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Current Topics in Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527582/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Douglas Forrest, Sophia Tsai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527581/nuclear-receptors-in-skeletal-homeostasis
#2
Hao Zuo, Yihong Wan
Nuclear receptors are a family of transcription factors that can be activated by lipophilic ligands. They are fundamental regulators of development, reproduction, and energy metabolism. In bone, nuclear receptors enable bone cells, including osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, to sense their dynamic microenvironment and maintain normal bone development and remodeling. Our views of the molecular mechanisms in this process have advanced greatly in the past decade. Drugs targeting nuclear receptors are widely used in the clinic for treating patients with bone disorders such as osteoporosis by modulating bone formation and resorption rates...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527580/the-function-and-evolution-of-nuclear-receptors-in-insect-embryonic-development
#3
Alys M Cheatle Jarvela, Leslie Pick
Nuclear receptors are a family of transcription factors that are often responsive to small ligands, allowing for efficient gene expression-level responses to a stimulus. The average insect has 21 genes encoding nuclear receptors, whose functions are especially well studied in developmental transitions during the insect life cycle, such as metamorphosis and molting. However, their utility as well-controlled transcriptional regulators also lends them to important roles in embryogenesis, neurogenesis, metabolism, and organogenesis...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527579/the-role-of-coup-tfii-in-striated-muscle-development-and-disease
#4
Xin Xie, San-Pin Wu, Ming-Jer Tsai, Sophia Tsai
Skeletal and cardiac muscles are the only striated muscles in the body. Although sharing many structural and functional similarities, skeletal and cardiac muscles have intrinsic differences in terms of physiology and regenerative potential. While skeletal muscle possesses a robust regenerative response, the mammalian heart has limited repair capacity after birth. In this review, we provide an updated view regarding chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) function in vertebrate myogenesis, with particular emphasis on the skeletal and cardiac muscles...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527578/tr2-and-tr4-orphan-nuclear-receptors-an-overview
#5
Shin-Jen Lin, Dong-Rong Yang, Guosheng Yang, Chang-Yi Lin, Hong-Chiang Chang, Gonghui Li, Chawnshang Chang
Testicular nuclear receptors 2 and 4 (TR2, TR4), also known as NR2C1 and NR2C2, belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily and were first cloned in 1989 and 1994, respectively. Although classified as orphan receptors, several natural molecules, their metabolites, and synthetic compounds including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), PUFA metabolites 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and the antidiabetic drug thiazolidinediones can transactivate TR4. Importantly, many of these ligands/activators can also transactivate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), also known as NR1C3 nuclear receptor...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527577/resistance-to-thyroid-hormone-due-to-heterozygous-mutations-in-thyroid-hormone-receptor-alpha
#6
Anja L M van Gucht, Carla Moran, Marcel E Meima, W Edward Visser, Krishna Chatterjee, Theo J Visser, Robin P Peeters
BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormone (TH) acts via nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). TR isoforms (TRα1, TRα2, TRβ1, TRβ2) are encoded by distinct genes (THRA and THRB) and show differing tissue distributions. Patients with mutations in THRB, exhibiting resistance within the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis with elevated TH and nonsuppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, were first described decades ago. In 2012, the first patients with mutations in THRA were identified...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527576/genetic-investigation-of-thyroid-hormone-receptor-function-in-the-developing-and-adult-brain
#7
Frédéric Flamant, Karine Gauthier, Sabine Richard
Thyroid hormones exert a broad influence on brain development and function, which has been extensively studied over the years. Mouse genetics has brought an important contribution, allowing precise analysis of the interplay between TRα1 and TRβ1 nuclear receptors in neural cells. However, the exact contribution of each receptor, the possible intervention of nongenomic signaling, and the nature of the genetic program that is controlled by the receptors remain poorly understood.
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527575/coup-tf-genes-human-diseases-and-the-development-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-murine-models
#8
Xiong Yang, Su Feng, Ke Tang
COUP-TFI and -TFII are members of the steroid/thyroid nuclear receptor superfamily. Recent clinical studies reveal that COUP-TFI gene mutations are associated with Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf optic atrophy syndrome displaying symptoms of optic atrophy, intellectual disability, hypotonia, seizure, autism spectrum disorders, oromotor dysfunction, thin corpus callosum, or hearing defects, and COUP-TFII gene mutations lead to congenital heart defects and/or congenital diaphragmatic hernia with developmental delay and mental defects...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527574/nuclear-receptor-tlx-in-development-and-diseases
#9
Guoqiang Sun, Qi Cui, Yanhong Shi
The nuclear receptor TLX (NR2E1) is a transcription factor that is critical for neural development and adult neurogenesis through its actions in regulating neural stem cell proliferation, self-renewal, and fate determination. These roles are primarily executed by regulating TLX downstream target genes involved in myriad pathways such as cell cycle progression, RNA processing, angiogenesis, and senescence. Recent studies suggest that dysregulation of TLX pathways plays an important role in the pathogenesis of human neurological disorders and brain tumors...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527573/retinoid-related-orphan-receptor-%C3%AE-and-transcriptional-control-of-neuronal-differentiation
#10
Hong Liu, Michihiko Aramaki, Yulong Fu, Douglas Forrest
The ability to generate neuronal diversity is central to the function of the nervous system. Here we discuss the key neurodevelopmental roles of retinoid-related orphan receptor β (RORβ) encoded by the Rorb (Nr1f2) gene. Recent studies have reported loss of function of the human RORB gene in cases of familial epilepsy and intellectual disability. Principal sites of expression of the Rorb gene in model species include sensory organs, the spinal cord, and brain regions that process sensory and circadian information...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527572/roles-of-retinoic-acid-in-germ-cell-differentiation
#11
