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Journal of General and Applied Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885194/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-thermostable-lipase-from-bacillus-thermoamylovorans-nb501
#1
Chihaya Yamada, Kota Sawano, Noriyasu Iwase, Masaki Matsuoka, Takatoshi Arakawa, Shigeo Nishida, Shinya Fushinobu
Two thermophilic bacterial strains, Bacillus thermoamylovorans NB501 and NB502, were isolated from a high-temperature aerobic fermentation reactor system that processes tofu refuse (okara) in the presence of used soybean oil. We cloned a lipase gene from strain NB501, which secretes a thermophilic lipase. The biochemical characteristics of the recombinant enzyme (Lip501r) were elucidated. Lip501r is monomeric in solution with an apparent molecular mass of 38 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The optimal pH and apparent optimal temperature of Lip501r were 8 and 60°C, respectively...
November 22, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885193/biodegradation-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-by-a-thermotolerant-white-rot-fungus-trametes-polyzona-rynf13
#2
Churapa Teerapatsakul, Chetsada Pothiratana, Lerluck Chitradon, Surachai Thachepan
The biodegradation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenanthrene, fluorene, and pyrene, by a newly isolated thermotolerant white rot fungal strain RYNF13 from Thailand, was investigated. The strain RYNF13 was identified as Trametes polyzona, based on an analysis of its internal transcribed spacer sequence. The strain RYNF13 was superior to most white rot fungi. The fungus showed excellent removal of PAHs at a high concentration of 100 mg·L(-1). Complete degradation of phenanthrene in a mineral salt glucose medium culture was observed within 18 days of incubation at 30°C, whereas 90% of fluorene and 52% of pyrene were degraded under the same conditions...
November 22, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885192/occurrence-of-two-novel-linear-penta-amines-pyropentamine-and-homopyropentamine-in-extremely-thermophilic-thermus-composti
#3
Koei Hamana, Takemitsu Furuchi, Hidenori Hayashi, Takashi Itoh, Moriya Ohkuma, Masaru Niitsu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829585/pho8-gene-coding-alkaline-phosphatase-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-is-involved-in-polyphosphate-metabolism
#4
Keiko Kizawa, Toshihiro Aono, Ryo Ohtomo
It has been argued for a long time whether alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is involved in polyphosphate (polyP) metabolism in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In the present study, we have analyzed the effects of disrupting the PHO8 gene, which encodes phosphate (Pi)-deficiency-inducible ALP, on the polyP contents of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The polyP content of the Δpho8 mutant was higher than the wild type strain in the logarithmic phase under Pi-sufficient conditions. On the contrary, the chain length of polyP extracted from the Δpho8 mutant did not differ from the wild type strain...
November 8, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829584/fe-3-dependent-epistasis-between-the-cpxr-activated-loci-and-the-pmra-activated-lps-modification-loci-in-salmonella-enterica
#5
Akinori Kato, Nami Higashino, Ryutaro Utsumi
Bacteria utilize varying combinations of two-component regulatory systems, many of which respond and adapt closely to stress conditions, thus expanding their niche steadily. While mechanisms of recognition and avoidance of the specific Fe(3+) signal by the PmrA/PmrB system is well understood, those of the CpxR/CpxA system are more complex because they can be induced by various stress conditions, which, in turn, expresses a variety of phenotypes. Here, we highlight another aspect of the CpxR/CpxA system; mutations in degP and yqjA genes, which are under the control of the system, exhibit an iron sensitive phenotype in the mutant background defective in the PmrA-dependent gene products that alter the pyrophosphate status of the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide in Salmonella enterica...
November 8, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829583/bacillus-subtilis-gntr-regulation-modified-to-devise-artificial-transient-induction-systems
#6
Parastoo Majidian, Junko Kuse, Kosei Tanaka, Hamid Najafi, Mehrshad Zeinalabedini, Shinji Takenaka, Ken-Ichi Yoshida
We modified GntR regulation in Bacillus subtilis to devise transient induction systems. GntR is the repressor antagonized by gluconate to induce transcription of the gntRKPZ operon for gluconate catabolism. On the other hand, the gnt operon is repressed by glucose via carbon catabolite repression involving CcpA/P-ser-HPr, which binds to two cre sites: one located in the gnt promoter region and the other within the gntR coding region. We initiated gntKPZ encoding of enzymes for gluconate catabolism expressed independently from the operon; this allowed constitutive degradation of gluconate...
