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Journal of Biomechanics

Enda King, Chris Richter, Andy Franklyn-Miller, Katherine Daniels, Ross Wadey, Mark Jackson, Ray Moran, Siobhan Strike
Whilst anterior cruciate ligament injury commonly occurs during change of direction (CoD) tasks, there is little research on how athletes execute CoD after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The aims of this study were to determine between-limb and between-test differences in performance (time) and joint kinematics and kinetics during planned and unplanned CoD. One hundred and fifty-six male subjects carried out 90° maximal effort, planned and unplanned CoD tests in a 3D motion capture laboratory 9 months after ACLR...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Wade A Baker, Mostafiz Chowdhury, Costin D Untaroiu
Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) were used extensively to target occupants of military vehicles during the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan (2003-2011). War fighters exposed to an IED attack were highly susceptible to lower limb injuries. To appropriately assess vehicle safety and make informed improvements to vehicle design, a novel Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD), called the Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan), was designed for vertical loading. The main objective of this study was to develop and validate a Finite Element (FE) model of the WIAMan lower limb (WIAMan-LL)...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Fabio V Dos Anjos, Marco Gazzoni, Taian M Vieira
Inferences on the active contribution of plantar flexors to the stabilisation of human standing posture have been drawn from surface electromyograms (EMGs). Surface EMGs were however often detected unilaterally, presuming the myoelectric activity from muscles in a single leg reflects the pattern of muscle activation in both legs. In this study we question whether surface EMGs detected from plantar flexor muscles in both legs provide equal estimates of the duration of activity. Arrays of surface electrodes were used to collect EMGs from gastrocnemius and soleus muscles while twelve, young male participants stood at ease for 60 s...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Fearghal P Behan, Matt T G Pain, Jonathan P Folland
Explosive torque has been demonstrated to relate to static balance. However, sports injuries occur dynamically and unpredictably, yet the relationship between explosive torque and balance response to dynamic perturbations is unknown. This study investigated the relationship between explosive torque of the plantar flexors and knee extensors and the centre of mass (COM) response to unexpected perturbations. Thirty-three healthy subjects (17 females, 16 males) were assessed for maximal and explosive isometric knee extension (KE) and plantar flexion (PF) torque and COM response (velocity (COMV), displacement (COMD)) to unexpected platform translations...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Denis Gagnon, André Plamondon, Christian Larivière
There is a clear relationship between lumbar spine loading and back musculoskeletal disorders in manual materials handling. The incidence of back disorders is greater in women than men, and for similar work demands females are functioning closer to their physiological limit. It is crucial to study loading on the spine musculoskeletal system with actual handlers, including females, to better understand the risk of back disorders. Extrapolation from biomechanical studies conducted on unexperienced subjects (mainly males) might not be applicable to actual female workers...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
L Gundelwein, J Miró, F Gonzalez Barlatay, C Lapierre, K Rohr, L Duong
Stent size selection and placement are among the most challenging tasks in the treatment of pulmonary artery stenosis in congenital heart defects (CHD). Patient-specific 3D model from CT or MR improves the understanding of the patient's anatomy and information about the hemodynamics aid in patient risk assessment and treatment planning. This work presents a new approach for personalized stent design in pulmonary artery interventions combining personalized patient geometry and hemodynamic simulations. First, the stent position is initialized using a geometric approach...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
J R Usherwood, T Y Hubel, B J H Smith, Z T Self Davies, G Sobota
A simple model is developed to find vertical force profiles and stance durations that minimize either limb mechanical work or peak power demands during bipedal locomotion. The model predicts that work minimization is achieved with a symmetrical vertical force profile, consistent with previous models and observations of adult humans, and data for 487 participants (predominantly 11-18 years old) required to walk at a range of speeds at a Science Fair. Work minimization also predicts the discrete walk-run transition, familiar for adult humans...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Jahn O Waldeland, Steinar Evje
In the seminal work by Swartz and collaborators (Shields et al., 2007) it was discovered that autologously secreted or activated (ECM-bound) chemokine forms local pericellular diffusion gradients skewed by fluid convection, and the cells subsequently chemotact up the flow-directed gradient. However, in (Polacheck et al., 2011) Kamm and collaborators found that there is a competing downstream and upstream migration transport mechanism. Their study showed that both mechanisms are present at the same time and the relative strength of these two stimuli governs the directional bias in migration for a cell population and is a function of cell density, interstitial flow rate, and CCR7 receptor availability...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Gavin A D'Souza, Rupak K Banerjee, Michael D Taylor
Congenital pulmonary artery (PA) stenosis is often associated with abnormal PA hemodynamics including increased pressure drop (Δp) and reduced asymmetric flow (Q), which may result in right ventricular dysfunction. We propose functional diagnostic parameters, pressure drop coefficient (CDP), energy loss (Eloss ), and normalized energy loss (E¯loss ) to characterize pulmonary hemodynamics, and evaluate their efficacy in delineating stenosis severity using in vitro experiments. Subject-specific test sections including the main PA (MPA) bifurcating into left and right PAs (LPA, RPA) with a discrete LPA stenosis were manufactured from cross-sectional imaging and 3D printing...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
N P Quirk, C Lopez De Padilla, R E De La Vega, M J Coenen, A Tovar, C H Evans, S A Müller
Rodent models are commonly used to investigate tendon healing, with the biomechanical and structural properties of the healed tendons being important outcome measures. Tendon storage for later testing becomes necessary when performing large experiments with multiple time-points. However, it is unclear whether freezing rodent tendons affects their material properties. Thus the aim of this study was to determine whether freezing rat Achilles tendons affects their biomechanical or structural properties. Tendons were frozen at either -20 °C or -80 °C directly after harvesting, or tested when freshly harvested...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Eric Bourdon, Wantuir Ramos, Matthew P Mavor, Shawn M Beaudette, Ryan B Graham
