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Journal of Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899177/a-personalized-model-based-central-aortic-pressure-estimation-method
#1
Sheng Jiang, Zhi-Qiang Zhang, Fang Wang, Jian-Kang Wu
Central Aortic Pressure (CAP) can be used to predict cardiovascular structural damage and cardiovascular events, and the development of simple, well-validated and non-invasive methods for CAP waveforms estimation is critical to facilitate the routine clinical applications of CAP. Existing widely applied methods, such as generalized transfer function (GTF-CAP) method and N-Point Moving Average (NPMA-CAP) method, are based on clinical practices, and lack a mathematical foundation. Those methods also have inherent drawback that there is no personalisation, and missing individual aortic characteristics...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890538/a-model-for-stretch-growth-of-neurons
#2
Prashant K Purohit, Douglas H Smith
In the first phase of axon growth, axons sprout from neuron bodies and are extended by the pull of the migrating growth cones towards their targets. Thereafter, once the target is reached, a lesser known second phase of axon growth ensues as the mechanical forces from the growth of the animal induce extension of the integrated axons in the process of forming tracts and nerves. Although there are several microscopic physics based models of the first phase of axon growth, to date, there are no models of the very different second phase...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887728/novel-multi-functional-fluid-flow-device-for-studying-cellular-mechanotransduction
#3
James S Lyons, Shama R Iyer, Richard M Lovering, Christopher W Ward, Joseph P Stains
Cells respond to their mechanical environment by initiating multiple mechanotransduction signaling pathways. Defects in mechanotransduction have been implicated in a number of pathologies; thus, there is need for convenient and efficient methods for studying the mechanisms underlying these processes. A widely used and accepted technique for mechanically stimulating cells in culture is the introduction of fluid flow on cell monolayers. Here, we describe a novel, multifunctional fluid flow device for exposing cells to fluid flow in culture...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890536/estimation-of-the-center-of-rotation-using-wearable-magneto-inertial-sensors
#4
M Crabolu, D Pani, L Raffo, A Cereatti
Determining the center of rotation (CoR) of joints is fundamental to the field of human movement analysis. CoR can be determined using a magneto-inertial measurement unit (MIMU) using a functional approach requiring a calibration exercise. We systematically investigated the influence of different experimental conditions that can affect precision and accuracy while estimating the CoR, such as (a) angular joint velocity, (b) distance between the MIMU and the CoR, (c) type of the joint motion implemented, (d) amplitude of the angular range of motion, (e) model of the MIMU used for data recording, (f) amplitude of additive noise on inertial signals, and (g) amplitude of the errors in the MIMU orientation...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890535/partial-hepatectomy-hemodynamics-changes-experimental-data-explained-by-closed-loop-lumped-modeling
#5
Chloe Audebert, Mohamed Bekheit, Petru Bucur, Eric Vibert, Irene E Vignon-Clementel
The liver function may be degraded after partial liver ablation surgery. Adverse liver hemodynamics have been shown to be associated to liver failure. The link between these hemodynamics changes and ablation size is however poorly understood. This article proposes to explain with a closed-loop lumped model the hemodynamics changes observed during twelve surgeries in pigs. The portal venous tree is modeled with a pressure-dependent variable resistor. The variables measured, before liver ablation, are used to tune the model parameters...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890533/full-thickness-tears-of-the-supraspinatus-tendon-a-three-dimensional-finite-element-analysis
#6
C Quental, J Folgado, J Monteiro, M Sarmento
Knowledge regarding the likelihood of propagation of supraspinatus tears is important to allow an early identification of patients for whom a conservative treatment is more likely to fail, and consequently, to improve their clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for propagation of posterior, central, and anterior full-thickness tears of different sizes using the finite element method. A three-dimensional finite element model of the supraspinatus tendon was generated from the Visible Human Project data...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890532/what-governs-successful-performance-of-a-complex-whole-body-movement-the-kovacs-release-regrasp-on-horizontal-bar
#7
Michael J Hiley, Maurice R Yeadon
The Kovacs is a release and regrasp skill performed on the horizontal bar in men׳s artistic gymnastics. It is a popular skill in elite competitive gymnastics with over 40% of male gymnasts performing a variation of the Kovacs at the London 2012 Olympics. In the qualifying competition 84% of Kovacs were successfully regrasped, with the remaining 16% resulting in a fall. The aim of the present study was to determine why some gymnasts are more successful than others at regrasping the bar, with a secondary aim to determine how a less successful gymnast could alter his technique in order to become more successful...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889189/reliability-of-gait-analysis-using-wearable-sensors-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#8
