journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Handbook of Clinical Neurology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604989/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Bruce J Brew
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604988/foreword
#2
EDITORIAL
Michael J Aminoff, François Boller, Dick F Swaab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604987/neuroaids-in-children
#3
Jo M Wilmshurst, Charles K Hammond, Kirsty Donald, Jacqueline Hoare, Karen Cohen, Brian Eley
The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters the central nervous system compartment within the first few weeks of systemic HIV infection and may cause a spectrum of neurologic complications. Without combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), 50-90% of all HIV-infected infants and children develop some form of neuroAIDS. Of the estimated 2.3 million children less than 15 years of age who were living in sub-Saharan Africa at the end of 2014, only 30% were receiving cART, suggesting that there is a large burden of neuroAIDS among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604986/hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder
#4
Ruaridh Cameron Smail, Bruce James Brew
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) affects roughly half the HIV-positive population. The symptoms of cognitive slowing, poor concentration, and memory problems can impact on everyday life. Its diagnosis is validated where possible by identifying deficits in two cognitive domains on neuropsychologic testing in patients either with or without symptoms. Corroborating evidence may be found on imaging, blood tests, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis, though sensitive and specific biomarkers are currently lacking...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604985/neurologic-sequelae-of-primary-hiv-infection
#5
Bruce James Brew, Justin Y Garber
Primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is defined as the period from initial infection with HIV to complete seroconversion. Neurologic sequelae of primary HIV-1 infection are not uncommon, potentially affecting all parts of the nervous system. It is important for the neurologist to be aware of symptomatic primary HIV infection, as it may afford an early and accurate diagnosis of HIV infection and the opportunity for consideration of early antiretroviral therapy. This chapter introduces the clinical manifestations of primary HIV infection, including the laboratory and diagnostic approach, before detailing the various neurologic sequelae...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604984/neuropharmacology
#6
Alan Winston, Hadi Manji
With virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy, immune system recovery is now achievable for persons living with HIV (PLWH). This immune recovery is associated with dramatic reductions in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining illnesses including HIV dementia. However, milder form of cognitive disturbances are widely reported in PLWH despite effective antiretroviral therapy. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms of these cognitive disturbances remain elusive, with many potential pathogenic mechanisms including residual brain damage prior to the initiation of antiretroviral therapy and neuroinflammation and ongoing immune system disturbances despite antiretroviral therapy...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604983/animal-models-of-hiv-associated-disease-of-the-central-nervous-system
#7
Jaclyn Mallard, Kenneth C Williams
It is difficult to study the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in living patients because central nervous system (CNS) tissues are only available post mortem. Rodent and nonhuman primate (NHP) models of HAND allow for longitudinal analysis of HIV-associated CNS pathology and efficacy studies of novel therapeutics. Rodent models of HAND allow for studies with large sample sizes, short duration, and relatively low cost. These models include humanized mice used to study HIV-associated neuropathogenesis and transgenic mice used to study neurotoxic effects of viral proteins without infection...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604982/hiv-neuropathology
#8
Susan Morgello
Primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) neuropathologies can affect all levels of the neuraxis and occur in all stages of natural history disease. Some, like HIV encephalitis, HIV myelitis, and diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis of peripheral nerve, reflect productive infection of the nervous system; others, like vacuolar myelopathy, distal symmetric polyneuropathy, and central and peripheral nervous system demyelination, are not clearly related to regional viral replication, and reflect more complex cascades of dysregulated host immunity and metabolic dysfunction...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604981/global-developments-in-hiv-neurology
#9
Edwina J Wright, Kiran T Thakur, David Bearden, Gretchen L Birbeck
Neurologic conditions associated with HIV remain major contributors to morbidity and mortality, and are increasingly recognized in the aging population on long-standing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Importantly, growing evidence suggests that the central nervous system (CNS) serves as a reservoir for viral replication with major implications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) eradication strategies. Though there has been major progress in the last decade in our understanding of the pathogenesis, burden, and impact of HIV-associated neurologic conditions, significant scientific gaps remain...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604980/imaging-studies-of-the-hiv-infected-brain
#10
Linda Chang, Dinesh K Shukla
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters the brain early after infecting humans and may remain in the central nervous system despite successful antiretroviral treatment. Many neuroimaging techniques were used to study HIV+ patients with or without opportunistic infections. These techniques assessed abnormalities in brain structures (using computed tomography, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion MRI) and function (using functional MRI at rest or during a task, and perfusion MRI with or without a contrast agent)...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604979/hiv-and-spinal-cord-disease
#11
Seth N Levin, Jennifer L Lyons
The epidemiology of spinal cord disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is largely unknown due to a paucity of data since combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV mediates spinal cord injury indirectly, by immune modulation, degeneration, or associated infections and neoplasms. The pathologies vary and range from cytotoxic necrosis to demyelination and vasculitis. Control of HIV determines the differential for all neurologic presentations in infected individuals. Primary HIV-associated acute transverse myelitis, an acute inflammatory condition with pathologic similarities to HIV encephalitis, arises in early infection and at seroconversion...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604978/neuropathogenesis-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#12
