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Equine Veterinary Journal

M Gozalo-Marcilla, S P Loureiro Luna, R Moreira da Silva, N Crosignani, N Peporine Lopes, P M Taylor, L Pelligand
BACKGROUND: Pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) modelling offers new insights to design protocols for sedation and analgesia in standing horses. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the parameters and interactions between detomidine and methadone when given alone or combined in standing horses. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised, placebo-controlled, blinded, crossover. METHODS: Eight adult healthy horses were given six treatments intravenously: saline (SAL); detomidine (5 μg/kg bwt; DET); methadone (0...
October 8, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
J McLellan, S Plevin
BACKGROUND: Upper respiratory tract (URT) endoscopic examination is a routine part of pre-purchase examinations. Discrepancies have been documented in the assessment of arytenoid function grades (AFG) between veterinarians. OBJECTIVES: To document intra- and inter-observer agreement for a population of multi experience level veterinarians for assessment of AFG of 2-year-old Thoroughbreds. STUDY DESIGN: Observational cohort study. METHODS: One-hundred and fourteen URT videoendoscopic examinations were evaluated by 10 veterinarians...
October 3, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
M J P Theelen, M Beukers, G C M Grinwis, M M Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan
BACKGROUND: Iron toxicosis is rarely reported in horses and chronic excessive oral iron intake has not been reported to cause clinical symptoms in equids. OBJECTIVES: This case series describes 21 genetically unrelated horses and one donkey with chronic iron overload causing haemochromatosis and hepatopathy. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. METHODS: All equids showing clinical signs compatible with chronic liver disease presented to Utrecht University and diagnosed with iron overload and haemochromatosis based on histopathological evaluation of liver tissue and/or blood transferrin saturation levels of >80% and proof of excess dietary iron intake due to excess iron content in drinking water were included...
September 30, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
A Claes, J Cuervo-Arango, J van den Broek, C Galli, S Colleoni, G Lazzari, C Deelen, M Beitsma, T A Stout
BACKGROUND: In vitro embryo production (IVEP) is increasingly popular but data assessing the outcome of transferred embryos are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To determine the likelihood of pregnancy and embryonic loss after transfer of frozen-thawed IVP embryos and identify factors influencing success. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective clinical study. METHODS: Blastocysts (n = 261) were produced from immature oocytes of Warmblood mares (n = 116) by Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) and in vitro culture, and cryopreserved...
September 30, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
E S Hackett, B S Leise
BACKGROUND: Upper respiratory tract (URT) endoscopy at rest is commonly utilised to evaluate competition draught horses with URT conditions. Overground endoscopy might be preferred for draught horse URT evaluation as it allows the horses to be driven with harness, overcheck, and cart-load under similar conditions to those experienced in the show ring where airway conditions are most prominent. OBJECTIVE: To describe the exercising URT findings of competition draught horses with abnormal respiratory noise and/or poor performance...
September 29, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
T J P Spoormakers, P Wiemer
OBJECTIVE: To describe a symphyseal osteotomy stabilised with 2 short locking compression plates (LCPs) for treatment of class 2 malocclusions. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. METHODS: Five horses (age range 8 months to 5¾ years) with overjets and/or overbites ranging from 6 to 32 mm and from 0 to 60 mm, respectively, were treated by osteotomy through the caudal third of the mandibular symphysis, cranial to the interdental space. After cranial distraction and ventral rotation of the rostral part of the mandible, two short (5/6 hole), bent 3...
September 29, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
E M Martin, J M Schirmer, S L Jones, J L Davis
BACKGROUND: Misoprostol is an E prostanoid (EP) 2, 3, and 4 receptor agonist that is anecdotally used to treat and prevent NSAID-induced GI injury in horses. Misoprostol elicits anti-inflammatory effects in vivo in humans and rodents, and inhibits TNFα production in equine leukocytes in vitro. OBJECTIVE: Define the pharmacokinetic parameters of oral misoprostol in horses, and determine the inhibitory effect of oral misoprostol administration on equine leukocyte TNFα production in an ex vivo inflammation model...
September 26, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
M Spriet, P Espinosa-Mur, D D Cissell, K L Phillips, G Arino-Estrada, D Beylin, P Stepanov, S A Katzman, L D Galuppo, T Garcia-Nolen, B Murphy, S M Stover
BACKGROUND: Early and accurate detection of stress remodelling in racehorses is of utmost importance to prevent catastrophic injuries. Current imaging techniques have limitations in assessing early changes predisposing to catastrophic breakdowns. Positron emission tomography (PET) using 18 F-sodium fluoride (18 F-NaF) is a sensitive method for the detection of early bone turnover and may improve early recognition of subtle injuries. OBJECTIVES: To validate the clinical use of 18 F-NaF PET in Thoroughbred racehorses, to assess the value of PET in the detection of bone lesions and to compare PET results with findings of other advanced imaging modalities, clinical examination and pathology...
September 14, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
L Reig Cordina, S R Werre, J A Brown
BACKGROUND: Umbilical remnant infection and patent urachus are an important cause of morbidity for the equine neonate. Left untreated, fatal complications can develop. Identifying risk factors for post-operative complications after surgery are important for estimating prognosis. OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors associated with post-operative complications in foals undergoing umbilical remnant resection due to patent and/or infected umbilical remnants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series...
September 14, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
D T N Kadic, G J Minshall, I M Wright
BACKGROUND: Suspensory ligament branch injuries are common in horses. Most of these injuries are grouped together and considered as a single pathologic entity. OBJECTIVES: To report a specific injury of the abaxial margin of the suspensory ligament branches and to report its surgical management and outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: All horses with suspensory ligament branch injuries over a 9-year period (2007-2015) were identified...
