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Developmental Psychobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976814/neural-mechanisms-of-attention-become-more-specialised-during-infancy-insights-from-combined-eye-tracking-and-eeg
#1
Louisa Kulke, Janette Atkinson, Oliver Braddick
: The Fixation Shift Paradigm (FSP) measures infants' ability to shift gaze from a central fixation stimulus to a peripheral target (e.g. Hood & Atkinson, 1993: Infant Behavior and Development, 16(4), 405-422). Cortical maturation has been suggested as crucial for the developing ability to shift attention. This study investigated the development of neural mechanisms by combining EEG with simultaneous eye tracking during FSP testing, in typically developing infants aged between 1 and 8 months...
December 15, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966217/do-different-data-analytic-approaches-generate-discrepant-findings-when-measuring-mother-infant-hpa-axis-attunement
#2
Nicola K Bernard, Deborah A Kashy, Alytia A Levendosky, G Anne Bogat, Joseph S Lonstein
Attunement between mothers and infants in their hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness to acute stressors is thought to benefit the child's emerging physiological and behavioral self-regulation, as well as their socioemotional development. However, there is no universally accepted definition of attunement in the literature, which appears to have resulted in inconsistent statistical analyses for determining its presence or absence, and contributed to discrepant results. We used a series of data analytic approaches, some previously used in the attunement literature and others not, to evaluate the attunement between 182 women and their 1-year-old infants in their HPA axis responsivity to acute stress...
December 14, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917473/maternal-deprivation-alters-expression-of-neural-maturation-gene-tbr1-in-the-amygdala-paralaminar-nucleus-in-infant-female-macaques
#3
Danielle M de Campo, Judy L Cameron, Joseph M Miano, David A Lewis, Karoly Mirnics, Julie L Fudge
Early parental loss is associated with social-emotional dysregulation and amygdala physiologic changes. Previously, we examined whole amygdala gene expression in infant monkeys exposed to early maternal deprivation. Here, we focus on an amygdala region with immature neurons at birth: the paralaminar nucleus (PL). We hypothesized that 1) the normal infant PL is enriched in a subset of neural maturation (NM) genes compared to a nearby amygdala subregion; and 2) maternal deprivation would downregulate expression of NM transcripts (mRNA)...
December 4, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888639/association-between-body-mass-index-and-salivary-uric-acid-among-mexican-origin-infants-youth-and-adults-gender-and-developmental-differences
#4
Airín D Martínez, Lillian Ruelas, Douglas A Granger
Uric acid (UA) is the end product of the metabolic breakdown of purine nucleotides. Recent studies have measured UA in saliva in relation to obesity and chronic disease risk. Given the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Latino youth, we examined gender and age differences in salivary uric acid (sUA) and weight in a sample of Mexican-origin children (n = 65, 2 months to 18 years, 49% female) and adults (n = 46, 19-58 years, 72% female). We measured weight, height, waist, and hip circumference and collected saliva samples (later assayed for sUA)...
November 26, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807856/running-during-adolescence-rescues-a-maternal-separation-induced-memory-impairment-in-female-mice-potential-role-of-differential-exon-specific-bdnf-expression
#5
Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva, Paul Marshall, Thiago Wendt Viola, Anderson Centeno-Silva, Lucas Araújo de Azeredo, Rodrigo Orso, Xiang Li, Márcio V Donadio, Timothy W Bredy, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira
Exposure to early life stress has been associated with memory impairments related to changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. However, the potential impact of physical exercise to reverse these effects of maternal separation has been under investigated. Mice were subjected to maternal separation during the first 2 weeks of life and then exposed to a 3-week running protocol during adolescence. The spontaneous object recognition task was performed during adolescence followed by analysis of hippocampal expression of exons I, IV, and IX of the BDNF gene...
November 3, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785806/toddler-parasympathetic-regulation-and-fear-links-to-maternal-appraisal-and-behavior
#6
Sunghye Cho, Kristin A Buss
There is a growing recognition that parental socialization influences interact with young children's emerging capacity for physiological regulation and shape children's developmental trajectories. Nevertheless, the transactional processes linking parental socialization and physiological regulatory processes remain not well understood, particularly for fear-prone toddlers. To address this gap in the literature, the present study investigated the biopsychosocial processes that underlie toddlers' fear regulation by examining the relations among toddler parasympathetic regulation, maternal appraisal, and parenting behaviors...
October 26, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774583/cortisol-stress-responses-and-children-s-behavioral-functioning-at-school
#7
Sterre S H Simons, Antonius H N Cillessen, Carolina de Weerth
The present study investigated whether cortisol stress responses of 6-year-olds were associated with their behavioral functioning at school. Additionally, the moderating role of stress in the family environment was examined. To this end, 149 healthy children (Mage  = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an age-appropriate innovative social evaluative stress test. Saliva cortisol samples were collected six times during the stress test to calculate two indices of the cortisol stress response: cortisol stress reactivity and total stress cortisol...
