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Microvascular Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778648/impact-of-insulin-on-the-intestinal-microcirculation-in-a-model-of-sepsis-related-hyperglycemia
#1
Alexa Caldwell, Jan Niklas Morick, Anne-Marie Jentsch, Annette Wegener, Dragan Pavlovic, Nadia Al-Banna, Christian Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Sepsis involves dysfunctional glucose metabolism. Among patients with sepsis, hyperglycemia is frequent and insulin administration has been evaluated for glycemic control to improve patient outcomes. Only few studies have examined the hyperglycemic microcirculation and the impact of insulin on the microvasculature in sepsis. OBJECTIVE: To study the functional capillary density (FCD) and leukocyte activation within the intestinal microcirculation in endotoxin-induced experimental sepsis...
May 17, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777793/homocysteine-induces-vascular-inflammatory-response-via-smad7-hypermethylation-in-human-umbilical-vein-smooth-muscle-cells
#2
Li-Hua Wei, Nai-Xia Chao, Si Gao, Ya-Ting Yu, Lin Shi, Xin-Bo Ma, Na Liao, Ke Lan, Yu Luo, Zheng-Yi Xie, Yuan-Yuan Li
Homocysteine (Hcy) can induce atherosclerosis through the inflammatory response and DNA methylation disorder. Our recent study has reported a novel epigenetic modified gene related to atherosclerosis -SMAD7. To further understand the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the current study was designed to investigate an inflammatory role of Hcy in human umbilical vein smooth muscle cells (HUVSMCs) through interfering with SMAD7 methylation. Using MALDI-TOF MS, we found that Hcy increased DNA methylation levels of SMAD7 promoter in a dose and time-dependent manner in HUVSMCs...
May 16, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777792/human-cancer-cells-suppress-behaviors-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-through-mir-21-targeting-il6r
#3
Wenbin Wang, Xiao Yuan, Aman Xu, Xingyang Zhu, Yanqing Zhan, Shuanhu Wang, Mulin Liu
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a severe clinical process and has a high rate of fatality. Cancer patients have a high incidence rate of venous thrombosis complication and increase the mortality of cancer patients for 2-8 times. The mechanisms involved in human cancers and venous thrombosis remains unclear. In this study, we determined miR-21 expressed higher in human breast cancer, colon cancer and hepatocellular cancer tissues compared with normal tissues and expressed higher in exosomes of breast cancer and hepatocellular cancer cell lines compared with normal cells...
May 16, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777791/ticagrelor-protects-against-angii-induced-endothelial-dysfunction-by-alleviating-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#4
Xiaoyu Wang, Xuejie Han, Minghui Li, Yu Han, Yun Zhang, Shiqi Zhao, Yue Li
Ticagrelor has been reported to decrease cardiovascular mortality compared with clopidogrel. This benefit cannot be fully explained by the more efficient platelet inhibition. Many studies demonstrated that ticagrelor improved endothelial function, leaving the mechanism elusive though. The present study aims to investigate whether ticagrelor protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by angiotensinII (AngII) through alleviating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with AngII or vehicle and administrated with ticagrelor or vehicle for 14 days...
May 16, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742454/the-pivotal-role-of-angiogenesis-in-a-multi-scale-modeling-of-tumor-growth-exhibiting-the-avascular-and-vascular-phases
#5
Hooman Salavati, M Soltani, Saeid Amanpour
The mechanisms involved in tumor growth mainly occur at the microenvironment, where the interactions between the intracellular, intercellular and extracellular scales mediate the dynamics of tumor. In this work, we present a multi-scale model of solid tumor dynamics to simulate the avascular and vascular growth as well as tumor-induced angiogenesis. The extracellular and intercellular scales are modeled using partial differential equations and cellular Potts model, respectively. Also, few biochemical and biophysical rules control the dynamics of intracellular level...
May 6, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742453/effect-of-p-tyrosol-on-hemorheological-parameters-and-cerebral-capillary-network-in-young-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#6
Mark B Plotnikov, Oleg I Aliev, Anastasia V Sidekhmenova, Alexander Y Shamanaev, Anna M Anishchenko, Tatiana I Fomina, Tatiana M Plotnikova, Alexander M Arkhipov
BACKGROUND: Many pathological mechanisms are involved in the development of arterial hypertension; disturbance of the rheological properties of blood and microvascular rarefaction are among those mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: The effect of p-tyrosol (Tyr) on hemorheological parameters and microvascularization in the cerebral cortex of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) at the stage of blood pressure rising (5-11 weeks) was studied. METHODS: Blood viscosity (BV), plasma viscosity (PV), hematocrit, erythrocyte aggregation and deformability, the oxygen transport capacity index (OTCI), and the capillary network in the cerebral cortex after the course of treatment of Tyr (50 mg/kg daily i...