Brady Sillman, Christopher Woldstad, Joellyn Mcmillan, Howard E Gendelman
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain a common end-organ manifestation of viral infection. Subclinical and mild symptoms lead to neurocognitive and behavioral abnormalities. These are associated, in part, with viral penetrance and persistence in the central nervous system. Infections of peripheral blood monocytes, macrophages, and microglia are the primary drivers of neuroinflammation and neuronal impairments. While current antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced the incidence of HIV-associated dementia, milder forms of HAND continue...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604977/neuromuscular-complications-of-hiv-infection
#13
Michelle Kaku, David M Simpson
With the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are living longer, and are commonly confronted with chronic neuromuscular complications. The spectrum of neuromuscular disorders in patients living with HIV infection is wide, and is caused by HIV per se and its products, particular antiretroviral drugs, or a combination of both. The purpose of this chapter is to review peripheral nervous system disorders in the setting of HIV infection, and to provide a general approach to diagnosis and management of these disorders...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604976/hiv-infection-and-stroke
#14
Laura Benjamin, Saye Khoo
The landscape of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is changing with the increasing coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Patients are living longer but continually exposed to a virologically suppressed HIV infection. This has resulted in a decrease in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related complications such as opportunistic infections, and an increase in non-AIDS complications such as stroke. In this era, stroke is perhaps the most important neurologic complication of HIV infection...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604975/primary-cns-lymphoma-in-hiv-infection
#15
Dieta Brandsma, Jacoline E C Bromberg
Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) has been designated an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining disease since 1983 and accounts for up to 15% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. The majority of HIV patients are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related. The most likely etiology is ineffective immunoregulation of EBV, inducing oncogenic protein expression, and subsequent loss of apoptosis and increased proliferation of lymphocytes. PCNSL generally presents with supratentorial, single or multiple, contrast-enhancing lesions...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604974/cns-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#16
Lauren Bowen, Avindra Nath, Bryan Smith
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) describes a syndrome of aberrant reconstituted immunity, often in association with HIV infection, beginning with a normalization of CD4+ T-cell counts resulting in a dysregulated immune response against an infecting opportunistic pathogen and the host. In this chapter, we discuss the unique nature of IRIS when present in the central nervous system (CNS IRIS) and the changes experienced with each host pathogen and its unique influence on the immune system. Consensus on the mechanism of action of the immune system in IRIS pathology is less clear and multiple theories have been proposed...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604973/other-central-nervous-system-infections-cytomegalovirus-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-treponema-pallidum
#17
Christina M Marra
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are particularly susceptible to several central nervous system infections: human cytomegalovirus, which may cause encephalitis, ventriculitis, polyradiculitis, or polyradiculomyelitis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which can cause meningitis or space-occupying lesions; and Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum), which affects the meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, cranial nerves, and vasculature in early neurosyphilis, and additionally the brain and spinal cord parenchyma in late neurosyphilis...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604972/cryptococcal-meningitis-in-aids
#18
Andrej Spec, William G Powderly
Cryptococcal meningitis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality amongst patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The prevalence in the developed world has decreased as HIV is being diagnosed earlier, but is still significant, and the prevalence in resource-limited settings is exceedingly high. The presenting symptoms usually include a headache, fever, and, less often, cranial nerve abnormalities. Space-occupying lesions do occur, but are rare. Once diagnosed, patients should be treated with a combination of amphotericin and flucytosine, with step-down therapy to fluconazole for a minimum of a year, or until the CD4 count is above 100 cells/μL, whichever is longer...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604971/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#19
Shaun Zhai, Bruce James Brew
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a relatively common complication of HIV disease. In this chapter changes to the epidemiology are discussed along with an update in its pathogenesis and treatment. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is increasingly frequent in PML; accordingly management strategies and prognosis are detailed.
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604970/central-nervous-system-infection-with-toxoplasma-gondii
#20
Christina M Marra
Central nervous system infection by Toxoplasma gondii, or Toxoplasma encephalitis, is the most common cause of brain mass lesions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. It usually presents as one or more brain abscesses, but it can also cause a diffuse encephalitis or ventriculitis. Individuals who are Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G-seropositive, who have peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell concentrations below 200/μL, are not on antiretroviral therapy, and are not taking trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to prevent Pneumocystis pneumonia, are at particular risk for Toxoplasma encephalitis...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
journal
journal
22026
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"