October 24, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861774/tony-decasper-the-man-who-changed-contemporary-views-on-human-fetal-cognitive-abilities
#8
Marie-Claire Busnel, William Fifer, Carolyn Granier-Deferre, Roger Lecuyer, George Michel, Christine Moon, Robin Panneton, Benoist Schaal, Melanie Spence
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714794/pubertal-pair-housing-facilitates-adult-sexual-behavior-in-male-rats
#9
Heather A Molenda-Figueira, Margaret R Bell, Kayla C De Lorme, Cheryl L Sisk
This study examined the effects of pubertal testosterone (T) and social housing manipulations on male sexual behavior in adult rats. Prepubertal rats were castrated at 21 days of age (P21) and implanted with either blank or T-releasing pellets. At the onset of puberty, P28, half the rats in each treatment group were either single- or pair-housed with a male of the same hormone condition through P56, at which time pellets were removed and all rats were single-housed. In adulthood (P84), all rats received T replacement and were tested for sexual behavior...
January 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604815/prospective-and-dyadic-associations-between-expectant-parents-prenatal-hormone-changes-and-postpartum-parenting-outcomes
#10
Robin S Edelstein, William J Chopik, Darby E Saxbe, Britney M Wardecker, Amy C Moors, Onawa P LaBelle
During the transition to parenthood, both men and women experience hormone changes that are thought to promote parental care. Yet very few studies have explicitly tested the hypothesis that prenatal hormone changes are associated with postpartum parenting behavior. In a longitudinal study of 27 first-time expectant couples, we assessed whether prenatal hormone changes were moderated by self- and partner-reported parenting outcomes at 3 months postpartum. Expectant fathers showed prenatal declines in testosterone and estradiol, and larger declines in these hormones were associated with greater contributions to household and infant care tasks postpartum...
January 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594200/child-cortisol-moderates-the-association-between-family-routines-and-emotion-regulation-in-low-income-children
#11
Alison L Miller, Ju-Hyun Song, Julie Sturza, Julie C Lumeng, Katherine Rosenblum, Niko Kaciroti, Delia M Vazquez
Biological and social influences both shape emotion regulation. In 380 low-income children, we tested whether biological stress profile (cortisol) moderated the association among positive and negative home environment factors (routines; chaos) and emotion regulation (negative lability; positive regulation). Children (M age = 50.6, SD = 6.4 months) provided saliva samples to assess diurnal cortisol parameters across 3 days. Parents reported on home environment and child emotion regulation. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether cortisol parameters moderated associations between home environment and child emotion regulation...
January 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577885/increased-alpha-amylase-response-to-an-acute-psychosocial-stress-challenge-in-healthy-adults-with-childhood-adversity
#12
Yuliya I Kuras, Christine M McInnis, Myriam V Thoma, Xuejie Chen, Luke Hanlin, Danielle Gianferante, Nicolas Rohleder
Childhood adversity is highly prevalent and linked to lasting psychological and physiological consequences. A potential mechanism for negative health outcomes is altered stress reactivity. While previous research has addressed associations of childhood adversity with stress system reactivity, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stress reactivity is understudied. We therefore set out here to examining salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) reactivity in relation with childhood adversity. Forty-one healthy adult subjects (n = 24 male; n = 17 female) aged 18-34 years underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)...
January 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577700/sleep-duration-and-rsa-suppression-as-predictors-of-internalizing-and-externalizing-behaviors
#13
Sunghye Cho, Lauren E Philbrook, Elizabeth L Davis, Kristin A Buss
Although the conceptual interplay among the biological and clinical features of sleep, arousal, and emotion regulation has been noted, little is understood about how indices of sleep duration and parasympathetic reactivity operate jointly to predict adjustment in early childhood. Using a sample of 123 toddlers, the present study examined sleep duration and RSA reactivity as predictors of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Parents reported on children's sleep duration and adjustment. RSA reactivity was assessed via children's responses to fear-eliciting stimuli and an inhibitory control challenge...
January 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540891/sensory-system-development-influences-the-ontogeny-of-trace-eyeblink-conditioning
#14
Mary E Goldsberry, John H Freeman
The developmental emergence of delay eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is dependent on the development of the sensory system stimulated by the conditioned stimulus (CS). However, trace EBC has traditionally been believed to be dependent on the development of forebrain structures, such as the hippocampus. If hippocampal development alone is limiting the developmental emergence of trace EBC, then using an earlier developing sensory modality should not affect the rate or asymptote of conditioning. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether using a vibration CS would facilitate the ontogeny of trace EBC relative to an auditory CS...
