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Journal of Small Animal Practice

E J Milodowski, E J Friend, N Granger, I C P Doran
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether artificial urethral sphincter filling volume is proportional to peak pressure exerted on the urethra. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urethral pressure profilometry was performed in five female, medium-sized, mixed-breed canine cadavers following artificial urethral sphincter placement. Maximum urethral pressure was recorded following sequential incremental inflation of 0.15 mL and compared to baseline pressure and between dogs using two-way analysis of variance...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
J S Béguin, L Chevallier, B Rannou, J J Fontaine, G Benchekroun
A 7-year-old mixed breed dog was presented with a 2-week history of vomiting, diarrhoea, weakness and loss of appetite. Initial laboratory tests revealed hyponatraemia and hyperkalaemia consistent with hypoadrenocorticism. Basal plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations were not suggestive of primary hypoadrenocorticism but the aldosterone concentration was undetectable. Abdominal ultrasound scan showed a mass within the left kidney and a nodular enlargement of the left adrenal gland. Cytological analysis revealed a large granular lymphoma...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
E L Hall, E A Baines, S J Baines
A 10-month-old, neutered female Yorkshire terrier was presented with a 6-month history of inspiratory dyspnoea, coughing and exercise intolerance. Tracheoscopy revealed marked lateral-to-lateral fixed collapse of the cervical trachea and mild collapse of the thoracic trachea. Surgical exploration revealed a marked reduction in lateral tracheal width and multiple malformed tracheal rings. Placement of extraluminal ring prostheses around the cervical trachea resulted in widening of the tracheal diameter and an immediate improvement in clinical signs...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
M A Kopke, C G Ruaux, A Gal
A 9-year, 6-month old spayed female Jack Russell terrier presented with a 3-week history of intermittent vomiting, diarrhoea and weight loss. Serum biochemistry demonstrated severe panhypoproteinaemia, mild hypocalcaemia and mild hypocholesterolaemia, consistent with protein-losing enteropathy. Full-thickness biopsies obtained from the stomach and different sections of small intestine demonstrated histological features of both myenteric ganglionitis and early intestinal leiomyositis. Complete resolution of clinical signs occurred within 1 week of implementing immunosuppressive therapy...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
K Lüttmann, R Merle, R Nickel
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the outcome of endoscopic injection of two different bulking agents, glutaraldehyde cross-linked collagen and dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer into the urethral submucosa in female dogs with urinary incontinence caused by urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of records and follow-up communication with owners of dogs that received an endoscopically guided urethral bulking procedure. In each dog, either cross-linked collagen (2007 to 2011) or dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (2012 to 2015) was used...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
S Guo, D Lu
This case series reviews previous publications and reports four feline spinal epidural empyema cases that presented with non-ambulatory thoracolumbar myelopathy. Two cats underwent myelography and two MRI. Bacteria were obtained in three cases, in two from epidural abscesses and from a tail base wound in one; histopathological examination of epidural tissue showed pyogranulomatous changes in the remaining cat. Three cats were treated by surgical decompression plus antimicrobial therapy and one cat was treated medically...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
E Villedieu, L Rutherford, G Ter Haar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
J Ogden, D Ovbey, K Saile
OBJECTIVES: Retrospective evaluation of a preoperative prokinetic protocol using a constant-rate infusion of a serotonin 5-HT4 receptor agonist, cisapride, and its association with frequency of postoperative aspiration pneumonia in dogs undergoing unilateral arytenoid lateralisation as compared to a historical population at the same institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of dogs undergoing unilateral arytenoid lateralisation for laryngeal paralysis were reviewed for historical findings, imaging findings, anaesthesia and surgery durations, perioperative medications and if surgery was performed as an emergency...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
J L Hall, L Owen, A Riddell, D B Church, D C Brodbelt, D G O'Neill
OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence and identify demographic risk factors for urinary incontinence in male dogs. METHODS AND METHODS: The study population included all dogs within (the VetCompass database) from September 1, 2009 to July 7, 2013. Electronic patient records were searched for urinary incontinence cases; demographic and clinical information were extracted and analysed. RESULTS: Of 109,428 male dogs attending 119 clinics in England, there were an estimated 1027 dogs diagnosed with urinary incontinence, giving a prevalence of 0...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
M Conroy, D O'Neill, A Boag, D Church, D Brodbelt
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence proportion of road traffic accidents in cats attending emergency out-of-hours clinics in the UK, identify major risk factors for road traffic accident occurrence and for survival to discharge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of a cohort of 33,053 cats in the VetCompass database attending emergency-care practice between January 1, 2012 and February 15, 2014. Incidence proportion was calculated and logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for road traffic accident and survival to discharge following road traffic accident...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
M Choi, H Kim, J Yoon, M Choi
