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Handbook of Clinical Neurology

Michael J Aminoff, Fran├žois Boller, Dick F Swaab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Mark Hallett, Jon Stone, Alan Carson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Q Deeley
In the 19th century it was recognized that neurologic symptoms could be caused by "morbid ideation" as well as organic lesions. The subsequent observation that hysteric (now called "functional") symptoms could be produced and removed by hypnotic suggestion led Charcot to hypothesize that suggestion mediated the effects of ideas on hysteric symptoms through as yet unknown effects on brain activity. The advent of neuroimaging 100 years later revealed strikingly similar neural correlates in experiments matching functional symptoms with clinical analogs created by suggestion...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
R J Brown
Dissociation has been cited as a possible psychologic mechanism underpinning functional neurologic disorders (FND) since the 19th century. Since that time, changes in psychiatric classification have created confusion about what the term dissociation actually means. The available evidence suggests that it now refers to at least two qualitatively distinct types of phenomena: detachment (an altered state of consciousness characterized by a sense of separation from the self or world) and compartmentalization (a reversible loss of voluntary control over apparently intact processes and functions), as well as their underlying mechanisms...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
S Aybek, P Vuilleumier
Brain imaging techniques provide unprecedented opportunities to study the neural mechanisms underlying functional neurologic disorder (FND, or conversion disorder), which have long remained a mystery and clinical challenge for physicians, as they arise with no apparent underlying organic disease. One of the first questions addressed by imaging studies concerned whether motor conversion deficits (e.g., hysteric paralysis) represent a form of (perhaps unconscious) simulation, a mere absence of voluntary movement, or more specific disturbances in motor control (such as abnormal inhibition)...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
D T Williams, K Lafaver, A Carson, S Fahn
Patients with functional neurologic disorders present to clinicians with a variety of symptomatic manifestations, with various levels of severity, chronicity, and comorbidity, as well as with various degrees of past adversity, intrinsic resilience, and available external support. Clearly, treatment must be individualized. For those patients who have been severely or chronically impaired, especially if adequate prior outpatient treatments have failed, inpatient treatment that integrates the various modalities outlined here provides a rational route of rescue from a course otherwise potentially characterized by protracted dependence and disability...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
T R J Nicholson, V Voon
Functional neurologic disorder (FND), also known as conversion disorder, is common and often associated with a poor prognosis. It has been relatively neglected by research and as such there is a conspicuous lack of evidence-based treatments. Physical and psychologic therapies are the main treatment modalities, over and above reassurance and sensitive explanation of the diagnosis. However there are two other historic treatments that have seen a recent resurgence of interest and use. The first is electric stimulation, which was initially pioneered with direct stimulation of nerves but now used indirectly (and therefore noninvasively) in the form of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
M Hallett
Functional neurologic disorders are largely genuine and represent conversion disorders, where the dysfunction is unconscious, but there are some that are factitious, where the abnormality is feigned and conscious. Malingering, which can have the same manifestations, is similarly feigned, but not considered a genuine disease. There are no good methods for differentiating these three entities at the present time. Physiologic studies of functional weakness and sensory loss reveal normal functioning of primary motor and sensory cortex, but abnormalities of premotor cortex and association cortices...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
K S Rommelfanger
Placebo therapy can produce meaningful, clinical relief for a variety of conditions. While placebos are not without their ethically fraught history, they continue to be used, largely covertly, even today. Because the prognosis for psychogenic disorders is often poor and recovery may be highly dependent on the patient's belief in the diagnosis and treatment regimen, some physicians find placebo therapy for psychogenic disorders compelling, but also particularly contentious. Yet placebos also have a long tradition of being used for provocative diagnosis (wherein placebo is used to elicit and/or terminate the symptoms as a way of diagnosing symptoms as "psychogenic")...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
E Carlino, A Piedimonte, F Benedetti
Placebos have long been considered a nuisance in clinical research, for they have always been used as comparators for the validation of new treatments. By contrast, today they represent an active field of research, and, due to the involvement of many mechanisms, the study of the placebo effect can actually be viewed as a melting pot of concepts and ideas for neuroscience. There is not a single placebo effect, but many, with different mechanisms across different medical conditions and therapeutic interventions...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Q Deeley
Suggestion in hypnosis has been applied to the treatment of functional neurologic symptoms since the earliest descriptions of hypnosis in the 19th century. Suggestion in this sense refers to an intentional communication of beliefs or ideas, whether verbally or nonverbally, to produce subjectively convincing changes in experience and behavior. The recognition of suggestion as a psychologic process with therapeutic applications was closely linked to the derivation of hypnosis from earlier healing practices. Animal magnetism, the immediate precursor of hypnosis, arrived at a psychologic concept of suggestion along with other ideas and practices which were then incorporated into hypnosis...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
