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Journal of General and Applied Microbiology

Vipavee Cherdvorapong, Hidehisa Fujiki, Wasana Suyotha, Yoichi Takeda, Shigekazu Yano, Kazuyoshi Takagi, Mamoru Wakayama
Extracellular α-1,3-glucanase HF90 (AglST2), with a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE-estimated molecular mass of approximately 91 kDa, was homogenously purified from the culture filtrate of Streptomyces thermodiastaticus HF3-3. AglST2 showed a high homology with mycodextranase in an amino acid sequence and demonstrated specificity with an α-1,3-glycosidic linkage of homo α-1,3-glucan. It has been suggested that AglST2 may be a new type of α-1,3-glucanase. The optimum pH and temperature of AglST2 were pH 5...
July 17, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Kaori Ohki, Yu Kanesaki, Noriyuki Suzuki, Maiko Okajima, Tatsuo Kaneko, Shinya Yoshikawa
The clonal strains, phycoerythrin(PE)-rich- and PE-poor strains, of the unicellular, fresh water cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum (Suringar) Okada (Suizenji Nori, in Japanese) were isolated from traditional open-air aquafarms in Japan. A. sacrum appeared to be oligotrophic on the basis of its growth characteristics. The optimum temperature for growth was around 20°C. Maximum growth and biomass increase at 20°C was obtained under light intensities between 40 to 80 μmol m-2 s-1 (fluorescent lamps, 12 h light/12 h dark cycles) and between 40 to 120 μmol m-2 s-1 for PE-rich and PE-poor strains, respectively, of A...
July 12, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Satoshi Endo, Tomoya Maeda, Takahiro Kawame, Noritaka Iwai, Masaaki Wachi
Corynebacterium glutamicum is used for the industrial production of various metabolites, including L-glutamic acid and L-lysine. With the aim of understanding the post-transcriptional regulation of amino acid biosynthesis in this bacterium, we investigated the role of RNase E/G in the degradation of mRNAs encoding metabolic enzymes. In this study, we found that the cobalamin-independent methionine synthase MetE was overexpressed in ΔrneG mutant cells grown on various carbon sources. The level of metE mRNA was also approximately 6- to 10-fold higher in the ΔrneG mutant strain than in the wild-type strain...
July 9, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Gursharan Singh, Sukhpal Singh, Kavleen Kaur, Shailendra Kumar Arya, Prince Sharma
Laccases are unable to oxidize the non-phenolic components of complex lignin polymer due to their less redox potential (E0). Catalytic efficiency of laccases relies on the mediators that potentiates their oxidative strength; for breaking the recalcitrant lignin. Laccase from Bacillus sp. SS4 was evaluated for its compatibility with natural and synthetic mediators. (2 mM). It was found that acetosyringone, vanillin, orcinol and veratraldehyde have no adverse effect on the laccase activity up to 3 h. Syringaldehyde, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and hydroquinone reduced the enzyme activity ≥50% after 1...
June 28, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Jannatul Ferdouse, Miyuki Miyagawa, Mikako Hirano, Yuka Kitajima, Shigeki Inaba, Hiroshi Kitagaki
At present, the quantitation of the mycelial weight of the industrially important non-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus oryzae, which is used for manufacturing koji, is performed by quantitating N-acetylglucosamine. However, since N-acetylglucosamine is a cell wall component, the extraction procedure is costly and tedious, and its quantitative performance is poor. Here, we report a novel method for the quantitation of A. oryzae mycelial weight. The amount of glycosylceramide significantly correlated with both the mycelial weight of A...
June 21, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Yuki Kobayashi, Kan Tanaka
We previously showed that nuclear DNA replication (NDR) is regulated by a checkpoint monitoring the occurrence of organelle DNA replication (ODR) in a unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. These analyses depended on the use of chemical CDK inhibitors such as CDK2 inhibitor II and roscovitine, but subsequent analyses yielded conflicting results depending on the experimental conditions. In the present study, we identified significantly short half-lives of the used chemicals in the sulfur acidic cultivation medium, which reconciles the discrepancy among these results...
June 14, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Tomoko Abe, Kenta Kobayashi, Sho Kawamura, Tatsuya Sakaguchi, Kiwamu Shiiba, Michihiko Kobayashi
The adenylation domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) is responsible for its selective substrate recognition and activation of the substrate (yielding an acyl-O-AMP intermediate) on ATP consumption. DhbF is an NRPS involved in bacillibactin synthesis and consists of multiple domains [adenylation domain, condensation domain, peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domain, and thioesterase domain]; DhbFA1 and DhbFA2 (here named) are "internal" adenylation domains in the multidomain enzyme DhbF. We firstly succeeded in expressing and purifying the "internal" adenylation domains DhbFA1 and DhbFA2 separately...
