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Developmental Psychobiology

José A Zepeda, Amando Bautista, Marylin Rangassamy, Raquel Monclús, Celine Bocquet, Margarita Martínez-Gómez, Patrick Gouat, Christophe Féron, Robyn Hudson, Heiko G Rödel
We asked whether within-litter differences in early body mass are associated with differences in house mouse pups' thermogenic performance and whether such variation predicts individual differences in competitive interactions for thermally more advantageous positions in the huddle. We explored pups' thermogenic performance in isolation by measuring changes in (maximal) peripheral body temperatures during a 5-min thermal challenge using infrared thermography. Changes in peripheral body temperature were significantly explained by individual differences in body mass within a litter; relatively lighter individuals showed an overall quicker temperature decrease leading to lower body temperatures toward the end of the thermal challenge compared to heavier littermates...
July 11, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Katharine V Northcutt, Vesta C Nwankwo
Juvenile male rats frequently play more than female rats, but the presence of sex differences is affected by testing conditions and may also depend on the strain of rat. In this experiment, we tested play and defensive behaviors in male and female Long-Evans, Sprague-Dawley, and Wistar rats. When observed with a cage mate during the juvenile period, Long-Evans rats played more than Wistar animals, but there were no sex differences in any strain. When tested with an unfamiliar sibling (not seen since weaning), both Long-Evans and Wistar rats played more than Sprague-Dawley animals, and Long-Evans females played more than males...
July 3, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Christine Hechler, Roseriet Beijers, J Marianne Riksen-Walraven, Carolina de Weerth
The present longitudinal study is the first to investigate the association between human breast milk cortisol and infant crying over the first three months of life. Higher concentrations of breast milk cortisol were expected to be differentially associated with fussing and crying in boys and girls. At 2, 6, and 12 weeks of infant age, mothers (N = 70) collected a morning sample of their milk and kept a 3-day diary to measure infant fussing and crying. Cortisol was extracted and quantified from milk samples...
July 1, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Anthea A Stylianakis, Sylvia K Harmon-Jones, Rick Richardson, Kathryn D Baker
Adolescence is thought of as a stress-sensitive developmental period. While many studies have compared adolescent responses to stress relative to that of adults, a growing body of work has examined stress responses in juveniles. Here we investigated if a chronic stressor has a differential effect on spatial memory in rats depending on whether it occurs during adolescence or the juvenile period. Male rats were exposed to the stress hormone corticosterone (Cort) in their drinking water, a vehicle control (2.5% ethanol), or water, for 7 days before being tested on a novel Object/Place task 6 days or 6 weeks later...
June 25, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Stassja Sichko, Jessica L Borelli, Patricia A Smiley, Alison Goldstein, Hannah F Rasmussen
Psychobiological convergence-the alignment of task-related changes in children's self-reported and physiological indices of reactivity-has recently emerged as a powerful correlate of children's attachment representations, but has not been explored for its association with children's self-reported attachment, with parents' attachment, or with respect to cardiovascular reactivity. The present study found that, within a diverse community sample of mothers and school-aged children (N = 104, Mage  = 10.31), the positive link between cardiovascular (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and subjective reactivity to a stressor was only significant among children with high levels of security and children of mothers with low levels of attachment avoidance and anxiety...
June 24, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Sierra Kuzava, Kristin Bernard
Parent-infant interaction is known to be influenced bidirectionally by parent and infant characteristics. However, it is unclear whether infant temperament affects parents' neural responses to infant stimuli. 85 infants (6-12 months) were filmed in distress-eliciting tasks, which were coded for infants' negative affect. Mothers' reported infant affect was obtained from the Infant Behavior Questionnaire Very Short Form-Revised. Mothers' EEG activity was recorded while passively viewing photos of own, familiarized, and unfamiliar infants...
