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Journal of General and Applied Microbiology

Junli Huang, Zhaobing Liu, Shiyu Li, Bo Xu, Yahui Gong, Yan Yang, Hanxiao Sun
Although many bacteria are tolerant to heavy metals and play important roles in the immobilization of heavy metals, they cannot always be dependably reproduced under field conditions. In this work, a cadmium (Cd)-resistant bacterium was isolated from a Cd-contaminated oil field and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pse-w). We then determined various plant growth promoting features such as the solubilization of phosphate, and the production of indole-3-acetic acid and siderophores. Lastly, we engineered the strain Pse-w-MT by targeting metallothioneins to the cell surface of Pse-w to immobilize Cd(2+) and promote plant growth...
October 3, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Guillermo A Maroniche, Esteban J Rubio, Adrián Consiglio, Alejandro Perticari
Fluorescent Pseudomonas are ubiquitous soil bacteria that usually establish mutualistic associations with plants, promoting their growth and health by several mechanisms. This makes them interesting candidates for the development of crop bio-inoculants. In this work, we isolated phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent Pseudomonas from the rhizosphere and inner tissues of different plant species growing in red soil from Misiones, Argentina. Seven isolates displaying strong phosphate solubilization were selected for further studies...
October 3, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Yohei Tashiro, Yuki Kimura, Maiko Furubayashi, Akira Tanaka, Kei Terakubo, Kyoichi Saito, Shigeko Kawai-Noma, Daisuke Umeno
LuxR family transcriptional regulators are the core components of quorum sensing in Gram-negative bacteria and exert their effects through binding to the signaling molecules acyl-homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs). The function of the LuxR homologs is remarkably plastic, and naturally occurring acyl-HSLs are structurally diverse. To investigate the molecular basis of the functional plasticity of Vibrio fischeri LuxR, we directed the evolution of LuxR toward three different specificities in the laboratory. We found an orthogonal pair of LuxR mutants specific either to 3-oxo-hexanoyl homoserine lactone or to 3-oxo-octanoyl homoserine lactone...
October 3, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Akinori Kato
Recombineering has been used to facilitate the development of in vivo cloning methods. However, the method relies heavily on PCR, which still generates a much higher error rate than DNA replication in vivo, even when amplifying large DNA inserts. Here, a precise technique is reported in Salmonella enterica that enables the cloning of up to at least 19 kb target chromosomal DNA segments that had been marked by FRTs, which were derived from two consecutive lambda Red-mediated recombination events. P22 phage was utilized to transduce the target DNA segments from donor strains to recipient strains harboring a derivative of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing a FRT and a plasmid expressing Flp recombinase...
September 23, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Ruyi Sha, Qin Meng
In this paper, rhamnolipids are investigated, for the first time, for their feasibility for inhibiting dimorphic fungi. Rhamnolipids were found to effectively inhibit a dimorphic fungus isolated from tomato plants which was identified as Mucor circinelloides according to characterizations by morphologies as well as 28S rDNA sequences. Rhamnolipids markedly reduced growth of this fungus in both the yeast-like form and the filamentous form. Such an inhibitive effect was similarly obtained with Verticillium dahliae, a representative member of dimorphic fungi, confirming the effectiveness of rhamnolipids in the two growth forms of dimorphic fungi...
September 21, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Kazuyuki Maeda, Yuichi Nakajima, Yoshikazu Tanahashi, Takahiro Kosaki, Yoshiyuki Kitou, Kyoko Kanamaru, Tetsuo Kobayashi, Takumi Nishiuchi, Makoto Kimura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Mana Noguchi, Futoshi Kurisu, Yuji Sekiguchi, Ikuro Kasuga, Hiroaki Furumai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Hung Hiep Huynh, Manabu Arioka
The complete hydrolysis of lignocellulose requires the actions of a variety of enzymes, including those that cleave the linkage between lignin and hemicellulose. The enzyme glucuronoyl esterase (GE) that constitutes a novel family of carbohydrate esterases, CE15, has been shown to display a unique ability to cleave the ester linkage between lignin alcohols and xylan-bound 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid of hemicellulose. We herein report identification, expression, and functional characterization of a new GE, NcGE, from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa...
September 6, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Karl J Indest, Jed O Eberly, Dawn E Hancock, Carina M Jung, Matthew R Carr, Gary A Blakeney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Chang-Ho Kang, YuJin Shin, Periasamy Anbu, In-Hyun Nam, Jae-Seong So
Abandoned mine sites are frequently polluted with high concentrations of heavy metals. In this study, 25 calcite-forming bacteria were newly isolated from the soil of an abandoned metal mine in Korea. Based on their urease activity, calcite production, and resistance to copper toxicity, four isolates were selected and further identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among the isolates, Sporosarcina soli B-22 was selected for subsequent copper biosequestration studies, using the sand impermeability test by production of calcite and extracellular polymeric substance...
September 12, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Akira Také, Takuji Nakashima, Yuki Inahashi, Kazuro Shiomi, Yōko Takahashi, Satoshi Ōmura, Atsuko Matsumoto
It is the major characteristic of the cell-wall peptidoglycan structure in members of the family Micromonosporaceae that N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) of glycan strand is replaced with N-glycolylmuramic acid (MurNGlyc). Consequently, it is difficult to use enzymatic methods for their peptidoglycan analyses. We therefore developed analysis method of peptidoglycan without using cell wall lytic enzymes as example to take the 3 genera, Micromonospora, Catenuloplanes, and Couchioplanes belonging to the family Micromonosporaceae, and their peptidoglycans were partially hydrolyzed with 4 M HCl at 60°C for 16 h followed by derivatization with N(α)-(5-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl)-D-leucinamide (FDLA) or 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) and LC/MS analysis...
