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Developmental Psychobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152736/protein-deficiency-decreases-stereotypic-behavior-frequency-and-prevalence-and-activity-in-the-striped-mouse-rhabdomys-dilectus-chakae
#1
Neville Pillay, Rebecca Rimbach
Diverse motivational triggers, including diet, elicit stereotypic behavior. We investigated whether diets comprised of different protein levels but similar levels of energy were associated with the occurrence of locomotor stereotypies in the striped mouse Rhabdomys dilectus chakae. In a first experiment, 20 stereotypic and 20 non-stereotypic (10 subjects per sex and per group) juvenile (40 days old) subjects were placed on baseline (BP), high (HP) or low protein (LP) diet treatments (120 subjects in total)...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152732/in-home-salivary-melatonin-collection-methodology-for-children-and-adolescents
#2
Belinda N Mandrell, Yvonne Avent, Breya Walker, Megan Loew, Brooklee Lightsey Tynes, Valerie McLaughlin Crabtree
In-home salivary collection quality and adherence to a prescribed collection methodology for evaluation of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) is unknown in children. Primary aims of this study were to 1) describe a novel family centered methodology for in-home salivary collection; 2) determine the acceptance and feasibility of this methodology; 3) measure adherence to collection instructions; and 4) identify patterns between participants' age and quality of samples collected. After receiving instructional handouts from the study team, families utilized in-home salivary melatonin collection...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152731/decision-making-under-risk-of-gain-in-young-children-and-mangabey-monkeys
#3
James Rivière, Mathilde Stomp, Elisa Augustin, Alban Lemasson, Catherine Blois-Heulin
In contrast to human adults, risk proneness in the gain domain is usually observed in both young children and non-human primates. It is currently unclear what mechanism might be underlying such economic preferences. We investigated decision-making under risk of gain in toddlers and monkeys. The choices of 2.5-year-old children and red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus) were examined in a gambling task for food reward in which participants have to choose between two options, a secure option and a risky option...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152730/development-of-behavioral-responses-to-thermal-challenges
#4
REVIEW
Delia S Shelton, Jeffrey R Alberts
Body temperature regulation involves the development of responses to cold and warm challenges. Matching our understanding of the development of body temperature regulation to warm challenges with that of cold challenges will enhance our understanding of the ontogeny of thermoregulation and reveal different adaptive specializations. Warm and cold thermoregulation are important processes, and they include direct thermal effects on offspring, as well as indirect effects on them, such as those imposed by thermally associated alterations of maternal behavior...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152716/erps-reveal-weaker-effects-of-spelling-on-auditory-rhyme-decisions-in-children-than-in-adults
#5
Suzanne E Welcome, Marc F Joanisse
A classic finding in psycholinguistics is that orthographic form influences the processing of auditory words. The aim of the present study was to examine how reading experience changes this effect. Specifically, we tested the prediction that top-down visual modulation of spoken word recognition is reduced in children compared to adults, owing to their reduced experience with print. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured as 8-10-year-old children and adults made rhyme decisions about spoken word pairs that were either orthographically similar or dissimilar...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130493/trajectories-of-resting-frontal-brain-activity-and-psychopathology-in-female-adolescents-exposed-to-child-maltreatment
#6
Alva Tang, Vladimir Miskovic, Ayelet Lahat, Masako Tanaka, Harriet MacMillan, Ryan J Van Lieshout, Louis A Schmidt
Resting frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha asymmetry patterns reflecting different affective and motivational tendencies have been proposed as a putative mechanism underlying resilience among maltreated youth. This 2-year prospective study examined whether developmental stability of resting frontal alpha asymmetry moderated the relation between child maltreatment severity and psychopathology in female adolescents (n = 43; ages 12-16) recruited from child protection agencies. Results identified two trajectories of resting frontal asymmetry: 60...
November 12, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130483/contributions-of-infant-vagal-regulation-at-1-month-to-subsequent-joint-attention-abilities
#7
Vera Mateus, Sara Cruz, Fernando Ferreira-Santos, Ana Osório, Adriana Sampaio, Carla Martins
Since birth, humans develop an ability to regulate their inner states and behaviors, when facing demanding situations, in order to restore calmness and engage with other persons and the surrounding environment. The present study analyzed whether 1-month infant vagal regulation to auditory stimuli was associated with later joint attention abilities-responding to and initiating joint attention-in interaction with their mothers. Twenty-three infants were assessed and measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia-RSA (baseline and vagal tone change during auditory stimulation) were used as index of vagal regulation...
