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Journal of General and Applied Microbiology

Karthikeyan Ramalingam, Valerie Lee
Acinetobacter baumannii has been well recognized as a problematic human pathogen and several reports has shown the incidence of multidrug and pandrug-resistant A. baumannii strains in infirmary infections. A. baumannii grows only on an air-liquid interface and does not form a contiguous biofilm. Extracellular matrices (ECM) and slanted glass coverslips are (SGC) used as biofilm substrates and biofilms have been investigated by SEM, confocal and crystal violet staining. ECM has shown enhanced biofilm formation under dynamic conditions rather than static conditions...
September 14, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Jing Zheng, Yifan Xia, Qi Liu, Xinyu He, Jiajia Yu, Yongjun Feng
Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is an important polymeric substance that plays essential roles in cell aggregation and nutrient provision for the sessile bacteria. eDNA in bacterial biofilms was extensively studied. Here we found that eDNA also exists in symplasmata, a bacterial cell aggregate, which is different to a biofilm, in the rice enophyte Pantoea agglomerans YS19. We found that exogenous eDNA enhanced the formation and stability of symplasmata significantly, and that, exogenous eDNA also improved the stress resistance and colonization ability of the bacterium on host rice...
September 6, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Siquan Zeng, Juan Ling, Manzoor Ahmad, Liyun Lin, Yanying Zhang, Cong Wang, Junde Dong
Fungi are the most suitable cellulase producers attributing to its ability to produce a complete cellulase system. 33 Genus, 175 Species fungi were isolated from Sanya mangrove, Hainan, China. Using congo red cellulose (CMC) medium, five fungi of cellulose-degrading were selected for further study. Molecular biology and morphological identification showed that all of these five fungi belong to Aspergillus fungi. The cellulase produced by these fungi were monitored during liquid state fermentation. The optimum conditions study for enzyme production illustrated that the highest activities appeared at pH 3...
August 29, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Yan-Jie Zhao, Yuya Sato, Tomohiro Inaba, Tomo Aoyagi, Tomoyuki Hori, Hiroshi Habe
The prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities of activated sludge in a chemical plant wastewater treatment facility, processing relatively oligotrophic wastewater containing aromatic compounds and high-strength bromide ions, were characterized by high-throughput sequencing of rRNA genes based on DNA and RNA extracts. The microbial community structure was distinct from those previously reported from domestic wastewater treatment plants. Several abundant OTUs in the RNA-based prokaryotic community were related to aromatic compound-degrading bacteria, which most likely contributed to the removal of recalcitrant chemicals from the wastewater...
July 31, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Hye Jin Choi, Tae-Yong Jeong, Hyeokjun Yoon, Bo Young Oh, Young Sun Han, Myung Je Hur, Sanghoon Kang, Jong-Guk Kim
Coastal ecosystems, play critical ecological roles of which tidal flats are a significant component of coastal wetlands, such as habitat and nutrient cycling in aquatic biology. Microbial communities in tidal flats are known to play vital roles of self-purification. And the microbial ecology of the sediment is easily affected by human activities and pollution. In this paper, we applied pyrosequencing technology to investigate microbial communities in three different tidal flats (Ganghwa Island, Ongnyeon land region and Yeongjong Island) on the Incheon, Korea peninsula...
July 20, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Vipavee Cherdvorapong, Hidehisa Fujiki, Wasana Suyotha, Yoichi Takeda, Shigekazu Yano, Kazuyoshi Takagi, Mamoru Wakayama
Extracellular α-1,3-glucanase HF90 (AglST2), with a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE-estimated molecular mass of approximately 91 kDa, was homogenously purified from the culture filtrate of Streptomyces thermodiastaticus HF3-3. AglST2 showed a high homology with mycodextranase in an amino acid sequence and demonstrated specificity with an α-1,3-glycosidic linkage of homo α-1,3-glucan. It has been suggested that AglST2 may be a new type of α-1,3-glucanase. The optimum pH and temperature of AglST2 were pH 5...
