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Microvascular Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427990/neuropeptide-y-not-involved-in-cutaneous-vascular-control-in-young-human-females-taking-oral-contraceptive-hormones
#1
Gary J Hodges, Zachary T Martin, Andrew T Del Pozzi
We previously reported that the cutaneous vasodilator response to local warming in males required noradrenaline (NA) and neuropeptide-Y (NPY). Animal work has shown no role for NPY in female vascular control. We investigated the contribution of NA and NPY in human female cutaneous vascular control. Nine female and nine male participants volunteered. To elucidate whether synthetic oestrogen and progesterone altered cutaneous vascular responses, females were tested in high-hormone (HH) and low-hormone (LH) phases of oral contraceptive pill (OCP)...
April 18, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414021/elliptical-broken-line-method-for-calculating-capillary-density-in-nailfold-capillaroscopy-proposal-and-evaluation
#2
Abdolamir Karbalaie, Farhad Abtahi, Alimohammad Fatemi, Mahnaz Etehadtavakol, Zahra Emrani, Björn-Erik Erlandsson
Nailfold capillaroscopy is a practical method for identifying and obtaining morphological changes in capillaries which might reveal relevant information about diseases and health. Capillaroscopy is harmless, and seems simple and repeatable. However, there is lack of established guidelines and instructions for acquisition as well as the interpretation of the obtained images; which might lead to various ambiguities. In addition, assessment and interpretation of the acquired images are very subjective. In an attempt to overcome some of these problems, in this study a new modified technique for assessment of nailfold capillary density is introduced...
April 14, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390895/observation-and-characterization-of-microvascular-vasomotion-using-erythrocyte-mediated-icg-angiography-em-icg-a
#3
Robert W Flower, Ronn Kling
A clinical method for characterizing the state of micro-vasculature vasomotion is demonstrated, based on observing in capillaries the dynamics of autologously re-injected erythrocytes containing ICG dye. Since a manifestation of vasomotion is transient erythrocyte pausing, vasomotion state within a field of capillaries is characterized by an histogram plot of the number of paused erythrocytes as a function of pause duration during a fixed period of observation, then the ratio of long-pausing to short-pausing erythrocytes was calculated...
April 5, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385576/blood-transfusions-may-impair-endothelium-dependent-vasodilatation-during-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery
#4
Alessio Rungatscher, Elisabetta Milani, Cecilia Covajes, Seth Hallström, Leonardo Gottin, Gian Cesare Guidi, Giovanni Battista Luciani, Giuseppe Faggian
OBJECTIVE: The hemolytic product free-hemoglobin (fHb) reduces nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. The present study aims to establish whether administration of different blood transfusions result in increased circulating fHb levels and NO consumption with effects on arterial NO-dependent blood flow in patients undergoing CABG surgery. METHODS: Ninety-five consecutive patients undergoing elective CABG surgery were prospectively divided in four groups based on blood transfusion requirements during surgery: stored blood cells (SBC, n...
April 4, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365218/modelling-of-subarachnoid-space-width-changes-in-apnoea-resulting-as-a-function-of-blood-flow-parameters
#5
Renata Kalicka, Kamila Mazur, Jacek Wolf, Andrzej F Frydrychowski, Krzysztof Narkiewicz, Pawel J Winklewski
During apnoea, the pial artery is subjected to two opposite physiological processes: vasoconstriction due to elevated blood pressure and vasorelaxation driven by rising pH in the brain parenchyma. We hypothesized that the pial artery response to apnoea may vary, depending on which process dominate. Apnoea experiments were performed in a group of 19 healthy, non-smoking volunteers (9 men and 10 women). The following parameters were obtained for further analysis: blood pressure, the cardiac (from 0.5 to 5.0Hz) and slow (<0...