June 24, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Nicholas J Wagner, Paul D Hastings, Kenneth H Rubin
Substantial theoretical and empirical literature suggests that the extent to which children's early experiences contribute to the development of aggressive behaviors may depend on the psychophysiological regulatory capacities of the child. This study adds to this literature by examining the relations between mothers' rejecting child-rearing attitudes and children's aggressive behaviors, as well as whether children's parasympathetic regulation, both at rest and in response to anger-inducing films, moderate these links...
June 21, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Sarah Kahle, Jonas G Miller, Jonathan L Helm, Paul D Hastings
Physiological recovery from negative emotions may be important for effective self-regulation, but little is known about recovery processes in children. The current study investigated links between autonomic physiology, anger expressions, and emotion regulation in a sample of eighty-three 3.5-year-olds. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and pre-ejection period were measured during an anger induction task as parasympathetic and sympathetic indices, respectively. We examined whether preschoolers' anger expressions and emotion regulation behaviors were associated with individual differences in physiology...
June 21, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Travis E Hodges, Jennet L Baumbach, Cheryl M McCormick
Adolescence is an important phase of development of social behaviors, which may be disrupted by the experience of stressors. We previously reported that exposure to social instability stress in adolescence (SS; postnatal day [PND] 30-45) in rats reduced social interactions with unfamiliar peers compared with non-stressed controls (CTL). In experiment 1, we replicated the effect of SS on social interaction and found that the pattern of neural activations based on Fos immunohistochemistry in brain regions during social interactions differed for SS and CTL rats...
June 21, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Raha Hassan, Kimberly L Day, Ryan J Van Lieshout, Louis A Schmidt
Although inhibitory control (IC) is associated with children's positive adjustment, we know relatively little about factors underlying its development. We examined whether baseline and on-task respiratory sinus arrhythmia [(RSA); a physiological measure of self-regulation] and private speech (a behavioral measure of self-regulation) interacted to confer differences on directly observed IC in 52 typically developing 4-year olds. We found that baseline RSA moderated the association between private speech and IC, such that private speech positively predicted IC in children with relatively higher baseline RSA, but was unrelated to IC in children with relatively lower RSA...
June 17, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Molly Davis, Kara West, Joanie Bilms, Diana Morelen, Cynthia Suveg
This manuscript provides a critical review of the literature on parent-child physiological synchrony-the matching of biological states between parents and children. All eligible studies found some evidence of physiological synchrony, though the magnitude and direction of synchrony varied according to methodological factors, including the physiological system examined (i.e., parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous system activity, adrenocortical functioning) and the statistical approach used (e.g., multilevel modeling, correlation)...
June 13, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Mairin E Augustine, Esther M Leerkes, Andrew Smolen, Susan D Calkins
Gene-by-environment interactions between maternal sensitivity during infancy and child oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR rs53576) and D2 dopamine receptor gene (DRD2 TaqIA, rs1822497) genotypes were explored as predictors of toddlers' well-regulated behavioral and physiological responses to maternal compliance demands. Maternal sensitivity was assessed across a range of mother-child interactions when children were 6 months and 1 year of age (N = 186), and toddler self-regulatory responses were assessed through compliance and vagal withdrawal during a toy clean-up task when children were 2 years of age...
June 13, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Cheryl K Walker, Catherine A VandeVoort, Chin-Shang Li, Charles L Chaffin, John P Capitanio
Growing evidence identifies maternal adiposity as a potentially modifiable risk factor for adverse neurodevelopment. This retrospective cohort analysis examined whether maternal prepregnancy adiposity and gestational weight gain were associated with behavioral outcomes in 173 rhesus macaque infants at the California National Primate Research Center. Dams conceived indoors, had uncomplicated pregnancies, delivered vaginally, and reared infants indoors. Infants underwent standardized biobehavioral analysis at 90-120 days of age from 3/2001-5/2015...
