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Equine Veterinary Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239016/intestinal-and-hepatic-contributions-to-the-pharmacokinetic-interaction-between-gamithromycin-and-rifampicin-after-single-dose-and-multiple-dose-administration-in-healthy-foals
#1
S Berlin, S Wallstabe, E Scheuch, S Oswald, M Hasan, D Wegner, M Grube, M Venner, A Ullrich, W Siegmund
BACKGROUND: Standard treatment of foals with severe abscessing lung infection caused by Rhodococcus equi using rifampicin and a macrolide antibiotic can be compromised by extensive inhibition and/or induction of drug metabolising enzymes (e.g. CYP3A4) and transport proteins (e.g. P-glycoprotein), as has been shown for rifampicin and clarithromycin. The combination of rifampicin with the new, poorly metabolised gamithromycin, a long-acting analogue of azithromycin and tulathromycin with lower pharmacokinetic interaction potential, might be a suitable alternative...
December 14, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239012/maintenance-of-equine-anaesthesia-over-the-last-50-years-controlled-inhalation-of-volatile-anaesthetics-and-pulmonary-ventilation
#2
REVIEW
M Mosing, J M Senior
In the first edition of this journal Barbara Weaver wrote a review titled 'Equine Anaesthesia' [1], stating, that, at that time it was quickly becoming accepted practice that many horses were being anaesthetised "by essentially similar procedures, i.e. premedication, induction and then maintenance by controlled inhalation". Her review focussed upon the last procedure. Maintenance of anaesthesia through controlled inhalation implies that an anaesthetic agent can be suitably delivered via the respiratory system and that ventilation is sufficiently maintained to deliver that agent and maintain adequate gas exchange...
December 14, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230868/frequency-distribution-of-osteochondral-fragmentation-of-the-dorsoproximal-articular-surface-of-the-proximal-phalanx-in-racing-thoroughbreds-in-the-uk
#3
R Walsh, M R W Smith, I M Wright
BACKGROUND: Osteochondral fragmentation of the dorsoproximal margin of the proximal phalanx is commonly recognised in racing Thoroughbreds. Frequency distribution has been documented in racing Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses in the USA and in European Warmbloods but no data have been published from the UK. Concurrent intra-articular soft tissue lesions and radiographic accuracy of fragment distribution in racing Thoroughbreds have not previously been reported. OBJECTIVES: To document frequency distribution of dorsoproximal fragmentation of the proximal phalanx in a UK population of racing Thoroughbreds and to compare this with published data...
December 12, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194746/pharmacokinetics-of-tiludronate-in-horses-a-field-population-study
#4
M A Popot, M Jacobs, P Garcia, B Loup, D J Guyonnet, P L Toutain, L Bailly-Chouriberry, Y Bonnaire
BACKGROUND: Tiludronate is a bisphosphonate drug marketed to treat different bone conditions in horses. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to measure the plasma concentrations of tiludronate in a population of race and sport horses under field conditions, and using pharmacokinetic population modeling, to estimate detection times for doping control. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort. METHODS: This study was conducted under field conditions on 39 race or sport horses diagnosed with bone conditions based on a lameness examination and treated with tiludronate...
December 1, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194744/pharmacokinetics-of-the-anti-convulsant-levetiracetam-in-neonatal-foals
#5
K D MacDonald, K A Hart, J L Davis, L J Berghaus, S Giguère
BACKGROUND: Seizures are a common manifestation of neurologic disease in the neonatal foal and are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. Current anti-epileptic options are effective, but often have undesirable adverse effects, short duration of action, and high cost. Levetiracetam has an ideal safety and pharmacokinetic profile in multiple species, including the adult horse, and may be a safe and cost-effective alternative anti-convulsant in neonatal foals...
December 1, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193393/modified-first-or-second-cervical-nerve-transplantation-technique-for-the-treatment-of-recurrent-laryngeal-neuropathy-in-horses
#6
F Rossignol, O Brandenberger, J D Perkins, J-P Marie, C Mespoulhès-Rivière, N G Ducharme
BACKGROUND: In horses, the only established method for reinnervation of the larynx is the nerve-muscle pedicle implantation, whereas in human medicine, direct nerve implantation is a standard surgical technique for selective laryngeal reinnervation in patients suffering from bilateral vocal fold paralysis. OBJECTIVES: (1) To describe a modified first or second cervical nerve transplantation technique for the treatment of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) in horses and (2) evaluate the outcomes of reinnervation using direct nerve needle-stimulation of the first cervical nerve and exercising endoscopy before and after surgery...