Dylan Kobsar, Sean T Osis, Angkoon Phinyomark, Jeffrey E Boyd, Reed Ferber
The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of linear acceleration waveforms collected at the low back, thigh, shank, and foot during walking, in a cohort of knee osteoarthritis patients, by applying two separate sensor attitude correction methods (static attitude correction and dynamic attitude correction). Linear acceleration data were collected on the subjects׳ most affected limb during treadmill walking on two separate days. Results reveal all attitude corrected acceleration waveforms displayed high repeatability, with coefficient of multiple determination values ranging from 0...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887725/a-calcified-polymeric-valve-for-valve-in-valve-applications
#9
Ahmad Falahatpisheh, Daisuke Morisawa, Taraz T Toosky, Arash Kheradvar
The prevalence of aortic valve stenosis (AS) is increasing in the aging society. More recently, novel treatments and devices for AS, especially transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) have significantly changed the therapeutic approach to this disease. Research and development related to TAVR require testing these devices in the calcified heart valves that closely mimic a native calcific valve. However, no animal model of AS has yet been available. Alternatively, animals with normal aortic valve that are currently used for TAVR experiments do not closely replicate the aortic valve pathology required for proper testing of these devices...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884430/strengthening-of-c2c12-mouse-myoblasts-against-compression-damage-by-mild-cyclic-compressive-stimulation
#10
Yifei Yao, Arthur Ft Mak
Deep tissue injury (DTI) is a severe kind of pressure ulcers formed by sustained deformation of muscle tissues over bony prominences. As a major clinical issue, DTI affects people with physical disabilities, and is obviously related to the load-bearing capacity of muscle cells in various in-vivo conditions. It is important to provide a preventive approach to help muscle cells from being damaged by compressive stress. In this study, we hypothesized that cyclic compressive stimulation could strengthen muscle cells against compressive damage and enhance the cell plasma membrane resealing capability...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894675/the-manifestation-of-vortical-and-secondary-flow-in-the-cerebral-venous-outflow-tract-an-in-vivo-mr-velocimetry-study
#11
Sarah Kefayati, Matthew Amans, Farshid Faraji, Megan Ballweber, Evan Kao, Sinyeob Ahn, Karl Meisel, Van Halbach, David Saloner
Aberrations in flow in the cerebral venous outflow tract (CVOT) have been implicated as the cause of several pathologic conditions including idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), multiple sclerosis (MS), and pulsatile tinnitus (PT). The advent of 4D flow magnetic resonance imaging (4D-flow MRI) has recently allowed researchers to evaluate blood flow patterns in the arterial structures with great success. We utilized similar imaging techniques and found several distinct flow characteristics in the CVOT of subjects with and without lumenal irregularities...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890534/effects-of-arterial-wall-models-and-measurement-uncertainties-on-cardiovascular-model-predictions
#12
V G Eck, J Sturdy, L R Hellevik
We developed a methodology to assess and compare the prediction quality of cardiovascular models for patient-specific simulations calibrated with uncertainty-hampered measurements. The methodology was applied in a one-dimensional blood flow model to estimate the impact of measurement uncertainty in wall model parameters on the predictions of pressure and flow in an arterial network. We assessed the prediction quality of three wall models that have been widely used in one-dimensional blood flow simulations. A 37-artery network, previously used in one experimental and several simulation studies, was adapted to patient-specific conditions with a set of three clinically measurable inputs: carotid-femoral wave speed, mean arterial pressure and area in the brachial artery...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876369/multi-component-model-of-intramural-hematoma
#13
Martina Bukač, Mark Alber
A novel multi-component model is introduced for studying interaction between blood flow and deforming aortic wall with intramural hematoma (IMH). The aortic wall is simulated by a composite structure submodel representing material properties of the three main wall layers. The IMH is described by a poroelasticity submodel which takes into account both the pressure inside hematoma and its deformation. The submodel of the hematoma is fully coupled with the aortic submodel as well as with the submodel of the pulsatile blood flow...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866674/quantitative-t2-mapping-for-detection-and-quantification-of-thrombophlebitis-in-a-rabbit-model
#14
Dar Weiss, Oren M Rotman, Shmuel Einav