July 17, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Kaori Ohki, Yu Kanesaki, Noriyuki Suzuki, Maiko Okajima, Tatsuo Kaneko, Shinya Yoshikawa
The clonal strains, phycoerythrin(PE)-rich- and PE-poor strains, of the unicellular, fresh water cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum (Suringar) Okada (Suizenji Nori, in Japanese) were isolated from traditional open-air aquafarms in Japan. A. sacrum appeared to be oligotrophic on the basis of its growth characteristics. The optimum temperature for growth was around 20°C. Maximum growth and biomass increase at 20°C was obtained under light intensities between 40 to 80 μmol m-2 s-1 (fluorescent lamps, 12 h light/12 h dark cycles) and between 40 to 120 μmol m-2 s-1 for PE-rich and PE-poor strains, respectively, of A...
July 12, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Satoshi Endo, Tomoya Maeda, Takahiro Kawame, Noritaka Iwai, Masaaki Wachi
Corynebacterium glutamicum is used for the industrial production of various metabolites, including L-glutamic acid and L-lysine. With the aim of understanding the post-transcriptional regulation of amino acid biosynthesis in this bacterium, we investigated the role of RNase E/G in the degradation of mRNAs encoding metabolic enzymes. In this study, we found that the cobalamin-independent methionine synthase MetE was overexpressed in ΔrneG mutant cells grown on various carbon sources. The level of metE mRNA was also approximately 6- to 10-fold higher in the ΔrneG mutant strain than in the wild-type strain...
July 9, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Tomoo Ogata, Katsuaki Kuroki, Koki Ito, Akifumi Kondo, Kensuke Nakamura
Variations of chromosomal structures and nucleotide sequences around mating-type-like (MTL) loci among Zygosaccharomyces species have been reported. We have analyzed these differences in more detail and, on the basis of PCR- and next-generation sequencing data, we describe the MTL loci on chromosomes C and F for Z. rouxii type-strain NBRC1130, Z. rouxii NBRC0740 and Zygosaccharomyces sp. NBRC1876. We developed a mating strategy for Zygosaccharomyces sp. NBRC1876 and Z. rouxii NBRC0740, and found that the mated stains could be identified from parental strains on the basis of nucleotide sequence variations of the MTL loci...
July 23, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Hao Ji, Xinyao Lu, Hong Zong, Bin Zhuge
Candida glycerinogenes is an osmotolerant yeast used for commercial glycerol production, as well as a glycerol utilization yeast which produces high biomass on glycerol medium. In the present study, two STL1 homologues CgSTL1 and CgSTL2 encoding the putative glycerol transporters were identified, and their products were found to be localized to plasma membranes by tagging GFP protein. The functions of CgSTL1 and CgSTL2 on glycerol transport were confirmed by their expression in S. cerevisiae STL1 null mutant and simultaneous deletion in C...
July 23, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Koki Nishino, Sawako Takahashi, Hiromi Nishida
We compared the gene expression levels of the blue-light-responsive genes, appA (encoding photosynthesis promoting protein AppA), ppsR (encoding photosynthesis suppressing protein PpsR), and EL368 (encoding a blue-light-activated histidine kinase with a light, oxygen, or voltage domain) between aerobic and anaerobic conditions in spheroplasts of the aerobic photosynthetic bacterium Erythrobacter litoralis. The spheroplasts conducted photosynthesis under red light but not under blue light. All three blue-light-responsive genes showed higher expression under aerobic conditions than under anaerobic conditions under blue light...
July 23, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Jiyoung Kim, Gi-Ho Sung
Beauvericin is a mycotoxin which has insecticidal, anti-microbial, anti-viral and anti-cancer activities. Beauvericin biosynthesis is rapidly catalyzed by the beauvericin synthetase (BEAS) in Beauveria bassiana. Ca2+ plays crucial roles in multiple signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. These Ca2+ signals are partially decoded by Ca2+ sensor calmodulin (CaM). In this report, we describe that B. bassiana BEAS (BbBEAS) can interact with CaM in a Ca2+ -dependent manner. A synthetic BbBEAS peptide, corresponding to the putative CaM-binding motif, formed a stable complex with CaM in the presence of Ca2+ ...
