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Journal of General and Applied Microbiology

Mayuko Hori, Shyunsuke Oka, Yoshimi Sugie, Hokuto Ohtsuka, Hirofumi Aiba
Two-component signal transduction systems (TCS), that are also referred to as His to Asp phosphorelay systems, are involved in widespread cellular responses to diverse signals from bacteria to plants. Previously, we succeeded in reconstructing a cyanobacterial photo-perception system in Escherichia coli by employing a CcaS-CcaR two-component system from Nostoc punctiforme. In this study, we have added a photo-responsive ability to ArcB-ArcA (anoxic redox control) TCS of E. coli by fusing a cyanobacterial photoreceptor domain of CcaS with an intracellular histidine kinase (HK) domain of ArcB...
January 31, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Mai Nakazawa, Hiromi Nishida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Shigeki Hamada, Keisuke Kubota, Masanobu Sagisaka
We selected a fungus secreting a neutral protease from soil and identified it as the basidiomycete fungus Cerrena albocinnamomea according to its ITS-5.8S rDNA and 28S rDNA-D1/D2 sequences. A major extracellular protease isolated from C. albocinnamomea was purified approximately 44-fold through two purification steps. SDS-PAGE analyses of the purified protease revealed a single band, and its molecular mass of 39,756 Da was determined using MALDI-TOF-MS. The enzyme was optimally active at approximately pH 7...
January 24, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Eman Zakaria Gomaa
The current research was focused on the characterization and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) produced by Bacillus licheniformis NM120-17. The synthesis was initially observed by a colour change from pale yellow to brown which was further confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The AgNPs were characterized using TEM, EDAX and FTIR. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical and uniformly distributed with a size in the range of 9-27.5 nm. The antibacterial activities and acting mechanism of AgNPs were studied with respect to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by measuring the growth curves, protein and reducing sugar leakage, respiratory chain dehydrogenase activity, as well as the formation of bactericidal reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
January 24, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Hiromi Nishida, Taku Oshima
A subpopulation of Archaea possesses histones, which are similar to eukaryotic histones H3 and H4. However, archaeal histones are smaller than H3 and H4, and are not post-translationally modified. In addition, the fundamental unit of archaeal histones might be a dimer. The organization of archaeal nucleosomes, therefore, differs from that of eukaryotic nucleosomes. The base compositions of archaeal genome are much more diversified than those of eukaryote and the archaeal histones have more diversified amino acid sequences, which are reflected by their varied isoelectric points...
December 17, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Shingo Suzuki, Akihiro Kaidow, Takuma Meya, Anri Masuya, Takashi Shiina
Many significant gene mutations in E. coli have contributed to the development of genetics. Among these, a commonly used recA mutation, Δ(srl-recA)306 has been sequenced by a next-generation sequencer combined with a long PCR. An original report described that Δ(srl-recA)306 cells were deleted from srlR to recA genes in their genome. The next-generation sequencer enables more accurate details to be determined. We ask whether both surrounding genes from hypF to norV for srlR and alaS for recA is there first...
December 17, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Hayron Canchignia, Fabiola Altimira, Christian Montes, Evelyn Sánchez, Eduardo Tapia, María Miccono, Daniel Espinoza, Carlos Aguirre, Michael Seeger, Humberto Prieto
The nematode Xiphinema index affects grape vines and transmits important viruses associated with fanleaf degeneration. Pseudomonas spp. are an extensive bacterial group in which important biodegradation and/or biocontrol properties can occur for several strains in the group. The aim of this study was to identify new Pseudomonas isolates with antagonist activity against X. index. Forty bacterial isolates were obtained from soil and root samples from Chilean vineyards. Thirteen new fluorescent pseudomonads were found and assessed for their antagonistic capability...
December 17, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Kenta Yonezuka, Jun Shimodaira, Michiro Tabata, Shoko Ohji, Akira Hosoyama, Daisuke Kasai, Atsushi Yamazoe, Nobuyuki Fujita, Takayuki Ezaki, Masao Fukuda
Pseudomonas putida is well-known for degradation activities for a variety of compounds and its infections have been reported. Thus, P. putida includes both clinical and nonclinical isolates. To date, no reports have examined the phylogenetic relationship between clinical and nonclinical isolates of the P. putida group. In this study, fifty-nine strains of P. putida group containing twenty-six clinical, and thirty-three nonclinical, isolates, were subjected to phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and nine housekeeping gene sequences, including argS, dnaN, dnaQ, era, gltA, gyrB, ppnK, rpoB, and rpoD, to obtain insights into the diversity of species in this group...
December 17, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Junli Huang, Zhaobing Liu, Shiyu Li, Bo Xu, Yahui Gong, Yan Yang, Hanxiao Sun
Although many bacteria are tolerant to heavy metals and play important roles in the immobilization of heavy metals, they cannot always be dependably reproduced under field conditions. In this work, a cadmium (Cd)-resistant bacterium was isolated from a Cd-contaminated oil field and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pse-w). We then determined various plant growth promoting features such as the solubilization of phosphate, and the production of indole-3-acetic acid and siderophores. Lastly, we engineered the strain Pse-w-MT by targeting metallothioneins to the cell surface of Pse-w to immobilize Cd(2+) and promote plant growth...
