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Developmental Psychobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475228/developmental-programming-of-happiness
#1
Louis A Schmidt, Paz Fortier, Ayelet Lahat, Alva Tang, Karen J Mathewson, Saroj Saigal, Michael H Boyle, Ryan J Van Lieshout
Being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1,000 grams) is presumed to reflect a suboptimal intrauterine environment and thus presents an opportunity for examining developmental programming hypotheses. Interfacing prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, we tested whether individuals with ELBW in different childhood rearing environments showed different attention biases to positive and negative facial emotions in adulthood. Using the oldest known, prospectively followed cohort of ELBW survivors, we found that relative to normal birth weight controls (NBW; >2,500 grams), ELBW survivors displayed the highest and lowest attention bias to happy faces at age 30-35, depending on whether their total family income at age 8 was relatively low (environmental match) or high (environmental mismatch), respectively...
May 5, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436585/the-mobile-conjugate-reinforcement-paradigm-in-a-lab-setting
#2
Emily C Merz, Laraine McDonough, Yong Lin Huang, Sophie Foss, Elizabeth Werner, Catherine Monk
The mobile conjugate reinforcement task was administered to 4-month-old infants in a lab rather than a home setting where it is usually administered. Learning and retention patterns were comparable to those of infants tested in their homes, suggesting flexibility in where this task can be administered. These results pave the way for this task to be used with a broader range of infants for whom home visits are not practical or convenient (e.g., infants in child care). Developmental research conducted with a more diverse population of infants would facilitate our understanding of cognitive development very early in life...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436546/corrigendum-the-impact-of-early-environmental-interventions-on-structural-plasticity-of-the-axon-initial-segment-in-neocortex-m-nozari-t-suzuki-m-g-p-rosa-k-yamakawa-and-n-atapour
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407207/in-memoriam-gilbert-w-meier-1927-2016
#4
Richard P Meier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407206/pre-ejection-period-reactivity-to-reward-is-associated-with-anhedonic-symptoms-of-depression-among-adolescents
#5
Joshua J Ahles, Amy H Mezulis, Sheila E Crowell
Pre-ejection period (PEP) reactivity to reward has been posited as a specific index of behavioral approach and incentive motivation, suggesting it might be uniquely associated with the affective and motivational deficits of anhedonia. This study evaluated PEP reactivity to a reward task as a predictor of depressive symptoms among adolescents, examining global depressive symptoms as well as specific anhedonic and nonanhedonic symptoms clusters. Participants included 76 adolescents, ages 11-15 years (52% female)...
April 13, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391612/distress-vocalization-delay-in-the-neonate-lamb-as-a-neurobehavioral-assessment-tool
#6
Christine L Morton, Geoffrey Hinch, Alison Small
Acoustic features of infant distress vocalizations including latency and rate of emission are used as indices of neurological deficit and integrity in human and rodent neonates. This paper investigates the relationship between temporal characteristics of distress calls, elicited by an isolation stimulus, and indicators of neurobehavioral development over 12 hr postpartum in the neonate lamb. Delayed vocalization initiation was found to be associated with poor locomotor and orientation behavior reflecting the capacity of the lamb to reunite with and follow its dam, and a lowered rate of signal emission following commencement of vocalization...
April 9, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383773/a-dissociation-between-renewal-and-contextual-fear-conditioning-in-juvenile-rats
#7
Chun Hui J Park, Despina E Ganella, Jee Hyun Kim
We investigated whether juvenile rats do not express renewal following extinction of conditioned fear due to their inability to form a long-term contextual fear memory. In experiment 1, postnatal day (P) 18 and 25 rats received 3 white-noise and footshock pairings, followed by 60 white-noise alone presentations the next day. When tested in a different context to extinction, P25 rats displayed renewal whereas P18 rats did not. Experiments 2A and 2B surprisingly showed that P18 and P25 rats do not show differences in contextual and cued fear, regardless of the conditioning-test intervals and the number of white-noise-footshock pairings received...
