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Journal of Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093261/experimental-evaluation-of-a-new-morphological-approximation-of-the-articular-surfaces-of-the-ankle-joint
#1
Claudio Belvedere, Sorin Siegler, Andrea Ensini, Jason Toy, Paolo Caravaggi, Ramya Namani, Giulia Giannini, Stefano Durante, Alberto Leardini
The mechanical characteristics of the ankle such as its kinematics and load transfer properties are influenced by the geometry of the articulating surfaces. A recent, image-based study found that these surfaces can be approximated by a saddle-shaped, skewed, truncated cone with its apex oriented laterally. The goal of this study was to establish a reliable experimental technique to study the relationship between the geometry of the articular surfaces of the ankle and its mobility and stability characteristics and to use this technique to determine if morphological approximations of the ankle surfaces based on recent discoveries, produce close to normal behavior...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089359/transient-and-long-time-kinetic-responses-of-the-cadaveric-leg-during-internal-and-external-foot-rotation
#2
Alexander R Mait, Adwait Mane, Jason L Forman, John Paul Donlon, Bingbing Nie, Richard W Kent
The purpose of this study was to determine the long-time and transient characteristics of the moment generated by external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation of the calcaneus with respect to the tibia. Two human cadaver legs were disarticulated at the knee joint while maintaining the connective tissue between the tibia and fibula. An axial rotation of 21° was applied to the proximal tibia to generate either ER or IR while the fibula was unconstrained and the calcaneus was permitted to translate in the transverse plane...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093258/stooping-crouching-and-standing-characterizing-balance-control-strategies-across-postures
#3
Tyler B Weaver, Michal N Glinka, Andrew C Laing
BACKGROUND: While stooping and crouching postures are critical for many activities of daily living, little is known about the balance control mechanisms employed during these postures. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to characterize the mechanisms driving net center of pressure (COPNet) movement across three postures (standing, stooping, and crouching) and to investigate if control in each posture was influenced by time. METHODS: Ten young adults performed the three postures for 60s each...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087063/spatial-dependent-mechanical-properties-of-the-heel-pad-by-shear-wave-elastography
#4
Che-Yu Lin, Pei-Yu Chen, Yio-Wha Shau, Hao-Chih Tai, Chung-Li Wang
The heel pad plays an important role in gait, and its biomechanical behavior and functionality are determined by its specialized architecture and mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to apply supersonic shear wave elastography, an ultrasound-based noninvasive modality that can quantitatively estimate the shear stiffness of the tissue, to investigate the spatial-dependent mechanical properties of the heel pad. Measurements were conducted in 40 heel pads of 20 normal participants aged between 20 and 30 years by shear wave elastography...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087062/timing-and-magnitude-of-lumbar-spine-contribution-to-trunk-forward-bending-and-backward-return-in-patients-with-acute-low-back-pain
#5
Iman Shojaei, Milad Vazirian, Elizabeth G Salt, Linda R Van Dillen, Babak Bazrgari
Alterations in the lumbo-pelvic coordination denote changes in neuromuscular control of trunk motion as well as load sharing between passive and active tissues in the lower back. Differences in timing and magnitude aspects of lumbo-pelvic coordination between patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) and asymptomatic individuals have been reported; yet, the literature on lumbo-pelvic coordination in patients with acute LBP is scant. A case-control study was conducted to explore the differences in timing and magnitude aspects of lumbo-pelvic coordination between females with (n=19) and without (n=19) acute LBP...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069165/on-the-quantification-and-visualization-of-transient-periodic-instabilities-in-pulsatile-flows
#6
Muhammad Owais Khan, Christophe Chnafa, Diego Gallo, Filippo Molinari, Umberto Morbiducci, David A Steinman, Kristian Valen-Sendstad
Turbulent-like flows without cycle-to-cycle variations are more frequently being reported in studies of cardiovascular flows. The associated stimuli might be of mechanobiological relevance, but how to quantify them objectively is not obvious. Classical Reynolds decomposition, where the flow is separated into mean and fluctuating velocity components, is not applicable as the phase-average is zero. We therefore expanded on established techniques and present the idea, analogous to Reynolds decomposition, to decompose a flow with transient instabilities into low- versus high frequency components, respectively, to discriminate flow instabilities from the underlying cardiac pulsatility...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082022/cellular-cholesterol-regulates-monocyte-deformation
#7
Amit K Saha, Shatha F Dallo, Ariana L Detmar, Pawel Osmulski, Maria Gaczynska, Tim Hui-Ming Huang, Anand K Ramasubramanian
