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Developmental Psychobiology

Danielle M de Campo, Judy L Cameron, Joseph M Miano, David A Lewis, Karoly Mirnics, Julie L Fudge
Early parental loss is associated with social-emotional dysregulation and amygdala physiologic changes. Previously, we examined whole amygdala gene expression in infant monkeys exposed to early maternal deprivation. Here, we focus on an amygdala region with immature neurons at birth: the paralaminar nucleus (PL). We hypothesized that 1) the normal infant PL is enriched in a subset of neural maturation (NM) genes compared to a nearby amygdala subregion; and 2) maternal deprivation would downregulate expression of NM transcripts (mRNA)...
December 4, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Airín D Martínez, Lillian Ruelas, Douglas A Granger
Uric acid (UA) is the end product of the metabolic breakdown of purine nucleotides. Recent studies have measured UA in saliva in relation to obesity and chronic disease risk. Given the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Latino youth, we examined gender and age differences in salivary uric acid (sUA) and weight in a sample of Mexican-origin children (n = 65, 2 months to 18 years, 49% female) and adults (n = 46, 19-58 years, 72% female). We measured weight, height, waist, and hip circumference and collected saliva samples (later assayed for sUA)...
November 26, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Marie-Claire Busnel, William Fifer, Carolyn Granier-Deferre, Roger Lecuyer, George Michel, Christine Moon, Robin Panneton, Benoist Schaal, Melanie Spence
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva, Paul Marshall, Thiago Wendt Viola, Anderson Centeno-Silva, Lucas Araújo de Azeredo, Rodrigo Orso, Xiang Li, Márcio V Donadio, Timothy W Bredy, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira
Exposure to early life stress has been associated with memory impairments related to changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. However, the potential impact of physical exercise to reverse these effects of maternal separation has been under investigated. Mice were subjected to maternal separation during the first 2 weeks of life and then exposed to a 3-week running protocol during adolescence. The spontaneous object recognition task was performed during adolescence followed by analysis of hippocampal expression of exons I, IV, and IX of the BDNF gene...
November 3, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Sunghye Cho, Kristin A Buss
There is a growing recognition that parental socialization influences interact with young children's emerging capacity for physiological regulation and shape children's developmental trajectories. Nevertheless, the transactional processes linking parental socialization and physiological regulatory processes remain not well understood, particularly for fear-prone toddlers. To address this gap in the literature, the present study investigated the biopsychosocial processes that underlie toddlers' fear regulation by examining the relations among toddler parasympathetic regulation, maternal appraisal, and parenting behaviors...
October 26, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Sterre S H Simons, Antonius H N Cillessen, Carolina de Weerth
The present study investigated whether cortisol stress responses of 6-year-olds were associated with their behavioral functioning at school. Additionally, the moderating role of stress in the family environment was examined. To this end, 149 healthy children (Mage  = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an age-appropriate innovative social evaluative stress test. Saliva cortisol samples were collected six times during the stress test to calculate two indices of the cortisol stress response: cortisol stress reactivity and total stress cortisol...
October 24, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Mikko J Peltola, Tiina Mäkelä, E Juulia Paavonen, Elina Vierikko, Outi Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Tiina Paunio, Jari K Hietanen, Anneli Kylliäinen
Maternal prenatal anxiety is associated with infants' temperamental negative affectivity (NA), but it is unclear to what extent children vary in their susceptibility to prenatal influences. We tested a hypothesis that infants' respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an index of parasympathetic vagal tone and a potential marker of differential susceptibility to environmental influences, moderates the effects of maternal prenatal anxiety on the development of infant NA. Prenatal anxiety was assessed during the last trimester of pregnancy in a low-risk community sample...
October 20, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Noa Gueron-Sela, Cathi B Propper, Nicholas J Wagner, Marie Camerota, Kristin P Tully, Ginger A Moore
This study examined the direct and interactive effects of infants' respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) during the first 6 months of life in the prediction of children's sleep problems at age 18 months. Participants included 156 children and their mothers who were followed from 3 to 18 months of age. At ages 3 and 6 months, infants' cardiac activity was recorded at rest and during the still-face paradigm, a mother-child social challenge task, and estimates of infant baseline RSA (RSAB) and RSA withdrawal (RSAW) were calculated...
October 18, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Farfalla Ribordy Lambert, Pierre Lavenex, Pamela Banta Lavenex
Allocentric spatial memory, "where" with respect to the surrounding environment, is one of the three fundamental components of episodic memory: what, where, when. Whereas basic allocentric spatial memory abilities are reliably observed in children after 2 years of age, coinciding with the offset of infantile amnesia, the resolution of allocentric spatial memory acquired over repeated trials improves from 2 to 4 years of age. Here, we first show that single-trial allocentric spatial memory performance improves in children from 3...
October 7, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Heather A Molenda-Figueira, Margaret R Bell, Kayla C De Lorme, Cheryl L Sisk
This study examined the effects of pubertal testosterone (T) and social housing manipulations on male sexual behavior in adult rats. Prepubertal rats were castrated at 21 days of age (P21) and implanted with either blank or T-releasing pellets. At the onset of puberty, P28, half the rats in each treatment group were either single- or pair-housed with a male of the same hormone condition through P56, at which time pellets were removed and all rats were single-housed. In adulthood (P84), all rats received T replacement and were tested for sexual behavior...