April 6, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383759/pubertal-development-and-anxiety-risk-independently-relate-to-startle-habituation-during-fear-conditioning-in-8-14-year-old-females
#8
Felicia Jackson, Brady D Nelson, Alexandria Meyer, Greg Hajcak
Reduced habituation to aversive stimuli has been observed during adolescence and may reflect an underlying mechanism of vulnerability for anxiety disorders. This study examined the startle reflex during a fear-learning task in 54 8-14-year-old girls. We examined the relationship between mean startle, startle habituation, pubertal development, and two measures linked to risk for anxiety: behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and the error-related negativity (ERN). Puberty, BIS, and the ERN were unrelated to mean startle; however, each measure modulated startle habituation...
April 6, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369808/recognizing-facial-expressions-of-emotion-in-infancy-a-replication-and-extension
#9
Kristina Safar, Margaret C Moulson
Infants may recognize facial expressions of emotion more readily when familiar faces express the emotions. Studies 1 and 2 investigated whether familiarity influences two metrics of emotion processing: Categorization and spontaneous preference. In Study 1 (n = 32), we replicated previous findings showing an asymmetrical pattern of categorization of happy and fearful faces in 6.5-month-old infants, and extended these findings by demonstrating that infants' categorization did not differ when emotions were expressed by familiar (i...
April 3, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369881/pre-exposure-to-cocaine-or-morphine-attenuates-taste-avoidance-conditioning-in-adolescent-rats-drug-specificity-in-the-us-pre-exposure-effect
#10
Matthew M Clasen, Briana J Hempel, Anthony L Riley
Although the attenuating effects of drug history on conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) learning have been widely investigated in adults, such effects in adolescents have not been well characterized. Recent research has suggested that the display of the drug pre-exposure effect during adolescence may be drug dependent given that pre-exposure to ethanol attenuates subsequent conditioning, whereas pre-exposure to the classic emetic lithium chloride (LiCl) fails to do so. The present study began investigating the possible drug-dependent nature of the effects of drug pre-exposure by pre-exposing and conditioning adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats to drugs from two additional classes, specifically psychostimulants (cocaine; Experiment 1) and opioids (morphine; Experiment 2)...
March 28, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295244/the-effects-of-stimulus-symmetry-on-hierarchical-processing-in-infancy
#11
Maggie W Guy, Greg D Reynolds, Sara M Mosteller, Kate C Dixon
The current study investigated the effects of stimulus symmetry on the processing of global and local stimulus properties by 6-month-old short- and long-looking infants through the use of event-related potentials (ERPs). Previous research has shown that individual differences in infant visual attention are related to hierarchical stimulus processing, such that short lookers show a global processing bias, while long lookers demonstrate a local processing bias (Guy, Reynolds, & Zhang, ). Additional research has shown that in comparison with asymmetry, symmetry is associated with more efficient stimulus processing and more accurate memory for stimulus configuration (Attneave, ; Perkins, )...
March 13, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294331/context-dependent-extinction-of-an-appetitive-operant-conditioned-response-in-infant-rats
#12
Estefanía Orellana Barrera, Carlos Arias, Felisa González, Paula Abate
The present study evaluated context-dependent learning under an operant conditioning procedure in infant rats. Preweanling rats were trained in context A during postnatal days (PDs) 16 and 17 to learn an appetitive operant conditioning task, employing milk chocolate as appetitive reinforcer. On PD18 the operant response was extinguished in context A, or in an alternative context B. The change from context A to B between acquisition and extinction did not affect the number of responses during extinction, but slightly modified the shape of the extinction curve...
March 13, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247564/fkbp5-genotype-and-early-life-stress-exposure-predict-neurobehavioral-outcomes-for-preterm-infants
#13
Amy L D'Agata, Stephen Walsh, Dorothy Vittner, Xiaomei Cong, Jacqueline M McGrath, Erin E Young
PROBLEM: This study evaluated the relationship between stressful early life neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) experiences, genetic variation of a stress response-associated gene (FKBP5), and neurobehavioral outcomes. METHOD: The impact of genetic variation and stress experience on neurobehavioral outcomes was examined for 41 preterm infants. Statistical analyses explored the main effects of FKBP5 genotype and NICU stress experience, as well as their interaction on infant neurobehavioral development prior to discharge...
March 1, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247407/context-dependent-individual-differences-in-playfulness-in-male-rats
#14
Jessica F Lampe, Oliver Burman, Hanno Würbel, Luca Melotti
Play has been proposed as an indicator of positive emotions and welfare in higher vertebrates. This study investigated playfulness in male rats by exploring its consistency across motivational states (with/without prior short social isolation) and two age points at early and late adolescence. Twenty-four male Lister Hooded rats housed in cages of four underwent two play tests: conspecific Play-in-Pairs and Tickling by the experimenter, which were compared with play in the home cage and basal anxiety levels...
