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Developmental Psychobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402936/finding-events-in-a-continuous-world-a-developmental-account
#1
Dani Levine, Daphna Buchsbaum, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Roberta M Golinkoff
Event segmentation is a fundamental process of human cognition that organizes the continuous flux of activity into discrete, hierarchical units. The mechanism of event segmentation in infants seems to parallel the mechanism studied in adults, which centers on action predictability. Statistical learning appears to bootstrap infants' event segmentation by generating action predictions without relying on prior knowledge. Infants' first-hand experiences with goal-directed actions further enhance their prediction of others' actions...
November 6, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402884/adolescent-social-stress-and-social-context-influence-the-intake-of-ethanol-and-sucrose-in-male-rats-soon-and-long-after-the-stress-exposures
#2
Marina L Marcolin, Travis E Hodges, Jennet L Baumbach, Cheryl M McCormick
Social instability stress in adolescent rats (SS; postnatal day 30-45, daily 1 hr isolation +new cage partner) alters behavioural responses to psychostimulants, but differences in voluntary consumption of natural and drug rewards are unknown. SS also is associated with an atypical behavioural repertoire, for example reduced social interactions. Here, we investigated whether SS rats differ from control (CTL) rats in ethanol (EtOH) or sucrose intake in experiments involving different social contexts: alone, in the presence of an unfamiliar peer, in the presence of its cage partner, or in competition against its cage partner...
November 6, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390313/means-end-problem-solving-in-infancy-development-emergence-of-intentionality-and-transfer-of-knowledge
#3
Iryna Babik, Andrea Baraldi Cunha, Samantha M Ross, Samuel W Logan, James C Galloway, Michele A Lobo
Behaviors and performance of 23 typically developing infants were assessed longitudinally at 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months in two means-end tasks: pulling a towel or rotating a turntable to obtain a supported object. With age, infants performed more goal-directed behaviors, leading to increased problem-solving success. Intentionality emerged earlier in the towel task than in the turntable task (6.9 vs. 10.8 months). Potential knowledge transfer between the tasks was first observed at 9 months. This study provides insight into the development of means-end learning, the emergence of intentionality, and potential transfer of knowledge in tasks involving a similar concept (support) but requiring different modes of action for success (pulling vs...
November 2, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30378109/visual-preferences-for-direct-gaze-faces-in-infant-macaques-macaca-mulatta-with-limited-face-exposure
#4
Elizabeth A Simpson, Annika Paukner, Eric J Pedersen, Pier F Ferrari, Lisa A Parr
From birth, human and nonhuman primates attend more to faces with direct gaze compared with averted gaze, and previous studies report that attention to the eyes is linked to the emergence of later social skills. Here, we explored whether early experiences influence attraction to eye contact in infant macaques by examining their attention to face pairs varying in their gaze direction across the first 13 weeks of life. Infants raised by human caretakers had limited conspecific interactions (nursery-reared; N = 16) and were compared to infants raised in rich social environments (mother-reared; N = 20)...
October 30, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30375651/the-relationship-between-cognitive-enrichment-and-cognitive-control-a-systematic-investigation-of-environmental-influences-on-development-through-socioeconomic-status
#5
Dima Amso, Carmel Salhi, David Badre
We measured the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on cognitive processes. We examined cognitive control, specifically working memory (WM), in a sample of N = 141 7- to 17-year-olds using rule-guided behavior tasks. Our hypothesis is based on computational modeling data that suggest that the development of flexible cognitive control requires variable experiences in which to implement rule-guided action. We found that not all experiences that correlated with SES in our sample impacted task performance, and not all experiential variables that impacted performance were associated with SES...
October 30, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370630/the-implications-of-sympathetic-and-parasympathetic-regulatory-coordination-for-understanding-child-adjustment
#6
Kristen L Rudd, Tuppett M Yates
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is comprised of sympathetic and parasympathetic branches that control core adaptive systems, including cardiac regulation, across periods of rest, reactivity, and recovery. Despite their heavily intertwined functions, research examining the coordination of parasympathetic and sympathetic ANS regulation is limited. This study examined the effects of 6-year-olds' (N = 198; 49.5% female; 46% Latinx) capacity for ANS reactivity and recovery in both sympathetic (i.e., pre-ejection period [PEP]) and parasympathetic (i...
October 28, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30350457/profiles-of-vagal-withdrawal-to-challenging-interactions-links-with-preschoolers-conceptual-shifting-ability
#7
Sara Scrimin, Elisabetta Patron, Silvia Lanfranchi, Ughetta Moscardino, Daniela Palomba, Lucia Mason
The current study investigated profiles of vagal withdrawal in response to a challenging task in preschoolers. Also, the association between those profiles and conceptual shifting ability was assessed. Electrocardiogram of 43 four-year-olds was registered during a sequence of games including a win phase and a lose phase, while conceptual shifting ability was assessed via a standardized test. Cluster analyses revealed three profiles of cardiac vagal response to the task. Children in the first cluster displayed significant vagal withdrawal, children in the second cluster showed nonsignificant vagal withdrawal, while children in the third group displayed vagal augmentation to the challenge...
