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Microvascular Research

Guifang Sun, Fengqi Liu, Chunhong Xiu
INTRODUCTION: Coronary microcirculation disturbance plays an important role in chronic heart failure (CHF). High thoracic sympathetic block (HTSB) is effective to treat CHF, but its impact on coronary microcirculation is unclear. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with isoproterenol (340 mg/kg) for 2 days. Eight weeks later, 24 surviving rats were randomized to the CHF and HTSB groups and 10 rats were used as the control group. 50 μl of saline and ropivacaine (0...
December 1, 2018: Microvascular Research
Sarah Skinner, Philippe Connes, Dominique Sigaudo-Roussel, Ming Lo, Kiao Ling Liu, Elie Nader, Audrey Josset-Lamaugarny, Emmanuelle Charrin, Cyril Martin, Camille Romanet-Faes, Mor Diaw, Vincent Pialoux, Bérengère Fromy
OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes (T2D)-related vascular dysfunction and hemorheological abnormalities could possibly be amplified by sickle cell trait (SCT). These alterations could potentially increase the risk of vascular complications in individuals with combined T2D and SCT. Therefore, this study used a mouse model to determine whether vascular function and blood rheology were more severely altered in combined T2D and SCT than in T2D or SCT alone. METHODS: Townes transgenic mice with or without SCT received a 12-week high fat high sucrose or standard diet to create models of combined T2D-SCT, T2D, SCT, and controls...
December 1, 2018: Microvascular Research
Sherry G Clendenon, Xiao Fu, Robert A Von Hoene, Jeffrey L Clendenon, James P Sluka, Seth Winfree, Henry Mang, Michelle Martinez, Adele J Filson, James E Klaunig, James A Glazier, Kenneth W Dunn
Microvascular perfusion dynamics are vital to physiological function and are frequently dysregulated in injury and disease. Typically studies measure microvascular flow in a few selected vascular segments over limited time, failing to capture spatial and temporal variability. To quantify microvascular flow in a more complete and unbiased way we developed STAFF (Spatial Temporal Analysis of Fieldwise Flow), a macro for FIJI open-source image analysis software. Using high-speed microvascular flow movies, STAFF generates kymographs for every time interval for every vascular segment, calculates flow velocities from red blood cell shadow angles, and outputs the data as color-coded velocity map movies and spreadsheets...
November 28, 2018: Microvascular Research
Leila Hadjadj, Anna Monori-Kiss, Eszter M Horváth, Andrea Heinzlmann, Attila Magyar, Réka E Sziva, Zsuzsanna Miklós, Éva Pál, János Gál, István Szabó, Zoltán Benyó, György L Nádasy, Szabolcs Várbíró
Vitamin D (VitD) hypovitaminosis and androgen excess (AE) are both risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in fertile women. However, the possible early interaction between AE and VitD status is not clear. Our goal was to describe how VitD status influences early changes in the biomechanical reactivity of small coronary arterioles in adult female rats after transdermal testosterone treatment. Forty-six adolescent, 90-110-gram-weighed female Wistar rats were randomly grouped into 4 groups. Twenty-four animals received an optimal VitD-supplemented diet, from which 12 animals underwent transdermal testosterone treatment...
November 28, 2018: Microvascular Research
Gamze Aslan, Veli Polat, Evin Bozcali, Selçuk Opan, Nurcan Çetin, Dilek Ural
OBJECTIVES: Coronary microvascular dysfunction plays a major role in the pathogenesis of microvascular angina (MVA). Along with endothelial dysfunction, microvascular atherosclerosis and inflammation seem to contribute to the development of coronary microvascular dysfunction. Serum soluble ST2 (sST2) and serum soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) are two biomarkers associated with inflammation and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of these biomarkers in the pathogenesis of MVA and determine their possible association with coronary microvascular dysfunction...
November 28, 2018: Microvascular Research
Robert L Conhaim, Gilad S Segal, Kal E Watson
Pulmonary alveolar septal capillaries receive their perfusion from a web of larger surrounding acinar vessels. Using 4 μm diam. Latex particles, we showed that positive pressure ventilation narrowed the acinar vessels as evidenced by venous 4 μm particle concentrations and perfusate flows <50% of particle concentrations in negative pressure ventilated lungs. We aimed to understand the effects of positive and negative pressure ventilation on flows of larger particles through the lung. Isolated, ventilated rat lungs (air, transpulmonary pressures of 15/5 cm H2O, 25 breaths/min) were perfused with a hetastarch solution at Ppulm art/PLA pressures of 10/0 cm H2O...
November 24, 2018: Microvascular Research
Hiroyuki Uwamori, Yuuichi Ono, Tadahiro Yamashita, Ken Arai, Ryo Sudo
Every organ demonstrates specific vascular characteristics and functions maintained by interactions of endothelial cells (ECs) and parenchymal cells. Particularly, brain ECs play a central role in the formation of a functional blood brain barrier (BBB). Organ-specific ECs have their own morphological features, and organ specificity must be considered when investigating interactions between ECs and other cell types constituting a target organ. Here we constructed angiogenesis-based microvascular networks with perivascular cells in a microfluidic device setting by coculturing ECs and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
November 22, 2018: Microvascular Research
Tang Donghui, Bai Shuang, Li Xulong, Yao Meng, Gong Yujing, Hou Yujie, Li Juan, Yang Dongsheng
OBJECTIVE: Microvascular endothelial dysfunction, which is at the early stage of atherosclerosis, precedes macrovascular endothelial dysfunction. The study is aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the improvement of microvascular endothelial dysfunction by exercise and diet in obese adolescents. METHODS: A quasi-randomized study was carried out with 2 cohorts: the experimental group (57 obese male adolescents; age: 15.38 ± 2.82 years, BMI: 33.21 ± 4...
November 22, 2018: Microvascular Research
Luca Possenti, Giustina Casagrande, Simone Di Gregorio, Paolo Zunino, Maria Laura Costantino
Fluid homeostasis is required for life. Processes involved in fluid balance are strongly related to exchanges at the microvascular level. Computational models have been presented in the literature to analyze the microvascular-interstitial interactions. As far as we know, none of those models consider a physiological description for the lymphatic drainage-interstitial pressure relation. We develop a computational model that consists of a network of straight cylindrical vessels and an isotropic porous media with a uniformly distributed sink term acting as the lymphatic system...
November 15, 2018: Microvascular Research
Gerke Veenstra, Can Ince, Bart W Barendrecht, Hendrik W Zijlstra, E Christiaan Boerma
BACKGROUND: Clinical evaluation of the effects of fluid therapy remains cumbersome and strategies are based on the assumption that normalization of macrohemodynamic variables will result in parallel improvement in organ perfusion. Recently, we and others suggested the use of direct in-vivo observation of the microcirculation to evaluate the effects of fluid therapy. METHODS: A single-centre observational study, using in-vivo microscopy to assess total vessel density (TVD) in two subsets of ICU patients...
November 15, 2018: Microvascular Research
Rogerio N Soares, Yasina B Somani, David N Proctor, Juan M Murias
INTRODUCTION: Following a period of blood flow occlusion, the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived reperfusion slope of the oxygen saturation signal (StO2 ) is a measure of microvascular responsiveness that has been shown to be positively correlated with flow-mediated dilation (FMD) assessment of conduit artery function in the lower limb vasculature. Given that previously established differences in structure and function of the vessels in the upper compared to the lower limbs may change this relationship, investigating whether this correlation between the reperfusion slope of the StO2 and the FMD response is maintained in upper limbs is important...
November 13, 2018: Microvascular Research
Cristine L Heaps, Jeffrey F Bray, Avery L McIntosh, Friedhelm Schroeder
OBJECTIVE: Freshly isolated endothelial cells from both conduit arteries and microvasculature were used to test the hypothesis that eNOS protein content and nitric oxide production in coronary endothelial cells increases with vessel radius. METHODS: Porcine hearts were obtained from a local abattoir. Large and small arteries as well as arterioles were dissected free of myocardium and homogenized as whole vessels. Additionally, endothelial cells were isolated from both conduit arteries and left ventricular myocardium by tissue digestion with collagenase, followed by endothelial cell isolation using biotinylated-anti-CD31 and streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads...
November 12, 2018: Microvascular Research
Yih-Kuen Jan, Fuyuan Liao, Gladys L Y Cheing, Fang Pu, Weiyan Ren, Harry M C Choi
BACKGROUND: Understanding the differences in skin blood flow (SBF) on the plantar and dorsal foot in people with diabetes mellitus (DM) may help to assess the influence of diabetes and neuropathy on microvascular dysfunction and risks of diabetic foot ulcers in this population. However, there is no study comparing SBF oscillations between the plantar and dorsal foot in people with DM and peripheral neuropathy (PN). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare SBF oscillations between the plantar and dorsal foot in people with DM and PN and investigate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the differences...
November 9, 2018: Microvascular Research
AmirHessam Aminfar, Nami Davoodzadeh, Guillermo Aguilar, Marko Princevac
Since of its introduction in 1980s, laser speckle imaging has become a powerful tool in flow imaging. Its high performance and low cost made it one of the preferable imaging methods. Initially, speckle contrast measurements were the main algorithm for analyzing laser speckle images in biological flows. Speckle contrast measurements, also referred as Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI), use statistical properties of speckle patterns to create mapped image of the blood vessels. In this communication, a new method named Laser Speckle Optical Flow Imaging (LSOFI) is introduced...