Marius Teletin, Nadège Vernet, Norbert B Ghyselinck, Manuel Mark
The modalities of gametogenesis differ markedly between sexes. Female are born with a definitive reserve of oocytes whose size is crucial to ensure fertility. Male fertility, in contrast, relies on a tightly regulated balance between germ cell self-renewal and differentiation, which operates throughout life, according to recurring spatial and temporal patterns. Genetic and pharmacological studies conducted in the mouse and discussed in this review have revealed that all-trans retinoic acid and its nuclear receptors are major players of gametogenesis and are instrumental to fertility in both sexes...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527571/progesterone-receptor-signaling-in-uterine-myometrial-physiology-and-preterm-birth
#12
San-Pin Wu, Francesco J DeMayo
Myometrium holds the structural integrity for the uterus and generates force for parturition with its primary component, the smooth muscle cells. The progesterone receptor mediates progesterone-dependent signaling and connects to a network of pathways for regulation of contractility and inflammatory responses in myometrium. Dysfunctional progesterone signaling has been linked to pregnancy complications including preterm birth. In the present review, we summarize recent findings on modifiers and effectors of the progesterone receptor signaling...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527570/mechanisms-of-glucocorticoid-action-during-development
#13
Jonathan T Busada, John A Cidlowski
Glucocorticoids are primary stress hormones produced by the adrenal cortex. The concentration of serum glucocorticoids in the fetus is low throughout most of gestation but surge in the weeks prior to birth. While their most well-known function is to stimulate differentiation and functional development of the lungs, glucocorticoids also play crucial roles in the development of several other organ systems. Mothers at risk of preterm delivery are administered glucocorticoids to accelerate fetal lung development and prevent respiratory distress...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527569/estrogen-hormone-biology
#14
Katherine J Hamilton, Sylvia C Hewitt, Yukitomo Arao, Kenneth S Korach
The hormone estrogen is involved in both female and male reproduction, as well as numerous other biological systems including the neuroendocrine, vascular, skeletal, and immune systems. Therefore, it is also implicated in many different diseases and conditions such as infertility, obesity, osteoporosis, endometriosis, and a variety of cancers. Estrogen works through its two distinct nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). Various transcriptional regulation mechanisms have been identified as the mode of action for estrogen, mainly the classical mechanism with direct DNA binding but also a nongenomic mode of action and one using tethered or indirect binding...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527568/evolution-of-nuclear-receptors-and-ligand-signaling-toward-a-soft-key-lock-model
#15
Guillaume Holzer, Gabriel V Markov, Vincent Laudet
Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a family of ligand-regulated transcription factors that modulate a wide variety of physiological functions in a ligand-dependent manner. The first NRs were discovered as receptors of well-known hormones such as 17β-estradiol, corticosteroids, or thyroid hormones. In these cases a direct activation of the receptor transcriptional activity by a very specific ligand, with nanomolar affinity, was demonstrated, providing a strong conceptual framework to understand the mechanism of action of these hormones...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335866/preface
#16
EDITORIAL
Kirsten C Sadler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335865/zebrafish-developmental-models-of-skeletal-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Lauryn N Luderman, Gokhan Unlu, Ela W Knapik
The zebrafish skeleton shares many similarities with human and other vertebrate skeletons. Over the past years, work in zebrafish has provided an extensive understanding of the basic developmental mechanisms and cellular pathways directing skeletal development and homeostasis. This review will focus on the cell biology of cartilage and bone and how the basic cellular processes within chondrocytes and osteocytes function to assemble the structural frame of a vertebrate body. We will discuss fundamental functions of skeletal cells in production and secretion of extracellular matrix and cellular activities leading to differentiation of progenitors to mature cells that make up the skeleton...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335864/using-zebrafish-to-study-kidney-development-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Stephanie Jerman, Zhaoxia Sun
The kidneys are a crucial pair of organs that are responsible for filtering the blood to remove waste, maintain electrolyte and water homeostasis, and regulate blood pressure. There are a number of factors, both genetic and environmental, that can impair the function of the kidneys resulting in significant morbidity and mortality for millions of people affected by kidney disease worldwide. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, has emerged as an attractive vertebrate model in the study of kidney development and disease and has proven to be a powerful tool in the advancement of how kidney development occurs in vertebrates and how the kidney repairs itself after injury...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335863/zebrafish-in-toxicology-and-environmental-health
#19
REVIEW
Kathryn Bambino, Jaime Chu
As manufacturing processes and development of new synthetic compounds increase to keep pace with the expanding global demand, environmental health, and the effects of toxicant exposure are emerging as critical public health concerns. Additionally, chemicals that naturally occur in the environment, such as metals, have profound effects on human and animal health. Many of these compounds are in the news: lead, arsenic, and endocrine disruptors such as bisphenol A have all been widely publicized as causing disease or damage to humans and wildlife in recent years...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335862/modeling-infectious-diseases-in-the-context-of-a-developing-immune-system
#20
REVIEW
Samrah Masud, Vincenzo Torraca, Annemarie H Meijer
Zebrafish has been used for over a decade to study the mechanisms of a wide variety of inflammatory disorders and infections, with models ranging from bacterial, viral, to fungal pathogens. Zebrafish has been especially relevant to study the differentiation, specialization, and polarization of the two main innate immune cell types, the macrophages and the neutrophils. The optical accessibility and the early appearance of myeloid cells that can be tracked with fluorescent labels in zebrafish embryos and the ability to use genetics to selectively ablate or expand immune cell populations have permitted studying the interaction between infection, development, and metabolism...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
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