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Microvascular Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549566/asymmetrical-responses-of-skin-blood-flow-in-ischemic-hindlimbs-to-electrical-stimulation-of-the-unilateral-forelimb
#1
Chung-Shin Huang, Ya-Hui Sun, Yi-Ting Wang, Yu-Hung Pan, Shwu-Fen Wang, Yuan-Feen Tsai
The regulation of skin blood flow (SBF) is primarily mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, but the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) of one limb on SBF in the other limbs remain unknown. The present study investigated the effects of unilateral forelimb ES on SBF in the bilateral hindlimbs in anesthetized rats. Bilateral hindlimb ischemia was induced by tourniquet application for 60min. After reperfusion for 24h, ES (3 or 125Hz) was applied to the upper one-fourth of the triceps brachii muscle of the left or right forelimb for 30min...
May 23, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546078/doxycycline-affects-gene-expression-profiles-in-aortic-tissues-in-a-rat-model-of-vascular-calcification
#2
Hailin Lu, Wenhong Jiang, Han Yang, Zhong Qin, Si-En Guo, Ming Hu, Xiao Qin
Vitamin D3-induced vascular calcification (VC) in rats shares many phenotypical similarities with calcification occurring in human atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, thereby it is a reliable model for identifying chemopreventive agents. Doxycycline has been shown to effectively attenuated VC. This study aimed to explore the effects of doxycycline on gene expression profiles in VC rats. The model of VC in rats was established by subcutaneous injection of vitamin D3 for 3days. Doxycycline at 120mgkg(-1)day(-1) was given via subcutaneous injection for 14days...
May 22, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546077/systemic-administration-of-l-kynurenine-sulfate-induces-cerebral-hypoperfusion-transients-in-adult-c57bl-6-mice
#3
Dániel Péter Varga, Ákos Menyhárt, Tamás Puskás, Ferenc Bari, Eszter Farkas, Zsolt Kis, László Vécsei, József Toldi, Levente Gellért
The kynurenine pathway is a cascade of enzymatic steps generating biologically active compounds. l-kynurenine (l-KYN) is a central metabolite of tryptophan degradation. In the mammalian brain, l-KYN is partly converted to kynurenic acid (KYNA), which exerts multiple effects on neurotransmission. Recently, l-KYN or one of its derivatives were attributed a direct role in the regulation of the systemic circulation. l-KYN dilates arterial blood vessels during sepsis in rats, while it increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) in awake rabbits...
May 22, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546076/sirna-knockdown-of-adamts-13-modulates-endothelial-cell-angiogenesis
#4
Huiyuan Tang, Manfai Lee, Eun Ho Kim, Daniel Bishop, George M Rodgers
ADAMTS-13, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13, is a zinc-containing metalloprotease that cleaves von Willebrand factor (vWf). Previous publications by our laboratory have shown that ADAMTS-13 may also be involved in angiogenesis. For this study, we report the successful transient knockdown of endogenous ADAMTS-13 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) via siRNA and the effects of reduced endogenous ADAMTS-13 on HUVEC angiogenesis functions. 15nM of ADAMTS-13 siRNA reduced HUVEC ADAMTS-13 protein levels by 90% after 24h incubation, whereas control siRNA did not affect endogenous ADAMTS-13 levels...
May 22, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529172/contribution-of-muscarinic-receptors-to-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-effects-of-ruscus-extract
#5
Isabelle Rauly-Lestienne, Peter Heusler, Didier Cussac, Frédérique Lantoine-Adam, Fatima Zely Garcia de Almeida Cyrino, Eliete Bouskela
The objectives of this study were to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, the contribution of muscarinic receptors to the effects of Ruscus extract. Ruscus extract was tested in competition binding experiments at recombinant human muscarinic receptors, heterologous expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and in cellular assays measuring Ca(2+) liberation and activator protein-1 (AP-1) reporter gene activation. The impact of muscarinic blockade on prolonged treatment outcome was evaluated using the hamster cheek pouch (HCP) microcirculation examining macromolecular permeability increase induced by histamine or ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), mean arteriolar and venular diameters, functional capillary density and I/R-induced leukocyte rolling and sticking...