November 8, 2018: Microvascular Research
Samir Henni, Jeanne Hersant, Laurent Loufrani, Guillaume Duval, Anne Humeau-Heurtier, Jeremie Riou, Pierre Abraham
BACKGROUND: Forearm cutaneous blood flux (CBF) measurement with post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) is uncomfortable and may not be devoid of risks. We aimed to investigate post-compression reactive hyperemia (PCRH) with a custom-made indenter that was designed to be easily used routinely by inexperienced observers. METHODS: Medical students evaluated PCRH with 1- to 4-min pressure applications of 16 to 34 kPa and PORH with 3-min forearm cuff occlusion using laser speckle contrast imaging in 15 healthy volunteers...
November 3, 2018: Microvascular Research
Taiyang Ye, Jin Peng, Xin Liu, Shiqiang Hou, Gengming Niu, Yan Li, Huiyan Zeng, Dezheng Zhao
Pathological angiogenesis is a hallmark of many diseases. Previously, we reported that orphan nuclear receptor TR3/Nur77 (human homolog, Nur77, mouse homolog) is a critical mediator of angiogenesis to regulate tumor growth and skin wound healing via down-regulating the expression of the junctional proteins and integrin β4. However, the molecular mechanism, by which TR3/Nur77 regulated angiogenesis, was still not completely understood. In this report by analyzing the integrin expression profile in endothelial cells, we found that the TR3/Nur77 expression highly increased the expression of integrins α1 and β5, decreased the expression of integrins α2 and β3, but had some or no effect on the expression of integrins αv, α3, α4, α5, α6, β1 and β7...
November 1, 2018: Microvascular Research
Ali Javinani, Mehran Pournazari, Ahmad Reza Jamshidi, Hoda Kavosi
INTRODUCTION: Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a large vessel vasculitis characterized by the involvement of the aorta and its branches. In the present study, the nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) findings of the TA patients were evaluated and compared to healthy individuals. Additionally, the association of NVC abnormalities with disease activity and subclavian artery involvement was also investigated. METHOD: In the present study, NVC changes of 15 TA patients and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were compared...
October 31, 2018: Microvascular Research
Yuko Ohsugi, Yoshinao Nagashima, Susumu Nakatsu, Kayo Sato, Atsuko Chiba, Hidetake Fujinaka, Yoshitaka Yano, Yoshifumi Niki
Previous studies have suggested a possible relationship between age-related changes to human gingival hemodynamics and periodontal disease. However, firmly establishing this has been difficult because of a lack of suitable tools. Our study investigated whether a non-invasive laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG)-based 2-dimensional technique could be used to assess maxillary anterior gingival blood flow under resting conditions. In total, 124 healthy male volunteers aged between 22 and 69 years were included in the study and delineated into young (Y; 22-37 years, n = 45), middle-aged (M; 38-53 years, n = 43), and elderly groups (E; 54-69 years, n = 36)...
October 27, 2018: Microvascular Research
Sayantan Bhattacharyya, Debarpan Mitra, Sudipta Ray, Nirjhar Biswas, Samir Banerjee, Biswanath Majumder, Saunak Mitra Mustafi, Nabendu Murmu
Vasculogenic mimicry, an endothelia-independent tumor microcirculation has been found in various cancers and is thought to be achieved by cancer stem like cells. Dacarbazine resistance is one of the most common features of melanoma and recent studies suggest that the mode of resistance is closely related to the formation of vasculogenic mimicry. In our work, we examined the anticancer effect of Lupeol, a novel phytochemical with Dacarbazine in vivo and in vitro. Results demonstrated adequate cytotoxicity followed by down regulation of CD 133 expression in Lupeol treated B16-F10 cell line...
October 25, 2018: Microvascular Research
Min Jia, Xuan-Xuan Zhou, Qiaohong Qin, Fang Wang, Jie Li, Cang-Bao Xu, Siwang Wang
Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside (TSG) is the main water-soluble component in Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, and it has many cardioprotective effects. Although TSG is able to relax blood vessels, its relaxation of rat superior mesenteric arteries and the underlying mechanism of this process are not clearly understood. The aim of the present study was to use in vivo and in vitro models to investigate the arterial relaxation effect of TSG on rat superior mesenteric arteries and the mechanisms involved. We found that TSG concentration-dependently relaxed the superior mesenteric artery with or without endothelium...
October 24, 2018: Microvascular Research
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