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Current Topics in Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057310/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Leslie Pick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057309/drosophila-melanogaster-as-a-model-of-muscle-degeneration-disorders
#2
R E Kreipke, Y V Kwon, H R Shcherbata, H Ruohola-Baker
Drosophila melanogaster provides a powerful platform with which researchers can dissect complex genetic questions and biochemical pathways relevant to a vast array of human diseases and disorders. Of particular interest, much work has been done with flies to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle degeneration diseases. The fly is particularly useful for modeling muscle degeneration disorders because there are no identified satellite muscle cells to repair adult muscle following injury. This allows for the identification of endogenous processes of muscle degeneration as discrete events, distinguishable from phenotypes due to the lack of stem cell-based regeneration...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057308/drosophila-as-a-model-for-diabetes-and-diseases-of-insulin-resistance
#3
P Graham, L Pick
Despite the importance of insulin signaling pathways in human disease, initial concerns that insect physiology and sugar metabolism differ enough from humans that flies would not model human disease hampered research in this area. However, during the past 10-15 years, evidence has accumulated that flies can indeed model various aspects of diabetes and related human disorders. This cluster of diseases impact insulin and insulin signaling pathways, fields which have been discussed in many excellent review articles in recent years...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057307/drosophila-melanogaster-models-of-galactosemia
#4
J M I Daenzer, J L Fridovich-Keil
The galactosemias are a family of autosomal recessive genetic disorders resulting from impaired function of the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism. Type I, or classic galactosemia, results from profound deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, the second enzyme in the Leloir pathway. Type II galactosemia results from profound deficiency of galactokinase, the first enzyme in the Leloir pathway. Type III galactosemia results from partial deficiency of UDP galactose 4'-epimerase, the third enzyme in the Leloir pathway...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057306/the-drosophila-accessory-gland-as-a-model-for-prostate-cancer-and-other-pathologies
#5
C Wilson, A Leiblich, D C I Goberdhan, F Hamdy
The human prostate is a gland of the male reproductive tract, which together with the seminal vesicles, is responsible for most seminal fluid production. It is a common site of cancer, and unlike other glands, it typically enlarges in aging men. In flies, the male accessory glands make many major seminal fluid components. Like their human equivalents, they secrete proteins from several conserved families, including proteases, lectins, and cysteine-rich secretory proteins, some of which interact with sperm and affect fertility...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057305/stem-cell-based-tumorigenesis-in-adult-drosophila
#6
S X Hou, S R Singh
Recent studies suggest that a small subset of cells within a tumor, the so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), are responsible for tumor propagation, relapse, and the eventual death of most cancer patients. CSCs may derive from a few tumor-initiating cells, which are either transformed normal stem cells or reprogrammed differentiated cells after acquiring initial cancer-causing mutations. CSCs and normal stem cells share some properties, but CSCs differ from normal stem cells in their tumorigenic ability. Notably, CSCs are usually resistant to chemo- and radiation therapies...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057304/drosophila-as-a-model-for-human-diseases-focus-on-innate-immunity-in-barrier-epithelia
#7
P Bergman, S Seyedoleslami Esfahani, Y Engström
Epithelial immunity protects the host from harmful microbial invaders but also controls the beneficial microbiota on epithelial surfaces. When this delicate balance between pathogen and symbiont is disturbed, clinical disease often occurs, such as in inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, or atopic dermatitis, which all can be in part linked to impairment of barrier epithelia. Many innate immune receptors, signaling pathways, and effector molecules are evolutionarily conserved between human and Drosophila...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057303/modeling-human-cancers-in-drosophila
#8
M Sonoshita, R L Cagan
Cancer is a complex disease that affects multiple organs. Whole-body animal models provide important insights into oncology that can lead to clinical impact. Here, we review novel concepts that Drosophila studies have established for cancer biology, drug discovery, and patient therapy. Genetic studies using Drosophila have explored the roles of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes that when dysregulated promote cancer formation, making Drosophila a useful model to study multiple aspects of transformation. Not limited to mechanism analyses, Drosophila has recently been showing its value in facilitating drug development...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057302/unraveling-the-neurobiology-of-sleep-and-sleep-disorders-using-drosophila
#9
L Chakravarti, E H Moscato, M S Kayser
Sleep disorders in humans are increasingly appreciated to be not only widespread but also detrimental to multiple facets of physical and mental health. Recent work has begun to shed light on the mechanistic basis of sleep disorders like insomnia, restless legs syndrome, narcolepsy, and a host of others, but a more detailed genetic and molecular understanding of how sleep goes awry is lacking. Over the past 15 years, studies in Drosophila have yielded new insights into basic questions regarding sleep function and regulation...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057301/axgxe-using-flies-to-interrogate-the-complex-etiology-of-neurodegenerative-disease
#10
C Burke, K Trinh, V Nadar, S Sanyal
Progressive and late-onset neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease affect up to 50 million people globally-a number postulated to double every 20 years in a continually aging population. While predisposing allelic variants in several genes clearly confer risk, individual age and specific environmental influences are equally important discriminators of disease onset age and progression. However, none of these factors can independently predict disease with significant precision...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057300/neurotoxicity-pathways-in-drosophila-models-of-the-polyglutamine-disorders
#11