July 23, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Tai-Yen Liu, Shu-Hung Chu, Gwo-Chyuan Shaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 23, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Katsuyuki Sakai, Yukihiro Asami, Takuya Chiba, Takuya Suga, Kenichi Nonaka, Masato Iwatsuki, Satoshi Ōmura, Kazuro Shiomi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 23, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Thi Huyen Do, Ngoc Giang Le, Trong Khoa Dao, Thi Mai Phuong Nguyen, Tung Lam Le, Han Ly Luu, Khanh Hoang Viet Nguyen, Van Lam Nguyen, Lan Anh Le, Thu Nguyet Phung, Nico M van Straalen, Dick Roelofs, Nam Hai Truong
The scarcity of enzymes having an optimal activity in lignocellulose deconstruction is an obstacle for industrial-scale conversion of cellulosic biomass into biofuels. With the aim of mining novel lignocellulolytic enzymes, a ~9 Gb metagenome of bacteria in Vietnamese native goats' rumen was sequenced by Illumina platform. From the data, 821 ORFs encoding carbohydrate esterases (CEs) and polysaccharide lyases (PLs) serving for lignocellulose pre-treatment, 816 ORFs encoding 11 glycoside hydrolase families (GHs) of cellulases, and 2252 ORFs encoding 22 GHs of hemicellulases, were mined...
July 23, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Hiroyuki Komatsu, Junya Yamamoto, Hiromichi Suzuki, Nobuyoshi Nagao, Yuu Hirose, Takashi Ohyama, So Umekage, Yo Kikuchi
The marine bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum is a nonsulfur phototrophic bacterium, which is known to produce extracellular nucleic acids in soluble form in culture medium. In the present paper, constructing the response regulator ctrA-deficient mutant of R. sulfidophilum, we found that this mutation causes a significant decrease in the extracellular DNA production. However, by the introduction of a plasmid containing the wild type ctrA gene into the mutant, the amount of extracellular DNA produced was recovered...
July 23, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Gursharan Singh, Sukhpal Singh, Kavleen Kaur, Shailendra Kumar Arya, Prince Sharma
Laccases are unable to oxidize the non-phenolic components of complex lignin polymer due to their less redox potential (E0). Catalytic efficiency of laccases relies on the mediators that potentiates their oxidative strength; for breaking the recalcitrant lignin. Laccase from Bacillus sp. SS4 was evaluated for its compatibility with natural and synthetic mediators. (2 mM). It was found that acetosyringone, vanillin, orcinol and veratraldehyde have no adverse effect on the laccase activity up to 3 h. Syringaldehyde, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and hydroquinone reduced the enzyme activity ≥50% after 1...
June 28, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Jannatul Ferdouse, Miyuki Miyagawa, Mikako Hirano, Yuka Kitajima, Shigeki Inaba, Hiroshi Kitagaki
At present, the quantitation of the mycelial weight of the industrially important non-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus oryzae, which is used for manufacturing koji, is performed by quantitating N-acetylglucosamine. However, since N-acetylglucosamine is a cell wall component, the extraction procedure is costly and tedious, and its quantitative performance is poor. Here, we report a novel method for the quantitation of A. oryzae mycelial weight. The amount of glycosylceramide significantly correlated with both the mycelial weight of A...
June 21, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Yuki Kobayashi, Kan Tanaka
We previously showed that nuclear DNA replication (NDR) is regulated by a checkpoint monitoring the occurrence of organelle DNA replication (ODR) in a unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. These analyses depended on the use of chemical CDK inhibitors such as CDK2 inhibitor II and roscovitine, but subsequent analyses yielded conflicting results depending on the experimental conditions. In the present study, we identified significantly short half-lives of the used chemicals in the sulfur acidic cultivation medium, which reconciles the discrepancy among these results...
June 14, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Tomoko Abe, Kenta Kobayashi, Sho Kawamura, Tatsuya Sakaguchi, Kiwamu Shiiba, Michihiko Kobayashi
The adenylation domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) is responsible for its selective substrate recognition and activation of the substrate (yielding an acyl-O-AMP intermediate) on ATP consumption. DhbF is an NRPS involved in bacillibactin synthesis and consists of multiple domains [adenylation domain, condensation domain, peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domain, and thioesterase domain]; DhbFA1 and DhbFA2 (here named) are "internal" adenylation domains in the multidomain enzyme DhbF. We firstly succeeded in expressing and purifying the "internal" adenylation domains DhbFA1 and DhbFA2 separately...
June 12, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
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