November 8, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773917/high-cell-density-cultivation-of-nitrosomonas-europaea-in-a-membrane-bioreactor-for-performing-protein-purification-and-characterization-studies
#7
Mamoru Oshiki, Ryota Takagi, Masashi Hatamoto, Takashi Yamaguchi, Nobuo Araki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773916/acetyltransferase-activity-in-pseudomonas-sp-capable-of-acetylating-the-c-4-hydroxyl-group-of-nivalenol-type-trichothecenes
#8
Akira Tanaka, Shohei Saikawa, Takuro Suzuki, Akinobu Echigo, Kazuyuki Maeda, Masayuki Sato, Makoto Fujimura, Takeshi Tokai, Ron Usami, Yasuhiko Yoshida, Makoto Kimura, Naoko Takahashi-Ando
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773915/occurrence-of-penta-amines-hexa-amines-and-n-methylated-polyamines-in-unicellular-eukaryotic-organisms-belonging-to-the-phyla-heterokontophyta-and-labyrinthulomycota-of-the-subdomain-stramenopiles
#9
Koei Hamana, Takemitsu Furuchi, Tsuzuri Nakamura, Hidenori Hayashi, Masaru Niitsu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725404/isolation-and-engineering-of-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-for-enhanced-cadmium-bioremediation
#10
Junli Huang, Zhaobing Liu, Shiyu Li, Bo Xu, Yahui Gong, Yan Yang, Hanxiao Sun
Although many bacteria are tolerant to heavy metals and play important roles in the immobilization of heavy metals, they cannot always be dependably reproduced under field conditions. In this work, a cadmium (Cd)-resistant bacterium was isolated from a Cd-contaminated oil field and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pse-w). We then determined various plant growth promoting features such as the solubilization of phosphate, and the production of indole-3-acetic acid and siderophores. Lastly, we engineered the strain Pse-w-MT by targeting metallothioneins to the cell surface of Pse-w to immobilize Cd(2+) and promote plant growth...
October 3, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725403/plant-associated-fluorescent-pseudomonas-from-red-lateritic-soil-beneficial-characteristics-and-their-impact-on-lettuce-growth
#11
Guillermo A Maroniche, Esteban J Rubio, Adrián Consiglio, Alejandro Perticari
Fluorescent Pseudomonas are ubiquitous soil bacteria that usually establish mutualistic associations with plants, promoting their growth and health by several mechanisms. This makes them interesting candidates for the development of crop bio-inoculants. In this work, we isolated phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent Pseudomonas from the rhizosphere and inner tissues of different plant species growing in red soil from Misiones, Argentina. Seven isolates displaying strong phosphate solubilization were selected for further studies...
October 3, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725402/directed-evolution-of-the-autoinducer-selectivity-of-vibrio-fischeri-luxr
#12
Yohei Tashiro, Yuki Kimura, Maiko Furubayashi, Akira Tanaka, Kei Terakubo, Kyoichi Saito, Shigeko Kawai-Noma, Daisuke Umeno
LuxR family transcriptional regulators are the core components of quorum sensing in Gram-negative bacteria and exert their effects through binding to the signaling molecules acyl-homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs). The function of the LuxR homologs is remarkably plastic, and naturally occurring acyl-HSLs are structurally diverse. To investigate the molecular basis of the functional plasticity of Vibrio fischeri LuxR, we directed the evolution of LuxR toward three different specificities in the laboratory. We found an orthogonal pair of LuxR mutants specific either to 3-oxo-hexanoyl homoserine lactone or to 3-oxo-octanoyl homoserine lactone...
October 3, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666751/in-vivo-cloning-of-large-chromosomal-segments-into-a-bac-derivative-by-generalized-transduction-and-recombineering-in-salmonella-enterica
#13
Akinori Kato
Recombineering has been used to facilitate the development of in vivo cloning methods. However, the method relies heavily on PCR, which still generates a much higher error rate than DNA replication in vivo, even when amplifying large DNA inserts. Here, a precise technique is reported in Salmonella enterica that enables the cloning of up to at least 19 kb target chromosomal DNA segments that had been marked by FRTs, which were derived from two consecutive lambda Red-mediated recombination events. P22 phage was utilized to transduce the target DNA segments from donor strains to recipient strains harboring a derivative of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing a FRT and a plasmid expressing Flp recombinase...
September 23, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666589/antifungal-activity-of-rhamnolipids-against-dimorphic-fungi
#14
Ruyi Sha, Qin Meng
In this paper, rhamnolipids are investigated, for the first time, for their feasibility for inhibiting dimorphic fungi. Rhamnolipids were found to effectively inhibit a dimorphic fungus isolated from tomato plants which was identified as Mucor circinelloides according to characterizations by morphologies as well as 28S rDNA sequences. Rhamnolipids markedly reduced growth of this fungus in both the yeast-like form and the filamentous form. Such an inhibitive effect was similarly obtained with Verticillium dahliae, a representative member of dimorphic fungi, confirming the effectiveness of rhamnolipids in the two growth forms of dimorphic fungi...
