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Journal of Biomechanics

Jessy Lauer, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Annie Hélène Rouard
Aquatic exercises are widely implemented into rehabilitation programs. However, both evaluating their mechanical demands on the musculoskeletal system and designing protocols to provide progressive loading are difficult tasks. This study reports for the first time shoulder joint kinetics and dynamics during underwater forward arm elevation performed at speeds ranging from 22.5 to 90°/s. Net joint moments projected onto anatomical axes of rotation, joint power, and joint work were calculated in 18 participants through a novel approach coupling numerical fluid flow simulations and inverse dynamics...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Daniel J Goble, Ehran Khan, Harsimran S Baweja, Shawn M O'Connor
Changes in postural sway measured via force plate center of pressure have been associated with many aspects of human motor ability. A previous study validated the accuracy and precision of a relatively new, low-cost and portable force plate called the Balance Tracking System (BTrackS). This work compared a laboratory-grade force plate versus BTrackS during human-like dynamic sway conditions generated by an inverted pendulum device. The present study sought to extend previous validation attempts for BTrackS using a more traditional point of application (POA) approach...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Alessandro Mengarelli, Federica Verdini, Stefano Cardarelli, Francesco Di Nardo, Laura Burattini, Sandro Fioretti
Testing balance through squatting exercise is a central part of many rehabilitation programs and sports and plays also an important role in clinical evaluation of residual motor ability. The assessment of center of pressure (CoP) displacement and its parametrization is commonly used to describe and analyze squat movement and the laboratory-grade force plates (FP) are the gold standard for measuring balance performances from a dynamic view-point. However, the Nintendo Wii Balance Board (NWBB) has been recently proposed as an inexpensive and easily available device for measuring ground reaction force and CoP displacement in standing balance tasks...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Aboulfazl Shirazi-Adl, Hendrik Schmidt, Idsart Kingma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Diana M Ropcke, Jonas Rasmussen, Christine Ilkjær, Søren N Skov, Marcell J Tjørnild, Ulrik T Baandrup, Carl Christian Danielsen, Vibeke E Hjortdal, Sten L Nielsen
OBJECTIVE: Tricuspid valve reconstruction using a small intestinal submucosal porcine extracellular matrix (ECM) tube graft is hypothesized to be durable for six months and show signs of recellularization and growth potential. The purpose was to histologically and biomechanically test ECM valves before and after six months of implantation in pigs for comparison with native valves. METHODS: Ten 60 kg pigs were included, which survived tricuspid valve tube graft insertion...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Mohamed M Ibrahim, Luke P Poveromo, Richard R Glisson, Agustin Cornejo, Alfredo E Farjat, Ken Gall, Howard Levinson
PURPOSE: Approximately 348,000 ventral hernia repairs are performed annually in the United States and the incisional hernia recurrence rate is approximately 20% as a result of suture and mesh device failure. Device failure is related to changes at the suture/tissue interface that leads to acute or chronic suture pull-through and surgical failure. To better manage mechanical tension, we propose a modified mesh design with extensions and demonstrate its mechanical superiority. METHODS: Comparative uniaxial static tensile testing was conducted on polypropylene suture and a modified mesh...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Justin F M Hollenbeck, Christopher M Cain, Jill A Fattor, Paul J Rullkoetter, Peter J Laz
The mechanics of the lumbar spine are heavily dependent on the underlying anatomy. Anatomical measures are used to assess the progression of pathologies related to low back pain and to screen patients for surgical treatment options. To describe anatomical norms and pathological differences for the population, statistical shape modeling, which uses full three-dimensional representations of bone morphology and relative alignment, can capture intersubject variability and enable comparative evaluations of subject to population...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Gregory S Walsh, Daniel C Low, Marco Arkesteijn
Prolonged walking could alter postural control leading to an increased risk of falls in older adults. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of level and uphill prolonged walking on the postural control of older adults. Sixteen participants (64 ± 5 years) attended 3 visits. Postural control was assessed during quiet standing and the limits of stability immediately pre, post and post 15 min rest a period of 30 min walking on level and uphill (5.25%) gradients on separate visits. Each 30 min walk was divided into 3 10 min blocks, the limits of stability were measured between each block...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
L Westover, G Faulkner, C Flores-Mir, W Hodgetts, D Raboud
In this paper we present the development of the Advanced System for Implant Stability Testing (ASIST) for application to natural teeth. The ASIST uses an impact measurement combined with an analytical model of the system and surrounding support to provide a measure of the interface stiffness. In this study, an analytical model is developed for a single-rooted natural tooth allowing the ASIST to estimate the stiffness characteristics of the periodontal ligament (PDL). The geometry and inertia parameters of the tooth model are presented in two ways: (1) using full CT scans of the individual tooth and (2) using an approximate geometry model with estimates of only the tooth length and diameter...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Satish Kumar Panda, Martin Lindsay Buist
Soft tissues exhibit highly nonlinear rate and time-dependent stress-strain behaviour. Strain and strain rate dependencies are often modelled using a hyperelastic model and a discrete (standard linear solid) or continuous spectrum (quasi-linear) viscoelastic model, respectively. However, these models are unable to properly capture the materials characteristics because hyperelastic models are unsuited for time-dependent events, whereas the common viscoelastic models are insufficient for the nonlinear and finite strain viscoelastic tissue responses...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Mohammad Nikkhoo, Jaw-Lin Wang, Mohamad Parnianpour, Marwan El-Rich, Kinda Khalaf
