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Journal of General and Applied Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225287/lysogenisation-of-shiga-toxin-encoding-bacteriophage-represses-cell-motility
#1
Shoichi Mitsunaka, Naoki Sudo, Yasuhiko Sekine
Bacteriophages are genetic elements that play key roles in the evolution and diversification of bacterial genomes. The Shiga toxin (Stx)-encoding phage plays an important role in the horizontal transfer of the stx gene. However, the influence of the Stx phage integration on the physiological properties and gene expression pattern of the host have not been clearly resolved. In this study, we constructed the Sp5 lysogen through lysogenisation of E. coli K-12 by Sp5, an Stx2 phage in enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 Sakai, and examined the effect of the resulting lysogen on cell motility under various growth conditions...
December 8, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225286/j-gen-appl-microbiol-62-266-271-2016-doi-10-2323-jgam-2016-04-001
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225285/evaluation-of-probiotic-and-prebiotic-like-effects-of-bacillus-subtilis-bn-on-growth-of-lactobacilli
#3
Masanori Horie, Taisuke Koike, Sakiko Sugino, Aya Umeno, Yasukazu Yoshida
The aim of this study was to determine the probiotic and the prebiotic-like properties of Bacillus subtilis BN, a spore-forming bacterium, also known as "natto-kin", which is used for making the Japanese fermented food, natto. We used the spores and vegetative cells of this strain and compared their effects on the growth of lactobacilli. Culture supernatant from B. subtilis BN was added to a glucose-free MRS medium used to culture lactobacilli. When lactobacilli were cultured in the supernatant-containing medium, growth was improved...
December 8, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225284/characterization-of-extracellular-matrix-components-from-the-desiccation-tolerant-cyanobacterium-nostoc-commune
#4
Kaori Inoue-Sakamoto, Yasunori Tanji, Minami Yamaba, Takumi Natsume, Takuya Masaura, Tomoya Asano, Takumi Nishiuchi, Toshio Sakamoto
The terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune forms macroscopic colonies in its natural habitats, and these colonies consist of both cellular filaments and massive extracellular matrixes. In this study, the biochemical features of the extracellular matrix components were investigated. Naturally growing N. commune was tolerant to desiccation, and produced massive extracellular polysaccharides that contained both neutral sugars and glucuronic acid as constituent monosaccharides. The extracellular polysaccharide contents and desiccation tolerance were compared in laboratory culture strains of Nostoc species...
December 8, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225283/gene-cloning-and-expression-of-fungal-lignocellulolytic-enzymes-from-the-rumen-of-gayal-bos-frontalis
#5
Jing Leng, Xuchuan Liu, Chunyong Zhang, Renjun Zhu, Huaming Mao
A total of 6,219 positive clones were obtained by constructing a BAC library of uncultured ruminal fungi of gayal, and two clones (xynF1 and eglF2) with lignocellulolytic enzyme activity were selected. The sequencing results showed that xynF1 and eglF2 had 903-bp, and 1,995-bp, open reading frames likely to encode β-xylanase (XynF1) and β-glucosidase (EglF2), respectively. The amino acid sequence of XynF1 had 99% coverage and 95% homology to the endo-β-1,4-xylanase encoded by the cellulase gene of Orpinomyces sp...
December 8, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187682/bacterial-glycerol-oxidation-coupled-to-sulfate-reduction-at-neutral-and-acidic-ph
#6
Sidnei C Santos, Martin G Liebensteiner, Antonie H van Gelder, Mauricio R Dimitrov, Paulo F Almeida, Cristina M Quintella, Alfons J M Stams, Irene Sánchez-Andrea
Glycerol is a main co-product of biodiesel production. Crude glycerol may serve as a cheap and attractive substrate in biotechnological applications, e.g. for the production of valuable chemicals or as an electron donor for reduction processes. In this work, sulfate reduction with glycerol was studied at neutral and acidic pH using bioreactor sludge samples and Tinto River sediments as a source of inoculum, respectively. Communities of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and fermentative bacteria were co-enriched at both pH values...
November 29, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187681/identification-of-ybha-as-the-pyridoxal-5-phosphate-plp-phosphatase-in-escherichia-coli-importance-of-plp-homeostasis-on-the-bacterial-growth
#7
Ryota Sugimoto, Natsumi Saito, Tomohiro Shimada, Kan Tanaka
The gene ybhA of Escherichia coli encodes a phosphatase that has an in vitro specificity to dephosphorylate pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP or vitamin B6), a co-factor for aminotransferases and other enzymes. In this study, we found that excess pyridoxal (PL) in a minimal medium resulted in excess PLP in vivo and growth inhibition, which was alleviated by YbhA overproduction. Conversely, the YbhA overproduction resulted in PLP shortage in vivo and the correlated reduction in growth rate, which was significantly negated by PL in the medium...
