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Microvascular Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818494/gts-21-reduces-microvascular-permeability-during-experimental-endotoxemia
#1
Karsten Schmidt, Sukanya Bhakdisongkhram, Florian Uhle, Christoph Philipsenburg, Aleksandar R Zivkovic, Thorsten Brenner, Johann Motsch, Markus A Weigand, Stefan Hofer
INTRODUCTION: No effective pharmacological therapy is currently available to attenuate tissue edema formation due to increased microvascular permeability in sepsis. Cholinergic mediators have been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory effects via the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) during inflammation. GTS-21, a partial α7nAChR agonist, is an appealing therapeutic substance for sepsis-induced microvascular inflammation due to its demonstrated cholinergic anti-inflammatory properties and its favorable safety profile in clinical trials...
August 14, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782513/the-effect-of-age-on-the-response-of-retinal-capillary-filling-to-changes-in-intraocular-pressure-measured-by-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#2
Xiaoyun Jiang, Elaine Johnson, William Cepurna, Diana Lozano, Shaojie Men, Ruikang K Wang, John Morrison
PURPOSE: To compare the effect of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) on retinal capillary filling in elderly vs adult rats using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: The IOP of elderly (24-month-old, N=12) and adult (6-8month-old, N=10) Brown Norway rats was elevated in 10mmHg increments from 10 to 100mmHg. At each IOP level, 3D OCT data were captured using an optical microangiography (OMAG) scanning protocol and then post-processed to obtain both structural and vascular images...
August 3, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772105/transient-endothelial-dysfunction-induced-by-sugar-sweetened-beverage-consumption-may-be-attenuated-by-a-single-bout-of-aerobic-exercise
#3
Pia Varsamis, Guillaume Walther, Bianca Share, Frances Taylor, Simon Stewart, Christian Lorenzen, Jordan Loader
BACKGROUND: This study assessed whether aerobic exercise would attenuate microvascular endothelial dysfunction induced by commercial sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. METHODS: Eleven healthy males participated in this randomized, single-blind crossover study. Cutaneous microvascular endothelial function was assessed using laser speckle contrast imaging coupled with post-occlusive reactive hyperemia before and after a) consumption of water; b) consumption of a commercial SSB; c) 30min of aerobic exercise followed by water consumption; and d) 30 minutes of aerobic exercise followed by SSB consumption...
July 31, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751169/differences-in-laser-doppler-indices-between-skin-surface-measurement-sites-in-subjects-with-diabetes
#4
Hsin Hsiu, Hsiao-Feng Hu, Hung-Chi Tsai
This study performed laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) measurements with the aim of identifying differences in diabetes-induced microcirculatory-blood-flow (MBF) responses between the following skin surface measurement sites: an acupoint around the wrist, an acupoint around the ankle, and a nearby nonacupoint around the ankle. The 67 study subjects were assigned to diabetic, prediabetic, and healthy groups according to the results of oral glucose tolerance tests. Beat-to-beat and spectral analyses were applied to the LDF waveform to obtain the foot delay time (FDT), the flow rise time (FRT), and the relative energy contributions (RECs) in five frequency bands...
July 25, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732797/functional-convergence-of-akt-protein-with-vegfr-1-in-human-endothelial-progenitor-cells-exposed-to-sera-from-patient-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Mehdi Hassanpour, Aysa Rezabakhsh, Reza Rahbarghazi, Alireza Nourazarian, Mohammad Nouri, Çığır Biray Avci, Shahrooz Ghaderi, Neda Alidadyani, Bakiye Goker Bagca, Hesam Saghaei Bagheri
Diabetes mellitus type 2 predisposes patients to various microvascular complications. In the current experiment, the potent role of diabetes mellitus was investigated on the content of VEGFR-1, -2, Tie-1 and -2, and Akt in human endothelial progenitor cells. The gene expression profile of mTOR and Hedgehog signaling pathways were measured by PCR array. The possible crosstalk between RTKs, mTOR and Hedgehog signaling was also studied by bioinformatic analysis. Endothelial progenitor cells were incubated with serum from normal and diabetic for 7days...
July 18, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729163/computational-analysis-of-interactions-of-oxidative-stress-and-tetrahydrobiopterin-reveals-instability-in-enos-coupling
#6
Sheetal Joshi, Saptarshi Kar, Mahendra Kavdia
In cardiovascular and neurovascular diseases, an increase in oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction has been reported. There is a reduction in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), which is a cofactor for the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), resulting in eNOS uncoupling. Studies of the enhancement of BH4 availability have reported mixed results for improvement in endothelial dysfunction. Our understanding of the complex interactions of eNOS uncoupling, oxidative stress and BH4 availability is not complete and a quantitative understanding of these interactions is required...