Understanding the effect of impact loading on the mechanical response of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is valuable for investigating injury mechanisms and devising effective therapeutic modalities. This study used 24 porcine thoracic motion segments to characterize the mechanical response of intact (N = 8), degenerated (Trypsin-denatured, N = 8), and repaired (Genepin-treated, N = 8) IVDs subject to impact loading. A meta-model analysis of poroelastic finite element simulations was used in combination with ex-vivo creep and impact tests to extract the material properties...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Amandine Dubois, Jean-Pierre Bresciani
Fall risk in elderly people is usually assessed using clinical tests. These tests consist in a subjective evaluation of gait performed by healthcare professionals, most of the time shortly after the first fall occurrence. We propose to complement this one-time, subjective evaluation, by a more quantitative analysis of the gait pattern using a Microsoft Kinect. To evaluate the potential of the Kinect sensor for such a quantitative gait analysis, we benchmarked its performance against that of a gold-standard motion capture system, namely the OptiTrack...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
A Zeighami, R Aissaoui, R Dumas
Contact point (CP) trajectory is a crucial parameter in estimating medial/lateral tibio-femoral contact forces from the musculoskeletal (MSK) models. The objective of the present study was to develop a method to incorporate the subject-specific CP trajectories into the MSK model. Ten healthy subjects performed 45 s treadmill gait trials. The subject-specific CP trajectories were constructed on the tibia and femur as a function of extension-flexion using low-dose bi-plane X-ray images during a quasi-static squat...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Elyse Passmore, H Kerr Graham, Morgan Sangeux
Hip rotation during gait is a major indicator for femoral derotation osteotomy. However, repeatability of hip rotation is poor because of discrepancies in determining the medial-lateral axis of the femur. Combining 3D gait analysis with medical imaging allows in vivo evaluation of current clinical methods. We used the condylar axis, identified from low dose biplanar radiographs (EOS imaging Inc), as our reference to evaluate conventional, functional calibration and freehand 3D ultrasound methods to define the medial-lateral axis in children with lower-limb torsional deformities...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Charlotte A Guertler, Ruth J Okamoto, John L Schmidt, Andrew A Badachhape, Curtis L Johnson, Philip V Bayly
The mechanical properties of brain tissue in vivo determine the response of the brain to rapid skull acceleration. These properties are thus of great interest to the developers of mathematical models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) or neurosurgical simulations. Animal models provide valuable insight that can improve TBI modeling. In this study we compare estimates of mechanical properties of the Yucatan mini-pig brain in vivo and ex vivo using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) at multiple frequencies. MRE allows estimations of properties in soft tissue, either in vivo or ex vivo, by imaging harmonic shear wave propagation...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
M Narimani, N Arjmand
Evaluation of spinal range of motions (RoMs) and movement coordination between its segments (thorax, lumbar, and pelvis) has clinical and biomechanical implications. Previous studies have not recorded three-dimensional primary/coupled motions of all spinal segments simultaneously. Moreover, magnitude/direction of the coupled motions of the thorax/pelvis in standing posture and lumbopelvic rhythms in the frontal/transverse planes have not been investigated. This study, hence, used an inertial tracking device to measure T1, T5, T12, total (T1-T12) thoracic, lower (T5-T12) and upper (T1-T5) thoracic, lumbar (T12-S1), and pelvis primary and coupled RoMs as well as their movement coordination in all anatomical planes/directions in twenty-two healthy individuals...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
E van der Kruk, A L Schwab, F C T van der Helm, H E J Veeger
In gait studies body pose reconstruction (BPR) techniques have been widely explored, but no previous protocols have been developed for speed skating, while the peculiarities of the skating posture and technique do not automatically allow for the transfer of the results of those explorations to kinematic skating data. The aim of this paper is to determine the best procedure for body pose reconstruction and inverse dynamics of speed skating, and to what extend this choice influences the estimation of joint power...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Daniel Kuhman, John Willson, J C Mizelle, Paul DeVita
Old compared to young adults exhibit increased hip and decreased ankle mechanical output during walking - a phenomenon known as biomechanical plasticity. Previous comparison studies suggest that low compared to high capacity old adults exhibit larger magnitudes of this plasticity, however the precise relationship between capacity and plasticity magnitude remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to quantify the relationships between physical capacity and biomechanical plasticity magnitude during level and incline walking...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Marianna Capecci, Maria Gabriella Ceravolo, Francesco Ferracuti, Martina Grugnetti, Sabrina Iarlori, Sauro Longhi, Luca Romeo, Federica Verdini
This work proposes a real-time monitoring tool aimed to support clinicians for remote assessing exercise performances during home-based rehabilitation. The study relies on clinician indications to define kinematic features, that describe five motor tasks (i.e., the lateral tilt of the trunk, lifting of the arms, trunk rotation, pelvis rotation, squatting) usually adopted in the rehabilitation program for axial disorders. These features are extracted by the Kinect v2 skeleton tracking system and elaborated to return disaggregated scores, representing a measure of subjects performance...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Cheng-Hsi Chuang, Kenji Kikuchi, Hironori Ueno, Keiko Numayama-Tsuruta, Takami Yamaguchi, Takuji Ishikawa
Due to recent advances in micro total analysis system technologies, microfluidics provides increased opportunities to manipulate, stimulate, and diagnose blood cells. Controlling the concentration of cells at a given position across the width of a channel is an important aspect in the design of microfluidic devices. Despite its biomedical importance, the collective spreading of red blood cells (RBCs) in a microchannel has not yet been fully clarified. In this study, we experimentally investigated the collective spreading of RBCs in a straight microchannel, and found that RBCs initially distributed in one side of the microchannel spread to the spanwise direction during downstream flow...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
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