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Microvascular Research

Beyza Gökçinar-Yagci, Nilgün Yersal, Petek Korkusuz, Betül Çelebi-Saltik
Small-diameter vascular grafts are needed for the treatment of coronary artery diseases in the case of limited accessibility of the autologous vessels. Synthetic scaffolds have many disadvantages so in recent years vascular constructs (VCs) made from cellularized natural scaffolds was seen to be very promising but number of studies comprising this area is very limited. In our study, our aim is to generate fully natural triple-layered VC that constitutes all the layers of blood vessel with vascular cells. CD146+ perivascular cells (PCs) were isolated from human umbilical cord vein (HUCV) and differentiated into smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and fibroblasts...
March 14, 2018: Microvascular Research
Carina Mihai, Vanessa Smith, Rucsandra Dobrota, Ana Maria Gheorghiu, Maurizio Cutolo, Oliver Distler
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease with high morbidity and mortality, characterized by autoimmunity, obliterative vasculopathy involving mainly the microvasculature, and fibrosis. SSc-specific nailfold capillaroscopic changes have been defined, and nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC) is now unequivocally accepted to be a cornerstone for the early diagnosis of SSc. However, the use of NFC in patients already diagnosed with SSc is still not standardized. Several studies have shown that NFC abnormalities correlate with disease activity and severity and are predictive for disease worsening, such as occurrence of new digital ulcers...
March 12, 2018: Microvascular Research
Niloufar Rahiman, Maryam Akaberi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Seyed Ahmad Emami, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran
In this study, we investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in mediation of the protective effects of saffron extract, saffron essential oil, safranal and crocin on bovine aortic endothelial cells against oxidative injury. The viability of cells in response to H2 O2 -induced toxicity (0.4, 2 and 10 mM) was measured using resazurin assay in the presence or absence of saffron extract (2-40 μg/ml), saffron oil (2-40 μg/ml), safranal (2-40 μM) and crocin (2-40 μM)...
March 7, 2018: Microvascular Research
R A J Wain, D J Smith, D R Hammond, J P M Whitty
Arterial thrombus formation is directly related to the mechanical shear experienced by platelets within flow. High shear strain rates (SSRs) and large shear gradients cause platelet activation, aggregation and production of thrombus. This study, for the first time, investigates the influence of pulsatile flow on local haemodynamics within sutured microarterial anastomoses. We measured physiological arterial waveform velocities experimentally using Doppler ultrasound velocimetry, and a representative example was applied to a realistic sutured microarterial geometry...
March 6, 2018: Microvascular Research
Hai-Yan Peng, Hua-Ping Li, Ming-Qing Li
Recent studies have revealed considerable dysfunction of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and abnormal expression of microRNA (miR)-137 in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and the aim of this study was to clarify the underlying mechanism and possible role of microRNA (miR)-137 in dysfunction of VECs during GDM. We found increased levels of miR-137 in the plasma of GDM women and high-glucose (HG)-exposed HUVECs. Upregulating miR-137 in HUVECs elevated the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) secretion and enhanced the chemotaxis and adhesion of U937 and THP-1 (two human acute monocytic leukemia cell lines) cells to HUVECs in a co-culture system...
March 2, 2018: Microvascular Research
Domenico Ribatti
Arteriogenesis is defined as the growth of functional collateral arteries from pre-existing arterio-arteriolar anastomoses. The role of mast cells in arteriogenesis is largely unexplored. Recent evidences suggest that mast cells together with other inflammatory cells, including monocytes-macrophages, lymphocytes, NK cells and endothelial precursor cells (EPCs) may be involved in this process. The review article analyzes the literature concerning this new aspect of biological activity of mast cells.
February 28, 2018: Microvascular Research
Amanda Barcelos, Eduardo Tibirica, Cristiane Lamas
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the systemic microcirculation of patients with infective endocarditis (IE). METHODS: This is a comparative study of patients with definite IE by the modified Duke criteria admitted to our center for treatment. A reference group of sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers was included. Microvascular flow was evaluated in the forearm using a laser speckle contrast imaging system, for noninvasive measurement of cutaneous microvascular perfusion, in combination with skin iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to test microvascular reactivity...