July 18, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666802/a-novel-modified-physiologically-relevant-model-for-cardiac-angiogenesis
#7
Hao Zhang, Jiajun Pan, Fan Qiu, Tengteng Wei, Zhimin Li, Xia Jiang, Wei Zhuang, Zhiwei Liu, Zhongming Zhang, Hongyan Dong
Angiogenesis assays are important tools for studying both the mechanisms of cardiac angiogenesis and the potential development of therapeutic strategies to ischemic heart diseases. Currently, various assays have been used to quantitate cardiac tubule formation, yet no consensus has been reached regarding a suitable assay for evaluating the efficacy of angiogenic stimulants or inhibitors. Most in vivo angiogenesis assays are complex and difficult to interpret, whereas traditional in vitro angiogenesis models measure only one aspect of this process...
June 28, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625890/acute-effects-of-coffee-on-skin-blood-flow-and-microvascular-function
#8
Erik Tesselaar, Dzeneta Nezirevic Dernroth, Simon Farnebo
OBJECTIVE: Studies on the acute effects of coffee on the microcirculation have shown contradicting results. This study aimed to investigate if intake of caffeine-containing coffee changes blood flow and microvascular reactivity in the skin. METHODS: We measured acute changes in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) in the forearm and the tip of the finger, the microvascular response to transdermal iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) in the skin, after intake of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee...
June 15, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619665/computer-modelling-of-electro-osmotically-augmented-three-layered-microvascular-peristaltic-blood-flow
#9
Dharmendra Tripathi, Abhilesh Borode, Ravinder Jhorar, O Anwar Bég, Abhishek Kumar Tiwari
A theoretical study is presented here for the electro-osmosis modulated peristaltic three-layered capillary flow of viscous fluids with different viscosities in the layers. The layers considered here are the core layer, the intermediate layer and the peripheral layer. The analysis has been carried out under a number of physical restrictions viz. Debye-Hückel linearization (i.e. wall zeta potential ≤25mV) is assumed sufficiently small, thin electric double layer limit (i.e. the peripheral layer is much thicker than the electric double layer thickness), low Reynolds number and large wavelength approximations...
June 12, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619664/nailfold-capillaroscopic-changes-in-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-and-systemic-sclerosis-related-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#10
A Corrado, M Correale, N Mansueto, I Monaco, A Carriero, A Mele, R Colia, M Di Biase, F P Cantatore
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) represents one of the main clinical expressions of the vascular changes in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Lung microvascular changes can play a role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic PAH (IPAH) also. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of capillaroscopic abnormalities in patients with IPAH and to evaluate the differences in capillary nailfold changes between patients with IPAH and patients with SSc with and without PAH. METHODS: 39 SSc patients (19 with PAH - SSc-PAH and 20 without - SSc-noPAH), 21 subjects with IPAH and 20 healthy subjects were recruited...
June 12, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602918/angiogenic-and-angiostatic-factors-in-renal-scleroderma-associated-vasculopathy
#11
Antonietta Gigante, Luca Navarini, Domenico Margiotta, Antonio Amoroso, Biagio Barbano, Rosario Cianci, Antonella Afeltra, Edoardo Rosato
BACKGROUND: The angiogenesis in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is impaired. An imbalance of pro-angiogenic factors and angiogenesis inhibitors has been implicated in the progression of peripheral microvascular damage, defective vascular repair and fibrosis. Intrarenal resistance index are considered markers of renal vasculopathy. The aim of the study is to evaluate angiogenic and angiostatic factors (VEGF and endostatin) in SSc patients and to correlate with intrarenal hemodynamic parameters...
June 8, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595801/deregulation-of-hsa-mir-20b-expression-in-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-premature-senescence-of-human-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#12
Pooi-Fong Wong, Juliana Jamal, Kind-Leng Tong, Eng-Soon Khor, Chia-Earn Yeap, Hui-Lan Jong, Sui-Ting Lee, Mohd Rais Mustafa, Sazaly Abubakar
miRNAs are important regulators of cellular senescence yet the extent of their involvement remains to be investigated. We sought to identify miRNAs that are involved in cytokine-induced premature senescence (CIPS) in endothelial cells. CIPS was established in young human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-Ls) following treatment with a sublethal dose (20ng/ml) of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) for 15days. In parallel, HMVEC-Ls were grown and routinely passaged until the onset of replicative senescence (RS)...
June 5, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587989/hypertension-alters-the-endothelial-dependent-biphasic-response-of-bradykinin-in-isolated-microminipig-basilar-artery
#13
Md Zahorul Islam, Hiroaki Kawaguchi, Naoki Miura, Noriaki Miyoshi, Emi Yamazaki-Himeno, Mitsuya Shiraishi, Atsushi Miyamoto, Akihide Tanimoto
Angiotensin (Ang) II is known to promote vascular disease and hypertension, partly through its effect on vascular endothelium. Bradykinin (BK) is an endothelium-dependent agonist that induces relaxation followed by contraction of the porcine basilar artery through release of NO and PGF2α, respectively. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Ang II-induced hypertension on basilar artery responsiveness to BK in the Microminipig (MMPig). Ang II (200ng/kg/min) or vehicle was infused into MMPigs for 14days using an osmotic mini-pump and blood pressure was monitored regularly...
