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Journal of Biomechanics

Kuangyou B Cheng, