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Journal of General and Applied Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392542/new-plasmids-for-the-disruption-and-repeated-use-of-selection-markers-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#1
Kenshiro Nihei, Tsutomu Kishi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392541/analysis-of-strain-specific-genes-in-glutamic-acid-producing-corynebacterium-glutamicum-ssp-lactofermentum-aj-1511
#2
Yousuke Nishio, Chie Koseki, Naoto Tonouchi, Kazuhiko Matsui, Shinichi Sugimoto, Yoshihiro Usuda
Strains of the bacterium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, are widely used for the industrial production of L-glutamic acid and various other substances. C. glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum AJ 1511, formerly classified as Brevibacterium lactofermentum, and the closely related C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 have been used as industrial strains for more than 50 years. We determined the whole genome sequence of C. glutamicum AJ 1511 and performed genome-wide comparative analysis with C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 to determine strain-specific genetic differences...
April 7, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392540/isolation-of-streptococcus-gallolyticus-with-very-high-degradability-of-condensed-tannins-from-feces-of-the-wild-japanese-rock-ptarmigans-on-mt-tateyama
#3
Sayaka Tsuchida, Koichi Murata, Moriya Ohkuma, Kazunari Ushida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344193/polyphasic-insights-into-the-microbiomes-of-the-takamatsuzuka-tumulus-and-kitora-tumulus
#4
Junta Sugiyama, Tomohiko Kiyuna, Miyuki Nishijima, Kwang-Deuk An, Yuka Nagatsuka, Nozomi Tazato, Yutaka Handa, Junko Hata-Tomita, Yoshinori Sato, Rika Kigawa, Chie Sano
Microbial outbreaks and related biodeterioration problems have affected the 1300-year-old multicolor (polychrome) mural paintings of the special historic sites Takamatsuzuka Tumulus (TT) and Kitora Tumulus (KT). Those of TT are designated as a national treasure. The microbiomes of these tumuli, both located in Asuka village, Nara, Japan, are critically reviewed as the central subject of this report. Using culture-dependent methods (conventional isolation and cultivation), we conducted polyphasic studies of the these microbial communities and identified the major microbial colonizers (Fusarium spp...
March 24, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331163/in-vitro-evaluation-of-candidate-bacillus-spp-for-animal-feed
#5
Sirima Mingmongkolchai, Watanalai Panbangred
The aim of this study was to select aerobic spore-formers for animal feed based on their in vitro probiotic potential, including their enzyme-producing ability and safety assessment. Seven isolates out of 187 spore-forming bacteria were selected for their ability to produce cellulase (89.21-1668.32 U/ml), xylanase (1399.68-4351.10 U/ml), and phytase (2.72-28.70 U/ml). Among seven isolates, five had activities towards a broad range of p-nitrophenyl esters with acyl chain lengths from C2 to C12. The probiotic properties of all selected isolates varied with respect to their acid and bile salt tolerance under simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) conditions, and their adherence ability to human intestinal cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331162/carbon-and-nitrogen-depletion-induced-nucleophagy-and-selective-autophagic-sequestration-of-a-whole-nucleus-in-multinucleate-cells-of-the-filamentous-fungus-aspergillus-oryzae
#6
Takashi Kikuma, Takahiro Mitani, Takahiro Kohara, Jun-Ichi Maruyama, Katsuhiko Kitamoto
Autophagy is a conserved cellular degradation process in eukaryotes, in which cytoplasmic components and organelles are digested in vacuoles/lysosomes. Recently, autophagic degradation of nuclear materials, termed "nucleophagy", has been reported. In the multinucleate filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, a whole nucleus is degraded by nucleophagy after prolonged culture. While developing an H2B-EGFP processing assay for the evaluation of nucleophagy in A. oryzae, we found that nucleophagy is efficiently induced by carbon or nitrogen depletion...
March 22, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331161/isolation-of-cyanobacterial-mutants-exhibiting-growth-defects-under-microoxic-conditions-by-transposon-tagging-mutagenesis-of-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803
#7
Kazuki Terauchi, Riho Sobue, Yuho Furutani, Rina Aoki, Yuichi Fujita
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes that perform oxygenic photosynthesis by extracting electrons from water, with the generation of oxygen as a byproduct. Cyanobacteria use oxygen not only for respiration to produce energy in the dark but also for biosynthesis of various metabolites, such as heme and chlorophyll. Oxygen levels dynamically fluctuate in the field environments, from hyperoxic at daytime to almost anaerobic at night. Thus, adaptation to anaerobiosis should be important for cyanobacteria to survive in low-oxygen and anaerobic environments...