October 22, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338516/effect-of-early-life-inflammation-and-magnesium-sulfate-on-hyperthermia-induced-seizures-in-infant-rats-susceptibility-to-pentylenetetrazol-induced-seizures-later-in-life
#8
Ehsan Saboory, Maryam Ghadimkhani, Shiva Roshan-Milani, Leila Derafshpour, Sedra Mohammadi, Sina Dindarian, Hozan Mohammadi
This study investigated the effect of inflammation and MgSO4 pretreatment on behaviors caused by hyperthermia (HT) and the effect of these interventions on PTZ-induced seizure a week later. In this experimental study, rat pups experienced inflammation on postnatal day 10 (P10). On P18-19, the pups received either saline or MgSO4 then subjected to hyperthermia. On P25-26, PTZ-induced seizure was initiated in the rats. Neonatal inflammation increased the susceptibility to HT-induced seizure. Inflammation and HT increased the susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizure...
October 18, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328111/temporally-sensitive-neural-measures-of-inhibition-in-preschool-children-across-a-spectrum-of-irritability
#9
Christen M Deveney, Margaret J Briggs-Gowan, David Pagliaccio, Christopher R Estabrook, Elvira Zobel, James L Burns, Elizabeth S Norton, Daniel S Pine, Melissa A Brotman, Ellen Leibenluft, Lauren S Wakschlag
Irritability is a prominent feature of chronic mental disorders and a developmental marker of their early emergence. The most salient feature of irritability in early childhood is temper tantrums. While temper tantrums are normative in young children, they can be clinically concerning when they are dysregulated, very frequent, and/or occur in unexpected contexts. The present study uses behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures to characterize the relationship between irritability and neural markers of response inhibition in very young children...
October 17, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315570/the-role-of-the-motor-system-in-action-understanding-and-communication-evidence-from-human-infants-and-non-human-primates
#10
Virginia C Salo, Pier F Ferrari, Nathan A Fox
There is growing evidence that activation of the motor system during observation of actions, a phenomenon first observed in non-human primates, underlies action understanding and even communication. This review (a) examines the evidence on motor system activity as an underlying neural correlate of action understanding; (b) reviews the theoretical and empirical work linking action understanding and the development of communication, with a specific focus on the role that gestures play as an intermediary; and (c) discusses the research on and existing opportunities for understanding the link between the motor system and communication in both humans and non-human primates, through the lens of action perception...
October 12, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315569/a-primer-on-investigating-the-role-of-the-microbiome-in-brain-and-cognitive-development
#11
Caroline Kelsey, Caitlin Dreisbach, Jeanne Alhusen, Tobias Grossmann
Incorporating information regarding the gut microbiota into psychobiological research promises to shed new light on how individual differences in brain and cognitive development emerge. However, the investigation of the gut-brain axis in development is still in its infancy and poses several challenges, including data analysis. Considering that the gut microbiome is an eco-system containing millions of bacteria, one needs to utilize a breadth of methodologies and data analytic techniques. The present review serves two purposes...
October 12, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30368795/neural-correlates-of-delay-of-gratification-choice-in-young-children-near-infrared-spectroscopy-studies
#12
Yusuke Moriguchi, Ikuko Shinohara, Kaichi Yanaoka
Delay of gratification refers to the ability to forgo a small immediate reward to obtain a larger delayed reward. Cognitive mechanisms underlying the delay of gratification in young children have been examined extensively. However, the neural mechanism of this process is largely unknown. The present study examined whether inferior prefrontal regions play an important role in the delay of gratification choice paradigm in young children. Preschool children were given a choice version of a delay of gratification task, and their neural activation during the task was assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy in cross-sectional (Study 1) and longitudinal designs (Study 2)...
October 11, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311240/adolescent-morphine-exposure-increases-nociceptive-behaviors-in-rat-model-of-formalin-test
#13
Elmira Ghasemi, Narges Pachenari, Saeed Semnanian, Hossein Azizi
The number of adolescents who use illicit drugs has increased dramatically. Adolescence is a critical period for brain development and maturation. The importance of the study of pain perception and the possible mechanisms involved is crystal clear. Up until now, there has been no evidence regarding the long-term effect of adolescence morphine administration on pain perception. The objective of the present study was to investigate long-lasting effect of adolescent morphine exposure on pain perception as well as analgesic response to a single dose of morphine injection...