March 29, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363496/therapeutic-progenitor-cell-application-for-tissue-regeneration-analyzing-the-impact-of-toll-like-receptor-signaling-on-c-kit-cell-migration-following-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-vivo
#6
Peter Donndorf, Saifullah Abubaker, Brigitte Vollmar, Christian Rimmbach, Gustav Steinhoff, Alexander Kaminski
OBJECTIVES: Toll-like-receptor (TLR) mediated immune response has been shown to regulate myocardial damage following cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR). It has not been described conclusively so far whether migration of therapeutically applied progenitor cells following an IR event depends on TLR-signaling. METHODS: In vivo migratory capacity murine c-kit(+) cells following IR injury was quantified by intravital fluorescence microscopy, utilizing the mouse cremaster muscle model and analyzing early (rolling) and late (adhesion) c-kit(+) cell interaction with the local endothelium...
March 29, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363495/nitric-oxide-release-by-deoxymyoglobin-nitrite-reduction-during-cardiac-ischemia-a-mathematical-model
#7
Yien Liu, Donald G Buerk, Kenneth A Barbee, Dov Jaron
Interactions between cardiac myoglobin (Mb), nitrite, and nitric oxide (NO) are vital in regulating O2 storage, transport, and NO homeostasis. Production of NO through the reduction of endogenous myocardial nitrite by deoxygenated myoglobin has been shown to significantly reduce myocardial infarction damage and ischemic injury. We developed a mathematical model for a cardiac arteriole and surrounding myocardium to examine the hypothesis that myoglobin switches functions from being a strong NO scavenger to an NO producer via the deoxymyoglobin nitrite reductase pathway...
March 28, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347755/inhibition-of-inflammation-induced-shedding-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-with-low-molecular-weight-heparin
#8
Herbert H Lipowsky, Anne Lescanic
The endothelial surface layer (ESL) consists of the endothelial cell (EC) glycocalyx and adsorbed proteins, and forms a barrier between blood and the EC. Enzymatic shedding of the ESL in response to cytokines may expose receptors for leukocyte (WBC) adhesion and increase vascular permeability. Thus, intravital microscopy was used to explore stabilization of the ESL with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) to mitigate structural changes with inflammation. Following bolus infusions (i.v.) of LMWH (0.12-1.6mg/kg), shedding of glycans in response to 10(-7)M fMLP was measured by loss of fluorescently labeled lectins bound to the EC and WBC-EC adhesion was monitored in post-capillary venules of rat mesentery...
March 27, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347756/gaussian-modelling-characteristics-changes-derived-from-finger-photoplethysmographic-pulses-during-exercise-and-recovery
#9
Anran Wang, Lin Yang, Weimin Wen, Song Zhang, Guanxiong Gu, Dingchang Zheng
Gaussian modelling method has been reported as a useful method to analyze arterial pulse waveform changes. This study aimed to provide scientific evidence on Gaussian modelling characteristics changes derived from the finger photoplethysmographic (PPG) pulses during exercise and recovery. 65 healthy subjects (18 female and 47 male) were recruited. Finger PPG pulses were digitally recorded with 5 different exercise loads (0, 50, 75, 100, 125W) as well as during each of 4minute (min) recovery period. The PPG pulses were normalized in both width and amplitude for each recording, which were decomposed into three independent Gaussian waves with nine parameters determined, including the peak amplitude (H1, H2, H3), peak time position (N1, N2, N3) and half-width (W1, W2, W3) from each Gaussian wave, and four extended parameters determined, including the peak time interval (T1,2, T1,3) and amplitude ratio (R1,2, R1,3) between 1st Gaussian wave and 2nd, 3rd Gaussian waves...
March 24, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344048/cd24-tumor-initiating-cells-from-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-induce-initial-angiogenesis-in-vivo
#10
Rüdiger M Zimmerer, Nils Ludwig, Andreas Kampmann, Gido Bittermann, Simon Spalthoff, Michael Jungheim, Nils-Claudius Gellrich, Frank Tavassol
BACKGROUND: In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), a minor subset of cancer stem cells has been identified using the surface marker CD24. The CD24+ cell population is involved in initiating, maintaining, and expanding tumor growth, but has not been reported to be involved in angiogenesis to date. METHODS: NOD/SCID mice were equipped with dorsal skinfold chambers and gelatin sponges seeded with CD24+, CD24-, and unsorted cancer cells suspended in Matrigel® were implanted...