June 13, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Margaret M Swingler, Elif Isbell, Selin Zeytinoglu, Susan D Calkins, Esther M Leerkes
Separate lines of research have revealed that the rapid development of inhibitory control in the preschool period is closely tied to normative brain development and influenced by early mother-child interactions. One potential theory is that maternal behavior in the context of early interactions influences the neural underpinnings of inhibitory control in development, with implications for child behavior. The purpose of this paper was to examine whether maternal emotional support, measured during a mother-child problem-solving game, predicted child neural responses (frontal-central N2 event-related potential) and behavioral performance (discrimination index, d') in a go/no-go task of inhibitory control in a large, diverse sample of mother-child dyads (N = 276) observed in children's last year of preschool (mean age = 56 months)...
May 27, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Jin Qu, Esther M Leerkes
This study examined profiles of infant observed distress and physiological regulation indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) levels during the still-face paradigm at 6 months using a person-centered approach. Mothers and infants (N = 206) participated in the study when infants were 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years old. Attachment was assessed at 1 year via the Strange Situation. Children's compliance behaviors were assessed at 2 years during a toy clean-up task. Mothers reported children's behavior problems at 4...
May 23, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Hui Zhang, Tracy L Spinrad, Nancy Eisenberg, Linlin Zhang
The purpose of the study was to predict young children's shyness from both internal/biological (i.e., resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA) and external (i.e., neighborhood quality) factors. Participants were 180 children at 42 (Time 1; T1), 72 (T2), and 84 (T3) months of age. RSA data were obtained at T1 during a neutral film in the laboratory. Mothers reported perceived neighborhood quality at T2 and children's dispositional shyness at T1 and T3. Path analyses indicated that resting RSA interacted with neighborhood quality to predict T3 shyness, even after controlling for earlier family income and T1 shyness...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Seth M Davis, Makaela Rice, Jacob Rudlong, Victoria Eaton, Tamara King, Michael A Burman
Early life trauma has been linked to increased risks for anxiety, depression, and chronic pain. We used rodent models of acute and inflammatory neonatal pain to explore effects on fear conditioning and somatosensory function. Hindpaw needle pricks or handling on postnatal days (PNDs) 1-7 caused lasting impacts on affective and somatosensory function when assessed at later ages, PNDs 24 (postweaning), 45 (adolescence), or 66 (adulthood). First, auditory, but not contextual, freezing was mildly disrupted regardless of age...
May 10, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Hannah N McKillop, Arin M Connell
This study examined physiological linkage (specifically, linkage in respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA) between parents and youth (aged 11-17) across conflict and fun activity discussion tasks. We also examined whether observed, momentary negative affect or parental depressive symptoms, would moderate patterns of RSA linkage across the interaction tasks. RSA linkage was assessed using a multilevel actor-partner interdependence model (APIM). Participants were 59 mother-adolescent dyads, including mothers with or without clinically significant depressive symptoms...
May 10, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Elizabeth P Baker, Elliott C Magnuson, Ashley M Dahly, Jessica A Siegel
Methamphetamine alters behavior and the stress response system. Relatively little research has examined the effects of methamphetamine in adolescents and compared these effects to those in adults. Housing in enriched environments has been explored as one way to protect against the effects of methamphetamine, but the findings are conflicting and no study has examined how enriched environment may alter the behavioral and corticosterone responses to methamphetamine in adolescent and adult rodents. We examined the long-term effects of methamphetamine exposure on anxiety, social behavior, behavioral despair, and corticosterone levels in adolescent and adult mice housed in enriched or isolated environments...
May 8, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Vincent Forma, David I Anderson, François Goffinet, Marianne Barbu-Roth
This study examined the crawling characteristics of newborns placed prone on a water-filled, transparent pediatric mattress and whether exposure to terrestrial optic flows that specify forward and backward displacement would influence leg and arm crawling movements. Twenty-six 3-day-old newborns were exposed to a static checkerboard pattern that was back-projected onto the surface underneath the mattress or a checkerboard pattern that moved toward or away from them at 0.12 m/s. Significantly more flexion and extension crawling movements of the legs were observed in the optic flow conditions, although infants did not displace their bodies significantly further on the mattress in these conditions...
July 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
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