February 28, 2018: Microvascular Research
Natasa Popovic, Miroslav Radunovic, Jelena Badnjar, Tomo Popovic
Hypertension and diabetes mellitus represent modifiable risk factors for vascular disease. They cause microvascular remodeling, and ultimately result in end-organ damage. Therefore, development of methods for noninvasive quantification of the effects of hypertension and diabetes mellitus on microvasculature is of paramount importance. The two goals of the study were: 1) to characterize the geometric complexity and inhomogeneity of retinal vasculature in hypertensive retinopathy (HR) and in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) by using box counting fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis, and 2) to determine if the combination of these two parameters can be used to describe differences in the vascular tree geometry between HR and PDR...
February 21, 2018: Microvascular Research
Masoome Jabarpour, Vahid Siavashi, Simin Asadian, Homa Babaei, Seyedeh Maedeh Jafari, Seyed Mahdi Nassiri
OBJECTIVES: Bilirubin, a by-product of heme degradation, is suggested to have a role for vascular protection. There is increasing evidence that bilirubin may directly affect the function and secretory activity of endothelial cells. In this study, potential effect of hyperbilirubinemia on biological features of circulation endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs) isolated from infants was investigated. METHODS: Circulation concentration, differentiation and migratory activity of cEPCs isolated from infants with (n = 111) or without (n = 73) hyperbilirubinemia were analyzed...
February 21, 2018: Microvascular Research
Andrius Pranskunas, Tomas Tamosuitis, Neringa Balciuniene, Diana Damanskyte, Edvin Sneider, Astra Vitkauskiene, Edmundas Sirvinskas, Vidas Pilvinis, E Christiaan Boerma
As of now the relationship between glycocalyx degradation and microcirculatory perfusion abnormalities in non-septic critical ill patients is unclear. In addition, conjunctival sidestream dark field-imaging for the purpose of glycocalyx thickness estimation has never been performed. We aimed to investigate whether changes in glycocalyx thickness in non-septic patients are associated with microcirculatory alterations in conjunctival and sublingual mucosa. In this single-centre prospective observational study, using techniques for direct in-vivo observation of the microcirculation, we performed a single measurement of microcirculatory perfusion parameters and visualized glycocalyx thickness in both ocular conjunctiva and sublingual mucosa in mixed cardio surgical (n = 18) and neurocritical patients (n = 27) and compared these data with age-matched healthy controls (n = 20)...
February 17, 2018: Microvascular Research
Maziyar M Khansari, Michael Tan, Preny Karamian, Mahnaz Shahidi
Conjunctival microcirculation imaging provides a non-invasive means for detecting hemodynamic alterations due to systemic and ocular diseases. However, reliable longitudinal monitoring of hemodynamic changes due to disease progression requires establishment of measurement variability over time. The purpose of the current study was to determine inter-visit variability of conjunctival microvascular hemodynamic measurements in non-diabetic control (NC, N = 7) and diabetic retinopathy (DR, N = 10) subjects. Conjunctival microvascular imaging was performed during 2 visits, which were 17 ± 12 weeks apart...
February 10, 2018: Microvascular Research
Gregory W McGarr, Gary J Hodges, Matthew M Mallette, Stephen S Cheung
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury impairs microcirculatory function by reducing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and increasing sympathetic tone. This study non-invasively examined the effects of acute upper limb IR injury on local thermal hyperemia (LTH) in glabrous and non-glabrous finger skin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In ten healthy males, LTH was examined twice (~7-10 d apart) for each skin type on the index finger using laser-Doppler flowmetry in a counterbalanced design with either 1) 20 min ischemia, followed by reperfusion (ISCH) or 2) time-matched control (SHAM)...
February 10, 2018: Microvascular Research
Rogério Nogueira Soares, Juan M Murias
BACKGROUND: Microvascular dysfunction is an early complication in obesity-related cardiovascular disease (CVD) that can lead to changes in hemodynamic function and endothelial cells expression throughout the vasculature that is vessel specific. This study aimed to evaluate whether the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with a vascular occlusion (VOT) assessment was capable of detecting differences in vascular responsiveness within the microvasculature of the lower limb between lean and obese individuals...