March 22, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239039/bacterial-community-in-the-rumen-of-tibetan-sheep-and-gansu-alpine-fine-wool-sheep-grazing-on-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-china
#8
Jinqiang Huang, Yongjuan Li, Yuzhu Luo
The rumen microbiome plays a vital role in ruminant nutrition and health, and its community is affected by environmental factors. However, little is known about the rumen bacterial community of ruminants living in the special ecological environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) of China. The objectives of this study were to investigate the rumen bacterial community of the typical plateau sheep (Tibetan sheep, TS, and Gansu alpine fine-wool sheep, GS) grazing on the QTP, using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and to evaluate the relationship between the rumen bacterial community and the QTP environment...
February 24, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239038/effect-of-ageratina-adenophora-invasion-on-the-composition-and-diversity-of-soil-microbiome
#9
Yunhong Kong, James Kong, Dingkang Wang, Heping Huang, Kaiyou Geng, Yonxia Wang, Yun Xia
In the present study, high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to investigate soil invaded by the aggressive weed Ageratina adenophora to determine its effect on the species composition, distribution, and biodiversity of the bacterial communities. Soil samples from 12 micro-sites containing a monoculture of A. adenophora plants, mixtures of A. adenophora and different native plant species, and native species alone were studied. We found that the invasion of this weed resulted in a selection of bacteria belonging to phyla Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia and the lack of bacteria belonging to phyla Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes, but did not affect significantly the percentage abundances of members of other phyla...
February 24, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154339/construction-of-a-photo-responsive-chimeric-histidine-kinase-in-escherichia-coli
#10
Mayuko Hori, Shyunsuke Oka, Yoshimi Sugie, Hokuto Ohtsuka, Hirofumi Aiba
Two-component signal transduction systems (TCS), that are also referred to as His to Asp phosphorelay systems, are involved in widespread cellular responses to diverse signals from bacteria to plants. Previously, we succeeded in reconstructing a cyanobacterial photo-perception system in Escherichia coli by employing a CcaS-CcaR two-component system from Nostoc punctiforme. In this study, we have added a photo-responsive ability to ArcB-ArcA (anoxic redox control) TCS of E. coli by fusing a cyanobacterial photoreceptor domain of CcaS with an intracellular histidine kinase (HK) domain of ArcB...
March 17, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123132/purification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-extracellular-neutral-metalloprotease-from-cerrena-albocinnamomea
#11
Shigeki Hamada, Keisuke Kubota, Masanobu Sagisaka
We selected a fungus secreting a neutral protease from soil and identified it as the basidiomycete fungus Cerrena albocinnamomea according to its ITS-5.8S rDNA and 28S rDNA-D1/D2 sequences. A major extracellular protease isolated from C. albocinnamomea was purified approximately 44-fold through two purification steps. SDS-PAGE analyses of the purified protease revealed a single band, and its molecular mass of 39,756 Da was determined using MALDI-TOF-MS. The enzyme was optimally active at approximately pH 7...
March 17, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123131/silver-nanoparticles-as-an-antimicrobial-agent-a-case-study-on-staphylococcus-aureus-and-escherichia-coli-as-models-for-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria
#12
Eman Zakaria Gomaa
The current research was focused on the characterization and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) produced by Bacillus licheniformis NM120-17. The synthesis was initially observed by a colour change from pale yellow to brown which was further confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The AgNPs were characterized using TEM, EDAX and FTIR. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical and uniformly distributed with a size in the range of 9-27.5 nm. The antibacterial activities and acting mechanism of AgNPs were studied with respect to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by measuring the growth curves, protein and reducing sugar leakage, respiratory chain dehydrogenase activity, as well as the formation of bactericidal reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990001/archaeal-histone-distribution-is-associated-with-archaeal-genome-base-composition
#13
Hiromi Nishida, Taku Oshima
A subpopulation of Archaea possesses histones, which are similar to eukaryotic histones H3 and H4. However, archaeal histones are smaller than H3 and H4, and are not post-translationally modified. In addition, the fundamental unit of archaeal histones might be a dimer. The organization of archaeal nucleosomes, therefore, differs from that of eukaryotic nucleosomes. The base compositions of archaeal genome are much more diversified than those of eukaryote and the archaeal histones have more diversified amino acid sequences, which are reflected by their varied isoelectric points...
March 17, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990000/phenotypic-difference-between-%C3%AE-srl-reca-306-and-%C3%AE-reca-km-elucidated-by-next-generation-sequencing-combined-with-a-long-pcr-system
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Shingo Suzuki, Akihiro Kaidow, Takuma Meya, Anri Masuya, Takashi Shiina
Many significant gene mutations in E. coli have contributed to the development of genetics. Among these, a commonly used recA mutation, Δ(srl-recA)306 has been sequenced by a next-generation sequencer combined with a long PCR. An original report described that Δ(srl-recA)306 cells were deleted from srlR to recA genes in their genome. The next-generation sequencer enables more accurate details to be determined. We ask whether both surrounding genes from hypF to norV for srlR and alaS for recA is there first...