October 7, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Caitlin E O'Brien, Nawel Mezrai, Anne-Sophie Darmaillacq, Ludovic Dickel
Though a mollusc, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis possesses a sophisticated brain, advanced sensory systems, and a large behavioral repertoire. Cuttlefish provide a unique perspective on animal behavior due to their phylogenic distance from more traditional (vertebrate) models. S. officinalis is well-suited to addressing questions of behavioral ontogeny. As embryos, they can perceive and learn from their environment and experience no direct parental care. A marked progression in learning and behavior is observed during late embryonic and early juvenile development...
October 7, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Joseph R Isler, Tracy Thai, Michael M Myers, William P Fifer
A novel quantitative method for coding epochs of active and quiet sleep in infants using respiration is reported. The approach uses the variance of the instantaneous breathing rate within brief epochs of sleep. Variances are normalized within subject by dividing by the 75th percentile variance across epochs. Then, a normalized variance active sleep threshold of 0.29 was determined to produce the highest concordance with a method based on visual inspection of respiratory variability (100% and 90% for quiet and active sleep, respectively)...
December 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Jeff M Muller, Harry N Shair
Mammalian infants vocalize when socially isolated. Vocalization guides the return of the caregiver and thereby maintains an environment critical to the infant's survival. Although the role of the periaqueductal gray area (PAG) in these vocalizations is established, other aspects of the relevant neural circuitry remain under-studied. Here we report that output from the nucleus accumbens (Acb) is necessary for isolation-induced vocalizations of infant rats aged postnatal days (PND) 11-13. Local inhibition via infusion of the GABAA agonist muscimol (...
December 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Takefumi Kikusui, Yukino Ishio, Miho Nagasawa, Jeffrey S Mogil, Kazutaka Mogi
Pain sensitivity in mice can be modulated through exposure to familiar individuals. This phenomenon is considered a form of emotional contagion, thought to be an evolutionary precursor of empathy in mammals. In particular, mother-infant interactions early in life can considerably alter empathy development. Here, we demonstrated that pairs of mice that were simultaneously administered with a noxious stimulus (acetic acid) exhibited more pain-related behaviors than when one of the pair was treated with a noxious stimulus...
December 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Lauren E Philbrook, Douglas M Teti
We examined how maternal care within the bedtime and nighttime contexts influences infant cortisol levels and patterning. Eighty-two mothers (Mage  = 29.4 years) and infants participated in a longitudinal study when infants were 3, 6, and 9 months old. At each time point, bedtime and nighttime parenting were recorded and infant cortisol at bedtime and the following morning was analyzed. Multilevel model analyses showed that infants had lower cortisol levels when mothers were more emotionally available at bedtime, and infants whose mothers responded more often to their non-distressed cues had lower cortisol levels on average...
December 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Maria Beatriz Barreto do Carmo, Renato Fraga Righetti, Iolanda de Fátima Lopes Calvo Tibério, Maria Helena Leite Hunziker
The aim of this study was to establish whether exposure of pregnant rats to uncontrollable (psychological) stressors might change the likelihood of their offspring to exhibit functional and histopathological abnormalities suggestive of asthma in adulthood. Pregnant rats (n = 16) underwent one of three treatments: electric shocks of a maximum duration of 10 s that could be escaped (controllable group; C) those that could not be escaped (uncontrollable group; U) or no shocks (control group; N). The offspring (n = 54) were kept in animal house under standard conditions until 3 months of age, when lung hyperresponsiveness, histopathology, immunohistochemical measurements of the cytokines interleukin (IL) 2, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and actin as well as oxidative stress based on iNOS-positive cell counts and isoprostane PGF2α contents were assessed...
December 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Guilherme Soares de Oliveira Wertheimer, Carlos Eduardo Neves Girardi, Alexandra de Sousa Miragaia de Oliveira, Beatriz Monteiro Longo, Deborah Suchecki
Maternal deprivation (MD) for 24 hr during the neonatal period impairs body weight gain in adolescent and adult rats. It has been previously shown that maternally deprived rats consume less standard and carbohydrate-rich diets. Because neuropeptide Y (NPY) is implicated in feeding behavior, we assessed, prospectively, the effects of maternal deprivation, imposed on postnatal days (PND) 3 (DEP3) or 11 (DEP11), on physical development (snout-anal length and body weight gain, measured once a week) and food intake (assessed daily, during the rest and active phases, from PND 23 to PND 51); NPY-immunoreactivity (NPY-ir) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus was evaluated in male (at PND 52) and female rats in estrous (at PND 53-60)...
December 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Kazutaka Mogi, Yuiko Ishida, Miho Nagasawa, Takefumi Kikusui
We examined the developmental effects of early weaning on anxiety and the extinction of fear memory in male C57BL/6 mice. Early weaning led to increased freezing behaviors after fear conditioning via the foot-shock method both during extinction training and in a test of extinction recall, but did not induce significant changes in anxiety-like behavior. In addition, we found that the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein and mRNA transcripts for BDNF exon III in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) at the time of extinction recall were impaired in early-weaned mice compared to normally weaned mice...
December 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Kevin L Brown, John H Freeman
Eyeblink conditioning is a well-established model for studying the developmental neurobiology of associative learning and memory, though nothing is known regarding developmental differences in retention between periweanling and adult rats. The present study examined retention of eyeblink conditioning in periweanling (postnatal day 24 at the start of training) and adult rats 1, 7, or 28 days after acquisition. Retention was assessed by (1) a conditional stimulus (CS)-alone test session followed by (2) CS-unconditional stimulus (US) reacquisition tests...
December 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
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