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Handbook of Clinical Neurology

Michael J Aminoff, Fran├žois Boller, Dick F Swaab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Giuseppe Vallar, H Branch Coslett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Samuel Harding-Forrester, Daniel E Feldman
Somatosensory areas containing topographic maps of the body surface are a major feature of parietal cortex. In primates, parietal cortex contains four somatosensory areas, each with its own map, with the primary cutaneous map in area 3b. Rodents have at least three parietal somatosensory areas. Maps are not isomorphic to the body surface, but magnify behaviorally important skin regions, which include the hands and face in primates, and the whiskers in rodents. Within each map, intracortical circuits process tactile information, mediate spatial integration, and support active sensation...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Giacomo Rizzolatti, Stefano Rozzi
The mirror mechanism is a basic mechanism that transforms sensory representations of others' actions into motor representations of the same actions in the brain of the observer. The mirror mechanism plays an important role in understanding actions of others. In the present chapter we discuss first the basic organization of the posterior parietal lobe in the monkey, stressing that it is best characterized as a motor scaffold, on the top of which sensory information is organized. We then describe the location of the mirror mechanism in the posterior parietal cortex of the monkey, and its functional role in areas PFG, and anterior, ventral, and lateral intraparietal areas...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Svenja Caspers, Karl Zilles
This chapter summarizes current knowledge on the structural segregation of the parietal lobe based on cyto-, myelo-, and receptorarchitectonic studies, as well as the connectivity of this brain region with other cortical and subcortical structures. The anterior part of the human parietal cortex comprises the somatosensory areas 3a, 3b, 1, and 2, whereas the posterior part contains seven multimodal areas in both the superior and inferior parietal lobules. Available cytoarchitectonic maps of the human intraparietal sulcus do not provide a complete picture yet...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Simon W Davis, Erik A Wing, Roberto Cabeza
Our understanding of the role that ventral parietal cortex (VPC) plays in declarative memory processes has changed dramatically over the last two decades. The goal of this chapter is to provide a concise overview data concerning VPC involvement in episodic memory (EM), and to connect this data to several key theories of VPC function. We review evidence from five methodological domains in cognitive neuroscience: neuropsychological lesion evidence, univariate activation studies, multivoxel pattern analyses, functional connectivity studies, and brain stimulation experiments...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Alexandra Battaglia-Mayer, Roberto Caminiti
Eye-hand coordination lies at the core of our daily actions and interactions with objects and people around us, and is central to understanding how the brain creates internal models of the action space and generates movement within it. Eye-hand coordination remains a very complex and elusive problem, which is further complicated by its distributed representation in the brain. In fact, evolution did not confine such a crucial function to a single area, but rather assigned it to several distributed cortical and subcortical systems, where encoding mechanisms can satisfy multiple demands and the consequences of lesions are less disruptive...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Angelo Maravita, Daniele Romano
The ability to craft and use tools is a crucial skill of human beings, distinguishing humans from all other species. Humans show a unique capacity to create novel, technologically advanced devices and represent physical causality using tools. In the present chapter we review the effect of tool use in changing body-space multisensory integration and body representation and the fundamental contribution of the parietal lobe to the neural underpinnings of tool use. In the final section we briefly introduce the effect of parietal brain damage on tool use...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Ferdinand Binkofski, Giovanni Buccino
The picture of the human cortical motor system has fully changed in the last two decades. In the light of new data, the notion of a motor system devoted solely to action execution, strictly isolated from the sensory system, is not sustainable. There is evidence that parietal areas are strictly connected to frontal areas and these connections build up sensorimotor circuits aimed at interacting with objects in the environment, and at understanding actions. They are known as the canonic neuron system and mirror neuron system, respectively...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Jason P Gallivan, Melvyn A Goodale
In 1992, Goodale and Milner proposed a division of labor in the visual pathways of the primate cerebral cortex. According to their account, the ventral pathway, which projects to occipitotemporal cortex, constructs our visual percepts, while the dorsal pathway, which projects to posterior parietal cortex, mediates the visual control of action. Although the framing of the two-visual-system hypothesis has not been without controversy, it is clear that vision for action and vision for perception have distinct computational requirements, and significant support for the proposed neuroanatomic division has continued to emerge over the last two decades from human neuropsychology, neuroimaging, behavioral psychophysics, and monkey neurophysiology...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Nadia Bolognini, Carlo Miniussi
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electric stimulation (tES) are noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) tools that are now widely used in neuroscientific research in humans. The fact that both TMS and tES are able to modulate brain plasticity and, in turn, affect behavior is opening up new horizons in the treatment of brain circuit and plasticity disorders. In the present chapter, we will first provide the reader with a brief background on the basic principles of NIBS, describing the electromagnetic and physical foundations of TMS and tES, as well as the current knowledge of the neurophysiologic basis of their effects on brain activity and plasticity...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Vicenta Salanova