May 18, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529171/reproducibility-of-flow-mediated-skin-fluorescence-to-assess-microvascular-function
#6
Marcin Hellmann, Maria Tarnawska, Maria Dudziak, Karolina Dorniak, Matthieu Roustit, Jean-Luc Cracowski
OBJECTIVE: Recent technical developments enable skin fluorescence to be quantified in vivo in humans. The present study aimed at determining whether flow mediated skin fluorescence was reproducible, sensitive to changes within an individual, and if it could differ between patients with coronary artery disease and healthy volunteers. METHODS: First, forearm flow mediated skin fluorescence recorded during and after brachial artery occlusion was assessed following successive forearm occlusion periods (1, 2, 3 and 5min) and expressed as ischemic and hyperemic responses (as % of baseline)...
May 18, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495471/quantitative-outcome-measures-for-systemic-sclerosis-related-microangiopathy-reliability-of-image-acquisition-in-nailfold-capillaroscopy
#7
Graham Dinsdale, Tonia Moore, Neil O'Leary, Michael Berks, Christopher Roberts, Joanne Manning, John Allen, Marina Anderson, Maurizio Cutolo, Roger Hesselstrand, Kevin Howell, Carmen Pizzorni, Vanessa Smith, Alberto Sulli, Marie Wildt, Christopher Taylor, Andrea Murray, Ariane L Herrick
BACKGROUND: Nailfold capillaroscopic parameters hold increasing promise as outcome measures for clinical trials in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Their inclusion as outcomes would often naturally require capillaroscopy images to be captured at several time points during any one study. Our objective was to assess repeatability of image acquisition (which has been little studied), as well as of measurement. METHOD: 41 patients (26 with SSc, 15 with primary Raynaud's phenomenon) and 10 healthy controls returned for repeat high-magnification (300×) videocapillaroscopy mosaic imaging of 10 digits one week after initial imaging (as part of a larger study of reliability)...
May 8, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495449/peripheral-circulatory-disorders-in-essential-thrombocythemia
#8
Rafał Małecki, Małgorzata Gacka, Żanna Fiodorenko-Dumas, Ilias Dumas, Jacek Kwiatkowski, Rajmund Adamiec, Małgorzata Kuliszkiewicz-Janus
A significant amount of patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) complain of symptoms including distal parts of the extremities (e.g., paresthesias or Raynaud's phenomenon). The aim of the present study was to examine peripheral circulation in the upper extremities of individuals with ET. The study included 45 ET patients and 30 control subjects. All participants were subjected to thermography, photoplethysmography, impedance plethysmography, and applanation tonometry pulse wave analysis. The patients with ET differed significantly from the control subjects in terms of 3rd finger skin temperature (mean 31...
May 7, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478072/modeling-of-pulsatile-flow-dependent-nitric-oxide-regulation-in-a-realistic-microvascular-network
#9
Ruofan Wang, Qing Pan, Wolfgang M Kuebler, John K-J Li, Axel R Pries, Gangmin Ning
Hemodynamic pulsatility has been reported to regulate microcirculatory function. To quantitatively assess the impact of flow pulsatility on the microvasculature, a mathematical model was first developed to simulate the regulation of NO production by pulsatile flow in the microcirculation. Shear stress and pressure pulsatility were selected as regulators of endothelial NO production and NO-dependent vessel dilation as feedback to control microvascular hemodynamics. The model was then applied to a real microvascular network of the rat mesentery consisting of 546 microvessels...
May 3, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457877/assessing-cutaneous-microvascular-function-with-iontophoresis-avoiding-non-specific-vasodilation
#10
Jordan Loader, Matthieu Roustit, Frances Taylor, Richard J MacIsaac, Simon Stewart, Christian Lorenzen, Guillaume Walther
AIM: Iontophoresis of vasoactive agents is commonly used to assess cutaneous microvascular reactivity. However, it is known that iontophoresis can be limited by confounding non-specific vasodilatory effects. Despite this, there is still no standardization of protocols or data expression. Therefore, this study evaluated commonly used protocols of iontophoresis by assessing each for evidence of non-specific vasodilatory effects and examined the reproducibility of those protocols that are free of non-specific responses...