November 12, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127717/salivary-uric-acid-and-c-reactive-protein-associations-with-hypertensionin-midwestern-latino-preadolescents-and-their-parents
#8
Blake L Jones, Salma Elwazeer, Zoe E Taylor
Latino families face increased risk for hypertension. Serum-based uric acid and C-reactive protein have been linked to hypertension. However, a paucity of salivary biomarker data exists in this area for Latino families. Using salivary biomarkers enables less invasive options for biomedical and biosocial research, which is especially important among vulnerable populations facing increased health disparities. This study examined the associations between salivary uric (sUA) acid, salivary C-reactive protein (sCRP), and hypertension among 151 participants (57 children, 57 mothers, 37 fathers) from 57 Midwestern Latino families...
November 11, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091282/correlation-between-maternal-anxiety-reactivity-of-fetal-cerebral-circulation-to-auditory-stimulation-and-birth-outcome-in-normotensive-and-gestational-hypertensive-women
#9
Marina Vujović, Mirjana Sovilj, Ljiljana Jeličić, Miodrag Stokić, Darko Plećaš, Snežana Plešinac, Nadežda Nedeljković
This study investigated the correlation between maternal anxiety and blood flow changes through the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) after defined acoustic stimulation in 43 normotensive (C) and 40 gestational hypertensive (GH) subjects. Neonatal outcomes (gestational age at birth, Apgar score, birth weight) in the C and GH groups were analyzed. State (STAI-S) and trait (STAI-T) anxiety was assessed using Spielberger's questionnaire. The MCA blood flow was assessed once between 28 and 41 weeks of gestation using color Doppler ultrasound before and after application of defined acoustic stimulus...
November 1, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091281/developmental-social-isolation-affects-adult-behavior-social-interaction-and-dopamine-metabolite-levels-in-zebrafish
#10
Soaleha Shams, Shahid Amlani, Christine Buske, Diptendu Chatterjee, Robert Gerlai
The zebrafish is a social vertebrate and an excellent translational model for a variety of human disorders. Abnormal social behavior is a hallmark of several human brain disorders. Social behavioral problems can arise as a result of adverse early social environment. Little is known about the effects of early social isolation in adult zebrafish. We compared zebrafish that were isolated for either short (7 days) or long duration (180 days) to socially housed zebrafish, testing their behavior across ontogenesis (ages 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 days), and shoal cohesion and whole-brain monoamines and their metabolites in adulthood...
November 1, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088496/all-bonds-are-not-alike-a-psychoendocrine-evaluation-of-infant-attachment
#11
Sabrina Gaudin, Elodie Chaillou, Marie-Anne Wycke, Fabien Cornilleau, Chantal Moussu, Ludovic Calandreau, Anne-Lyse Lainé, Raymond Nowak
Characteristics of attachment were assessed in peer- and object-reared lambs, and compared to mothered subjects by taking into consideration distress, proximity seeking, and exploration during two separation-reunion tests in both the familiar and a novel environment. Plasma cortisol and oxytocin were assayed as physiological indicators of stress and being comforted during the separation-reunion test. Rewarding properties of the familiar figures were also determined in a conditioned place preference-like paradigm...
October 31, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080325/rapid-facial-reactions-in-response-to-happy-and-angry-expressions-in-7-month-old-infants
#12
Amy Datyner, Julie D Henry, Jenny L Richmond
Humans rapidly and spontaneously activate muscles in the face when viewing emotional facial expressions in others. These rapid facial reactions (RFRs) are thought to reflect low-level, bottom-up processes, and are theorized to assist an observer to experience and share the affect of another individual. It has been assumed that RFRs are present from birth; however to date, no study has investigated this response in children younger than 3 years of age. In the present study, we used facial electromyography (EMG) to measure corrugator supercilii (brow) and zygomaticus major (cheek) muscle activity in 7-month-old infants while they viewed happy and angry facial expressions...
October 28, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071716/sensitivity-to-facial-expressions-among-extremely-low-birth-weight-survivors-in-their-30s
#13
Xiaoqing Gao, Ayelet Lahat, Daphne Maurer, Calan Savoy, Ryan J Van Lieshout, Michael H Boyle, Saroj Saigal, Louis A Schmidt
The current study investigated the impact of birth weight on the ability to recognize facial expressions in adulthood among the longest known prospectively followed cohort of extremely low birth weight survivors (ELBW; <1,000 g). We measured perceptual threshold to detect subtle facial expressions and confusion among different emotion categories in order to disentangle visual perceptual ability from emotional processing. ELBW adults (N = 64, Mage  = 31.9 years) were more likely than normal birth weight (NBW) controls (N = 82, Mage  = 32...