There are few reports of patients with parietal lobe epilepsy. One of the largest series, from the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI), reported that patients with epileptogenic areas in the parietal cortex behind the postcentral gyrus comprised 6% of patients with refractory focal epilepsy treated surgically at the MNI between 1929 and 1988. Since then several other institutions have reported their experience with the evaluation and treatment of patients with parietal lobe epilepsy. This chapter reviews the functional anatomy of the parietal lobe, electroclinical manifestations and surgical outcome of parietal lobe epilepsy, and recent advances in the evaluation of patients with refractory focal epilepsy...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Elena Rusconi
This chapter offers a perspective on the origin, operational definition, historic vicissitudes, and current status of Gerstmann syndrome. The main issues and controversy accompanying Gerstmann syndrome throughout the years are reviewed. The clinical picture of Gerstmann syndrome as it emerges from a series of modern-day pure cases is described. In current clinical practice, a diagnosis of Gerstmann syndrome indicates the concomitant presence of four acquired symptoms: finger agnosia, acalculia, left-right disorientation, and agraphia...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Costanza Papagno
In this chapter, the neuropsychologic literature concerning memory deficits following parietal lesions is reviewed. Left inferior parietal lobule lesions definitely cause verbal short-term memory impairments, while right parietal lesions disrupt visuospatial short-term memory. Episodic memory, as well as autobiographic memory, does not seem to be impaired after both unilateral and bilateral parietal lesions, in contrast with neuroimaging studies reporting activation of the lateral parietal cortex during memory tasks...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
H Branch Coslett, Myrna F Schwartz
Although the parietal lobe was considered by many of the earliest investigators of disordered language to be a major component of the neural systems instantiating language, most views of the anatomic substrate of language emphasize the role of temporal and frontal lobes in language processing. We review evidence from lesion studies as well as functional neuroimaging, demonstrating that the left parietal lobe is also crucial for several aspects of language. First, we argue that the parietal lobe plays a major role in semantic processing, particularly for "thematic" relationships in which information from multiple sensory and motor domains is integrated...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Laurel J Buxbaum, Jennifer Randerath
Limb apraxia is a heterogeneous disorder of skilled action and tool use that has long perplexed clinicians and researchers. It occurs after damage to various loci in a densely interconnected network of regions in the left temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. Historically, a highly classificatory approach to the study of apraxia documented numerous patterns of performance related to two major apraxia subtypes: ideational and ideomotor apraxia. More recently, there have been advances in our understanding of the functional neuroanatomy and connectivity of the left-hemisphere "tool use network," and the patterns of performance that emerge from lesions to different loci within this network...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Guido Gainotti, Luigi Trojano
Since the classic papers of Kleist, Mayer Gross, and Critchley, constructional apraxia (CA) has been considered to be a typical sign of a parietal lobe lesion, and as a precious tool to appreciate the spatial abilities subserved by this lobe. However, the development of more sophisticated neuropsychologic models and methods of investigation has revealed several problematic aspects. It has become increasingly clear that CA is a heterogeneous construct that can be examined with very different tasks, that are only mildly interconnected, and tap various kinds of visuospatial, perceptual, attentional, planning, and motor mechanisms...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Roberta Ronchi, Hyeong-Dong Park, Olaf Blanke
Research in clinical and human neuroscience indicates that important brain mechanisms of self-consciousness are based on the integration of multisensory bodily signals (i.e., bodily self-consciousness: BSC), including signals coming from outside our body (i.e., exteroceptive signals, such as tactile, auditory, and visual information) and the inside of our body (i.e., interoceptive signals). In this chapter, we discuss selected behavioral and neuroimaging studies about how multisensory integration generates and modulates BSC in humans, with particular relevance to parietal mechanisms...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Jon H Kaas, Hui-Xin Qi, Iwona Stepniewska
Many of the adaptive changes in the functional organization of parietal cortex of humans emerged in past in the early primates as they depended on visually guided forelimb use to grasp branches and food. Currently, human, apes and some monkeys have four well-defined subdivisions of anterior parietal cortex, areas 3a, 3b, 1 and 2 of Brodmann. In some of the smaller monkeys, and in stepsirrine primates (galagos, lemurs, and lorises), especially areas 1 and 2 are less developed, and the existence of an area 2 is questionable...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Giovanni Berlucchi, Giuseppe Vallar
The development and change of knowledge on the function of the parietal lobe from the second half of the 19th century to the early 1970s are reviewed. Motor and somatosensory functions were initially localized in a broad frontoparietal region. At the beginning of the 20th century the motor cortex was restricted to the posterior frontal lobe. The separate attribution of somatosensory functions to the parietal lobe was initially based on anatomic considerations, but mostly on localized bodily sensations elicited by electric stimulation in awake patients...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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