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Journal of Biomechanics

Elizabeth A Rapp, R Tyler Richardson, Stephanie A Russo, William C Rose, James G Richards
Identification of scapular dyskinesis and evaluation of interventions depend on the ability to properly measure scapulothoracic (ST) motion. The most widely used measurement approach is the acromion marker cluster (AMC), which can yield large errors in extreme humeral elevation and can be inaccurate in children and patient populations. Recently, an individualized regression approach has been proposed as an alternative to the AMC. This technique utilizes the relationship between ST orientation, humerothoracic orientation and acromion process position derived from calibration positions to predict dynamic ST orientations from humerothoracic and acromion process measures during motion...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Ariyan Ashkanfar, David J Langton, Thomas J Joyce
The generation of particulate debris at the taper junction of total hip replacements (THRs), can cause failure of the artificial hip. The taper surfaces of femoral heads and trunnions of femoral stems are generally machined to a certain roughness to enhance fixation. However, the effect of the surface roughness of these surfaces on the fixation, wear and consequently clinical outcomes of the design is largely unknown. In this study, we asked whether a micro-grooved trunnion surface finish (1) improves the fixation and (2) reduces the wear rate at the taper junction of THRs...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Joshua M Leonardis, David M Desmet, David B Lipps
The sternocostal and clavicular regions of the pectoralis major are independently harvested to provide shoulder stability, but surgical decision making does not consider the biomechanical consequences that disinsertion of one fiber region over the other has on shoulder function. Differences in material properties between the fiber regions could influence which tissue is more optimal for surgical harvesting. The current study utilized ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) to investigate whether the in vivo material properties differ between the fiber regions...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Josje van Houwelingen, Dennis H J Willemsen, Rudie P J Kunnen, GertJan F van Heijst, Ernst Jan Grift, Wim Paul Breugem, Rene Delfos, Jerry Westerweel, Herman J H Clercx, Willem van de Water
The effect of finger spread on overall drag on a swimmer's hand is relatively small, but could be relevant for elite swimmers. There are many sensitivities in measuring this effect. A comparison between numerical simulations, experiments and theory is urgently required to observe whether the effect is significant. In this study, the beneficial effect of a small finger spread in swimming is confirmed using three different but complementary methods. For the first time numerical simulations and laboratory experiments are conducted on the exact same 3D model of the hand with attached forearm...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Elena Bergamini, Marco Iosa, Valeria Belluscio, Giovanni Morone, Marco Tramontano, Giuseppe Vannozzi
The capacity to maintain upright balance by minimising upper body oscillations during walking, also referred to as gait stability, has been associated with a decreased risk of fall. Although it is well known that fall is a common complication after stroke, no study considered the role of both trunk and head when assessing gait stability in this population. The primary aim of this study was to propose a multi-sensor protocol to quantify gait stability in patients with subacute stroke using gait quality indices derived from pelvis, sternum, and head accelerations...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Bruno Watier, Antony Costes, Nicolas A Turpin
When a high power output is required in cycling, a spontaneous transition by the cyclist from a seated to a standing position generally occurs. In this study, by varying the cadence and cyclist bodyweight, we tested whether the transition is better explained by the greater power economy of a standing position or by the emergence of mechanical constraints that force cyclists to stand. Ten males participated in five experimental sessions corresponding to different bodyweights (80%, 100%, or 120%) and cadences (50RPM, 70RPM, or 90RPM)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Elif Turgut, Gozde Gur, Cigdem Ayhan, Yavuz Yakut, Gul Baltaci
The scapula plays a critical role in supporting shoulder function. Considering the closed anatomical relationship between the scapula and the thoracic cage, the presence of postural disturbances could be linked to alterations in the scapular position and orientation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). However, currently there is a lack of descriptive research and detailed assessment of scapular kinematics in AIS. The aim of this study was to investigate the three-dimensional scapular kinematics in AIS...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
H Parsa, A Karac, A Ivankovic
This work focuses on the development of a surrogate lung material (SLM) that reproduces the dynamic response of a human lung under various loading conditions and also allows for the analysis of the extent and distribution of damage. The SLM consists of polyurethane foam used to mimic the spongy lung tissue and fluid-filled gelatine microcapsules used to simulate the damage of alveoli. The bursting pressure of the microcapsules was investigated by conducting low and high rate compression tests on single microcapsules...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Jaap H van Dieën, Paul van Drunen, Riender Happee
Trunk stabilization is required to control posture and movement during daily activities. Various sensory modalities, such as muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs and the vestibular system, might contribute to trunk stabilization and our aim was to assess the contribution of these modalities to trunk stabilization. In 35 healthy subjects, upper-body sway was evoked by continuous unpredictable, force-controlled perturbations to the trunk in the anterior direction. Subjects were instructed to either 'maximally resist the perturbation' or to 'relax but remain upright' with eyes closed...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Laura C Slane, Josh A Slane, Jan D'hooge, Lennart Scheys