The role of cholesterol content on monocyte biomechanics remains understudied despite the well-established link between cholesterol and monocytes/macrophages in atherosclerosis, and the effect on other cell types. In this work, we have investigated the effect of cholesterol on monocyte deformability and the underlying molecular mechanisms. We altered the baseline cholesterol in human monocytic cell line THP-1, and investigated the changes in monocyte deformability using a custom microfluidic platform and atomic force microscopy...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063645/anisotropy-and-inter-condyle-heterogeneity-of-cartilage-under-large-strain-shear
#8
Stephany Santos, Franz Maier, David M Pierce
We were the first to examine the mechanical responses of skeletally mature bovine femoral cartilage under large-strain simple shear (up to ±20%) using a multiaxial shear testing device. Since shear loading is critical in both tissue failure and chondrocyte responses, we aimed to probe (1) anisotropy with respect to the split-line direction (principal alignment of the collagen fibers near the articulating surface), (2) heterogeneity between femoral condyles, and (3) the influence of local cartilage thickness...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093260/shear-and-pressure-under-the-first-ray-in-neuropathic-diabetic-patients-implications-for-support-of-the-longitudinal-arch
#9
Brian Davis, Mariam Crow, Visar Berki, Daniela Ciltea
OBJECTIVE: To assess dynamic arch support in diabetic patients at risk for Charcot neuroarthopathy whose arch index has not yet shown overt signs of foot collapse. METHODS: Two indirect measures of toe flexor activation (ratios: peak hallux pressure to peak metatarsal pressure - Ph/Pm; peak posterior hallux shear to peak posterior metatarsal shear - Sh/Sm) were obtained with a custom built system for measuring shear and pressure on the plantar surface of the foot during gait...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088305/inertial-particle-dynamics-in-large-artery-flows-implications-for-modeling-arterial-embolisms
#10
Debanjan Mukherjee, Shawn C Shadden
The complexity of inertial particle dynamics through swirling chaotic flow structures characteristic of pulsatile large-artery hemodynamics renders significant challenges in predictive understanding of transport of such particles. This is specifically crucial for arterial embolisms, where knowledge of embolus transport to major vascular beds helps in disease diagnosis and surgical planning. Using a computational framework built upon image-based CFD and discrete particle dynamics modeling, a multi-parameter sampling-based study was conducted on embolic particle dynamics and transport...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088304/mechanical-biomarkers-of-medial-compartment-knee-osteoarthritis-diagnosis-and-severity-grading-discovery-phase
#11
Neila Mezghani, Youssef Ouakrim, Alexandre Fuentes, Amar Mitiche, Nicola Hagemeister, Pascal-André Vendittoli, Jacques A de Guise
OBJECTIVE: To investigate, as a discovery phase, if 3D knee kinematics assessment parameters can serve as mechanical biomarkers, more specifically as diagnostic biomarker and burden of disease biomarkers, as defined in the Burden of Disease, Investigative, Prognostic, Efficacy of Intervention and Diagnostic classification scheme for osteoarthritis (OA) (Altman et al., 1986). These biomarkers consist of a set of biomechanical parameters discerned from 3D knee kinematic patterns, namely, flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, and tibial internal/external rotation measurements, during gait recording...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069163/sub-critical-impact-inhibits-the-lubricating-mechanisms-of-articular-cartilage
#12
Edward D Bonnevie, Michelle L Delco, Devis Galesso, Cynthia Secchieri, Lisa A Fortier, Lawrence J Bonassar
Although post-traumatic osteoarthritis accounts for a significant proportion of all osteoarthritis, the understanding of both biological and mechanical phenomena that lead to cartilage degeneration in the years to decades after trauma is still lacking. In this study, we evaluate how cartilage lubrication is altered after a sub-critical impact (i.e., an impact to the cartilage surface that produces surface cracking but not full thickness fissuring). Through utilizing a Stribeck-like framework, the elastoviscous transition, we evaluated changes to both the innate boundary lubricating ability of cartilage after impact and also the effectiveness of high viscosity lubricants to lower friction after impact...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069162/a-constrained-extended-kalman-filter-for-the-optimal-estimate-of-kinematics-and-kinetics-of-a-sagittal-symmetric-exercise
#13
V Bonnet, R Dumas, A Cappozzo, V Joukov, G Daune, D Kulić, P Fraisse, S Andary, G Venture
This paper presents a method for real-time estimation of the kinematics and kinetics of a human body performing a sagittal symmetric motor task, which would minimize the impact of the stereophotogrammetric soft tissue artefacts (STA). The method is based on a bi-dimensional mechanical model of the locomotor apparatus the state variables of which (joint angles, velocities and accelerations, and the segments lengths and inertial parameters) are estimated by a constrained extended Kalman filter (CEKF) that fuses input information made of both stereophotogrammetric and dynamometric measurement data...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065473/passive-diastolic-modelling-of-human-ventricles-effects-of-base-movement-and-geometrical-heterogeneity
#14
Arnab Palit, Pasquale Franciosa, Sunil K Bhudia, Theodoros N Arvanitis, Glen A Turley, Mark A Williams