May 6, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738719/the-role-of-rho-kinase-and-calcium-ions-in-constriction-triggered-by-et-1
#7
Michał Wiciński, Katarzyna Szadujkis-Szadurska, Mateusz M Węclewicz, Bartosz Malinowski, Grzegorz Matusiak, Maciej Walczak, Eryk Wódkiewicz, Grzegorz Grześk, Katarzyna Pawlak-Osińska
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is one of the key factors regulating tension of smooth muscles in blood vessels. It is believed that ET-1 plays an important role in pathogenesis of hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases; therefore, research in order to limit ET-1-mediated action is still in progress. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the role of Rho-kinase in the ET-1-induced constriction of arteries. The analysis also included significance of intra- and extracellular pool of calcium ions in constriction triggered by ET-1...
May 5, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705580/impaired-function-of-cerebral-parenchymal-arterioles-in-experimental-preeclampsia
#8
Abbie C Johnson, Marilyn J Cipolla
Preeclampsia (PE), a dangerous hypertensive complication of pregnancy, is associated with widespread maternal vascular dysfunction. However, the effect of PE on the cerebral vasculature that can lead to stroke and cognitive decline is not well understood. We hypothesized that function of cortical parenchymal arterioles (PAs) would be impaired during PE. Using a high cholesterol diet to induce experimental PE in rats (ePE), we studied the function and structure of isolated and pressurized PAs supplying frontoparietal WM tracts and cortex and compared to normal pregnant (Preg) and nonpregnant (Nonpreg) Sprague Dawley rats (n = 8/group)...
April 26, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680477/yap1-tead1-signaling-controls-angiogenesis-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-through-pgc1%C3%AE
#9
Akiko Mammoto, Megan Muyleart, Andrew Kadlec, David Gutterman, Tadanori Mammoto
Mitochondria contribute to key processes of cellular function, while mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular diseases, in which angiogenesis - the formation of new blood capillaries - is dysregulated. The Hippo signaling transducer, Yes-associated protein (YAP1) binds to the TEA domain (TEAD1) transcription factor and controls angiogenesis. YAP1 also regulates glucose metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (PGC1α), a major player controlling mitochondrial biogenesis...
April 19, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678730/interaction-between-blood-and-solid-particles-propagating-through-a-capillary-with-slip-effects
#10
A Zeeshan, A Fatima, F Khalid, M M Bhatti
This article describes the interaction between solid particles and blood propagating through a capillary. A slip condition is considered on the walls of the capillary. The rheological features of the blood are discussed by considering as a two-phase Newtonian fluid model, i.e., the suspension of cells in plasma. A perturbation method is successfully applied to obtain the series solution of the governing coupled differential equations. The series solution for both fluid and particle phase are presented up to second order approximation...
April 17, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678729/statins-reduce-testicular-and-ocular-vegf-a-potential-compromise-to-microcirculation
#11
Nuran Ekerbiçer, Tugba Gurpinar, Ali Riza Sisman, Guven Guvendi, Ulas M Camsari, Nazan Uysal
Microcirculation has great importance in eye and testicular tissue and is necessary to have adequate and appropriate amount of angiogenesis. It is known that high levels of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) trigger uncontrolled angiogenesis, whereas inadequate VEGF can lead to decreased tissue perfusion and oxygenation. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of VEGF in testicular and ocular tissues in both non-diabetic and diabetic rats treated by statin. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg daily given by orally gavage) was administered for two weeks...
April 17, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649432/nitric-oxide-signaling-regulates-tumor-induced-intussusceptive-like-angiogenesis
#12
Selvaraj Vimalraj, Srinivasan Bhuvaneswari, Sundaresan Lakshmikirupa, Ganesh Jyothsna, Suvro Chatterjee
Existing animal models for screening tumor angiogenic process have various setbacks that necessitate further investigations. In this study, we developed an ex-ovo egg yolk angiogenesis model to screen the angiogenic potency of tumor cells (HeLa and SiHa cell lines). The egg yolk angiogenesis assay was applied to study the nitric oxide (NO) influence on switching from sprouting angiogenesis (SA) to intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) under tumor microenvironment. Morphological analysis and SA-like or IA-like markers expression were determined during the development of chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) from day 5 to 13...
April 9, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29634957/the-effect-of-repeated-bouts-of-hyperaemia-on-sensory-nerve-mediated-cutaneous-vasodilatation-in-humans
#13
Gary J Hodges, Stephen S Cheung
PURPOSE: To investigate cutaneous sensory nerve contribution to hyperaemia following chronic shear stress training. METHODS: Eleven males underwent a shear stress intervention (forearm occlusion 5 s, rest 10 s) for 30 min, 5 times·week-1 for 6 weeks on one arm, the other was an untreated control. Skin blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry, and sensory nerve function was assessed with and without blockade with EMLA cream in response to 3 levels of local heating (39, 42, and 44 °C) and post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia (PORH)...