September 12, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
T Porter, D Frederick, E Johnson, P G Jones
As similarly observed in nutrient-poor media at 37°C, Escherichia coli forms small rods in nutrient-rich media at temperatures near 8°C, the minimum temperature of growth. A study was initiated to identify proteins required to facilitate the small rod morphology at low temperature. E. coli contains three nonessential SPOR domain proteins (DamX, RlpA, and DedD) that have been demonstrated to bind to the septal ring. In contrast to the normal growth and small rod morphology of damX and rlpA null mutants at 10°C, the dedD null mutant exhibited reduced growth and formed filamentous cells...
September 12, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Vera Ulyanova, Raihan Shah Mahmud, Elena Dudkina, Valentina Vershinina, Eugen Domann, Olga Ilinskaya
The potential of microbial ribonucleases as promising antitumor and antiviral agents, determines today's directions of their study. One direction is connected with biodiversity of RNases. We have analyzed completed and drafted Bacillus genomes deposited in GenBank for the presence of coding regions similar to the gene of an extracellular guanyl-preferring RNase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (barnase). Orthologues of the barnase gene were detected in 9 species out of 83. All of these belong to "B. subtilis" group within the genus...
September 12, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Takuto Kumano, Yuko Takizawa, Sakayu Shimizu, Michihiko Kobayashi
One of the nitrile-synthesizing enzymes, β-cyano-L-alanine synthase, catalyzes β-cyano-L-alanine (β-CNAla) from potassium cyanide and O-acetyl-L-serine or L-cysteine. We have identified this enzyme from Pseudomonas ovalis No. 111. In this study, we cloned the β-CNAla synthase gene and expressed it in Escherichia coli and Rhodococcus rhodochrous. Furthermore, we carried out co-expression of β-CNAla synthase with nitrilase or nitrile hydratases in order to synthesize aspartic acid and asparagine from KCN and O-acetyl-L-serine...
September 12, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Takuto Kumano, Takahisa Suzuki, Sakayu Shimizu, Michihiko Kobayashi
Cyanide is known as a toxic compound for almost all living organisms. We have searched for cyanide-resistant bacteria from the soil and stock culture collection of our laboratory, and have found the existence of a lot of microorganisms grown on culture media containing 10 mM potassium cyanide. Almost all of these cyanide-resistant bacteria were found to show β-cyano-L-alanine (β-CNAla) synthetic activity. β-CNAla synthase is known to catalyze nitrile synthesis: the formation of β-CNAla from potassium cyanide and O-acetyl-L-serine or L-cysteine...
September 12, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Ryudo Ohbayashi, Hideto Akai, Hirofumi Yoshikawa, Wolfgang R Hess, Satoru Watanabe
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms that serve as experimental model organisms for the study of photosynthesis, environmental stress responses, and the production of biofuels. Genetic tools for bioengineering have been developed as a result of such studies. However, there is still room for improvement for the tight control of experimental protein expression in these microorganisms. Here, we describe an expression system controlled by a theophylline-responsive riboswitch that we have constructed in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp...
July 14, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Yingbao Liu, Xiaobing Yang, Yajie Yin, Jinshui Lin, Can Chen, Junfeng Pan, Meiru Si, Xihui Shen
Mycothiol (MSH) plays a major role in protecting cells against oxidative stress and detoxification from a broad range of exogenous toxic agents. In the present study, we reveal that intracellular MSH contributes significantly to the adaptation to acidic conditions in the model organism Corynebacterium glutamicum. We present evidence that MSH confers C. glutamicum with the ability to adapt to acidic conditions by maintaining pHi homeostasis, scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), and protecting methionine synthesis by the S-mycothiolation modification of methionine synthase (MetE)...
July 14, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Yoshimi Sugie, Mayuko Hori, Shunsuke Oka, Hokuto Ohtsuka, Hirofumi Aiba
Two-component signal transduction systems (TCS) are involved in widespread cellular responses to diverse signals from bacteria to plants. Cyanobacteria have evolved photoperception systems for efficient photosynthesis, and some histidine kinases are known to function as photosensors. In this study, we attempt to reconstruct the photoperception system in Escherichia coli to make an easily controllable ON/OFF switch for gene expressions. For this purpose, a CcaS-CcaR two-component system from Nostoc punctiforme was expressed with phycocyanobilin (PCB) producing enzymes in E...
July 14, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Ikuhisa Nishida, Daisuke Watanabe, Ariunzaya Tsolmonbaatar, Tomohiro Kaino, Iwao Ohtsu, Hiroshi Takagi
In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the AVT genes (AVT1-7), which encode vacuolar amino acid transporters belonging to the amino acid vacuolar transport (AVT)-family, were significantly upregulated in response to exogenous proline. To reveal a novel role of the Avt proteins in proline homeostasis, we analyzed the effects of deletion or overexpression of the AVT genes on the subcellular distribution of amino acids after the addition of proline to the cells grown in minimal medium. Among seven AVT gene disruptants, avt1Δ and avt7Δ showed the lowest ratios of vacuolar proline...
July 14, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Alei Zhang, Cong Gao, Kequan Chen, Ce Wei, Pingkai Ouyang
The pH of a microbiological culture is important for both cell growth and chitinase accumulation, but the optimal pH is not normally the same for both. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pH on chitinase production by Chitinolyticbacter meiyuanensis strain SYBC-H1 (ATCC BAA-2140) in a mineral medium. The results of batch culture at different pH values showed that the optimum pH for cell growth and chitinase production varied with time, although KOH produced the best results for cell growth and chitinase production, NaOH was chosen because of cost considerations...
July 14, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
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