April 28, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455225/temporal-and-spatiotemporal-variability-in-comprehensive-forearm-skin-microcirculation-assessment-during-occlusion-protocols
#11
Tomas Strömberg, Folke Sjöberg, Sara Bergstrand
Forearm skin hyperemia during release after brachial occlusion has been proposed for evaluating peripheral arterial disease and endothelial dysfunction. We used a novel fiberoptic system integrating Laser Doppler Flowmetry and Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for a comprehensive pointwise model based microcirculation characterization. The aim was to evaluate and compare the temporal and the spatiotemporal variabilities in forearm skin microcirculation parameters (speed resolved perfusion; low speed <1mm/s, PerfSR, <1; mid-speed 1-10mm/s, high speed >10mm/s, and total perfusion (PerfSR, tot); the concentration and oxygenation of red blood cells, CRBC and SO2)...
April 26, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450106/detection-of-early-endothelial-damage-in-patients-with-raynaud-s-phenomenon
#12
Roberta Gualtierotti, Francesca Ingegnoli, Samantha Griffini, Elena Grovetti, Maria Orietta Borghi, Paolo Bucciarelli, Pier Luigi Meroni, Massimo Cugno
OBJECTIVES: Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) can be the first manifestation of systemic sclerosis (SSc) or other connective tissue diseases (CTDs), often preceding an overt disease by years. It is not known if markers of endothelial damage are detectable in those RP patients who subsequently develop a CTD. METHODS: We studied 82 RP patients at their first evaluation to correlate the levels of endothelial markers with the subsequent development of an overt disease 36months later...
April 25, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427990/neuropeptide-y-not-involved-in-cutaneous-vascular-control-in-young-human-females-taking-oral-contraceptive-hormones
#13
Gary J Hodges, Zachary T Martin, Andrew T Del Pozzi
We previously reported that the cutaneous vasodilator response to local warming in males required noradrenaline (NA) and neuropeptide-Y (NPY). Animal work has shown no role for NPY in female vascular control. We investigated the contribution of NA and NPY in human female cutaneous vascular control. Nine female and nine male participants volunteered. To elucidate whether synthetic oestrogen and progesterone altered cutaneous vascular responses, females were tested in high-hormone (HH) and low-hormone (LH) phases of oral contraceptive pill (OCP)...
April 18, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414021/elliptical-broken-line-method-for-calculating-capillary-density-in-nailfold-capillaroscopy-proposal-and-evaluation
#14
Abdolamir Karbalaie, Farhad Abtahi, Alimohammad Fatemi, Mahnaz Etehadtavakol, Zahra Emrani, Björn-Erik Erlandsson
Nailfold capillaroscopy is a practical method for identifying and obtaining morphological changes in capillaries which might reveal relevant information about diseases and health. Capillaroscopy is harmless, and seems simple and repeatable. However, there is lack of established guidelines and instructions for acquisition as well as the interpretation of the obtained images; which might lead to various ambiguities. In addition, assessment and interpretation of the acquired images are very subjective. In an attempt to overcome some of these problems, in this study a new modified technique for assessment of nailfold capillary density is introduced...
April 14, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390895/observation-and-characterization-of-microvascular-vasomotion-using-erythrocyte-mediated-icg-angiography-em-icg-a
#15
Robert W Flower, Ronn Kling
A clinical method for characterizing the state of micro-vasculature vasomotion is demonstrated, based on observing in capillaries the dynamics of autologously re-injected erythrocytes containing ICG dye. Since a manifestation of vasomotion is transient erythrocyte pausing, vasomotion state within a field of capillaries is characterized by an histogram plot of the number of paused erythrocytes as a function of pause duration during a fixed period of observation, then the ratio of long-pausing to short-pausing erythrocytes was calculated...