October 25, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071707/the-influence-of-grasping-habits-and-object-orientation-on-motor-planning-in-children-and-adults
#14
Bianca Jovanovic, Gudrun Schwarzer
We investigated the influence of habitual grasp strategies and object orientation on motor planning in 3-year-olds and 4- to 5-year-old children and adults. Participants were required to rotate different vertically oriented objects around 180°. Usually, adults perform this task by grasping objects with an awkward grip (thumb and index finger pointing downward) at the beginning of the movement, in order to finish it with a comfortable hand position. This pattern corresponds to the well-known end-state comfort effect (ESC) in grasp planning...
October 25, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027663/the-role-of-cardiac-vagal-tone-and-inhibitory-control-in-pre-schoolers-listening-comprehension
#15
Sara Scrimin, Elisabetta Patron, Elena Florit, Daniela Palomba, Lucia Mason
This study investigated the role of basal cardiac activity and inhibitory control at the beginning of the school year in predicting oral comprehension at the end of the year in pre-schoolers. Forty-three, 4-year-olds participated in the study. At the beginning of the school year children's electrocardiogram at rest was registered followed by the assessment of inhibitory control as well as verbal working memory and verbal ability. At the end of the year all children were administered a listening comprehension ability measure...
October 13, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944448/early-adolescent-stress-induced-changes-in-prefrontal-cortex-mirna-135a-and-hippocampal-mirna-16-in-male-rats
#16
Yuan Liu, Dexiang Liu, Jingjing Xu, Hong Jiang, Fang Pan
Early-life stress increases susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), in which the dysfunction of 5-hydroxytryptamine plays an important role. miRNA-135a in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and miRNA-16 in the hippocampus (HIP) are closely related to the 5-HT neurotransmitter system. Here, we investigated behavior, miRNA-135a in the PFC, miRNA-16 in the HIP, and 5-HT1AR expression in both brain regions in adolescent and adult rats that were exposed to inescapable stress during their adolescence. Paroxetine hydrochloride and corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist (CP-154,526) were used as intervening measures...
September 25, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888057/glucocorticoid-treatment-earlier-in-childhood-and-adolescence-show-dose-response-associations-with-diurnal-cortisol-levels
#17
Martin Vestergaard, Sara K Holm, Peter Uldall, Hartwig R Siebner, Olaf B Paulson, William F C Baaré, Kathrine S Madsen
Heightened levels of glucocorticoids in children and adolescents have previously been linked to prolonged changes in the diurnal regulation of the stress-hormone cortisol, a glucocorticoid regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA-axis). To address this question, we examined the salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR) and daily cortisol output in 36 children and adolescents (25 girls/11 boys) aged 7-16 years previously treated with glucocorticoids for nephrotic syndrome or rheumatic disorder and 36 healthy controls...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888054/maternal-salivary-testosterone-in-pregnancy-and-fetal-neuromaturation
#18
Kristin M Voegtline, Kathleen A Costigan, Janet A DiPietro
Testosterone exposure during pregnancy has been hypothesized as a mechanism for sex differences in brain and behavioral development observed in the postnatal period. The current study documents the natural history of maternal salivary testosterone from 18 weeks gestation of pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, and investigates associations with fetal heart rate, motor activity, and their integration. Findings indicate maternal salivary testosterone increases with advancing gestation though no differences by fetal sex were detected...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888030/increased-sign-tracking-behavior-in-adolescent-rats
#19
Nicole E DeAngeli, Sarah B Miller, Heidi C Meyer, David J Bucci
An autoshaping procedure was used to test the notion that conditioned stimuli (CSs) gain greater incentive salience during adolescence than young adulthood under conditions of social isolation rearing and food restriction. Rats were single-housed and placed on food restriction during 10 daily training sessions in which a lever (CS(+) ) was presented then followed immediately by a food unconditioned stimulus (US). A second lever (CS(-) ) was presented on intermixed trials and was not reinforced. Despite the fact that food delivery was not contingent on the rats' behavior, all rats exhibited behaviors directed towards the lever (i...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080326/prematurity-and-perinatal-adversity-effects-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-reactivity-to-social-evaluative-threat-in-adulthood
#20
Mary C Sullivan, Suzy B Winchester, Crystal I Bryce, Douglas A Granger
This study examined the long-term effects of prematurity and perinatal adversity on individual differences in stress-related reactivity and regulation of the HPA axis. A prospective sample of 155 infants born preterm and healthy (n = 20), medical illness (n = 48), neurological illness (n = 26), and small for gestational age (n = 24) and full-term (n = 37) were recruited between 1985 and 1989. At age 23 years, multiple saliva samples were collected before and after participation in the Trier Social Stress Test and later assayed for cortisol...
December 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
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