June 12, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Hirofumi Hara, Yus Amira Yusaimi, Siti Norayuni Mohd Zulkeflle, Norio Sugiura, Koji Iwamoto, Masafumi Goto, Motoo Utsumi, Nor'azizi Bin Othman, Zuriati Zakaria
The emergence of antibiotic resistance among multidrug-resistant (MDR) microbes is of growing concern, and threatens public health globally. A total of 129 Escherichia coli isolates were recovered from lowland aqueous environments near hospitals and medical service centers in the vicinity of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Among the eleven antibacterial agents tested, the isolates were highly resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (83.7%) and nalidixic acid (71.3%) and moderately resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol (66...
June 6, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Yan Wang, Tingwei Liu, Shuai Guo, Peng Zhang, Pengyang Sun, Mengqian Chen, Hong Ming
A gene (aga0917) encoding a putative β-agarase was identified from the genome of Pseudoalteromonas fuliginea YTW1-15-1. The nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that aga0917 had significant homology to the agarase genes of the GH16 family. aga0917 encodes a putative protein of 290 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 32.5 kDa, including a 21-amino acid signal peptide. A gene fragment encoding only the putative mature form of Aga0917 (269 amino acids) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS as a 6 × histine-tagged fusion protein (rmAga0917)...
May 30, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Hye Young Yoon, Si Young Lee
Susceptibility testing of bacteria to disinfecting chemical agents isolated from dental unit waterlines (DUWL) is necessary for the development of effective disinfectant products. However, until now, susceptibility tests for chemical agents, which are components of DUWL disinfectant products, have not been conducted on bacteria isolated from DUWL water. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the susceptibilities of DUWL isolates in planktonic and biofilm states to cetylpyridinium chloride, as well as to the four chemical agents currently used for DUWL management...
May 29, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Wangtai Luo, Jing Miao, Zhibin Feng, Ruiyang Lu, Xiaoqiang Sun, Baoshen Zhang, Weiqiu Ding, Yang Lu, Yanhua Wang, Xiaoyan Chi, Yihe Ge
In our recent work, we found that pyrrolnitrin, and not phenazines, pyrrolnitrin contributed to the suppression of the mycelia growth of Fusarium graminearum that causes heavy Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease in cereal crops. However, pyrrolnitrin production of Pseudomonas chlororaphis G05 in King's B medium was very low. Although a few regulatory genes mediating the prnABCD (the prn operon, pyrrolnitrin biosynthetic locus) expression have been identified, it is not enough for us to enhance pyrrolnitrin production by systematically constructing a genetically-engineered strain...
May 28, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Ryosuke Shigemoto, Takara Matsumoto, Shunsuke Masuo, Naoki Takaya
Sirtuin is an NAD+ -dependent histone deacetylase that is highly conserved among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Sirtuin deacetylates histones and non-histone proteins, and it is involved in fungal growth and secondary metabolite production. Here, we screened 579 fungal culture extracts that inhibited the histone deacetylase activity of Sirtuin A (SirA), produced by the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Eight fungal strains containing three Ascomycota, two Basidiomycota and three Deuteromycetes produced SirA inhibitors...
May 23, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Md Abdul Aziz, Rie Ushirokita, Yoshinao Azuma
Chlamydia pneumoniae is an obligate intracellular pathogen responsible for respiratory diseases, including pneumonia and bronchitis, and is highly involved in chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, asthma, and Alzheimer's disease. We previously showed that the host apoptotic factor caspase-9 played a crucial role for chlamydial multiplication and host apoptosis inhibition by chlamydial infection. To identify chlamydial genes interacting with human caspase-9, yeast two-hybrid screening was performed and 5 chlamydial genes, including Cpj0838 and pmpG were isolated from the C...
May 15, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Hui-Zhong Wang, Min Gou, Yue Yi, Zi-Yuan Xia, Yue-Qin Tang
Acetate is a significant intermediate of anaerobic fermentation. There are two pathways for converting acetate to CH4 and CO2 : acetoclastic methanogenesis by acetoclastic methanogens, and syntrophic acetate oxidation by acetate-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Detailed investigations of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria (SAOB) should contribute to the elucidation of the microbial mechanisms of methanogenesis. In this study, we investigated the major phylogenetic groups of acetate-utilizing bacteria (AUB) in a mesophilic methanogenic chemostat fed with acetate as the sole carbon source by using DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) technology...