November 29, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187680/purification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-%C3%AE-d-glucosidase-from-lactobacillus-fermentum-with-unique-substrate-specificity-towards-resistant-starch
#8
Mousami Shankar Addala, Muralikrishna Gudipati
Resistant starch is not digestible in the small intestine and is fermented by lactic acid bacteria in the large intestine into short chain fatty acids, such as acetate, propionate and butyrate, which result in several health benefits in analogy with dietary fibre components. The mode and mechanism of resistant starch degradation by lactic acid bacteria is still not understood. In the present study, we have purified α-D-glucosidase from Lactobacillus fermentum NCDC 156 by employing three sequential steps i...
November 29, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142164/bacterial-degradation-of-spermine-and-expression-of-spermidine-spermine-acetyltransferase-in-bacillus-subtilis-natto-under-liquid-cultivation
#9
Kazuya Kobayashi, Yuji Kubo, Yuichiro Horii, Toshikazu Nishiwaki, Shin Kamiyama, Hideyuki Sone, Satoshi Watanabe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142163/strain-improvement-studies-on-microbacterium-foliorum-ga2-for-production-of-%C3%AE-amylase-in-solid-state-fermentation-biochemical-characteristics-and-wash-performance-analysis-at-low-temperatures
#10
Roohi, Mohammed Kuddus
Microbacterium foliorum GA2, an alkali-tolerant bacterium, was randomly mutated using UV radiation and sodium azide to obtain a mutant with a higher cold-active extracellular amylolytic activity. A mutant, designated as MFSD20, was selected owing to its higher amylase activity at 20°C. Under optimized conditions, amylase production was achieved best with raw banana peels (5000 units) in solid-state fermentation (SSF). The enzyme was purified by salt precipitation and chromatographic methods and afterwards characterized biochemically...
November 15, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142162/chloroform-extract-of-turmeric-inhibits-biofilm-formation-eps-production-and-motility-in-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#11
Sumreen Hayat, Anjum N Sabri, Timothy D McHugh
In the form of biofilms, bacteria exhibit more resistance to antibiotics. Biofilm formers can withstand severe conditions and the host's defense system. Therefore, it is necessary to search for effective biofilm inhibitors. In this study, we investigated the effect of a chloroform extract of turmeric on biofilm formation against antibiotic resistant bacteria. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence, motility, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production and cell surface hydrophobicity; important attributes of biofilm formation...
November 15, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046501/characterization-of-amylolytic-enzyme-overproducing-mutant-of-aspergillus-luchuensis-obtained-by-ion-beam-mutagenesis
#12
Toshihiro Kojo, Chihiro Kadooka, Marisa Komohara, Shiori Onitsuka, Miya Tanimura, Yukiko Muroi, Shugo Kurazono, Yohei Shiraishi, Ken Oda, Kazuhiro Iwashita, Masahira Onoue, Kayu Okutsu, Yumiko Yoshizaki, Kazunori Takamine, Taiki Futagami, Kazuki Mori, Hisanori Tamaki
Aspergillus luchuensis is a kuro (black) koji fungus that has been used as a starch degrader for the awamori- and shochu-making industries in Japan. In this study, we investigated the effect of ion beam irradiation on A. luchuensis RIB2601 and obtained a high starch-degrading mutant strain U1. Strain U1 showed reduced growth rate, whereas it showed higher α-amylase, glucoamylase, and α-glucosidase activities on a mycelial mass basis than the wild type (wt) strain both on agar plates and in rice koji. In addition, strain U1 showed higher N-acetylglucosamine content in the cell wall and higher sensitivity to calcofluor white, suggesting a deficiency in cell wall composition...
October 17, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046500/comparative-genomics-of-tetragenococcus-halophilus
#13
Ikuko Nishimura, Yuh Shiwa, Atsushi Sato, Tetsuya Oguma, Hirofumi Yoshikawa, Yasuji Koyama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954966/construction-of-a-rapamycin-susceptible-strain-of-the-unicellular-red-alga-cyanidioschyzon-merolae-for-analysis-of-the-target-of-rapamycin-tor-function
#14
Sousuke Imamura, Keiko Taki, Kan Tanaka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954965/a-novel-thermostable-%C3%AE-1-3-glucanase-from-streptomyces-thermodiastaticus-hf-3-3
#15
Wasana Suyotha, Hidehisa Fujiki, Vipavee Cherdvorapong, Kazuyoshi Takagi, Shigekazu Yano, Mamoru Wakayama
Thermally stable α-1,3-glucanase HF65 was purified from culture filtrate of Streptomyces thermodiastaticus HF3-3. The molecular mass of this enzyme was estimated to be 65 kDa and 45.7 kDa by using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and size exclusion chromatography, respectively. The purified enzyme retained more than 50% of maximum activity even after incubation at 65°C more than 2 h. Moreover, α-1,3-glucanase HF65 was stable in the presence of chemicals like SDS, benzethonium chloride, and sodium fluoride at a concentration of 1%...