The association between low back pain and spine movement control suggests that it is important to reliably quantify movement behavior. One method to characterize spine movement behavior is to measure the local dynamic stability (LDS) of spine movement during a repetitive flexion task in which a participant is asked to touch multiple targets repetitively. Within the literature, it has been well established that an individual's focus of attention (FOA) can modulate their neuromuscular control and affect task performance...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Eni Halilaj, Apoorva Rajagopal, Madalina Fiterau, Jennifer L Hicks, Trevor J Hastie, Scott L Delp
Traditional laboratory experiments, rehabilitation clinics, and wearable sensors offer biomechanists a wealth of data on healthy and pathological movement. To harness the power of these data and make research more efficient, modern machine learning techniques are starting to complement traditional statistical tools. This survey summarizes the current usage of machine learning methods in human movement biomechanics and highlights best practices that will enable critical evaluation of the literature. We carried out a PubMed/Medline database search for original research articles that used machine learning to study movement biomechanics in patients with musculoskeletal and neuromuscular diseases...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Thomas G Sandercock, Qi Wei, Yasin Y Dhaher, Dinesh K Pai, Matthew C Tresch
Improper activation of the quadriceps muscles vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) has been implicated in the development of patellofemoral pain (PFP). This explanation of PFP assumes that VM and VL produce opposing mediolateral forces on the patella. Although studies have provided evidence for opposing actions of VM and VL on the patella, other studies have suggested that their actions might be similar. In this study, we took advantage of the experimental accessibility of the rat to directly measure the forces on the patella produced by VM and VL...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Daša Gorjan, Jan Babič, Nejc Šarabon, Zrinka Potocanac
Postural control is commonly investigated by observing responses to perturbations. We developed a perturbation paradigm mimicking self-generated errors in weight shifting, which are a common cause of falling among older adults. Our aim was to determine the effects of this small, but complex, perturbation on postural sway of healthy young adults and evaluate the role of vision and cognition during movement dependent perturbations. Fifteen participants stood hip-width apart with their eyes open, closed and while performing two different cognitive tasks...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Zoë A Englander, John T Martin, Pramodh K Ganapathy, William E Garrett, Louis E DeFrate
Understanding in vivo joint mechanics during dynamic activity is crucial for revealing mechanisms of injury and disease development. To this end, laboratories have utilized computed tomography (CT) to create 3-dimensional (3D) models of bone, which are then registered to high-speed biplanar radiographic data captured during movement in order to measure in vivo joint kinematics. In the present study, we describe a system for measuring dynamic joint mechanics using 3D surface models of the joint created from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) registered to high-speed biplanar radiographs using a novel automatic registration algorithm...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Felipe García-Pinillos, Pedro A Latorre-Román, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Juan A Párraga-Montilla, Luis E Roche-Seruendo
This study aimed to determine the minimum time required for assessing spatiotemporal variability during continuous running at different submaximal velocities and, thereby, the number of steps required. Nineteen trained endurance runners performed an incremental running protocol, with a 3-min recording period at 10, 12, 14 and 16 km/h. Spatiotemporal parameters (contact and flight times, step length and step frequency) were measured using the OptoGait system and step variability was considered for each parameter, in terms of within-participants standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV%)...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
C Chnafa, P Bouillot, O Brina, M Najafi, B M A Delattre, M I Vargas, V M Pereira, D A Steinman
Patient-specific inflow rates are rarely available for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies of intracranial aneurysms. Instead, inflow rates are often estimated from parent artery diameters via power laws, i.e. Q ∝ Dn , reflecting adaptation of conduit arteries to demanded flow. The present study aimed to validate the accuracy of these power laws. Internal carotid artery (ICA) flow rates were measured from 25 ICA aneurysm patients via 2D phase contrast MRI. ICA diameters, derived from 3D segmentation of rotational angiograms, were used to estimate inflow rates via power laws from the aneurysm CFD literature assuming the same inlet wall shear stress (WSS) (n = 3), velocity (n = 2) or flow rate (n = 0) for all cases...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Anne Preut, Megan Laughlin, Hanna Jensen, Jamie Hestekin, Morten Jensen
BACKGROUND: Unsuccessful recanalization attempts in stroke patients have been associated with fibrin-rich thromboemboli linking retrieval mechanism performance and clot composition. To continue development of stroke retrieval mechanisms, the material properties of cerebral thromboemboli must be replicated; however, current methods for emboli analog formation lack quantitative measurements for both material stiffness and composition of cerebral thromboemboli. This study investigates emboli analog (EA) formation to mimic the material stiffness and composition of cerebral thromboemboli to develop new retrieval mechanisms...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
J Wen, M Raison, S Achiche
A reliable evaluation of muscle forces in the human body is highly desirable for several applications in both clinical and research contexts. Several models of muscle force distribution based on non-invasive measurements have been proposed since 1836 (Weber and Weber, 1836), amongst which Crowninshield's model (Crowninshield and Brand, 1981), which maximizes a cost-function representing the muscle fiber endurance, is the most popular. It is worth noting that Crowninshield's model is the most widely adopted notwithstanding its major limitations of physiological coherence...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Panagiotis E Chatzistergos, Sara Behforootan, David Allan, Roozbeh Naemi, Nachiappan Chockalingam
This study combines non-invasive mechanical testing with finite element (FE) modelling to assess for the first time the reliability of shear wave (SW) elastography for the quantitative assessment of the in-vivo nonlinear mechanical behavior of heel-pad. The heel-pads of five volunteers were compressed using a custom-made ultrasound indentation device. Tissue deformation was assessed from B-mode ultrasound and force was measured using a load cell to calculate the force - deformation graph of the indentation test...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
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