March 1, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369889/maternal-rearing-environment-impacts-autonomic-nervous-system-activity
#15
Eliza Bliss-Moreau, Gilda Moadab, John P Capitanio
While it is now well known that social deprivation during early development permanently perturbs affective responding, accumulating evidence suggests that less severe restriction of the early social environment may also have deleterious effects. In the present report, we evaluate the affective responding of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) infants raised by their mothers in restricted social environments or by their mothers in large social groups by indexing autonomic nervous system activity. Following a 25-hr evaluation of biobehavioral organization, electrocardiogram, and an index of respiration were recorded for 10 min...
May 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369850/an-mri-study-of-the-corpus-callosum-in-monkeys-developmental-trajectories-and-effects-of-neonatal-hippocampal-and-amygdala-lesions
#16
Christa Payne, Laetitia Cirilli, Jocelyne Bachevalier
This study provides the first characterization of early developmental trajectories of corpus callosum (CC) segments in rhesus macaques using noninvasive MRI techniques and assesses long-term effects of neonatal amygdala or hippocampal lesions on CC morphometry. In Experiment 1, 10 monkeys (5 males) were scanned at 1 week-2 years of age; eight additional infants (4 males) were scanned once at 1-4 weeks of age. The first 8 months showed marked growth across all segments, with sustained, albeit slower, growth through 24 months...
May 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295263/preschoolers-genetic-physiological-and-behavioral-sensitivity-factors-moderate-links-between-parenting-stress-and-child-internalizing-externalizing-and-sleep-problems
#17
Molly Davis, Kristel Thomassin, Joanie Bilms, Cynthia Suveg, Anne Shaffer, Steven R H Beach
This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers' adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism-the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator-children's baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator-mothers' reports of children's negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (Mage  = 30.68 years, SDage  = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers' (Mage  = 3...
May 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261792/parasympathetic-reactivity-and-disruptive-behavior-problems-in-young-children-during-interactions-with-their-mothers-and-other-adults-a-preliminary-investigation
#18
Christine E Cooper-Vince, Mariah DeSerisy, Danielle Cornacchio, Amanda Sanchez, Katie A McLaughlin, Jonathan S Comer
Parasympathetic nervous system influences on cardiac functions-commonly indexed via respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)-are central to self-regulation. RSA suppression during challenging emotional and cognitive tasks is often associated with better emotional and behavioral functioning in preschoolers. However, the links between RSA suppression and child behavior across various challenging interpersonal contexts remains unclear. The present study experimentally evaluated the relationship between child RSA reactivity to adult (mother vs...
May 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323349/maternal-depression-during-pregnancy-is-associated-with-increased-birth-weight-in-term-infants
#19
Lisa Ecklund-Flores, Michael M Myers, Catherine Monk, Albany Perez, Hein J Odendaal, William P Fifer
Previous research of maternal depression during pregnancy suggests an association with low birth weight in newborns. Review of these studies reveals predominant comorbidity with premature birth. This current study examines antenatal depression and birth weight in term, medically low-risk pregnancies. Maternal physiological and demographic measures were collected as well. In total, 227 pregnant women were recruited to participate in four experimental protocols at Columbia University Medical Center. Results indicate that depressed pregnant women who carry to term had significantly higher heart rates, lower heart rate variability, and gave birth to heavier babies than those of pregnant women who were not depressed...
April 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323348/differences-in-flexor-and-extensor-activity-during-locomotor-related-leg-movements-in-chick-embryos
#20
Soo Yeon Sun, Nina S Bradley
Prior to hatching, chick embryos spontaneously produce repetitive limb movements (RLMs), a developmental precursor to walking. During RLMs, flexor and extensor muscles are alternately active as during stance and swing phases of gait. However, previous studies of RLMs observed that flexor muscles were rhythmically active for many cycles, whereas extensors often failed to be recruited. Thus, we asked if flexor muscles are preferentially recruited during RLMs in chick embryos 1 day before hatching and onset of walking...
April 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
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