April 7, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630973/anti-angiogenic-effect-of-a-humanized-antibody-blocking-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#14
Fangfang Qiu, Younghwa Shin, Danyang Chen, Rui Cheng, Qian Chen, Kelu Zhou, James W Larrick, Andrew R Mendelson, Jian-Xing Ma
PURPOSE: Our previous study demonstrated that Mab2F1, a murine monoclonal antibody blocking the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, has beneficial effects on experimental diabetic retinopathy and choroidal neovascularization (NV). The aforementioned antibody has been humanized. This study evaluated effects of the humanized antibody, H1L1, on NV. METHODS: H1L1 was evaluated in the alkali burn-induced corneal NV rat model. Rats with corneal NV were injected subconjunctivally with Mab2F1 or H1L1 using non-specific mouse or human IgG as controls...
April 6, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605552/automated-structure-and-flow-measurement-a-promising-tool-in-nailfold-capillaroscopy
#15
Michael Berks, Graham Dinsdale, Andrea Murray, Tonia Moore, Joanne Manning, Chris Taylor, Ariane L Herrick
OBJECTIVES: Despite increasing interest in nailfold capillaroscopy, objective measures of capillary structure and blood flow have been little studied. We aimed to test the hypothesis that structural measurements, capillary flow, and a combined measure have the predictive power to separate patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) from those with primary Raynaud's phenomenon (PRP) and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: 50 patients with SSc, 12 with PRP, and 50 HC were imaged using a novel capillaroscopy system that generates high-quality nailfold images and provides fully-automated measurements of capillary structure and blood flow (capillary density, mean width, maximum width, shape score, derangement and mean flow velocity)...
March 29, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604296/circulating-cd34-and-cd34-vegfr2-progenitor-cells-are-associated-with-klotho-kl-vs-polymorphism
#16
Maria Skrzypkowska, Bartosz Słomiński, Monika Ryba-Stanisławowska, Piotr Gutknecht, Janusz Siebert
BACKGROUND: KLOTHO is a regulator of endothelial cells activity and integrity. It has been described for the first time because of its anti-aging properties. KLOTHO encoding gene is present in many functional variants in humans, including "KL-VS" variant that has been connected with longevity and cardiovascular disease development. Few mechanisms have been proposed to explain these associations, but none of them focused on cells from CD34+ population. The aim of our study was to investigate influence of KLOTHO KL-VS polymorphism on populations of CD34+ and CD34+VEGFR2+ cells...
March 28, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601875/microvascular-abnormalities-in-dry-eye-patients
#17
Wan Chen, Yuqing Deng, Hong Jiang, Jianhua Wang, Jing Zhong, Saiqun Li, Lulu Peng, Bowen Wang, Ruhui Yang, Henan Zhang, Meng Li, Jin Yuan
This study was conducted to evaluate conjunctival blood flow velocities and microvascular network density in patients with dry eye disease (DED). Twenty-five patients with DED and 25 healthy controls were recruited. The microvasculature and microcirculation of the temporal bulbar conjunctiva of the right eyes were assessed using a functional slit-lamp biomicroscope. Vascular variables included blood flow velocity (BFV), blood flow rate (BFR), microvascular network density and vessel diameter. A fractal analysis was performed using the box counting method to measure the fractal dimension (Dbox) representing the vessel density...
March 27, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601874/isolating-the-influences-of-fluid-dynamics-on-selectin-mediated-particle-rolling-at-venular-junctional-regions
#18
John J Jung, Korie A Grayson, Michael R King, Kathleen A Lamkin-Kennard
The objective of this study was to isolate the impact of hydrodynamics on selectin-mediated cell rolling in branched microvessels. Significant advancements have been made in furthering the understanding of complex interactions between biochemical and physical factors on the inflammatory cascade in simplified planar geometries. However, few studies have sought to quantify the effects of branched configurations and to isolate the effects of associated fluid forces. Experimental techniques were developed to perform in vitro adhesion experiments in Y-shaped micro-slides...
March 27, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601873/homocysteine-up-regulates-et-b-receptors-via-suppression-of-autophagy-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#19
Yulong Chen, Hongmei Zhang, Huanhuan Liu, Ke Li, Xingli Su
The change of autophagy is implicated in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Homocysteine (Hcy) up-regulates endothelin type B (ETB ) receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, it is unclear whether autophagy is involved in Hcy-induced-up-regulation of ETB receptors in VSMCs. The present study was designed to examine the hypothesis that Hcy up-regulates ETB receptors by inhibiting autophagy in VSMCs. Hcy treated the rat superior mesenteric artery (SMA) without endothelium in the presence and absence of AICAR, rapamycin or MHY1485 for 24 h...
March 27, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596860/endothelial-dysfunction-endothelial-nitric-oxide-bioavailability-tetrahydrobiopterin-and-5-methyltetrahydrofolate-in-cardiovascular-disease-where-are-we-with-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Matthew F Yuyun, Leong L Ng, G André Ng
Homeostasis around vascular endothelium is a function of the equilibrium between the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) and oxidizing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Within the vascular endothelium, NO enhances vasodilatation, reduces platelet aggression and adhesion (anti-thrombotic), prevents smooth muscle proliferation, inhibits adhesion of leukocytes and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines genes (anti-inflammatory), and counters the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. A shift in the equilibrium that favours NO deficiency and ROS formation leads to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease...
March 27, 2018: Microvascular Research
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