Left-ventricular (LV) remodelling, associated with diastolic heart failure, is driven by an increase in myocardial stress. Therefore, normalisation of LV wall stress is the cornerstone of many therapeutic treatments. However, information regarding such regional stress-strain for human LV is still limited. Thus, the objectives of our study were to determine local diastolic stress-strain field in healthy LVs, and consequently, to identify the regional variations amongst them due to geometric heterogeneity. Effects of LV base movement on diastolic model predictions, which were ignored in the literature, were further explored...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065472/adaptive-changes-in-running-kinematics-as-a-function-of-head-stability-demands-and-their-effect-on-shock-transmission
#15
Jongil Lim, Michael A Busa, Richard E A van Emmerik, Joseph Hamill
This study aimed to identify adaptive changes in running kinematics and impact shock transmission as a function of head stability requirements. Fifteen strides from twelve recreational runners were collected during preferred speed treadmill running. Head stability demands were manipulated through real-time visual feedback that required head-gaze orientation to maintain within boxes of different sizes, ranging from 21° to 3° of visual angle with 3° decrements. The main outcome measures were tibial and head peak accelerations in the time and frequency domains (impact and active phases), shock transmission from tibia to head, stride parameters, and sagittal plane joint kinematics...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063647/collective-dynamics-of-cancer-cells-confined-in-a-confluent-monolayer-of-normal-cells
#16
Shao-Zhen Lin, Bo Li, Guang-Kui Xu, Xi-Qiao Feng
Tumorigenesis often involves specific changes in cell motility and intercellular adhesion. Understanding the collective cancer cell behavior associated with these specific changes could facilitate the detection of malignant characteristics during tumor growth and invasion. In this study, a cellular vertex model is developed to investigate the collective dynamics of a disk-like aggregate of cancer cells confined in a confluent monolayer of normal cells. The effects of intercellular adhesion and cell motility on tumor progression are examined...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063646/solute-transport-at-the-interface-of-cartilage-and-subchondral-bone-plate-effect-of-micro-architecture
#17
Behdad Pouran, Vahid Arbabi, Ronald Law Bleys, P René van Weeren, Amir A Zadpoor, Harrie Weinans
Cross-talk of subchondral bone and articular cartilage could be an important aspect in the etiology of osteoarthritis. Previous research has provided some evidence of transport of small molecules (~370Da) through the calcified cartilage and subchondral bone plate in murine osteoarthritis models. The current study, for the first time, uses a neutral diffusing computed tomography (CT) contrast agent (iodixanol, ~1550Da) to study the permeability of the osteochondral interface in equine and human samples. Sequential CT monitoring of diffusion after injecting a finite amount of contrast agent solution onto the cartilage surface using a micro-CT showed penetration of the contrast molecules across the cartilage-bone interface...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062122/airflow-behavior-changes-in-upper-airway-caused-by-different-head-and-neck-positions-comparison-by-computational-fluid-dynamics
#18
Wei Wei, Shi-Wei Huang, Lian-Hua Chen, Yang Qi, Yi-Min Qiu, Shi-Tong Li
The feasibility of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to evaluate airflow characteristics in different head and neck positions has not been established. This study compared the changes in volume and airflow behavior of the upper airway by CFD simulation to predict the influence of anatomical and physiological airway changes due to different head-neck positions on mechanical ventilation. One awake volunteer with no risk of difficult airway underwent computed tomography in neutral position, extension position (both head and neck extended), and sniffing position (head extended and neck flexed)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062121/instantaneous-centers-of-rotation-for-lumbar-segmental-extension-in-vivo
#19
Ameet Aiyangar, Liying Zheng, William Anderst, Xudong Zhang
The study aimed to map instantaneous centers of rotation (ICRs) of lumbar motion segments during a functional lifting task and examine differences across segments and variations caused by magnitude of weight lifted. Eleven healthy participants lifted loads of three different magnitudes (4.5, 9, and 13.5kg) from a trunk-flexed (~75°) to an upright position, while being imaged by a dynamic stereo X-ray (DSX) system. Tracked lumbar vertebral (L2-S1) motion data were processed into highly accurate 6DOF intervertebral (L2L3, L3L4, L4L5, L5S1) kinematics...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062120/robotic-simulation-of-identical-athletic-task-kinematics-on-cadaveric-limbs-exhibits-a-lack-of-differences-in-knee-mechanics-between-contralateral-pairs
#20
Nathaniel A Bates, April L McPhearson, Rebecca J Nesbitt, Jason T Shearn, Gregory D Myer, Timothy E Hewett
Limb asymmetry is a known factor for increased ACL injury risk. These asymmetries are normally observed during in vivo testing. Prior studies have developed in vitro testing methodologies driven by in vivo kinematics to investigate knee mechanics relative to ACL injury. The objective of this study was to determine if mechanical side-to-side asymmetries persist in contralateral pairs during in vitro simulation testing. In vivo kinematics were recorded for male and female drop vertical jump and sidestep cutting tasks...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
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