March 23, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342751/reproducibility-of-four-frequently-used-local-heating-protocols-to-assess-cutaneous-microvascular-function
#11
Kirsty A Roberts, Thijs van Gent, Nicola D Hopkins, Helen Jones, Ellen A Dawson, Richard Draijer, Howard H Carter, Ceri L Atkinson, Daniel J Green, Dick H J Thijssen, David A Low
BACKGROUND: Skin microvascular responses to local heating are frequently used to assess microvascular function. Several local heating protocols have been developed, all varying slightly in execution. The aim of this study was to determine the inter-day reproducibility of the four most commonly used local heating protocols in healthy young subjects. METHODS: Fifteen, healthy males (28±5yrs, BMI 25±2kg/m(2)) attended two experimental trials 2-7days apart. During each trial, baseline and maximal thermally stimulated forearm skin responses were examined simultaneously at four sites on the dominant forearm using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF)...
March 22, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300547/computer-aided-quantification-of-microvascular-networks-application-to-alterations-due-to-pathological-angiogenesis-in-the-hamster
#12
Carlos A Bulant, Pablo J Blanco, Lucas O Müller, Julio Scharfstein, Erik Svensjö
Angiogenesis is both a physiological and a pathological process of great complexity, which is difficult to measure objectively and automatically. The hamster cheek pouch (HCP) prepared for intravital-microscopy (IVM) has been used to characterize microvascular functions in many studies and was chosen to investigate microvascular characteristics observed in normal non-infected hamsters as compared to those HCPs parasitized by Trypanosoma cruzi. Images of HCPs captured at IVM were subjected to computer based measurements of angiogenesis and histamine-induced macromolecular (FITC-dextran) leakage with an image segmentation approach that has the capacity to discriminate between fluorescence emitted by macromolecular tracers inside the vasculature and in the extravascular space...
March 12, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286048/effect-of-age-on-cutaneous-vasomotor-responses-during-local-skin-heating
#13
Gary J Hodges, Matthew M Mallette, Garry A Tew, John M Saxton, James Moss, Alan D Ruddock, Markos Klonizakis
This study examined the effect of ageing on the low-frequency oscillations (vasomotion) of skin blood flow in response to local heating (LH). Skin blood flow was assessed by laser-Doppler flowmetry on the forearm at rest (33°C) and in response to LH of the skin to both 42°C and 44°C in 14 young (24±1years) and 14 older (64±1years) participants. Vasomotion was analyzed using a wavelet transform to investigate power of the frequency intervals associated with endothelial, neural, myogenic, respiratory, and cardiac activities of the laser-Doppler signal...
March 9, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283331/the-role-of-foxo1-in-interleukin-1%C3%AE-induced-autostimulation-in-retina-endothelial-cells-and-retinas-of-diabetic-rats
#14
Lina Wu, Feng Guo, Yang Wu, Qingzhu Wang, Xiaojun Ma, Yanyan Zhao, Guijun Qin
Diabetic retinopathy is a chronic, low-grade inflammatory disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of forkhead transcription factor O1 (FoxO1) expression on interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced autostimulation, both in vitro in human retina microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs), and in vivo in retinas isolated from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. High-glucose (HG) and recombinant IL-1β treatment were both shown to increase the expression of FoxO1 and IL-1β in HRMECs in a dose-dependent manner...
March 7, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274735/nailfold-capillaroscopy-in-diabetes-mellitus
#15
G Maldonado, R Guerrero, C Paredes, C Ríos
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia states and the development of specific microvascular disorders such as retinopathy and nephropathy. Conventional methods are used to study the vascular compromise of this entity, however, the use of capillaroscopy for the evaluation of capillary microarchitecture is not frequently used. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Observational and descriptive study of 65 patients with an established diagnosis of DM and a control group that underwent an initial capillaroscopy examination...
March 6, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228367/blockade-of-hmgb1-preserves-vascular-homeostasis-and-improves-blood-perfusion-in-rats-of-acute-limb-ischemia-reperfusion
#16
Yang Liu, Changyou Zhou, Jianjun Jiang, Qingbo Su, Xiangjiu Ding
Acute limb ischemia is one of the most common peripheral arterial disease, while surgical restoration of blood flow often results in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Our previous study revealed the inflammation intensity in arterial tissue, characterized by expression of high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), was contrary to the fluctuation of hemodynamics in reperfusion limbs in a rat model. This study meant to clarify the role of HMGB1 during this process. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging evaluated limb hemodynamics in mean and max perfusion unit (PU)...
February 21, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209519/effect-of-crocetin-on-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-migration-induced-by-advanced-glycosylation-end-products
#17
REVIEW
Min Xiang, Runlin Yang, Yaqin Zhang, Pingping Wu, Lizhen Wang, Zhenyu Gao, Jianmei Wang
Crocetin is a major active constituent of Gardenia jasminoides J. Ellis, and can aid in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The effect and possible mechanism of crocetin on the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induced by advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) were investigated. VSMCs were pre-incubated with or without crocetin and exposed to AGEs subsequently. The invasion of the cells was investigated using a 24-well Cell Invasion Chamber. The anti-proliferative activity of crocetin was evaluated by MTT assay and VSMCs cell-cycle distribution was examined by flow cytometry...
February 13, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189606/hydrodynamics-of-a-free-flowing-leukocyte-toward-the-endothelial-wall
#18
Ana Santos Silva-Herdade, Adélia Sequeira, Ângelo Calado, Carlota Saldanha, Oualid Kafi
Leukocyte recruitment is an essential stage of the inflammatory response and although the molecular mechanisms of this process are relatively well known, the influence of the hydrodynamic effects that govern the inflammatory response are still under study. In this paper we made use of the images and experimental parameters obtained by intravital microscopy in an in vivo animal model of inflammation to track the leukocytes trajectories and measure their velocities and diameters. Using a recent validated mathematical model describing the coupled deformation-flow of an individual leukocyte in a microchannel, numerical simulations of an individual and of two leukocytes under flow were performed...
February 9, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163035/intra-and-inter-observer-reliability-of-nailfold-videocapillaroscopy-a-possible-outcome-measure-for-systemic-sclerosis-related-microangiopathy
#19
Graham Dinsdale, Tonia Moore, Neil O'Leary, Philip Tresadern, Michael Berks, Christopher Roberts, Joanne Manning, John Allen, Marina Anderson, Maurizio Cutolo, Roger Hesselstrand, Kevin Howell, Carmen Pizzorni, Vanessa Smith, Alberto Sulli, Marie Wildt, Christopher Taylor, Andrea Murray, Ariane L Herrick
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to assess the reliability of nailfold capillary assessment in terms of image evaluability, image severity grade ('normal', 'early', 'active', 'late'), capillary density, capillary (apex) width, and presence of giant capillaries, and also to gain further insight into differences in these parameters between patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon (PRP) and healthy control subjects. METHODS: Videocapillaroscopy images (magnification 300×) were acquired from all 10 digits from 173 participants: 101 patients with SSc, 22 with PRP and 50 healthy controls...
February 2, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161429/mzd7349-peptide-conjugated-plga-nanoparticles-directed-against-vcam-1-for-targeted-delivery-of-simvastatin-to-restore-dysfunctional-huvecs
#20
Fatemeh Imanparast, Mohammad Ali Faramarzi, Akram Vatannejad, Maliheh Paknejad, Behnas Deiham, Farzad Kobarfard, Amir Amani, Mahmood Doosti
Endothelial dysfunction is initial and critical step of atherosclerosis. Impaired bioavailability of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is one of the main reasons of endothelial dysfunction. Improving bioavailability of eNOS by increasing its expression or activity using statins is an effective therapeutic strategy in restoring endothelial dysfunction. In this study, simvastatin (SIM) as a poorly water-soluble drug was loaded in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (SIM-PLGA-NPs). NPs were then conjugated with mZD7349 peptide (mZD7349-SIM-PLGA-NPs) and directed against vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1)...
February 2, 2017: Microvascular Research
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