September 12, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
J P Lavoie, M Leclere, N Rodrigues, K R Lemos, C Bourzac, J Lefebvre-Lavoie, G Beauchamp, B Albrecht
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are the most potent drugs for the control of severe equine asthma, but adverse effects limit their chronic systemic administration. Inhaled medications allow for drug delivery directly into the airways, reducing the harmful effects of these drugs. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of inhaled budesonide specifically formulated for the equine use and administered by a novel inhalation device in horses with severe asthma. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental studies in horses with naturally occurring asthma with cross-over, randomised, blinded experimental designs...
September 11, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
M E Wright, E L Croser, S Raidal, R M Baral, W Robinson, J Lievaart, K P Freeman
BACKGROUND: Clinical pathology results are typically interpreted by referring to population-based reference intervals. The use of individualised (subject-based) reference intervals is more appropriate for measurands with a high degree of variation between individuals. OBJECTIVES: To determine the biological variation of routinely analysed equine haematology and biochemistry measurands and calculate indices of individuality and reference change values which enable production of individualised reference intervals, in a group of healthy, privately owned horses...
September 8, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
H K Knych, K R Mama, C E Moore, A E Hill, D S McKEMIE
BACKGROUND: The use of intra-articular (IA) local anaesthetics has proven to be an effective means to treat post-operative pain. The effects of local anaesthetics on equine chondrocytes are mixed with some studies reporting chondrodestruction and others no adverse effects. A liposomal formulation of bupivacaine is used in people and dogs by intra- and peri-articular administration to provide up to 72 h of analgesia. The potential uses, side effects including chondrotoxicity, and likelihood of abuse (long-term analgesic effects) has not been evaluated in horses...
September 4, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
N Zuber, M Zuber, C C Schwarzwald
BACKGROUND: Assessment of cardiac electromechanical function in horses requires training, experience and specialised equipment and does not allow continuous monitoring over time. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to establish the use of an acoustic ECG monitor (Audicor® ) in healthy horses. It provides noninvasive, examiner-independent, continuous analyses combining ECG and phonocardiography to calculate indices of cardiac mechanical activity and haemodynamics...
September 1, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
A L Ziegler, C K Freeman, C A Fogle, M J Burke, J L Davis, V L Cook, L L Southwood, A T Blikslager
BACKGROUND: Small intestinal strangulating obstruction (SISO) is associated with endotoxaemia which leads to an increased risk of death. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to treat signs of endotoxaemia by inhibiting cyclo-oxygenases (COX). COX-1 is expressed constitutively and promotes gut barrier function, whereas COX-2 is inducible and contributes to the signs of endotoxaemia. In preclinical SISO trials, intestinal barrier recovery was more complete with reductions in endotoxin permeability in horses treated with COX-2 selective NSAIDs as compared with horses treated with flunixin meglumine...
August 29, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
H L Stewart, L L Southwood, N Indugu, B Vecchiarelli, J B Engiles, D Pitta
BACKGROUND: The faecal microbiota is emerging as potentially important in intestinal disease. More research is needed to characterise the faecal microbiota from horses with colic. OBJECTIVES: To compare the relative abundance of bacterial populations comprising the faecal microbiota in horses presenting for colic compared to an elective surgical procedure. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational clinical study. METHODS: Admission faecal samples were collected from horses presenting for colic and elective surgical procedures...
August 28, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
A Mitchell, G Wright, S N Sampson, M Martin, K Cummings, D Gaddy, A E Watts
BACKGROUND: Clodronate is prescribed to performance horses with lameness. Despite its clinical popularity, little research has been done to understand the effects of clodronate in the horse. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to determine if a single treatment with clodronate at the clinically approved dose altered bone remodeling, bone cell recruitment or lameness in the horse. STUDY DESIGN: Twelve university-owned equestrian team competition horses with a history of forelimb lameness due to navicular syndrome were randomised to receive either 1...
August 28, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
A C Sauvage, S J Monclin, M Elansary, P Hansen, M F Grauwels
BACKGROUND: Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU) has been associated with Leptospira spp. infection. No information exists concerning the prevalence of Leptospira-associated ERU in Belgium and about the sensitivity of detection of Leptospira in different ocular media. OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence of intraocular Leptospira spp. in ERU affected and healthy eyes of horses examined at the Equine Clinic of the University of Liège by real-time PCR and to compare the results of the aqueous and vitreous humour of the same eye...
August 25, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
S Plevin, J McLellan, H van Schie, T Parkin
BACKGROUND: Injuries to the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) are one of the leading causes of Thoroughbred (TB) wastage. Increasingly, the aim is to prevent injury rather than treat it. Conventional ultrasonography is not sufficiently sensitive to accurately monitor tendon and predict injury. Ultrasound tissue characterisation (UTC) is a relatively new technique, which improves tendon characterisation by providing a 3-dimensional (3D) SDFT reconstruction and objective calculation of fibre alignment by classifying fibres into one of 4 echo-types...
August 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
J Machin, W Duer, G Maylin, C Fenger, D Wilson, M Ivey, B Berthold, S Allison, T Tobin
BACKGROUND: Methylprednisolone (MP) acetate is a commonly used corticosteroid for suppression of inflammation in synovial structures in horses. Its use is often regulated in equine sports by plasma MP concentrations. OBJECTIVES: To describe variability in MP plasma concentrations after MP acetate injection in different synovial structures and with co-administration with hyaluronic acid (HA). STUDY DESIGN: Field study in actively racing horses in three disciplines (Thoroughbred, Standardbred and Quarter Horse)...
August 6, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
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