L H Goldstein, J D C Mellers
The management of patients with functional neurologic disorders poses many challenges. Psychologic treatments may well start at the point of delivery of the diagnosis, when careful explanations about the nature of the disorder have to be given to the patient and possibly also relatives/carers. Different conceptual models may assist in explaining the factors underlying the presentation, two of which (functional and dissociative) are briefly outlined here. The challenges for neurologists and psychiatrists of delivering a psychologic formulation as part of the diagnosis delivery are considered, along with the importance of clear communication between professionals involved in the patient's care...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
G Nielsen
Physical interventions are widely considered an important part of treatment of functional neurologic disorders (FNDs). The evidence base for physical interventions has been limited to a collection of case series, but the recent publication of several large cohort studies and a randomized controlled trial have provided stronger evidence to support its use. While the evidence for efficacy appears to be promising, details on how this should be delivered remain limited, perhaps due to the dominance of psychologically focused etiologic models...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
J Stone, A Carson, M Hallett
There is widespread agreement that the way health professionals communicate the diagnosis of functional neurologic disorders (FND) has a central role in treatment, as it does arguably for most conditions. In this chapter we discuss barriers to effective diagnosis, different models of explanation and evidence regarding the importance of effective communication of the diagnosis in FND, especially movement disorders, and dissociative (nonepileptic) seizures. Debates and disagreements about how to go about this task often reflect different theoretic models held by health professionals rather than evidence...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
J Gelauff, J Stone
The prognosis of functional (psychogenic) neurologic disorders is important in being able to help answer patients' and carers' questions, determine whether treatment is worthwhile, and to find out which factors predict outcome. We reviewed data on prognosis of functional neurologic disorders from two systematic reviews on functional motor disorders and dissociative (nonepileptic) seizures as well as additional studies on functional visual and sensory symptoms. Methodologic problems include heterogeneity in studied samples and outcome measures, diagnostic suspicion and referral bias, small size and retrospective design of available studies, possible treatments during follow-up, and literature review bias...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
C Bass, P Halligan
Interest in malingering has grown in recent years, and is reflected in the exponential increase in academic publications since 1990. Although malingering is more commonly detected in medicolegal practice, it is not an all-or-nothing presentation and moreover can vary in the extent of presentation. As a nonmedical disorder, the challenge for clinical practice remains that malingering by definition is intentional and deliberate. As such, clinical skills alone are often insufficient to detect it and we describe psychometric tests such as symptom validity tests and relevant nonmedical investigations...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
C Ganos, M J Edwards, K P Bhatia
Traumatic injury to the nervous system may account for a range of neurologic symptoms. Trauma location and severity are important determinants of the resulting symptoms. In severe head injury with structural brain abnormalities, the occurrence of trauma-induced movement disorders, most commonly hyperkinesias such as tremor and dystonia, is well recognized and its diagnosis straightforward. However, the association of minor traumatic events, which do not lead to significant persistent structural brain damage, with the onset of movement disorders is more contentious...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
P J Grattan-Smith, R C Dale
Functional neurologic disorders (FND) of children have many similarities to those of adults, and there is a potential to learn much from the study of FND in children. In this chapter we discuss multiple aspects of pediatric FND. These include their frequency, historic features, the diagnosis, and controversies over the nature of FND and the "correct" name that should be used. We also discuss methods of informing the child and family of the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. FND of children typically affect girls in the 10-14-years age range...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
A Baumann, P O Katz
Swallowing involves complex coordination of the neuromuscular anatomy and physiology of the oropharynx and esophagus, controlled by the enteric and central nervous systems. Dysphagia is classified as either oropharyngeal or esophageal and results from mechanical or structural disturbances. Videofluoroscopy, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, barium swallow, manometry, and endoscopy are common modalities utilized in diagnosis, but none is as important as a patient's history. Functional dysphagia is a diagnosis of exclusion and is based on Rome criteria...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
A Carson, A Lehn
The epidemiology of functional neurologic disorders (FND) is complex and has been hampered over the years by a lack of clear definition, with previous definitions struggling with an uneasy mix of both physical and psychologic components. The recent changes in DSM-5 to a definition based on positive identification of physical symptoms which are incongruent and inconsistent with neurologic disease and the lack of need for any associated psychopathology represent a significant step forward in clarifying the disorder...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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