November 28, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193303/diagnosis-treatment-and-outcome-of-cranial-nuchal-bursitis-in-30-horses
#7
A L Bergren, G A Abuja, K A Bubeck, T J P Spoormakers, J M García-López
BACKGROUND: No large retrospective case series describing the treatment and outcomes following diagnosis of cranial nuchal bursitis have been published. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic techniques, treatment and outcome of horses suffering from cranial nuchal bursitis and to determine their outcome after medical or surgical treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Medical records (1990-2014) of two referral centres were reviewed for signalment, diagnostic features, method of treatment (medical, surgical or both) and outcome...
November 28, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171908/an-estimation-of-u-s-horse-owner-caregiver-willingness-to-pay-for-daily-use-and-infectious-upper-respiratory-disease-treatment-options
#8
M L Kibler, D L Pendell, M Costanigro, J Traub-Dargatz
BACKGROUND: Equine injury and disease cause two types of costs for those financially responsible for treating and caring for the infected horse(s); direct costs of treating the horse and indirect cost of lost use of the horse for a period of time to the user of the horse (daily horse use). Indirect costs prove more difficult to estimate but pose significant financial implications for equine owners/caregivers. Additionally, there exists a gap in existing research regarding the valuation of infectious treatment options in equine...
November 24, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164660/china-will-the-donkey-become-the-next-pangolin
#9
LETTER
M Zhu, Q Weng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121424/numerical-time-domain-modelling-of-hoof-ground-interaction-during-the-stance-phase
#10
R Behnke
BACKGROUND: Hoof-ground interaction impacts on the health and performance characteristics of horses. Due to complex interactions between hoof and ground during the stance phase, previous experimentally dominated studies concentrated on subproblems of the phenomena observed. A multidisciplinary methodology with mathematical modelling, material testing and in-vivo experimental measurements seems promising. OBJECTIVES: With the help of a mathematical approach, this contribution aims to explain from a biomechanical point of view the phenomena observed during experimental investigations (hoof acceleration, interacting forces) and aims to contribute to an overall experimental-mathematical multidisciplinary approach...
November 9, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112788/non-strangulating-intestinal-infarctions-associated-with-strongylus-vulgaris-clinical-presentation-and-treatment-outcomes-of-30-horses-2008-2016
#11
T H Pihl, M K Nielsen, S N Olsen, P S Leifsson, S Jacobsen
BACKGROUND: Strongylus vulgaris is re-emerging in horses kept under surveillance-based parasite control regimens. Information on non-strangulating intestinal infarction associated with S. vulgaris is needed in order to improve recognition of the condition. OBJECTIVE: To describe the typical clinical presentation, laboratory findings, gross pathology, treatment and outcome of horses with non-strangulating intestinal infarction. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case-series...
November 7, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112778/clinical-application-of-hysteroscopic-hydrotubation-for-unexplained-infertility-in-the-mare
#12
Y Inoue, M Sekiguchi
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic techniques for oviductal obstruction in the mare are limited. Non-surgical and retrograde flushing may be an attractive alternative to current treatment methods for oviductal blockage. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate hysteroscopic selective hydrotubation as a treatment option for presumptive equine oviductal blockage. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Ten ml of saline was flushed through the oviducts in 28 standing sedated mares, which had reproductive histories of unexplained subfertility, by inserting a catheter into the uterotubal junction under endoscopic guidance...
November 7, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112289/pharmacokinetics-of-intravenous-lithium-chloride-and-assessment-of-agreement-between-two-methods-of-lithium-concentration-measurement-in-the-horse
#13
L M Martin, A D Bukoski, D D Whelchel, T J Evans, C E Wiedmeyer, S J Black, P J Johnson
BACKGROUND: Pharmacokinetics of lithium chloride (LiCl) administered as a bolus, once intravenously (i.v.) have not been determined in horses. There is no point-of-care test to measure lithium (Li(+) ) concentrations in horses in order to monitor therapeutic levels and avoid toxicity. OBJECTIVES: Determine the pharmacokinetics of LiCl in healthy adult horses and compare agreement between two methods of measurement of plasma Li(+) concentration: spectrophotometric enzymatic assay (SEA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)...