January 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540704/neonatal-experiences-with-ethanol-intoxication-modify-respiratory-and-thermoregulatory-plasticity-and-affect-subsequent-ethanol-intake-in-rats
#15
María Belén Acevedo, Ana Fabiola Macchione, Florencia Anunziata, Olga Beatriz Haymal, Juan Carlos Molina
Different studies have focused on the deleterious consequences of binge-like or chronic exposure to ethanol during the brain growth spurt period (third human gestational trimester) that in the rat corresponds to postnatal days (PDs) 3-10. The present study analyzed behavioral and physiological disruptions caused by relatively brief binge-like exposures (PDs 3, 5, and 7) with an ethanol dose lower (3.0 g/kg) than those frequently employed to examine teratological effects during this stage in development. At PD 9, pups were exposed to ethanol doses ranging between ...
January 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27481553/shaping-emotion-regulation-attunement-symptomatology-and-stress-recovery-within-mother-infant-dyads
#16
Brendan D Ostlund, Jeffrey R Measelle, Heidemarie K Laurent, Elisabeth Conradt, Jennifer C Ablow
The foundations of emotion regulation are organized, in part, through repeated interactions with one's caregiver in infancy. Less is known about how stress physiology covaries between a mother and her infant within these interactions, leaving a gap in our understanding of how the biological basis of emotion regulation develops. This study investigated physiological attunement between mothers and their 5-month-old infants, as well as the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, during stress recovery. During the reengagement phase of the Still Face Paradigm, mother-infant dyads exhibited negative attunement, as measured by inverse covariation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)...
January 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473368/the-impact-of-early-environmental-interventions-on-structural-plasticity-of-the-axon-initial-segment-in-neocortex
#17
Masoumeh Nozari, Toshimitsu Suzuki, Marcello G P Rosa, Kazuhiro Yamakawa, Nafiseh Atapour
Plasticity of the axon initial segment (AIS) is a newly discovered type of structural plasticity that regulates cell excitability. AIS plasticity has been reported to happen during normal development of neocortex and also in a few pathological conditions involving disruption of the inhibition/excitation balance. Here we report on the impact of early environmental interventions on structural plasticity of AIS in the mouse neocortex. C57BL/6 mice were raised in standard or enriched environment (EE) from birth up to the time of experiments and were injected with saline or MK-801 [N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg] on postnatal days (P) 6-10...
January 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472986/infant-hair-cortisol-associations-with-salivary-cortisol-and-environmental-context
#18
Megan Flom, Ashley M St John, Jerrold S Meyer, Amanda R Tarullo
Early chronic stress has enduring implications for physical and mental health outcomes. Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has emerged as a marker of cumulative cortisol exposure, yet HCC in infants is not well understood. We examined how infant HCC relates to widely used basal salivary cortisol measures, maternal HCC, and environmental context in 111 infants assessed at 6 and 12 months of age. Maternal HCC at 6 and 12 months was correlated with infant HCC at 12 months. At 12 months, infant HCC was positively associated with waking salivary cortisol concentration (SCC), evening SCC, and area under the curve (AUC), but was independent of diurnal slope...
January 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401676/developmental-trajectories-of-eeg-sleep-slow-wave-activity-as-a-marker-for-motor-skill-development-during-adolescence-a-pilot-study
#19
Caroline Lustenberger, Anne-Laure Mouthon, Noemi Tesler, Salome Kurth, Maya Ringli, Andreas Buchmann, Oskar G Jenni, Reto Huber
Reliable markers for brain maturation are important to identify neural deviations that eventually predict the development of mental illnesses. Recent studies have proposed topographical EEG-derived slow wave activity (SWA) during NREM sleep as a mirror of cortical development. However, studies about the longitudinal stability as well as the relationship with behavioral skills are needed before SWA topography may be considered such a reliable marker. We examined six subjects longitudinally (over 5.1 years) using high-density EEG and a visuomotor learning task...
January 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374759/maternal-separation-increases-later-immobility-during-forced-swim-in-guinea-pig-pups-evidence-for-sensitization-of-a-depressive-like-state
#20
Michael B Hennessy, Amanda D Schreibeis, Patricia A Schiml, Terrence Deak
Early-life stress is thought to increase later vulnerability for developing depressive illness by sensitizing underlying stress-responsive systems. Guinea pig pups separated from their mother and isolated in a novel cage for 3 hr exhibit a sensitized depressive-like behavioral response when separated again the following day as well as weeks later. The behavioral response and its sensitization appear to be mediated by inflammatory factors. To determine if this sensitization is specific to the separation response or if it reflects a broader underlying depressive-like state, guinea pig pups that had either been separated for 3 hr or remained with their mothers were observed in the forced swim test the following 3 days...
January 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
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