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Microvascular Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918110/emergent-behaviors-in-rbcs-flows-in-micro-channels-using-digital-particle-image-velocimetry
#1
F Cairone, D Ortiz, P J Cabrales, M Intaglietta, M Bucolo
The key points in the design of microfluidic Lab-On-a-Chips for blood tests are the simplicity of the microfluidic chip geometry, the portability of the monitoring system and the ease on-chip integration of the data analysis procedure. The majority of those, recently designed, have been used for blood separation, however their introduction, also, for pathological conditions diagnosis would be important in different biomedical contexts. To overcome this lack is necessary to establish the relation between the RBCs flow and blood viscosity changes in micro-vessels...
September 13, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888910/the-influence-of-adherent-cell-morphology-on-hydrodynamic-recruitment-of-leukocytes
#2
Dhananjay Radhakrishnan Subramaniam, David J Gee
Innate immunity is characterized by the coordinated activity of multiple leukocytes mobilizing at or near the site of tissue injury. Slow rolling and/or adherent leukocytes have been shown to hydrodynamically recruit free-stream leukocytes to a model of inflamed tissue. In this paper, we numerically investigate the hydrodynamic recruitment of free-stream leukocytes due to the presence of a nearby adherent, deformed leukocyte by using a computational model developed from first principles to simulate these types of interactions...
September 6, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870649/lipopolysaccharide-impairs-permeability-of-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-cells-via-connexin40
#3
Hua-Song Zhou, Meng Li, Bing-Dong Sui, Lei Wei, Rui Hou, Wen-Sheng Chen, Qiang Li, Sheng-Hui Bi, Jin-Zhou Zhang, Ding-Hua Yi
The endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary endothelial barrier disruption is a key pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying LPS-impaired permeability of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) are not fully understood. Gap junctions, particularly Connexin40 (Cx40), are necessary for the maintenance of normal vascular function. In this study, we for the first time investigated the role of Cx40 in LPS-impaired permeability of PMVECs and provided potential therapeutic approaches based on mechanistic findings of Cx40 regulation by LPS stimuli...
September 1, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859929/cutaneous-and-renal-vasodilatory-response-to-local-pressure-application-a-comparative-study-in-mice
#4
Anne-Laure Begey, Kiao Ling Liu, Ming Lo, Audrey Josset-Lamaugarny, Nicolas Picard, Catherine Gauthier, Berengere Fromy, Dominique Sigaudo-Roussel, Laurence Dubourg
BACKGROUND AND AIM: We have reported a novel relationship involving mechanical stimulation and vasodilation in rodent and human skin, referred to as pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV). It is unknown whether this mechanism exists in kidney and reflects the microcirculation in deep organs. Therefore, we compared the skin and kidney PIV to determine whether their changes were similar. METHODS: In anesthetized mice fed a normal salt-diet, laser Doppler flux (LDF) signals were measured when an increase in local pressure was applied to the surface of the head skin with the rate of 2...
August 30, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847705/an-effective-model-of-cerebrovascular-pressure-reactivity-and-blood-flow-autoregulation
#5
Sebastián Acosta, Daniel J Penny, Ken M Brady, Craig G Rusin
Understanding cerebral blood flow dynamics is crucial for the care of patients at risk of poor cerebral perfusion. We describe an effective model of cerebral hemodynamics designed to reveal important macroscopic features of cerebral blood flow without having to resolve the detailed microvasculature of the brain. Based on principles of fluid and elastic dynamics and vascular pressure-reactivity, the model quantifies the physical means by which the vasculature executes autoregulatory reflexes. We demonstrate that the frequency response of the proposed model matches experimental measurements and explains the influence of mechanical factors on the autoregulatory performance...
August 25, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842183/pronounced-and-sustained-cutaneous-vasoconstriction-during-and-following-cyrotherapy-treatment-role-of-neurotransmitters-released-from-sympathetic-nerves
#6
Kevin M Christmas, Jordan C Patik, Sepideh Khoshnevis, Kenneth R Diller, R Matthew Brothers
Cryotherapy is a therapeutic technique using ice or cold water applied to the skin to manage soft tissue trauma and injury. While beneficial, there are some potentially detrimental side effects, such as pronounced vasoconstriction and tissue ischemia that are sustained for hours post-treatment. This study tested the hypothesis that this vasoconstriction is mediated by 1) activation of post-synaptic α-adrenergic receptors and/or 2) activation of post-synaptic neuropeptide Y1 (NPY Y1) receptors. 8 subjects were fitted with a commercially available cryotherapy unit with a water perfused bladder on the lateral portion of the right calf...
August 24, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834709/correlations-between-blood-perfusion-and-dermal-thickness-in-different-skin-areas-of-systemic-sclerosis-patients
#7
B Ruaro, A Sulli, C Pizzorni, S Paolino, V Smith, E Alessandri, A C Trombetta, J Alsheyyab, M Cutolo
OBJECTIVE: To identify possible correlations between skin blood perfusion (BP) and dermal thickness (DT) in different skin areas of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. METHODS: Sixty-two SSc patients, according to 2013 EULAR/ACR criteria, and 62 healthy subjects (CNT) were enrolled. Skin BP was analysed by laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) at the level of dorsum of the middle phalanx of the third fingers, dorsal aspect of the hands and zygoma. DT was assessed by both skin high frequency ultrasound (US) and modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) in the same above reported areas...
