an ex vivo model for the study of hyperinsulinaemia-induced lamellar failure. STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo experiment. METHODS: Biomechanical testing was used to assess the structural integrity of lamellar explants exposed to either medium alone (control) or medium supplemented with insulin...
May 14, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
C M Isgren, S E Salem, N B Townsend, D Timofte, T W Maddox, D C Archer
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about bacterial isolates that are present on the equine midline incision during and following exploratory laparotomy. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bacterial species cultured from the ventral midline pre-, intra- and post- laparotomy, whether particular bacterial isolates are associated with the development of surgical site infections (SSIs) and to report the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of these isolates. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study...
April 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
M F Fenner, D Verwilghen, N Townsend, H Simhofer, J Schwarzer, D D Zani, A Bienert-Zeit
BACKGROUND: Paranasal sinus cysts (PSC) are a common cause of equine secondary sinusitis. The outcome and associated complications have not been frequently reported. OBJECTIVES: To review the associated clinical signs, associated morbidities and outcomes of horses treated for PSC. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective multicentre case series. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of case records and telephone follow up survey. RESULTS: Subjects were 37 horses 1-24 years old that were presented with nasal discharge (n = 31), facial swelling (n = 25) and epiphora (n = 19)...
April 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
B M C Gorissen, F M Serra Bragan├ža, C F Wolschrijn, W Back, P R van Weeren
BACKGROUND: Foals can follow the herd within hours of birth, but it has been shown that kinetic gait parameters and static balance still have to mature. However, development of dynamic balance has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: To objectively quantify landing and pressure pattern dynamics under the hoof during the first half year of life. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cohort study performed at a single stud farm. METHODS: Pressure plate measurements at walk and trot from ten Dutch warmblood foals during the first 24 weeks of life were used to quantify toe-heel and medial-lateral hoof balance asymmetry indexes and to determine preferred landing strategy...
April 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
N J Menzies-Gow, E J Knowles, I Rogers, D I Rendle
BACKGROUND: Circulating adiponectin concentrations were lower in ponies with a history of endocrinopathic laminitis and in nonlaminitic ponies that subsequently developed laminitis. The assays used in these studies have been discontinued or are no longer valid. OBJECTIVES: (1) to determine the validity of immunoturbidimetric (IT) and enzyme linkedimmunosorbent (ELISA) assays for equine total and high molecular weight (HMW) [adiponectin] measurement and (2) to investigate the association between [adiponectin] measured using these assays and endocrinopathic laminitis...
April 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
E J Crispe, C J Secombe, D I Perera, A A Manderson, B A Turlach, G D Lester
BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) is considered a progressive disease based on histopathology, but it is unknown if tracheobronchoscopic EIPH severity worsens over time. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine tracheobronchoscopic EIPH changes over time in a population of Thoroughbred racehorses. A secondary aim was to identify factors that affect changes in tracheobronchoscopic EIPH severity between observations. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal, observational cross-sectional study...
April 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
L Campoy, T B Morris, N G Ducharme, R D Gleed, M Martin-Flores
BACKGROUND: Locoregional anaesthetic techniques can facilitate certain surgeries being performed under standing procedural sedation. The second and third spinal cervical nerves (C2, C3) are part of the cervical plexus and provide sensory innervation to the peri-laryngeal structures in people; block of these nerves might permit laryngeal lateralisation surgery in horses. OBJECTIVES: To describe the anatomical basis for an ultrasound-guided cervical plexus block in horses...
April 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
A R Hollis, M P Starkey
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that play a pivotal role in diverse cellular processes through post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The dysregulation of specific microRNAs is associated with disease development and progression. In this review, we summarise how microRNAs modulate gene expression, and explain microRNA nomenclature. We discuss the potential applications of microRNAs in equine disease diagnosis and treatment, in the context of the sum of current knowledge about microRNA expression in normal and diseased equine tissues...
April 19, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
P W Physick-Sheard, A Avison, E Chappell, M MacIver
BACKGROUND: The Province of Ontario maintains a registry of racehorse deaths occurring within 60 days of a race or trial entry that provides insight into mortality rates and costs of competition. OBJECTIVES: To characterise and quantify mortality and identify breed differences. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective annualised cohort study. METHODS: The Ontario Death Registry for 2003-2015, containing 1713 cases, was audited and information on the relationship between death and official work added...
April 19, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
T C Sun, C M Riggs, N Cogger, J Wright, J I Al-Alawneh
BACKGROUND: Reports of fractures in racehorses have predominantly focused on catastrophic injuries, and there are limited data identifying the location and incidence of fractures that did not result in a fatal outcome. OBJECTIVE: To describe the nature and the incidence of noncatastrophic and catastrophic fractures in Thoroughbreds racing at the Hong Kong Jockey Club (HKJC) over seven racing seasons. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
April 19, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
L V Mason, J R Moroney, R J Mason
BACKGROUND: Guidelines regarding the impact and value of prophylaxis or maintenance therapy in equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) are not well-established or defined. The merits and the magnitude of effects of prophylaxis for spontaneous or recurrent squamous gastric ulceration in horses in training are uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To pool data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to eliminate reporting bias and evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic omeprazole in the prevention of EGUS in training horses, and secondarily to compare prophylactic dosages of omeprazole...
April 17, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
J Lynden, J Ogden, T Hollands
BACKGROUND: Emerging research highlights how, due to demographic changes in horse owner populations in Western societies, complex owner-horse relationships are leading to inappropriate horse care, including overnutrition, which in turn can lead to laminitis. Farriers, due to their regular visits, may be in a position to support owners in dealing with this problem. OBJECTIVES: This study explored whether UK farriers have a role in working with horse owners to support horse welfare and prevent laminitis...
April 17, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
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