February 3, 2018: Microvascular Research
Hanie Asgari, M Soltani, Mostafa Sefidgar
Hypoxia as one of the principal properties of tumor cells is a reaction to the deprivation of oxygen. The location of tumor cells could be identified by assessment of oxygen and nutrient level in human body. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a well-known non-invasive method that is able to measure hypoxia based on the FMISO (Fluoromisonidazole) tracer dynamic. This paper aims to study the PET tracer concentration through convection-diffusion-reaction equations in a real human capillary-like network. A non-uniform oxygen pressure along the capillary path and convection mechanism for FMISO transport are taken into account to accurately model the characteristics of the tracer...
February 3, 2018: Microvascular Research
Kiyoung Kim, Chansol Hurr, Jordan C Patik, R Matthew Brothers
It has been established that endothelial function in conduit vessels is reduced in young African Americans (AA) relative to Caucasian Americans (CA). However, less is known regarding endothelial function in microvasculature of young AA. We hypothesized that microvascular function in response to local heating of skin is attenuated in young AA relative to age-matched CA due largely to the lack of NO bioavailability, which is in turn improved by intradermal l-arginine supplementation and/or inhibition of arginase...
February 2, 2018: Microvascular Research
Yuanliang Tang, Ying He
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is frequently accompanied by microcirculation complications, including structural and functional alterations, which may have serious effects on substance exchanges between blood and interstitial tissue and the health of organs. In this paper, we aim to study the influence of microcirculation alterations in DM2 patients on fluid and oxygen exchanges through a model analysis. A fluid flow and oxygen transport model were developed by considering the interplay between blood in capillary network and interstitial tissue...
February 2, 2018: Microvascular Research
Sally Fenton, Aamer Sandoo, George Metsios, Joan Duda, George Kitas, Jet Veldhuijzen van Zanten
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour is linked to increased cardiovascular disease risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), but the biological processes underlying this relationship are not understood. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cross-sectional associations of habitual sedentary behaviour, with endothelial function in RA. METHODS: Sixty-eight RA patients (Mage = 55 ± 12 years) underwent Laser Doppler Imaging with iontophoresis, to assess microvascular endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine, ACh) and endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) function...
January 17, 2018: Microvascular Research
Khatera Ibrahimi, Young De Graaf, Richard Draijer, A H Jan Danser, Antoinette Maassen VanDenBrink, Anton H van den Meiracker
Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) is an established, but investigator-demanding method, used to non-invasively determine nitric oxide (NO)-dependent endothelial function in humans. Local thermal hyperemia (LTH) or post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) of the skin measured with a laser Doppler flow imager may be a less demanding alternative of FMD. We investigated the reproducibility of the different measures of vascular function, their interrelationship and the NO-dependency of LTH. Measurements were performed twice in 27 healthy men (8 smokers), one week apart...
January 12, 2018: Microvascular Research
S Henni, Y W Semporé, T Le Meliner, N Ouedraogo, J-F Hamel, P Abraham
BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous oxygen pressure (tcpO2) reliability is blunted by an unpredictable transcutaneous gradient through the skin. We hypothesized that the "Decrease from Rest of Oxygen pressure (DROP: subtraction of limb-changes from chest-changes from the respective starting values) would show a good to excellent reliability during Exercise -tcpO2 investigations. METHODS: In three different experiments we tested: The intra-test variability at the peripheral level (Experiment A: 32 patients, 16 at each location), at the chest level (Experiment B: 45 patients) and the test-retest reproducibility within 3 months (Experiment C: 67 patients)...
January 8, 2018: Microvascular Research
Gayathree Karthikkeyan, Nareshkumar Ragavachetty Nagaraj, Aberami Seeneevasan, Sulochana Konerirajapuram Natarajan, Srinivasan Vedantham, Karunakaran Coral
Early growth response-1 (Egr-1) protein upregulation is reported in diabetes and vascular disorders. This study aims at deciphering its role in hyperglycemia induced changes of retinal endothelium. Human retinal endothelial cells (hRECs) were exposed to hyperglycemia (25mM) and normoglycemia (5.5mM). Gene silencing was done using siRNA against Egr-1. Transcript and protein level analysis of Egr-1 and gene targets were done using qPCR and immunoblotting respectively in hRECs, diabetic and nondiabetic human retina and immunofluorescence for localization in retinal sections...
January 4, 2018: Microvascular Research
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