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Developmental Psychobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436585/the-mobile-conjugate-reinforcement-paradigm-in-a-lab-setting
#1
Emily C Merz, Laraine McDonough, Yong Lin Huang, Sophie Foss, Elizabeth Werner, Catherine Monk
The mobile conjugate reinforcement task was administered to 4-month-old infants in a lab rather than a home setting where it is usually administered. Learning and retention patterns were comparable to those of infants tested in their homes, suggesting flexibility in where this task can be administered. These results pave the way for this task to be used with a broader range of infants for whom home visits are not practical or convenient (e.g., infants in child care). Developmental research conducted with a more diverse population of infants would facilitate our understanding of cognitive development very early in life...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436546/corrigendum-the-impact-of-early-environmental-interventions-on-structural-plasticity-of-the-axon-initial-segment-in-neocortex-m-nozari-t-suzuki-m-g-p-rosa-k-yamakawa-and-n-atapour
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407207/in-memoriam-gilbert-w-meier-1927-2016
#3
Richard P Meier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407206/pre-ejection-period-reactivity-to-reward-is-associated-with-anhedonic-symptoms-of-depression-among-adolescents
#4
Joshua J Ahles, Amy H Mezulis, Sheila E Crowell
Pre-ejection period (PEP) reactivity to reward has been posited as a specific index of behavioral approach and incentive motivation, suggesting it might be uniquely associated with the affective and motivational deficits of anhedonia. This study evaluated PEP reactivity to a reward task as a predictor of depressive symptoms among adolescents, examining global depressive symptoms as well as specific anhedonic and nonanhedonic symptoms clusters. Participants included 76 adolescents, ages 11-15 years (52% female)...
April 13, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391612/distress-vocalization-delay-in-the-neonate-lamb-as-a-neurobehavioral-assessment-tool
#5
Christine L Morton, Geoffrey Hinch, Alison Small
Acoustic features of infant distress vocalizations including latency and rate of emission are used as indices of neurological deficit and integrity in human and rodent neonates. This paper investigates the relationship between temporal characteristics of distress calls, elicited by an isolation stimulus, and indicators of neurobehavioral development over 12 hr postpartum in the neonate lamb. Delayed vocalization initiation was found to be associated with poor locomotor and orientation behavior reflecting the capacity of the lamb to reunite with and follow its dam, and a lowered rate of signal emission following commencement of vocalization...
April 9, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383773/a-dissociation-between-renewal-and-contextual-fear-conditioning-in-juvenile-rats
#6
Chun Hui J Park, Despina E Ganella, Jee Hyun Kim
We investigated whether juvenile rats do not express renewal following extinction of conditioned fear due to their inability to form a long-term contextual fear memory. In experiment 1, postnatal day (P) 18 and 25 rats received 3 white-noise and footshock pairings, followed by 60 white-noise alone presentations the next day. When tested in a different context to extinction, P25 rats displayed renewal whereas P18 rats did not. Experiments 2A and 2B surprisingly showed that P18 and P25 rats do not show differences in contextual and cued fear, regardless of the conditioning-test intervals and the number of white-noise-footshock pairings received...
April 6, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383759/pubertal-development-and-anxiety-risk-independently-relate-to-startle-habituation-during-fear-conditioning-in-8-14-year-old-females
#7
Felicia Jackson, Brady D Nelson, Alexandria Meyer, Greg Hajcak
Reduced habituation to aversive stimuli has been observed during adolescence and may reflect an underlying mechanism of vulnerability for anxiety disorders. This study examined the startle reflex during a fear-learning task in 54 8-14-year-old girls. We examined the relationship between mean startle, startle habituation, pubertal development, and two measures linked to risk for anxiety: behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and the error-related negativity (ERN). Puberty, BIS, and the ERN were unrelated to mean startle; however, each measure modulated startle habituation...
April 6, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369889/maternal-rearing-environment-impacts-autonomic-nervous-system-activity
#8
Eliza Bliss-Moreau, Gilda Moadab, John P Capitanio
While it is now well known that social deprivation during early development permanently perturbs affective responding, accumulating evidence suggests that less severe restriction of the early social environment may also have deleterious effects. In the present report, we evaluate the affective responding of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) infants raised by their mothers in restricted social environments or by their mothers in large social groups by indexing autonomic nervous system activity. Following a 25-hr evaluation of biobehavioral organization, electrocardiogram, and an index of respiration were recorded for 10 min...