August 20, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830763/carvacrol-promotes-angiogenic-paracrine-potential-and-endothelial-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-at-low-concentrations
#8
Danial Matluobi, Atefeh Araghi, Behnaz Faramarzian Azimi Maragheh, Aysa Rezabakhsh, Sina Soltani, Majid Khaksar, Vahid Siavashi, Adel Feyzi, Hesam Saghaei Bagheri, Reza Rahbarghazi, Soheila Montazersaheb
OBJECTIVES: Phenolic monoterpene compound, named Carvacrol, has been found to exert different biological outcomes. It has been accepted that the angiogenic activity of human mesenchymal stem cells was crucial in the pursuit of appropriate regeneration. In the current experiment, we investigated the contribution of Carvacrol on the angiogenic behavior of primary human mesenchymal stem cells. METHODS: Mesenchymal stem cells were exposed to Carvacrol in a dose ranging from 25 to 200μM for 48h...
August 19, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818494/gts-21-reduces-microvascular-permeability-during-experimental-endotoxemia
#9
Karsten Schmidt, Sukanya Bhakdisongkhram, Florian Uhle, Christoph Philipsenburg, Aleksandar R Zivkovic, Thorsten Brenner, Johann Motsch, Markus A Weigand, Stefan Hofer
INTRODUCTION: No effective pharmacological therapy is currently available to attenuate tissue edema formation due to increased microvascular permeability in sepsis. Cholinergic mediators have been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory effects via the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) during inflammation. GTS-21, a partial α7nAChR agonist, is an appealing therapeutic substance for sepsis-induced microvascular inflammation due to its demonstrated cholinergic anti-inflammatory properties and its favorable safety profile in clinical trials...
August 14, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782513/the-effect-of-age-on-the-response-of-retinal-capillary-filling-to-changes-in-intraocular-pressure-measured-by-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#10
Xiaoyun Jiang, Elaine Johnson, William Cepurna, Diana Lozano, Shaojie Men, Ruikang K Wang, John Morrison
PURPOSE: To compare the effect of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) on retinal capillary filling in elderly vs adult rats using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: The IOP of elderly (24-month-old, N=12) and adult (6-8month-old, N=10) Brown Norway rats was elevated in 10mmHg increments from 10 to 100mmHg. At each IOP level, 3D OCT data were captured using an optical microangiography (OMAG) scanning protocol and then post-processed to obtain both structural and vascular images...
August 3, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772105/transient-endothelial-dysfunction-induced-by-sugar-sweetened-beverage-consumption-may-be-attenuated-by-a-single-bout-of-aerobic-exercise
#11
Pia Varsamis, Guillaume Walther, Bianca Share, Frances Taylor, Simon Stewart, Christian Lorenzen, Jordan Loader
BACKGROUND: This study assessed whether aerobic exercise would attenuate microvascular endothelial dysfunction induced by commercial sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. METHODS: Eleven healthy males participated in this randomized, single-blind crossover study. Cutaneous microvascular endothelial function was assessed using laser speckle contrast imaging coupled with post-occlusive reactive hyperemia before and after a) consumption of water; b) consumption of a commercial SSB; c) 30min of aerobic exercise followed by water consumption; and d) 30 minutes of aerobic exercise followed by SSB consumption...
July 31, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751169/differences-in-laser-doppler-indices-between-skin-surface-measurement-sites-in-subjects-with-diabetes
#12
Hsin Hsiu, Hsiao-Feng Hu, Hung-Chi Tsai
This study performed laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) measurements with the aim of identifying differences in diabetes-induced microcirculatory-blood-flow (MBF) responses between the following skin surface measurement sites: an acupoint around the wrist, an acupoint around the ankle, and a nearby nonacupoint around the ankle. The 67 study subjects were assigned to diabetic, prediabetic, and healthy groups according to the results of oral glucose tolerance tests. Beat-to-beat and spectral analyses were applied to the LDF waveform to obtain the foot delay time (FDT), the flow rise time (FRT), and the relative energy contributions (RECs) in five frequency bands...
July 25, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732797/functional-convergence-of-akt-protein-with-vegfr-1-in-human-endothelial-progenitor-cells-exposed-to-sera-from-patient-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Mehdi Hassanpour, Aysa Rezabakhsh, Reza Rahbarghazi, Alireza Nourazarian, Mohammad Nouri, Çığır Biray Avci, Shahrooz Ghaderi, Neda Alidadyani, Bakiye Goker Bagca, Hesam Saghaei Bagheri
Diabetes mellitus type 2 predisposes patients to various microvascular complications. In the current experiment, the potent role of diabetes mellitus was investigated on the content of VEGFR-1, -2, Tie-1 and -2, and Akt in human endothelial progenitor cells. The gene expression profile of mTOR and Hedgehog signaling pathways were measured by PCR array. The possible crosstalk between RTKs, mTOR and Hedgehog signaling was also studied by bioinformatic analysis. Endothelial progenitor cells were incubated with serum from normal and diabetic for 7days...