September 21, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488957/rhodococcus-jostii-rha1-tada-homolog-deletion-mutants-accumulate-less-polyhydroxyalkanoates-phas-than-the-parental-strain
#15
Karl J Indest, Jed O Eberly, Dawn E Hancock, Carina M Jung, Matthew R Carr, Gary A Blakeney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488956/biosequestration-of-copper-by-bacteria-isolated-from-an-abandoned-mine-by-using-microbially-induced-calcite-precipitation
#16
Chang-Ho Kang, YuJin Shin, Periasamy Anbu, In-Hyun Nam, Jae-Seong So
Abandoned mine sites are frequently polluted with high concentrations of heavy metals. In this study, 25 calcite-forming bacteria were newly isolated from the soil of an abandoned metal mine in Korea. Based on their urease activity, calcite production, and resistance to copper toxicity, four isolates were selected and further identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among the isolates, Sporosarcina soli B-22 was selected for subsequent copper biosequestration studies, using the sand impermeability test by production of calcite and extracellular polymeric substance...
September 12, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477252/analyses-of-the-cell-wall-peptidoglycan-structures-in-three-genera-micromonospora-catenuloplanes-and-couchioplanes-belonging-to-the-family-micromonosporaceae-by-derivatization-with-fdla-and-pmp-using-lc-ms
#17
Akira Také, Takuji Nakashima, Yuki Inahashi, Kazuro Shiomi, Yōko Takahashi, Satoshi Ōmura, Atsuko Matsumoto
It is the major characteristic of the cell-wall peptidoglycan structure in members of the family Micromonosporaceae that N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) of glycan strand is replaced with N-glycolylmuramic acid (MurNGlyc). Consequently, it is difficult to use enzymatic methods for their peptidoglycan analyses. We therefore developed analysis method of peptidoglycan without using cell wall lytic enzymes as example to take the 3 genera, Micromonospora, Catenuloplanes, and Couchioplanes belonging to the family Micromonosporaceae, and their peptidoglycans were partially hydrolyzed with 4 M HCl at 60°C for 16 h followed by derivatization with N(α)-(5-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl)-D-leucinamide (FDLA) or 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) and LC/MS analysis...
September 12, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477251/a-requirement-for-cell-elongation-protein-rodz-and-cell-division-proteins-ftsn-and-dedd-to-maintain-the-small-rod-morphology-of-escherichia-coli-at-growth-temperatures-near-8%C3%A2-c
#18
T Porter, D Frederick, E Johnson, P G Jones
As similarly observed in nutrient-poor media at 37°C, Escherichia coli forms small rods in nutrient-rich media at temperatures near 8°C, the minimum temperature of growth. A study was initiated to identify proteins required to facilitate the small rod morphology at low temperature. E. coli contains three nonessential SPOR domain proteins (DamX, RlpA, and DedD) that have been demonstrated to bind to the septal ring. In contrast to the normal growth and small rod morphology of damX and rlpA null mutants at 10°C, the dedD null mutant exhibited reduced growth and formed filamentous cells...
September 12, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373509/phylogenetic-distribution-of-extracellular-guanyl-preferring-ribonucleases-renews-taxonomic-status-of-two-bacillus-strains
#19
Vera Ulyanova, Raihan Shah Mahmud, Elena Dudkina, Valentina Vershinina, Eugen Domann, Olga Ilinskaya
The potential of microbial ribonucleases as promising antitumor and antiviral agents, determines today's directions of their study. One direction is connected with biodiversity of RNases. We have analyzed completed and drafted Bacillus genomes deposited in GenBank for the presence of coding regions similar to the gene of an extracellular guanyl-preferring RNase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (barnase). Orthologues of the barnase gene were detected in 9 species out of 83. All of these belong to "B. subtilis" group within the genus...
September 12, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27250664/nitrile-synthesizing-enzyme-gene-cloning-overexpression-and-application-for-the-production-of-useful-compounds
#20
Takuto Kumano, Yuko Takizawa, Sakayu Shimizu, Michihiko Kobayashi
One of the nitrile-synthesizing enzymes, β-cyano-L-alanine synthase, catalyzes β-cyano-L-alanine (β-CNAla) from potassium cyanide and O-acetyl-L-serine or L-cysteine. We have identified this enzyme from Pseudomonas ovalis No. 111. In this study, we cloned the β-CNAla synthase gene and expressed it in Escherichia coli and Rhodococcus rhodochrous. Furthermore, we carried out co-expression of β-CNAla synthase with nitrilase or nitrile hydratases in order to synthesize aspartic acid and asparagine from KCN and O-acetyl-L-serine...
September 12, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
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