April 3, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369808/recognizing-facial-expressions-of-emotion-in-infancy-a-replication-and-extension
#9
Kristina Safar, Margaret C Moulson
Infants may recognize facial expressions of emotion more readily when familiar faces express the emotions. Studies 1 and 2 investigated whether familiarity influences two metrics of emotion processing: Categorization and spontaneous preference. In Study 1 (n = 32), we replicated previous findings showing an asymmetrical pattern of categorization of happy and fearful faces in 6.5-month-old infants, and extended these findings by demonstrating that infants' categorization did not differ when emotions were expressed by familiar (i...
April 3, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369881/pre-exposure-to-cocaine-or-morphine-attenuates-taste-avoidance-conditioning-in-adolescent-rats-drug-specificity-in-the-us-pre-exposure-effect
#10
Matthew M Clasen, Briana J Hempel, Anthony L Riley
Although the attenuating effects of drug history on conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) learning have been widely investigated in adults, such effects in adolescents have not been well characterized. Recent research has suggested that the display of the drug pre-exposure effect during adolescence may be drug dependent given that pre-exposure to ethanol attenuates subsequent conditioning, whereas pre-exposure to the classic emetic lithium chloride (LiCl) fails to do so. The present study began investigating the possible drug-dependent nature of the effects of drug pre-exposure by pre-exposing and conditioning adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats to drugs from two additional classes, specifically psychostimulants (cocaine; Experiment 1) and opioids (morphine; Experiment 2)...
March 28, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295244/the-effects-of-stimulus-symmetry-on-hierarchical-processing-in-infancy
#11
Maggie W Guy, Greg D Reynolds, Sara M Mosteller, Kate C Dixon
The current study investigated the effects of stimulus symmetry on the processing of global and local stimulus properties by 6-month-old short- and long-looking infants through the use of event-related potentials (ERPs). Previous research has shown that individual differences in infant visual attention are related to hierarchical stimulus processing, such that short lookers show a global processing bias, while long lookers demonstrate a local processing bias (Guy, Reynolds, & Zhang, ). Additional research has shown that in comparison with asymmetry, symmetry is associated with more efficient stimulus processing and more accurate memory for stimulus configuration (Attneave, ; Perkins, )...
March 13, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294331/context-dependent-extinction-of-an-appetitive-operant-conditioned-response-in-infant-rats
#12
Estefanía Orellana Barrera, Carlos Arias, Felisa González, Paula Abate
The present study evaluated context-dependent learning under an operant conditioning procedure in infant rats. Preweanling rats were trained in context A during postnatal days (PDs) 16 and 17 to learn an appetitive operant conditioning task, employing milk chocolate as appetitive reinforcer. On PD18 the operant response was extinguished in context A, or in an alternative context B. The change from context A to B between acquisition and extinction did not affect the number of responses during extinction, but slightly modified the shape of the extinction curve...
March 13, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261792/parasympathetic-reactivity-and-disruptive-behavior-problems-in-young-children-during-interactions-with-their-mothers-and-other-adults-a-preliminary-investigation
#13
Christine E Cooper-Vince, Mariah DeSerisy, Danielle Cornacchio, Amanda Sanchez, Katie A McLaughlin, Jonathan S Comer
Parasympathetic nervous system influences on cardiac functions-commonly indexed via respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)-are central to self-regulation. RSA suppression during challenging emotional and cognitive tasks is often associated with better emotional and behavioral functioning in preschoolers. However, the links between RSA suppression and child behavior across various challenging interpersonal contexts remains unclear. The present study experimentally evaluated the relationship between child RSA reactivity to adult (mother vs...
March 6, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247564/fkbp5-genotype-and-early-life-stress-exposure-predict-neurobehavioral-outcomes-for-preterm-infants
#14
Amy L D'Agata, Stephen Walsh, Dorothy Vittner, Xiaomei Cong, Jacqueline M McGrath, Erin E Young
PROBLEM: This study evaluated the relationship between stressful early life neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) experiences, genetic variation of a stress response-associated gene (FKBP5), and neurobehavioral outcomes. METHOD: The impact of genetic variation and stress experience on neurobehavioral outcomes was examined for 41 preterm infants. Statistical analyses explored the main effects of FKBP5 genotype and NICU stress experience, as well as their interaction on infant neurobehavioral development prior to discharge...
