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Journal of Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645455/kinematic-chain-reactions-on-trunk-and-dynamic-postural-steadiness-in-subjects-with-recurrent-low-back-pain
#1
Paul S Sung, Michael J Maxwell
Although subjects with recurrent low back pain (LBP) demonstrate altered trunk control, the kinematic and kinetic responses of the trunk have not been carefully investigated. This study was conducted to compare the standing time, spine range of motion (ROM), and dynamic postural steadiness index (DPSI) based on visual condition between subjects with and without recurrent LBP during upright one leg standing. Sixty-three individuals participated in the study, including 34 control subjects and 29 subjects with recurrent LBP...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619447/similar-movements-are-associated-with-drastically-different-muscle-contraction-velocities
#2
Daniel A Hagen, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
We investigated how kinematic redundancy interacts with the neurophysiological control mechanisms required for smooth and accurate, rapid limb movements. Biomechanically speaking, tendon excursions are over-determined because the rotation of few joints determines the lengths and velocities of many muscles. But how different are the muscle velocity profiles induced by various, equally valid hand trajectories? We used an 18-muscle sagittal-plane arm model to calculate 100,000 feasible shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint rotations that produced valid basketball free throws with different hand trajectories, but identical initial and final hand positions and velocities...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601243/accounting-for-spatial-variation-of-trabecular-anisotropy-with-subject-specific-finite-element-modeling-moderately-improves-predictions-of-local-subchondral-bone-stiffness-at-the-proximal-tibia
#3
S Majid Nazemi, S Mehrdad Hosseini Kalajahi, David M L Cooper, Saija A Kontulainen, David W Holdsworth, Bassam A Masri, David R Wilson, James D Johnston
INTRODUCTION: Previously, a finite element (FE) model of the proximal tibia was developed and validated against experimentally measured local subchondral stiffness. This model indicated modest predictions of stiffness (R(2)=0.77, normalized root mean squared error (RMSE%)=16.6%). Trabecular bone though was modeled with isotropic material properties despite its orthotropic anisotropy. The objective of this study was to identify the anisotropic FE modeling approach which best predicted (with largest explained variance and least amount of error) local subchondral bone stiffness at the proximal tibia...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623038/perfusion-kinetics-in-human-brain-tumor-with-dce-mri-derived-model-and-cfd-analysis
#4
A Bhandari, A Bansal, A Singh, N Sinha
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death all over the world. Among the strategies that are used for cancer treatment, the effectiveness of chemotherapy is often hindered by factors such as irregular and non-uniform uptake of drugs inside tumor. Thus, accurate prediction of drug transport and deposition inside tumor is crucial for increasing the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic treatment. In this study, a computational model of human brain tumor is developed that incorporates dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data into a voxelized porous media model...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579262/contact-forces-in-the-tibiofemoral-joint-from-soft-tissue-tensions-implications-to-soft-tissue-balancing-in-total-knee-arthroplasty
#5
Matthias A Verstraete, Patrick A Meere, Gaia Salvadore, Jan Victor, Peter S Walker
Proper tension of the knee's soft tissue envelope is important during total knee arthroplasty; incorrect tensioning potentially leads to joint stiffness or instability. The latter remains an important trigger for revision surgery. The use of sensors quantifying the intra-articular loads, allows surgeons to assess the ligament tension at the time of surgery. However, realistic target values are missing. In the framework of this paper, eight non-arthritic cadaveric specimens were tested and the intra-articular loads transferred by the medial and lateral compartment were measured using custom sensor modules...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577905/influence-of-rapidly-successive-head-impacts-on-brain-strain-in-the-vicinity-of-bridging-veins
#6
Brooklynn M Knowles, Samantha R MacGillivray, James A Newman, Christopher R Dennison
Acute subdural hematoma due to a bridging vein rupture is a devastating but rare injury. There has to date been no satisfactory biomechanical explanation for this infrequent but costly injury. We surmise that it may be associated with multiple head impacts. Though numerical models have been used to estimate vein strains in single impact events, none to date have examined the influence on localized brain strain of rapidly consecutive impacts. Using the Simulated Injury Monitor, we investigated the hypothesis that such double impacts can increase strain beyond that created by any single impact...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602471/primary-stability-of-tibial-plateaus-under-dynamic-compression-shear-loading-in-human-tibiae-influence-of-keel-length-cementation-area-and-tibial-stem
#7
Thomas M Grupp, Khaled J Saleh, Melanie Holderied, Andreas M Pfaff, Christoph Schilling, Christian Schroeder, William M Mihalko
The objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of the tibial keel & stem length in surface cementation, of a full cemented keel and of an additional tibial stem on the primary stability of a posterior stabilised tibial plateau (VEGA® System Aesculap Tuttlingen, Germany) under dynamic compression-shear loading conditions in human tibiae. We performed the cemented tibial plateau implantations on 24 fresh-frozen human tibiae of a mean donor age of 70.7years (range 47-97). The tibiae were divided into four groups of matched pairs based on comparable trabecular bone mineral density...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601242/kinematic-models-of-lower-limb-joints-for-musculo-skeletal-modelling-and-optimization-in-gait-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Alberto Leardini, Claudio Belvedere, Fabrizio Nardini, Nicola Sancisi, Michele Conconi, Vincenzo Parenti-Castelli
Kinematic models of lower limb joints have several potential applications in musculoskeletal modelling of the locomotion apparatus, including the reproduction of the natural joint motion. These models have recently revealed their value also for in vivo motion analysis experiments, where the soft-tissue artefact is a critical known problem. This arises at the interface between the skin markers and the underlying bone, and can be reduced by defining multibody kinematic models of the lower limb and by running optimization processes aimed at obtaining estimates of position and orientation of relevant bones...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577907/assessment-of-the-lower-limb-soft-tissue-artefact-at-marker-cluster-level-with-a-high-density-marker-set-during-walking
#9
Arnaud Barré, Rachid Aissaoui, Kamiar Aminian, Raphaël Dumas
The estimation of joint kinematics from skin markers is hindered by the soft tissue artefact (STA), a well-known phenomenon although not fully characterized. While most assessments of the STA have been performed based on the individual skin markers displacements, recent assessments were based on the marker-cluster geometrical transformations using, e.g., principal component or modal analysis. However, these marker-clusters were generally made of 4-6 markers and the current findings on the STA could have been biased by the limited number of skin makers analysed...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577903/the-role-of-adhesion-junctions-in-the-biomechanical-behaviour-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-3d-mesenchymal-stem-cell-spheroids
#10
F E Griffin, J Schiavi, T C McDevitt, J P McGarry, L M McNamara
Osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be regulated by the mechanical environment. MSCs grown in 3D spheroids (mesenspheres) have preserved multi-lineage potential, improved differentiation efficiency, and exhibit enhanced osteogenic gene expression and matrix composition in comparison to MSCs grown in 2D culture. Within 3D mesenspheres, mechanical cues are primarily in the form of cell-cell contraction, mediated by adhesion junctions, and as such adhesion junctions are likely to play an important role in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenspheres...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583675/magnetic-particle-translation-as-a-surrogate-measure-for-synovial-fluid-mechanics
#11
Yash Y Shah, Lorena Maldonado-Camargo, Neal S Patel, Adam H Biedrzycki, Elena G Yarmola, Jon Dobson, Carlos Rinaldi, Kyle D Allen
The mechanics of synovial fluid vary with disease progression, but are difficult to quantify quickly in a clinical setting due to small sample volumes. In this study, a novel technique to measure synovial fluid mechanics using magnetic nanoparticles is introduced. Briefly, microspheres embedded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, termed magnetic particles, are distributed through a 100μL synovial fluid sample. Then, a permanent magnet inside a protective sheath is inserted into the synovial fluid sample...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583674/three-dimensional-data-tracking-dynamic-optimization-simulations-of-human-locomotion-generated-by-direct-collocation
#12
Yi-Chung Lin, Marcus G Pandy
The aim of this study was to perform full-body three-dimensional (3D) dynamic optimization simulations of human locomotion by driving a neuromusculoskeletal model toward in vivo measurements of body-segmental kinematics and ground reaction forces. Gait data were recorded from 5 healthy participants who walked at their preferred speeds and ran at 2m/s. Participant-specific data-tracking dynamic optimization solutions were generated for one stride cycle using direct collocation in tandem with an OpenSim-MATLAB interface...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558914/numerical-investigation-of-the-early-flight-phase-in-ski-jumping
#13
N Gardan, A Schneider, G Polidori, H Trenchard, J M Seigneur, F Beaumont, F Fourchet, R Taiar
The purpose of this study is to develop a numerical methodology based on real data from wind tunnel experiments to investigate the effect of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. To improve our knowledge of the aerodynamic behavior of the ski jumper and his equipment during the early flight phase of the ski jump, we applied CFD methodology to evaluate the influence of angle of attack (α=14°, 21.5°, 29°, 36.5° and 44°) and speed (u=23, 26 and 29m/s) on aerodynamic forces in the situation of stable attitude of the ski jumper's body and skis...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623037/muscle-recruitment-and-coordination-with-an-ankle-exoskeleton
#14
Katherine M Steele, Rachel W Jackson, Benjamin R Shuman, Steven H Collins