April 5, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365218/modelling-of-subarachnoid-space-width-changes-in-apnoea-resulting-as-a-function-of-blood-flow-parameters
#16
Renata Kalicka, Kamila Mazur, Jacek Wolf, Andrzej F Frydrychowski, Krzysztof Narkiewicz, Pawel J Winklewski
During apnoea, the pial artery is subjected to two opposite physiological processes: vasoconstriction due to elevated blood pressure and vasorelaxation driven by rising pH in the brain parenchyma. We hypothesized that the pial artery response to apnoea may vary, depending on which process dominate. Apnoea experiments were performed in a group of 19 healthy, non-smoking volunteers (9 men and 10 women). The following parameters were obtained for further analysis: blood pressure, the cardiac (from 0.5 to 5.0Hz) and slow (<0...
March 30, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363496/therapeutic-progenitor-cell-application-for-tissue-regeneration-analyzing-the-impact-of-toll-like-receptor-signaling-on-c-kit-cell-migration-following-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-vivo
#17
Peter Donndorf, Saifullah Abubaker, Brigitte Vollmar, Christian Rimmbach, Gustav Steinhoff, Alexander Kaminski
OBJECTIVES: Toll-like-receptor (TLR) mediated immune response has been shown to regulate myocardial damage following cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR). It has not been described conclusively so far whether migration of therapeutically applied progenitor cells following an IR event depends on TLR-signaling. METHODS: In vivo migratory capacity murine c-kit(+) cells following IR injury was quantified by intravital fluorescence microscopy, utilizing the mouse cremaster muscle model and analyzing early (rolling) and late (adhesion) c-kit(+) cell interaction with the local endothelium...
March 29, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363495/nitric-oxide-release-by-deoxymyoglobin-nitrite-reduction-during-cardiac-ischemia-a-mathematical-model
#18
Yien Liu, Donald G Buerk, Kenneth A Barbee, Dov Jaron
Interactions between cardiac myoglobin (Mb), nitrite, and nitric oxide (NO) are vital in regulating O2 storage, transport, and NO homeostasis. Production of NO through the reduction of endogenous myocardial nitrite by deoxygenated myoglobin has been shown to significantly reduce myocardial infarction damage and ischemic injury. We developed a mathematical model for a cardiac arteriole and surrounding myocardium to examine the hypothesis that myoglobin switches functions from being a strong NO scavenger to an NO producer via the deoxymyoglobin nitrite reductase pathway...
March 28, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347755/inhibition-of-inflammation-induced-shedding-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-with-low-molecular-weight-heparin
#19
Herbert H Lipowsky, Anne Lescanic
The endothelial surface layer (ESL) consists of the endothelial cell (EC) glycocalyx and adsorbed proteins, and forms a barrier between blood and the EC. Enzymatic shedding of the ESL in response to cytokines may expose receptors for leukocyte (WBC) adhesion and increase vascular permeability. Thus, intravital microscopy was used to explore stabilization of the ESL with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) to mitigate structural changes with inflammation. Following bolus infusions (i.v.) of LMWH (0.12-1.6mg/kg), shedding of glycans in response to 10(-7)M fMLP was measured by loss of fluorescently labeled lectins bound to the EC and WBC-EC adhesion was monitored in post-capillary venules of rat mesentery...
March 27, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347756/gaussian-modelling-characteristics-changes-derived-from-finger-photoplethysmographic-pulses-during-exercise-and-recovery
#20
Anran Wang, Lin Yang, Weimin Wen, Song Zhang, Guanxiong Gu, Dingchang Zheng
Gaussian modelling method has been reported as a useful method to analyze arterial pulse waveform changes. This study aimed to provide scientific evidence on Gaussian modelling characteristics changes derived from the finger photoplethysmographic (PPG) pulses during exercise and recovery. 65 healthy subjects (18 female and 47 male) were recruited. Finger PPG pulses were digitally recorded with 5 different exercise loads (0, 50, 75, 100, 125W) as well as during each of 4minute (min) recovery period. The PPG pulses were normalized in both width and amplitude for each recording, which were decomposed into three independent Gaussian waves with nine parameters determined, including the peak amplitude (H1, H2, H3), peak time position (N1, N2, N3) and half-width (W1, W2, W3) from each Gaussian wave, and four extended parameters determined, including the peak time interval (T1,2, T1,3) and amplitude ratio (R1,2, R1,3) between 1st Gaussian wave and 2nd, 3rd Gaussian waves...
March 24, 2017: Microvascular Research
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