Short peripheral catheter thrombophlebitis (SPCT), a sterile inflammation of the vein wall, is the most common complication associated with short peripheral catheters (SPCs) and affects up to 80% of hospitalized patients receiving IV therapy. Extensive research efforts have been devoted for improvement and optimization of the catheter material, but means for examination of any novel design are limited, inaccurate and require costly comprehensive pre-clinical and clinical trials. Therefore, there is a conclusive need for a reliable quantitative method for evaluation of SPCT, in particular for research purposes examining the thrombophlebitis-related symptoms of any novel catheter design...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876370/non-linear-rotation-free-shell-finite-element-models-for-aortic-heart-valves
#15
Anvar Gilmanov, Henryk Stolarski, Fotis Sotiropoulos
Hyperelastic material models have been incorporated in the rotation-free, large deformation, shell finite element (FE) formulation of (Stolarski et al., 2013) and applied to dynamic simulations of aortic heart valve. Two models used in the past in analysis of such problem i.e. the Saint-Venant and May-Newmann-Yin (MNY) material models have been considered and compared. Uniaxial tests for those constitutive equations were performed to verify the formulation and implementation of the models. The issue of leaflets interactions during the closing of the heart valve at the end of systole is considered...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887729/valveless-pumping-mechanics-of-the-embryonic-heart-during-cardiac-looping-pressure-and-flow-through-micro-piv
#16
D L Bark, B Johnson, D Garrity, L P Dasi
Cardiovascular development is influenced by the flow-induced stress environment originating from cardiac biomechanics. To characterize the stress environment, it is necessary to quantify flow and pressure. Here, we quantify the flow field in a developing zebrafish heart during the looping stage through micro-particle imaging velocimetry and by analyzing spatiotemporal plots. We further build upon previous methods to noninvasively quantify the pressure field at a low Reynolds number using flow field data for the first time, while also comparing the impact of viscosity models...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871676/streamline-crossing-an-essential-mechanism-for-aerosol-dispersion-in-the-pulmonary-acinus
#17
Rami Fishler, Yan Ostrovski, Chao-Yi Lu, Josué Sznitman
The dispersion of inhaled microparticles in the pulmonary acinus of the lungs is often attributed to the complex interplay between convective mixing, due to irreversible flows, and intrinsic particle motion (i.e. gravity and diffusion). However, the role of each mechanism, the exact nature of such interplay between them and their relative importance still remain unclear. To gain insight into these dispersive mechanisms, we track liquid-suspended microparticles and extract their effective diffusivities inside an anatomically-inspired microfluidic acinar model...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899178/choice-of-a-hemodynamic-model-for-occlusive-thrombosis-in-arteries
#18
David N Ku, Lauren D C Casa, Susan M Hastings
Intravascular thrombosis can lead to heart attacks and strokes that together are the leading causes of death in the US (Kochanek, K.D., Murphy, S.L., Xu, J.Q., 2014). The ability to identify the offending biofluid mechanical conditions and predict the timescale of thrombotic occlusion in vessels and devices may improve patient outcomes. A computational model was developed to describe the growth of thrombus based on the local hemodynamic shear rate. The model predicts thrombus deposition based on initial geometric and fluid mechanical conditions, which are updated throughout the simulation to reflect the changing lumen dimensions...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887726/visualisation-studies-and-glomerular-filtration-in-early-diabetic-rats
#19
Hiroshi Nakamoto
The purpose of this mini-review is to show that more modern multi-photon microscopy approaches allow quantitative glomerular filtration experiments. Modern science has now entered a transition period from light microscopy to multi-photon confocal microscopy. Since the late 20th century, multi-photon microscopy has been applied in the study of organ function. In keeping with observations made in renal physiology and other representative studies throughout this transition period, and in the context of advancing microscopy techniques, this review has been presented as a comment on the glomerular filtration barrier, with a focus on the early aetiopathogenesis of diabetes...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876371/approaches-for-treatment-of-aortic-arch-aneurysm-a-numerical-study
#20
Asaph Nardi, Idit Avrahami
Aortic arch aneurysm is a complex pathology which requires coverage of one or more aortic arch vessels. In this study we explore the hemodynamic behavior of the aortic arch in aneurysmatic and treated cases with three currently available treatment approaches: Surgery Graft, hybrid Stent-Graft and chimney Stent Graft. The analysis included four models of the time-dependent fluid domains of aneurysmatic arch and of the surgery, hybrid and chimney endovascular techniques. Dimensions of the models are based on typical anatomy, and boundary conditions are based on typical physiological flow...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
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