September 26, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954964/directed-evolution-and-expression-tuning-of-geraniol-synthase-for-efficient-geraniol-production-in-escherichia-coli
#16
Miki Tashiro, Akira Fujii, Shigeko Kawai-Noma, Kyoichi Saito, Daisuke Umeno
To achieve an efficient production of geraniol and its derivatives in Escherichia coli, we aimed to improve the activity of geraniol synthase (GES) through a single round of mutagenesis and screening for higher substrate consumption. We isolated GES variants that outperform their parent in geraniol production. The analysis of GES variants indicated that the expression level of GES was the bottleneck for geraniol synthesis. Over-expression of the mutant GESM53 with a 5'-untranslated sequence designed for high translational efficiency, along with the additional expression of mevalonate pathway enzymes, isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase, and geranyl pyrophosphate synthase, yielded 300 mg/L/12 h geraniol and its derivatives (>1000 mg/L/42 h in total) in a shaking flask...
September 26, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904252/functional-comparison-of-methionine-sulphoxide-reductase-a-and-b-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#17
Meiru Si, Yanyan Feng, Keqi Chen, Yiwen Kang, Can Chen, Yao Wang, Xihui Shen
Methionine sulphoxide reductases (Msr) are able to reduce methionine sulfoxide to methionine and protect bacteria against reactive oxygen species (ROS). Many organisms express both methionine sulphoxide reductase A (MsrA), specific for methionine-S-sulfoxide and methionine sulphoxide reductase B (MsrB), active against methionine-R-sulfoxide. Corynebacterium glutamicum expresses MsrA, the function of which has been well defined; however, the function of MsrB has not been studied. Whether MsrB and MsrA play an equally important role in the antioxidant process is also poorly understood...
September 12, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904251/effects-of-the-deletion-of-hup-genes-encoding-the-uptake-hydrogenase-on-the-activity-of-hydrogen-production-in-the-purple-photosynthetic-bacterium-rubrivivax-gelatinosus-il144
#18
Takeshi Sato, Kazuhito Inoue, Hidehiro Sakurai, Kenji V P Nagashima
The efficiency of hydrogen gas production by nitrogenase in bacteria has been improved by the inhibition of antagonistic activity by the uptake hydrogenase. In this study, a mutant lacking the gene coding for the uptake hydrogenase was generated from the photosynthetic beta-proteobacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus IL144 to explore new ways of hydrogen gas production driven by light energy. The mutant cells produced 25-30% higher amounts of molecular hydrogen than the wild-type cells under nitrogen-deficient conditions under light...
September 12, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904250/building-a-complete-image-of-genome-regulation-in-the-model-organism-escherichia-coli
#19
Akira Ishihama
The model organism, Escherichia coli, contains a total of more than 4,500 genes, but the total number of RNA polymerase (RNAP) core enzyme or the transcriptase is only about 2,000 molecules per genome. The regulatory targets of RNAP are, however, modulated by changing its promoter selectivity through two-steps of protein-protein interplay with 7 species of the sigma factor in the first step, and then 300 species of the transcription factor (TF) in the second step. Scientists working in the field of prokaryotic transcription in Japan have made considerable contributions to the elucidation of genetic frameworks and regulatory modes of the genome transcription in E...
September 12, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835595/identification-and-characterization-of-a-cell-wall-porin-from-gordonia-jacobaea
#20
Guadalupe Jiménez-Galisteo, Ester Fusté, Elisa Muñoz, Teresa Vinuesa, Tom G Villa, Roland Benz, Angel Domínguez, Miguel Viñas
Gordonia jacobaea is a bacterium belonging to the mycolata group characterized by its ability to produce carotenoids. Mycolic acids in the cell wall contribute to reducing the permeability of their envelopes requiring the presence of channel-forming proteins to allow the exchange of hydrophilic molecules with the surrounding medium. Identification and purification of the channel-forming proteins was accomplished by SDS-PAGE, Mass spectrometry and Mass peptide fingerprinting and the channel-forming activity was studied by reconstitution in lipid bilayers...
August 23, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
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