Ultrasound-based methods have shown promise in their ability to characterize non-uniform deformations in large energy-storing tendons such as the Achilles and patellar tendons, yet applications to other areas of the body have been largely unexplored. The noninvasive quantification of collateral ligament strain could provide an important clinical metric of knee frontal plane stability, which is relevant in ligament injury and for measuring outcomes following total knee arthroplasty. In this pilot cadaveric experiment, we investigated the possibility of measuring collateral ligament strain with our previously validated speckle-tracking approach, but encountered a number of challenges during both data acquisition and processing...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Sanaz Berahmani, Dennis Janssen, Nico Verdonschot
It is essential to calculate micromotions at the bone-implant interface of an uncemented femoral total knee replacement (TKR) using a reliable computational model. In the current study, experimental measurements of micromotions were compared with predicted micromotions by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) using two bone material models: linear elastic and post-yield material behavior, while an actual range of interference fit was simulated. The primary aim was to investigate whether a plasticity model is essential in order to calculate realistic micromotions...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Deschamps Kevin, Eerdekens Maarten, Desmet Dirk, Giovanni Arnoldo Matricali, Sander Wuite, Staes Filip
Recent studies which estimated foot segment kinetic patterns were found to have inconclusive data on one hand, and did not dissociate the kinetics of the chopart and lisfranc joint. The current study aimed therefore at reproducing independent, recently published three-segment foot kinetic data (Study 1) and in a second stage expand the estimation towards a four-segment model (Study 2). Concerning the reproducibility study, two recently published three segment foot models (Bruening et al., 2014; Saraswat et al...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Jinlong Chang, Jianyong Huang, Lin Li, Zhicheng Liu, Fan Yuan
Elevation of intraocular pressure has been correlated to changes in stiffness of trabecular meshwork (TM) in glaucomatous eyes although mechanical properties of the TM remain to be quantitatively determined. Data in the literature suggest that the TM cannot be considered mechanically as a uniform layer of isotropic elastic material, because the value of its Young's modulus depends on the methods of measurements and can vary up to five orders of magnitude. To this end, we proposed a new theoretical framework for mechanical analysis of the TM, in which the inner wall of Schlemm's canal and the juxtacanalicular tissue in the TM were treated as a uniform layer of isotropic elastic material, and the rest of the TM, i...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Kendall D Dennis, David F Kallmes, Dan Dragomir-Daescu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
M Owais Khan, Kristian Valen-Sendstad, David A Steinman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Andrew Post, T Blaine Hoshizaki, Michael D Gilchrist, Michael D Cusimano
Concussion has been linked to the presence of injurious strains in the brain tissues. Research investigating severe brain injury has reported that strains in the brain may be affected by two parameters: magnitude of the acceleration, and duration of that acceleration. However, little is known how this relationship changes in terms of creating risk for brain injury for magnitudes and durations of acceleration common in sporting environments. This has particular implications for the understanding and prevention of concussive risk of injury in sporting environments...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
F Ghezelbash, A H Eskandari, A Shirazi-Adl, N Arjmand, Z El-Ouaaid, A Plamondon
Musculoskeletal models represent spinal motion segments by spherical joints/beams with linear/nonlinear properties placed at various locations. We investigated the fidelity of these simplified models (i.e., spherical joints with/without rotational springs and beams considering nonlinear/linear properties) in predicting kinematics of the ligamentous spine in comparison with a detailed finite element (FE) model while considering various anterior-posterior joint placements. Using the simplified models with different joint offsets in a subject-specific musculoskeletal model, we computed local spinal forces during forward flexion and compared results with intradiscal pressure measurements...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Saeed Jerban, Amin Nazaran, Xin Cheng, Michael Carl, Nikolaus Szeverenyi, Jiang Du, Eric Y Chang
In early stages of tendon disease, mechanical properties may become altered prior to changes in morphological anatomy. Ultrashort echo time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to directly detect signal from tissues with very short T2 values, including unique viscoelastic tissues such as tendons. The purpose of this study was to use UTE sequences to measure T2(∗), T1 and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) variations of tendon samples under static tensile loads. Six human peroneal tendons were imaged before and under static loading using UTE sequences on a clinical 3T MRI scanner...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Haisheng Xia, Junkai Xu, Jianren Wang, Michael A Hunt, Peter B Shull
The foot progression angle is an important measurement related to knee loading, pain, and function for individuals with knee osteoarthritis, however current measurement methods require camera-based motion capture or floor-embedded force plates confining foot progression angle assessment to facilities with specialized equipment. This paper presents the validation of a customized smart shoe for estimating foot progression angle during walking. The smart shoe is composed of an electronic module with inertial and magnetometer sensing inserted into the sole of a standard walking shoe...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Chi Liu, Yi Qiu, Michael J Griffin
Biodynamic responses of the seated human body are usually measured and modelled assuming a single point of vibration excitation. With vertical vibration excitation, this study investigated how forces are distributed over the body-seat interface. Vertical and fore-and-aft forces were measured beneath the ischial tuberosities, middle thighs, and front thighs of 14 subjects sitting on a rigid flat seat in three postures with different thigh contact while exposed to random vertical vibration at three magnitudes...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
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