October 11, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311214/long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-in-the-first-year-of-life-affects-brain-function-structure-and-metabolism-at-age-nine-years
#14
Rebecca J Lepping, Robyn A Honea, Laura E Martin, Ke Liao, In-Young Choi, Phil Lee, Vlad B Papa, William M Brooks, D Jill Shaddy, Susan E Carlson, John Colombo, Kathleen M Gustafson
The present study sought to determine whether supplementation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) during the first year of life influenced brain function, structure, and metabolism at 9 years of age. Newborns were randomly assigned to consume formula containing either no LCPUFA (control) or formula with 0.64% of total fatty acids as arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n6) and variable amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) (0.32%, 0.64%, or 0.96% of total fatty acids) from birth to 12 months...
October 11, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311210/resilience-priming-translational-models-for-understanding-resiliency-and-adaptation-to-early-life-adversity
#15
Amanda C Kentner, John F Cryan, Susanne Brummelte
Despite the increasing attention to early life adversity and its long-term consequences on health, behavior, and the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, our understanding of the adaptations and interventions that promote resiliency and rescue against such insults are underexplored. Specifically, investigations of the perinatal period often focus on negative events/outcomes. In contrast, positive experiences (i.e. enrichment/parental care//healthy nutrition) favorably influence development of the nervous and endocrine systems...
October 11, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288732/repetitive-neonatal-pain-and-reduced-maternal-care-alter-brain-neurochemistry
#16
Sean M Mooney-Leber, Stephanie S Spielmann, Susanne Brummelte
Preterm infants are exposed to many stressors while in the neonatal intensive care unit including pain and reduced maternal care. Both stressors can have a profound negative impact on brain development, and the present study sought to investigate some of the biological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Rat pups underwent a series of repetitive needle pokes and/or reduced maternal care through a novel tea-ball infuser encapsulation model during the first four days of life. On postnatal day four, pups were sacrificed and serum was analyzed for corticosterone, while brains were tested for various neurotransmitters and brain metabolites through magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
October 4, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288730/early-parenting-predicts-hippocampal-subregion-volume-via-stress-reactivity-in-childhood
#17
Sarah L Blankenship, Emma Chad-Friedman, Tracy Riggins, Lea R Dougherty
Rodent models indicate that parenting shapes offspring outcomes by programming the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress and, ultimately, altering brain structure and function. The present study tested this hypothesis and explored possible timing-dependent associations in a longitudinal sample of children (N = 63). At Time 1 (M = 4.23 ± 0.84 years) and Time 2 (M = 7.20 ± 0.89 years), children completed parent-child interaction tasks and a laboratory stressor after which salivary cortisol samples were collected...
October 4, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30276812/developmental-trajectories-of-adaptive-functioning-following-early-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Fanny Dégeilh, Annie Bernier, Jocelyn Gravel, Miriam H Beauchamp
Adaptive behavior impairments have been reported in children with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) but are not typically found following mild TBI. It is possible that mild TBI induces subtle changes in adaptive functioning that are not captured in conventional group comparisons. This study aimed to explore time course changes in adaptive functioning following early mild TBI. Parents of 63 children with mild TBI and 53 children with orthopedic injuries aged between 1.5 and 5 years at the time of injury completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II at three time points: retrospectively to assess pre-injury functioning, then at 6 and 18 months post-injury...
October 1, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30270564/physiological-stress-measures-in-preschool-children-and-their-relationship-with-body-composition-and-behavioral-problems
#19
Nadine Messerli-Bürgy, Amar Arhab, Kerstin Stülb, Tanja H Kakebeeke, Annina E Zysset, Claudia S Leeger-Aschmann, Einat A Schmutz, Ulrike Ehlert, Susi Kriemler, Oskar G Jenni, Simone Munsch, Jardena J Puder
BACKGROUND: The relationship between physiological stress measures and body composition or behavioral problems in older children remains controversial, and data in young children are lacking. The aim of the study was to investigate this relationship in predominantly healthy preschool children. METHOD: Physiological stress measures were assessed using diurnal salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol, nail cortisol and parasympathetic activation (PNS) by overnight heart rate variability, and body composition (body mass index, skinfold thickness) and behavior problems (using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) in 324 children aged 2-6 years of the SPLASHY study...
September 30, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264459/the-association-between-perinatal-hypoxia-exposure-and-externalizing-symptoms-and-children-s-decision-making-in-conditions-of-uncertainty-is-moderated-by-drd2-genotype
#20
Roisin White, Lisa M Gatzke-Kopp, Patrick J Ryan, David M Lydon-Staley
Variants of the DRD2 Taq1A polymorphism, which have been shown to result in functional differences in dopamine D2 receptors (D2R), have been linked to various externalizing outcomes in adults. However, the neurobiological processes that contribute to these associations are not well understood. The current study investigates gene × environment effects on teacher-rated externalizing behaviors and probabilistic decision making in a sample of 333 children (age 9) enrolled in an ongoing longitudinal study. Findings indicate that externalizing behaviors increased as a function of hypoxic exposure only among individuals carrying the A1 (A1+) allele...
September 27, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
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