November 25, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Guillermo A Maroniche, Esteban J Rubio, Adrián Consiglio, Alejandro Perticari
Fluorescent Pseudomonas are ubiquitous soil bacteria that usually establish mutualistic associations with plants, promoting their growth and health by several mechanisms. This makes them interesting candidates for the development of crop bio-inoculants. In this work, we isolated phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent Pseudomonas from the rhizosphere and inner tissues of different plant species growing in red soil from Misiones, Argentina. Seven isolates displaying strong phosphate solubilization were selected for further studies...
November 25, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Yohei Tashiro, Yuki Kimura, Maiko Furubayashi, Akira Tanaka, Kei Terakubo, Kyoichi Saito, Shigeko Kawai-Noma, Daisuke Umeno
LuxR family transcriptional regulators are the core components of quorum sensing in Gram-negative bacteria and exert their effects through binding to the signaling molecules acyl-homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs). The function of the LuxR homologs is remarkably plastic, and naturally occurring acyl-HSLs are structurally diverse. To investigate the molecular basis of the functional plasticity of Vibrio fischeri LuxR, we directed the evolution of LuxR toward three different specificities in the laboratory. We found an orthogonal pair of LuxR mutants specific either to 3-oxo-hexanoyl homoserine lactone or to 3-oxo-octanoyl homoserine lactone...
November 25, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Akinori Kato
Recombineering has been used to facilitate the development of in vivo cloning methods. However, the method relies heavily on PCR, which still generates a much higher error rate than DNA replication in vivo, even when amplifying large DNA inserts. Here, a precise technique is reported in Salmonella enterica that enables the cloning of up to at least 19 kb target chromosomal DNA segments that had been marked by FRTs, which were derived from two consecutive lambda Red-mediated recombination events. P22 phage was utilized to transduce the target DNA segments from donor strains to recipient strains harboring a derivative of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing a FRT and a plasmid expressing Flp recombinase...
November 25, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Ruyi Sha, Qin Meng
In this paper, rhamnolipids are investigated, for the first time, for their feasibility for inhibiting dimorphic fungi. Rhamnolipids were found to effectively inhibit a dimorphic fungus isolated from tomato plants which was identified as Mucor circinelloides according to characterizations by morphologies as well as 28S rDNA sequences. Rhamnolipids markedly reduced growth of this fungus in both the yeast-like form and the filamentous form. Such an inhibitive effect was similarly obtained with Verticillium dahliae, a representative member of dimorphic fungi, confirming the effectiveness of rhamnolipids in the two growth forms of dimorphic fungi...
November 25, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Kazuyuki Maeda, Yuichi Nakajima, Yoshikazu Tanahashi, Takahiro Kosaki, Yoshiyuki Kitou, Kyoko Kanamaru, Tetsuo Kobayashi, Takumi Nishiuchi, Makoto Kimura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Mana Noguchi, Futoshi Kurisu, Yuji Sekiguchi, Ikuro Kasuga, Hiroaki Furumai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Hung Hiep Huynh, Manabu Arioka
The complete hydrolysis of lignocellulose requires the actions of a variety of enzymes, including those that cleave the linkage between lignin and hemicellulose. The enzyme glucuronoyl esterase (GE) that constitutes a novel family of carbohydrate esterases, CE15, has been shown to display a unique ability to cleave the ester linkage between lignin alcohols and xylan-bound 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid of hemicellulose. We herein report identification, expression, and functional characterization of a new GE, NcGE, from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa...
November 25, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Chihaya Yamada, Kota Sawano, Noriyasu Iwase, Masaki Matsuoka, Takatoshi Arakawa, Shigeo Nishida, Shinya Fushinobu
Two thermophilic bacterial strains, Bacillus thermoamylovorans NB501 and NB502, were isolated from a high-temperature aerobic fermentation reactor system that processes tofu refuse (okara) in the presence of used soybean oil. We cloned a lipase gene from strain NB501, which secretes a thermophilic lipase. The biochemical characteristics of the recombinant enzyme (Lip501r) were elucidated. Lip501r is monomeric in solution with an apparent molecular mass of 38 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The optimal pH and apparent optimal temperature of Lip501r were 8 and 60°C, respectively...
November 22, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Churapa Teerapatsakul, Chetsada Pothiratana, Lerluck Chitradon, Surachai Thachepan
The biodegradation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenanthrene, fluorene, and pyrene, by a newly isolated thermotolerant white rot fungal strain RYNF13 from Thailand, was investigated. The strain RYNF13 was identified as Trametes polyzona, based on an analysis of its internal transcribed spacer sequence. The strain RYNF13 was superior to most white rot fungi. The fungus showed excellent removal of PAHs at a high concentration of 100 mg·L(-1). Complete degradation of phenanthrene in a mineral salt glucose medium culture was observed within 18 days of incubation at 30°C, whereas 90% of fluorene and 52% of pyrene were degraded under the same conditions...
November 22, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Koei Hamana, Takemitsu Furuchi, Hidenori Hayashi, Takashi Itoh, Moriya Ohkuma, Masaru Niitsu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Keiko Kizawa, Toshihiro Aono, Ryo Ohtomo
It has been argued for a long time whether alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is involved in polyphosphate (polyP) metabolism in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In the present study, we have analyzed the effects of disrupting the PHO8 gene, which encodes phosphate (Pi)-deficiency-inducible ALP, on the polyP contents of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The polyP content of the Δpho8 mutant was higher than the wild type strain in the logarithmic phase under Pi-sufficient conditions. On the contrary, the chain length of polyP extracted from the Δpho8 mutant did not differ from the wild type strain...
November 8, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
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