Two cats presented with large volume ascites and the cause was suspected to be portal hypertension. On contrast CT they both showed enhancement of the main portal vein during the arterial phase and an anomalous connection between the celiac artery and extrahepatic portal vasculature, prompting a diagnosis of extrahepatic arterioportal fistula. An extrahepatic arterioportal fistula is a connection between any artery and the portal vein outside the liver and, to our knowledge, this is the first report in cats...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
F Downing, S Gibson
Brachycephalic breeds of dog have grown in popularity in the UK and so form an increasing proportion of cases requiring anaesthesia. These breeds are predisposed to several conditions, notably brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome and gastro-oesophageal reflux, that have important implications for anaesthetic management and carry high risk for complications. This review incorporates peer-reviewed veterinary literature with clinical experience in a discussion on perioperative management of brachycephalic dogs...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
L J Owen
The two leading causes of urinary incontinence in dogs are ureteral ectopia in juveniles and urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in adults. While the accuracy of diagnosis of ectopic ureters has improved due to increased use of CT and/or cystoscopy, the diagnosis of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence largely remains one of exclusion. New treatment options have been developed for both conditions, which have reduced morbidity and mortality, although the rate of long-term urinary continence has not significantly improved for either and neither has our understanding of the pathophysiology behind these failures...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
K Coyner, A Schick
OBJECTIVES: Several companies offer saliva and/or hair tests for food and environmental allergies in companion animals, but provide no validation of test accuracy. We examined one such hair and saliva allergy test to determine whether it could reliably differentiate between a normal dog and an allergic dog, and to examine test repeatability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten fur and saliva samples were submitted from a known allergic dog and a normal, non-allergic dog...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
A M Coelho, G Cherubini, A De Stefani, A Negrin, R Gutierrez-Quintana, E Bersan, J Guevar
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in a population of dogs with a diagnosis of suspected inflammatory meningoencephalitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of three referral centres were reviewed from 2008 to 2016 to identify a cohort of dogs diagnosed and treated for suspected inflammatory meningoencephalitis after testing for evidence of exposure to these pathogens. RESULTS: In our sample of 400 dogs the prevalence for exposure (IgG>1:50) to Toxoplasma gondii was 8/201 (3∙98%)...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
E Vangrinsven, M Girod, D Goossens, L Desquilbet, C Clercx, F Billen
OBJECTIVES: To compare two minimally invasive enilconazole infusion protocols for the treatment of canine sinonasal aspergillosis and evaluate the importance of complete endoscopic debridement in determining first treatment success rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data for 48 dogs with confirmed sinonasal aspergillosis treated with endoscopic debridement followed by per-endoscopic enilconazole infusion were collected. Twenty-four dogs were treated according to the previously published 1-hour infusion protocol and 24 dogs underwent a simplified 15-minute infusion protocol...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
M Yamashita, T Osaki, Y Sunden, K Takahashi, M Ishizuka, T Tanaka, L Li, Y Okamoto
Photodynamic detection using 5-aminolevulinic acid has been used to identify the surgical margins during resection of human primary brain tumours. Although there are some reports on its use in malignant tumours in veterinary medicine, it has never been used for primary brain tumours. Here we describe a canine glioblastoma that was detected at autopsy with protoporphyrin IX fluorescence induced by orally administered 5-aminolevulinic acid. The fluorescence was strongest towards the centre of the lesion and was absent in normal brain tissue...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
R M Basa, A M Crowley, K A Johnson
Peripheral nerve sheath tumours arising in the plexus or peripheral nerves can be treated by limb amputation. There are few reports of these tumours affecting peripheral nerves in the distal regions of the limbs. Here we describe a case of neurofibroma affecting the palmar branch of the ulnar nerve in an Irish setter. Surgical treatment in the region of the carpus by ulnar neurectomy resulted in resolution of chronic thoracic limb lameness. At 11 months following the surgery, clinical examination and MRI did not detect any evidence of recurrence...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Y Oishi, K Tani, Y Taura
Four dogs with hepatocellular carcinoma were treated by transcatheter arterial embolisation. In all dogs, the tumour-supplying arteries were selectively embolised with gelatine sponge particles. Post-embolisation tumour volumes decreased relative to pre-embolisation volumes in all dogs. No adverse reactions were observed in three dogs after treatment but one dog showed pancreatitis. These results suggest that transcatheter arterial embolisation is a feasible treatment for dogs with hepatocellular carcinoma.
October 8, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
L Gamble, A Gibson, S Mazeri, B M de C Bronsvoort, I Handel, R J Mellanby
Rabies kills approximately 60,000 people each year, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, of which 40% of victims are less than 15 years old. Once clinical signs develop, the disease is almost invariably fatal. Globally, rabies has been estimated to cause 3∙7 million disability-adjusted life years and $8∙6B in economic losses annually. The vast majority of human rabies cases are caused by bites from rabies infected dogs. Despite this loss of human life and resultant economic and societal costs, rabies can be prevented in both humans and dogs by vaccination...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
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