November 7, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105954/comparison-of-different-cryopreservation-methods-for-horse-and-donkey-embryos
#14
C C Pérez-Marín, G Vizuete, R Vazquez-Martinez, J J Galisteo
BACKGROUND: Few studies have been published about cryopreservation and embryo assessment in horses and donkeys. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the viability of embryos collected from mares and jennies that were cryopreserved by slow-freezing or by vitrification. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised controlled experiment. METHODS: Horse (n = 19) and donkey (n = 16) embryos (≤300 μm) were recovered on days 6.5-7.5 post-ovulation and assigned to control or cryopreservation protocols of slow-freezing or vitrification...
November 6, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067719/radiological-prevalence-of-equine-odontoclastic-tooth-resorption-and-hypercementosis
#15
S Rehrl, W Schröder, C Müller, C Staszyk, C Lischer
BACKGROUND: Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) is a painful and progressive dental disease that mainly affects the incisors and canine teeth of aged horses. Diagnosis is based on radiographs to detect early stages of the disease. EOTRH is probably underdiagnosed and its prevalence in Germany unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to determine the radiological prevalence of EOTRH in a large horse population in Berlin-Brandenburg, Germany...
October 25, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053900/hair-coat-properties-of-donkeys-mules-and-horses-in-a-temperate-climate
#16
B Osthaus, L Proops, S Long, N Bell, K Hayday, F Burden
BACKGROUND: There are clear differences between donkeys and horses in their evolutionary history, physiology, behaviour and husbandry needs. Donkeys are often kept in climates they are not adapted to and as such may suffer impaired welfare unless protection from the elements is provided. OBJECTIVES: To compare some of the hair coat properties of donkeys, mules and horses living outside, throughout the year, in the temperate climate of the UK. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal study...
October 20, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053883/pharmacokinetics-of-inorganic-cobalt-and-a-vitamin-b12-supplement-in-the-thoroughbred-horse-differentiating-cobalt-abuse-from-supplementation
#17
L L Hillyer, Z Ridd, S Fenwick, P Hincks, S W Paine
BACKGROUND: Whilst cobalt is an essential micronutrient for vitamin B12 synthesis in the horse, at supra-physiological concentrations it has been shown to enhance performance in humans and rats and there is evidence that its administration in high doses to horses poses a welfare threat. Animal sport regulators currently control cobalt abuse via international race day thresholds, but since cobalt may be present in physiological concentrations this work was initiated to explore means of potentially adding to application of those thresholds...
October 20, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044706/expression-of-inflammatory-and-structural-matrix-genes-in-synovial-fluid-following-intra-articular-administration-of-isoflupredone-acetate-to-exercised-horses
#18
H K Knych, L Harrison, N Chouicha, P H Kass
BACKGROUND: Intra-articular use of corticosteroids is commonplace in performance horses. Isoflupredone acetate (IPA) is one of four Food and Drug Administration approved corticosteroids for intra-articular use in horses. The lack of published reports describing the efficacy and duration of effects of this drug warrant further study. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of intra-articular administration of IPA on the expression of selected anti and pro inflammatory and structural matrix genes following intra-articular administration to exercised Thoroughbred horses and to correlate these effects with drug concentrations...
October 17, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044678/preliminary-investigation-of-orally-administered-benazepril-in-horses-with-left-sided-valvular-regurgitation
#19
T Afonso, S Giguère, S A Brown, M H Barton, G Rapoport, M Barba, K A Dembek, R E Toribio, A E Coleman
BACKGROUND: Despite the paucity of data available, orally administered angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are empirically used in horses with valvular regurgitation. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the echocardiographic and hormonal changes in response to oral benazepril in horses with left-sided valvular regurgitation. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: Horses with mitral valve (MR) and/or aortic valve regurgitation (AR) received oral benazepril (n = 6) at a dosage of 1 mg/kg q 12h or a placebo (n = 5) for 28 days...
October 17, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044618/ultrasonographic-screening-for-subclinical-osteochondrosis-of-the-femoral-trochlea-in-foals-28-166-days-old-a-prospective-farm-study
#20
G Martel, D Crowley, J Olive, J Halley, S Laverty
BACKGROUND: Extensive osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions of the lateral ridge of the trochlea of the femur (LRTF), the most common OCD- affected site in the stifle, have a poor outcome with surgical debridement and can be career ending. The early detection of osteochondrosis lesions and their conservative management holds the promise to enhance outcome. We hypothesise that ultrasonography is a valuable field screening tool to detect and monitor early subclinical LRTF osteochondrosis...
October 17, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
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