May 11, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Shigekazu Yano, Wasana Suyotha, Sumika Zanma, Hiroyuki Konno, Vipavee Cherdvorapong, Mamoru Wakayama
α-1,3-Glucanase (Agl-KA) of Bacillus circulans KA-304 consists of an N-terminal discoidin domain (DS1), a carbohydrate binding module family 6 (CBM6), threonine and proline repeats (TP), a second discoidin domain (DS2), an uncharacterized conserved domain (UCD), and a C-terminal catalytic domain. Previously, we reported that DS1, CBM6, and DS2 have α-1,3-glucan-binding activity and contribute to α-1,3-glucan hydrolysis. In this study, UCD deletion mutant (AglΔUCD) was constructed, and its properties were compared with those of Agl-KA...
May 8, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Taejun Chin, Masahiko Ikeuchi
Sorbitol-6-phosphatase (EC catalyzes sorbitol production from sorbitol-6-phosphate in certain organisms, but has not been identified unequivocally. We screened the activity of the haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolases (HAD) superfamily and identified four HAD proteins from Escherichia coli as sorbitol-6-phosphatase. Of these proteins, HAD2 (YfbT) exhibited catalytic activity (kcat /Km ) that was better than that of the previously reported "preferred" substrate. HAD1 (YniC) and HAD2 exhibited higher sorbitol-6-phosphatase activity than that of HAD12 (YbiV) and HAD13 (YidA)...
May 8, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Kaori Inoue-Sakamoto, Ehsan Nazifi, Chieri Tsuji, Tomoya Asano, Takumi Nishiuchi, Seiichi Matsugo, Kenji Ishihara, Yu Kanesaki, Hirofumi Yoshikawa, Toshio Sakamoto
The aquatic cyanobacterium Nostoc verrucosum forms macroscopic colonies in streams, and its appearance is superficially similar to that of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. N. verrucosum is sensitive to desiccation, unlike N. commune, although these Nostoc cyanobacterial species share physiological features, including massive extracellular polysaccharide production and trehalose accumulation capability. In this study, water-soluble sunscreen pigments of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were characterized in N...
April 30, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Keitaro Take, Hidehisa Fujiki, Wasana Suyotha, Junji Hayashi, Kazuyoshi Takagi, Shigekazu Yano, Mamoru Wakayama
Chitinase 1 (Chi1) is an acidic and thermostable hydrolytic enzyme capable of the breakdown of chitin, a resilient biopolymer that is the primary building block of fungi cell walls and marine exoskeletons. In this study, Chi1 was purified from the bacterium Streptomyces thermodiastaticus HF 3-3, and its properties were carefully characterized. The molecular mass of Chi1 was estimated to be approximately 46 kDa and, through sequencing, its N-terminal amino acid sequence was identified as ADSGKVKL. Although the optimal operating temperature and pH for Chi1 were determined to be 65°C and pH 5...
April 27, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Jiwei Mao, Quanli Liu, Yuanzi Li, Jiuxia Yang, Xinhao Song, Xiao Liu, Haijin Xu, Mingqiang Qiao
A biosensor screening assay based on the synthesis of betaxanthin was applied to relatively high throughput screening of the L-tyrosine mutant library. In the assays, fluorescence output showed a linear relationship between extracellular L-tyrosine content and yellow pigment formation. In addition, the yellow pigment accumulation of the L-tyrosine high-yield strain can be easily distinguished with the naked eye compared with the wild-type strain. As a result, numerous mutants that exhibited significantly increased coloration, were screened out after random mutagenesis, and p-coumaric acid production in mutants NK-A3 and NK-B4, were remarkably improved by 4-fold more than that of the wild-type strain...
April 25, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Vidya Pradeep Kumar, Atul P Kolte, Arindam Dhali, Chandrashekar Naik, Manpal Sridhar
Utilization of energy-rich crop residues by ruminants is restricted by the presence of lignin, which is recalcitrant to digestion. Application of lignin degrading enzymes on the lignocellulosic biomass exposes the cellulose for easy digestion by ruminants. Laccases have been found to be considerably effective in improving the digestibility by way of delignification. However, laccase yields from natural hosts are not sufficient for industrial scale applications, which restricts their use. A viable option would be to express the laccase gene in compatible hosts to achieve higher production yields...
April 25, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
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