March 17, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989999/candidate-nematicidal-proteins-in-a-new-pseudomonas-veronii-isolate-identified-by-its-antagonistic-properties-against-xiphinema-index
#15
Hayron Canchignia, Fabiola Altimira, Christian Montes, Evelyn Sánchez, Eduardo Tapia, María Miccono, Daniel Espinoza, Carlos Aguirre, Michael Seeger, Humberto Prieto
The nematode Xiphinema index affects grape vines and transmits important viruses associated with fanleaf degeneration. Pseudomonas spp. are an extensive bacterial group in which important biodegradation and/or biocontrol properties can occur for several strains in the group. The aim of this study was to identify new Pseudomonas isolates with antagonist activity against X. index. Forty bacterial isolates were obtained from soil and root samples from Chilean vineyards. Thirteen new fluorescent pseudomonads were found and assessed for their antagonistic capability...
March 17, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989998/phylogenetic-analysis-reveals-the-taxonomically-diverse-distribution-of-the-pseudomonas-putida-group
#16
Kenta Yonezuka, Jun Shimodaira, Michiro Tabata, Shoko Ohji, Akira Hosoyama, Daisuke Kasai, Atsushi Yamazoe, Nobuyuki Fujita, Takayuki Ezaki, Masao Fukuda
Pseudomonas putida is well-known for degradation activities for a variety of compounds and its infections have been reported. Thus, P. putida includes both clinical and nonclinical isolates. To date, no reports have examined the phylogenetic relationship between clinical and nonclinical isolates of the P. putida group. In this study, fifty-nine strains of P. putida group containing twenty-six clinical, and thirty-three nonclinical, isolates, were subjected to phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and nine housekeeping gene sequences, including argS, dnaN, dnaQ, era, gltA, gyrB, ppnK, rpoB, and rpoD, to obtain insights into the diversity of species in this group...
March 17, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885194/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-thermostable-lipase-from-bacillus-thermoamylovorans-nb501
#17
Chihaya Yamada, Kota Sawano, Noriyasu Iwase, Masaki Matsuoka, Takatoshi Arakawa, Shigeo Nishida, Shinya Fushinobu
Two thermophilic bacterial strains, Bacillus thermoamylovorans NB501 and NB502, were isolated from a high-temperature aerobic fermentation reactor system that processes tofu refuse (okara) in the presence of used soybean oil. We cloned a lipase gene from strain NB501, which secretes a thermophilic lipase. The biochemical characteristics of the recombinant enzyme (Lip501r) were elucidated. Lip501r is monomeric in solution with an apparent molecular mass of 38 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The optimal pH and apparent optimal temperature of Lip501r were 8 and 60°C, respectively...
January 25, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885193/biodegradation-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-by-a-thermotolerant-white-rot-fungus-trametes-polyzona-rynf13
#18
Churapa Teerapatsakul, Chetsada Pothiratana, Lerluck Chitradon, Surachai Thachepan
The biodegradation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenanthrene, fluorene, and pyrene, by a newly isolated thermotolerant white rot fungal strain RYNF13 from Thailand, was investigated. The strain RYNF13 was identified as Trametes polyzona, based on an analysis of its internal transcribed spacer sequence. The strain RYNF13 was superior to most white rot fungi. The fungus showed excellent removal of PAHs at a high concentration of 100 mg·L(-1). Complete degradation of phenanthrene in a mineral salt glucose medium culture was observed within 18 days of incubation at 30°C, whereas 90% of fluorene and 52% of pyrene were degraded under the same conditions...
January 25, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885192/occurrence-of-two-novel-linear-penta-amines-pyropentamine-and-homopyropentamine-in-extremely-thermophilic-thermus-composti
#19
Koei Hamana, Takemitsu Furuchi, Hidenori Hayashi, Takashi Itoh, Moriya Ohkuma, Masaru Niitsu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829585/pho8-gene-coding-alkaline-phosphatase-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-is-involved-in-polyphosphate-metabolism
#20
Keiko Kizawa, Toshihiro Aono, Ryo Ohtomo
It has been argued for a long time whether alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is involved in polyphosphate (polyP) metabolism in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In the present study, we have analyzed the effects of disrupting the PHO8 gene, which encodes phosphate (Pi)-deficiency-inducible ALP, on the polyP contents of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The polyP content of the Δpho8 mutant was higher than the wild type strain in the logarithmic phase under Pi-sufficient conditions. On the contrary, the chain length of polyP extracted from the Δpho8 mutant did not differ from the wild type strain...
January 25, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
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