July 18, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729163/computational-analysis-of-interactions-of-oxidative-stress-and-tetrahydrobiopterin-reveals-instability-in-enos-coupling
#14
Sheetal Joshi, Saptarshi Kar, Mahendra Kavdia
In cardiovascular and neurovascular diseases, an increase in oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction has been reported. There is a reduction in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), which is a cofactor for the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), resulting in eNOS uncoupling. Studies of the enhancement of BH4 availability have reported mixed results for improvement in endothelial dysfunction. Our understanding of the complex interactions of eNOS uncoupling, oxidative stress and BH4 availability is not complete and a quantitative understanding of these interactions is required...
July 18, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666802/a-novel-modified-physiologically-relevant-model-for-cardiac-angiogenesis
#15
Hao Zhang, Jiajun Pan, Fan Qiu, Tengteng Wei, Zhimin Li, Xia Jiang, Wei Zhuang, Zhiwei Liu, Zhongming Zhang, Hongyan Dong
Angiogenesis assays are important tools for studying both the mechanisms of cardiac angiogenesis and the potential development of therapeutic strategies to ischemic heart diseases. Currently, various assays have been used to quantitate cardiac tubule formation, yet no consensus has been reached regarding a suitable assay for evaluating the efficacy of angiogenic stimulants or inhibitors. Most in vivo angiogenesis assays are complex and difficult to interpret, whereas traditional in vitro angiogenesis models measure only one aspect of this process...
June 28, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385576/blood-transfusions-may-impair-endothelium-dependent-vasodilatation-during-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery
#16
Alessio Rungatscher, Elisabetta Milani, Cecilia Covajes, Seth Hallström, Leonardo Gottin, Gian Cesare Guidi, Giovanni Battista Luciani, Giuseppe Faggian
OBJECTIVE: The hemolytic product free-hemoglobin (fHb) reduces nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. The present study aims to establish whether administration of different blood transfusions result in increased circulating fHb levels and NO consumption with effects on arterial NO-dependent blood flow in patients undergoing CABG surgery. METHODS: Ninety-five consecutive patients undergoing elective CABG surgery were prospectively divided in four groups based on blood transfusion requirements during surgery: stored blood cells (SBC, n...
July 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363495/nitric-oxide-release-by-deoxymyoglobin-nitrite-reduction-during-cardiac-ischemia-a-mathematical-model
#17
Yien Liu, Donald G Buerk, Kenneth A Barbee, Dov Jaron
Interactions between cardiac myoglobin (Mb), nitrite, and nitric oxide (NO) are vital in regulating O2 storage, transport, and NO homeostasis. Production of NO through the reduction of endogenous myocardial nitrite by deoxygenated myoglobin has been shown to significantly reduce myocardial infarction damage and ischemic injury. We developed a mathematical model for a cardiac arteriole and surrounding myocardium to examine the hypothesis that myoglobin switches functions from being a strong NO scavenger to an NO producer via the deoxymyoglobin nitrite reductase pathway...
July 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347755/inhibition-of-inflammation-induced-shedding-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-with-low-molecular-weight-heparin
#18
Herbert H Lipowsky, Anne Lescanic
The endothelial surface layer (ESL) consists of the endothelial cell (EC) glycocalyx and adsorbed proteins, and forms a barrier between blood and the EC. Enzymatic shedding of the ESL in response to cytokines may expose receptors for leukocyte (WBC) adhesion and increase vascular permeability. Thus, intravital microscopy was used to explore stabilization of the ESL with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) to mitigate structural changes with inflammation. Following bolus infusions (i.v.) of LMWH (0.12-1.6mg/kg), shedding of glycans in response to 10(-7)M fMLP was measured by loss of fluorescently labeled lectins bound to the EC and WBC-EC adhesion was monitored in post-capillary venules of rat mesentery...
July 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274735/nailfold-capillaroscopy-in-diabetes-mellitus
#19
G Maldonado, R Guerrero, C Paredes, C Ríos
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia states and the development of specific microvascular disorders such as retinopathy and nephropathy. Conventional methods are used to study the vascular compromise of this entity, however, the use of capillaroscopy for the evaluation of capillary microarchitecture is not frequently used. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Observational and descriptive study of 65 patients with an established diagnosis of DM and a control group that underwent an initial capillaroscopy examination...
July 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902934/the-vascular-evolution-of-an-extended-flap-on-the-dorsum-of-rats-and-the-potential-involvement-of-mmp-2-and-mmp-9
#20
Yuehong Zhuang, Fang Fang, Xue Lan, Feng Wang, Junying Huang, Qi Zhang, Li Zhao, Wei Guo, Heping Zheng, Jianwen Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Microvascular Research
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