June 3, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579512/homocysteine-up-regulates-endothelin-type-a-receptor-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-through-sirt1-erk1-2-signaling-pathway
#14
Yulong Chen, Huanhuan Liu, Xinhong Wang, Hongmei Zhang, Enqi Liu, Xingli Su
Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is a longevity gene that has protective effects in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The endothelin type A (ETA) receptor is involved in pathogenesis of CVDs. The extracellular signal related kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway is involved in regulation of the ETA receptor induced by some CVD risk factors in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is an independent risk factor for CVDs. The present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that homocysteine up-regulates ETA receptor through the Sirt1/ERK1/2 signaling pathway...
June 1, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571890/a-clinical-method-for-quantification-of-tissue-microvascular-blood-perfusion-in-absolute-terms-blood-volume-time%C3%A2-tissue-area
#15
Robert W Flower, Ronn Kling
Fluorescence-mediated photoplethysmography (FM-PPG) was developed to facilitate determination of tissue microvascular (capillary) blood perfusion, requiring intra-venous injection of a small bolus (~0.33mL) of dye (25mg/mL ICG) and acquisition of high-speed angiogram images (>15images/s). The methodology is applicable to microvascular capillary beds of tissues that can be optically imaged, directly or laparoscopically. Proof of concept of the methodology and feasibility of its implementation are demonstrated in human forearm skin and in the choroid of a monkey eye, determined to have blood perfusion rates on the order of 1e-5mL/(s·mm(2)) and 10e-5mL/(s·mm(2)), respectively...
May 29, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549566/asymmetrical-responses-of-skin-blood-flow-in-ischemic-hindlimbs-to-electrical-stimulation-of-the-unilateral-forelimb
#16
Chung-Shin Huang, Ya-Hui Sun, Yi-Ting Wang, Yu-Hung Pan, Shwu-Fen Wang, Yuan-Feen Tsai
The regulation of skin blood flow (SBF) is primarily mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, but the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) of one limb on SBF in the other limbs remain unknown. The present study investigated the effects of unilateral forelimb ES on SBF in the bilateral hindlimbs in anesthetized rats. Bilateral hindlimb ischemia was induced by tourniquet application for 60min. After reperfusion for 24h, ES (3 or 125Hz) was applied to the upper one-fourth of the triceps brachii muscle of the left or right forelimb for 30min...
May 23, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385576/blood-transfusions-may-impair-endothelium-dependent-vasodilatation-during-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery
#17
Alessio Rungatscher, Elisabetta Milani, Cecilia Covajes, Seth Hallström, Leonardo Gottin, Gian Cesare Guidi, Giovanni Battista Luciani, Giuseppe Faggian
OBJECTIVE: The hemolytic product free-hemoglobin (fHb) reduces nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. The present study aims to establish whether administration of different blood transfusions result in increased circulating fHb levels and NO consumption with effects on arterial NO-dependent blood flow in patients undergoing CABG surgery. METHODS: Ninety-five consecutive patients undergoing elective CABG surgery were prospectively divided in four groups based on blood transfusion requirements during surgery: stored blood cells (SBC, n...
July 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363495/nitric-oxide-release-by-deoxymyoglobin-nitrite-reduction-during-cardiac-ischemia-a-mathematical-model
#18
Yien Liu, Donald G Buerk, Kenneth A Barbee, Dov Jaron
Interactions between cardiac myoglobin (Mb), nitrite, and nitric oxide (NO) are vital in regulating O2 storage, transport, and NO homeostasis. Production of NO through the reduction of endogenous myocardial nitrite by deoxygenated myoglobin has been shown to significantly reduce myocardial infarction damage and ischemic injury. We developed a mathematical model for a cardiac arteriole and surrounding myocardium to examine the hypothesis that myoglobin switches functions from being a strong NO scavenger to an NO producer via the deoxymyoglobin nitrite reductase pathway...
July 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347755/inhibition-of-inflammation-induced-shedding-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-with-low-molecular-weight-heparin
#19
Herbert H Lipowsky, Anne Lescanic
The endothelial surface layer (ESL) consists of the endothelial cell (EC) glycocalyx and adsorbed proteins, and forms a barrier between blood and the EC. Enzymatic shedding of the ESL in response to cytokines may expose receptors for leukocyte (WBC) adhesion and increase vascular permeability. Thus, intravital microscopy was used to explore stabilization of the ESL with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) to mitigate structural changes with inflammation. Following bolus infusions (i.v.) of LMWH (0.12-1.6mg/kg), shedding of glycans in response to 10(-7)M fMLP was measured by loss of fluorescently labeled lectins bound to the EC and WBC-EC adhesion was monitored in post-capillary venules of rat mesentery...
July 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274735/nailfold-capillaroscopy-in-diabetes-mellitus
#20
G Maldonado, R Guerrero, C Paredes, C Ríos
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia states and the development of specific microvascular disorders such as retinopathy and nephropathy. Conventional methods are used to study the vascular compromise of this entity, however, the use of capillaroscopy for the evaluation of capillary microarchitecture is not frequently used. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Observational and descriptive study of 65 patients with an established diagnosis of DM and a control group that underwent an initial capillaroscopy examination...
July 2017: Microvascular Research
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