March 1, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247407/context-dependent-individual-differences-in-playfulness-in-male-rats
#15
Jessica F Lampe, Oliver Burman, Hanno Würbel, Luca Melotti
Play has been proposed as an indicator of positive emotions and welfare in higher vertebrates. This study investigated playfulness in male rats by exploring its consistency across motivational states (with/without prior short social isolation) and two age points at early and late adolescence. Twenty-four male Lister Hooded rats housed in cages of four underwent two play tests: conspecific Play-in-Pairs and Tickling by the experimenter, which were compared with play in the home cage and basal anxiety levels...
March 1, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220490/biological-embedding-of-perinatal-social-relationships-in-infant-stress-reactivity
#16
Jenna C Thomas, Nicole Letourneau, Crystal I Bryce, Tavis S Campbell, Gerald F Giesbrecht
Whereas significant advances have been made in understanding how exposure to early adversity "gets under the skin" of children to result in long term changes in developmental outcomes, the processes by which positive social relationships become biologically embedded remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to understand the pathways by which maternal and infant social environments become biologically embedded in infant cortisol reactivity. Two hundred seventy-two pregnant women and their infants were prospectively assessed during pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum...
February 21, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220475/dyadic-flexibility-mediates-the-relation-between-parent-conflict-and-infants-vagal-reactivity-during-the-face-to-face-still-face
#17
Alex Busuito, Ginger A Moore
Parent conflict is related to attenuated infant vagal reactivity, suggesting less effective regulation. Because infants' self-regulation develops in the context of coregulation, the current study examined a novel measure, flexibility, purported to reflect dyadic reorganization in response to contextual demands. Flexibility was expected to mediate the relation between greater conflict and lesser vagal reactivity during the reunion episode of the Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF). Six-month-old infants' and their mothers' (N = 53) affective behaviors were observed during the FFSF and heart rate data were collected for infants...
February 21, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181225/electrophysiological-evidence-of-altered-visual-processing-in-adults-who-experienced-visual-deprivation-during-infancy
#18
Sidney J Segalowitz, Avital Sternin, Terri L Lewis, Jane Dywan, Daphne Maurer
We examined the role of early visual input in visual system development by testing adults who had been born with dense bilateral cataracts that blocked all patterned visual input during infancy until the cataractous lenses were removed surgically and the eyes fitted with compensatory contact lenses. Patients viewed checkerboards and textures to explore early processing regions (V1, V2), Glass patterns to examine global form processing (V4), and moving stimuli to explore global motion processing (V5). Patients' ERPs differed from those of controls in that (1) the V1 component was much smaller for all but the simplest stimuli and (2) extrastriate components did not differentiate amongst texture stimuli, Glass patterns, or motion stimuli...
February 9, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138966/chronic-social-instability-in-adult-female-rats-alters-social-behavior-maternal-aggression-and-offspring-development
#19
Florent Pittet, Jessica A Babb, Lindsay Carini, Benjamin C Nephew
We investigated the consequences of chronic social instability (CSI) during adulthood on social and maternal behavior in females and social behavior of their offspring in a rat model. CSI consisted of changing the social partners of adult females every 2-3 days for 28 days, 2 weeks prior to mating. Females exposed to CSI behaved less aggressively and more pro-socially towards unfamiliar female intruders. Maternal care was not affected by CSI in a standard testing environment, but maternal behavior of CSI females was less disrupted by a male intruder...
January 31, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369850/an-mri-study-of-the-corpus-callosum-in-monkeys-developmental-trajectories-and-effects-of-neonatal-hippocampal-and-amygdala-lesions
#20
Christa Payne, Laetitia Cirilli, Jocelyne Bachevalier
This study provides the first characterization of early developmental trajectories of corpus callosum (CC) segments in rhesus macaques using noninvasive MRI techniques and assesses long-term effects of neonatal amygdala or hippocampal lesions on CC morphometry. In Experiment 1, 10 monkeys (5 males) were scanned at 1 week-2 years of age; eight additional infants (4 males) were scanned once at 1-4 weeks of age. The first 8 months showed marked growth across all segments, with sustained, albeit slower, growth through 24 months...
May 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
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