M Krench, J T Littleton
Although polyglutamine expansion diseases are the most common genetically inherited neurodegenerative disorders, the key pathogenic mechanisms that lead to neuronal cell death are unclear. The expansion of a polyglutamine tract in specific proteins is the defining molecular insult, leading to cell-type and region-specific neuronal death. Intraneuronal aggregates of the affected protein can be found in the nucleus and/or cytoplasm and are a hallmark of these disorders. Whether and how aggregation leads to pathology, however, is under debate...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057299/mechanisms-of-parkinson-s-disease-lessons-from-drosophila
#12
V L Hewitt, A J Whitworth
The power of Drosophila genetics has attracted attention in tackling important biomedical challenges such as the understanding and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder which results from the relentless degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Over the past two decades tremendous advances have been made in identifying genes responsible for inherited forms of PD. The ease of genetic manipulation in Drosophila has spurred the development of numerous models of PD, including expression of human genes carrying pathogenic mutations or the targeted mutation of conserved orthologs...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057298/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-pathogenesis-converges-on-defects-in-protein-homeostasis-associated-with-tdp-43-mislocalization-and-proteasome-mediated-degradation-overload
#13
G Lin, D Mao, H J Bellen
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects upper and/or lower motor neurons. It usually affects people between the ages of 40-70. The average life expectancy is about 3-5 years after diagnosis and there is no effective cure available. Identification of variants in more than 20 different loci has provided insight into the pathogenic molecular mechanisms mediating disease pathogenesis. In this review, we focus on seven ALS-causing genes: TDP-43, FUS, C9orf72, VCP, UBQLN2, VAPB and SOD-1, which encompass about 90% of the variants causing familial ALS...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057297/fly-models-of-human-diseases-drosophila-as-a-model-for-understanding-human-mitochondrial-mutations-and-disease
#14
A Sen, R T Cox
Mitochondrial diseases are a prevalent, heterogeneous class of diseases caused by defects in oxidative phosphorylation, whose severity depends upon particular genetic mutations. These diseases can be difficult to diagnose, and current therapeutics have limited efficacy, primarily treating only symptoms. Because mitochondria play a pivotal role in numerous cellular functions, especially ATP production, their diminished activity has dramatic physiological consequences. While this in and of itself makes treating mitochondrial disease complex, these organelles contain their own DNA, mtDNA, whose products are required for ATP production, in addition to the hundreds of nucleus-encoded proteins...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057274/preface
#15
EDITORIAL
Manfred Frasch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057273/eomesodermin-at-dawn-of-cell-fate-decisions-during-early-embryogenesis
#16
S Probst, S J Arnold
Proteins of the large family of T-box transcription factors are implicated in a broad spectrum of developmental processes. Loss-of-function mutations of T-box(Tbx) factors frequently cause severe embryonic phenotypes, often resulting from defects in cell fate specification and lineage differentiation. This review summarizes current knowledge on the functions of the T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin (Eomes) from postfertilization development until gastrulation stages of vertebrate embryos. Eomes exhibits evolutionary conserved functions in cell lineage specification and morphogenesis during gastrulation in all studied vertebrate model systems...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057272/t-box-genes-and-developmental-gene-regulatory-networks-in-ascidians
#17
A Di Gregorio
Ascidians are invertebrate chordates with a biphasic life cycle characterized by a dual body plan that displays simplified versions of chordate structures, such as a premetamorphic 40-cell notochord topped by a dorsal nerve cord and postmetamorphic pharyngeal slits. These relatively simple chordates are characterized by rapid development, compact genomes and ease of transgenesis, and thus provide the opportunity to rapidly characterize the genomic organization, developmental function, and transcriptional regulation of evolutionarily conserved gene families...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057271/t-box-genes-in-human-development-and-disease
#18
T K Ghosh, J D Brook, A Wilsdon
T-box genes are important development regulators in vertebrates with specific patterns of expression and precise roles during embryogenesis. They encode transcription factors that regulate gene transcription, often in the early stages of development. The hallmark of this family of proteins is the presence of a conserved DNA binding motif, the "T-domain." Mutations in T-box genes can cause developmental disorders in humans, mostly due to functional deficiency of the relevant proteins. Recent studies have also highlighted the role of some T-box genes in cancer and in cardiomyopathy, extending their role in human disease...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057270/the-roles-of-t-box-genes-in-vertebrate-limb-development
#19
C J Sheeba, M P O Logan
Members of the T-box gene family have diverse roles during embryogenesis and many play critical roles in the developing limb. This is exemplified by the fact that, in humans, mutations in T-box genes are associated with several congenital syndromes that include limb defects as part of their characteristic spectrum of abnormalities. T-box genes encode for evolutionary conserved transcription factors that include both transcriptional activators and repressors. The hallmark of T-box gene members is the presence of the eponymous DNA-binding T-box domain...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057269/t-box-genes-in-drosophila-limb-development
#20
G O Pflugfelder, F Eichinger, J Shen
T-box genes are essential for limb development in vertebrates and arthropods. The Drosophila genome encodes eight T-box genes, six of which are expressed in limb ontogenesis. The Tbx20-related gene pair midline and H15 is essential for dorso-ventral patterning of the Drosophila legs. The three Tbx6-related Dorsocross genes are required for epithelial remodeling during wing development. The Drosophila gene optomotor-blind (omb) is the only member of the Tbx2 subfamily in the fly and is predominantly involved in wing development...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
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