Exoskeletons have the potential to assist and augment human performance. Understanding how users adapt their movement and neuromuscular control in response to external assistance is important to inform the design of these devices. The aim of this research was to evaluate changes in muscle recruitment and coordination for ten unimpaired individuals walking with an ankle exoskeleton. We evaluated changes in the activity of individual muscles, cocontraction levels, and synergistic patterns of muscle coordination with increasing exoskeleton work and torque...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558915/distal-skeletal-tibia-assessed-by-hr-pqct-is-highly-correlated-with-femoral-and-lumbar-vertebra-failure-loads
#15
Andres Kroker, Ryan Plett, Kyle K Nishiyama, David D McErlain, Clara Sandino, Steven K Boyd
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the standard for assessing fragility fracture risk using areal bone mineral density (aBMD), but only explains 60-70% of the variation in bone strength. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) provides 3D-measures of bone microarchitecture and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), but only at the wrist and ankle. Finite element (FE) models can estimate bone strength with 86-95% precision. The purpose of this study is to determine how well vBMD and FE bone strength at the wrist and ankle relate to fracture strength at the hip and spine, and to compare these relationships with DXA measured directly at those axial sites...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552413/microfluidic-co-culture-platform-for-investigating-osteocyte-osteoclast-signalling-during-fluid-shear-stress-mechanostimulation
#16
K Middleton, S Al-Dujaili, X Mei, A Günther, L You
Bone cells exist in a complex environment where they are constantly exposed to numerous dynamic biochemical and mechanical stimuli. These stimuli regulate bone cells that are involved in various bone disorders, such as osteoporosis. Knowledge of how these stimuli affect bone cells have been utilised to develop various treatments, such as pharmaceuticals, hormone therapy, and exercise. To investigate the role that bone loading has on these disorders in vitro, bone cell mechanotransduction studies are typically performed using parallel plate flow chambers (PPFC)...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577906/dynamic-head-neck-stabilization-and-modulation-with-perturbation-bandwidth-investigated-using-a-multisegment-neuromuscular-model
#17
Riender Happee, Edo de Bruijn, Patrick A Forbes, Frans C T van der Helm
The human head-neck system requires continuous stabilization in the presence of gravity and trunk motion. We investigated contributions of the vestibulocollic reflex (VCR), the cervicocollic reflex (CCR), and neck muscle co-contraction to head-in-space and head-on-trunk stabilization, and investigated modulation of the stabilization strategy with the frequency content of trunk perturbations and the presence of visual feedback. We developed a multisegment cervical spine model where reflex gains (VCR and CCR) and neck muscle co-contraction were estimated by fitting the model to the response of young healthy subjects, seated and exposed to anterior-posterior trunk motion, with frequency content from 0...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554494/effects-of-a-viscosupplementation-therapy-on-rabbit-menisci-in-an-anterior-cruciate-ligament-transection-model-of-osteoarthritis
#18
A Levillain, H Magoariec, C Boulocher, A Decambron, V Viateau, T Hoc
The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological, microstructural, and mechanical effects of a viscosupplementation therapy on rabbit menisci at an early stage of osteoarthritis (OA). Anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) was performed in twelve male New-Zealand White rabbits on the right knee joint. Six of these twelve rabbits received a mono intra-articular injection of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) two weeks after ACLT. Six additional healthy rabbits served as controls. Medial menisci were removed from all right knees (n=18) six weeks after ACLT and were graded macroscopically...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554493/statistical-shape-modeling-predicts-patellar-bone-geometry-to-enable-stereo-radiographic-kinematic-tracking
#19
Lowell M Smoger, Kevin B Shelburne, Adam J Cyr, Paul J Rullkoetter, Peter J Laz
Complications in the patellofemoral (PF) joint of patients with total knee replacements include patellar subluxation and dislocation, and remain a cause for revision. Kinematic measurements to assess these complications and evaluate implant designs require the accuracy of dynamic stereo-radiographic systems with 3D-2D registration techniques. While tibiofemoral kinematics are typically derived by tracking metallic implants, PF kinematic measurements are difficult as the patellar implant is radiotransparent and a representation of the resected patella bone requires either pre-surgical imaging and precise implant placement or post-surgical imaging...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551098/joint-kinematics-estimation-using-a-multi-body-kinematics-optimisation-and-an-extended-kalman-filter-and-embedding-a-soft-tissue-artefact-model
#20
Vincent Bonnet, Vincent Richard, Valentina Camomilla, Gentiane Venture, Aurelio Cappozzo, Raphaël Dumas
To reduce the impact of the soft tissue artefact (STA) on the estimate of skeletal movement using stereophotogrammetric and skin-marker data, multi-body kinematics optimisation (MKO) and extended Kalman filters (EKF) have been proposed. This paper assessed the feasibility and efficiency of these methods when they embed a mathematical model of the STA and simultaneously estimate the ankle, knee and hip joint kinematics and the model parameters. A STA model was used that provides an estimate of the STA affecting the marker-cluster located on a body segment as a function of the kinematics of the adjacent joints...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
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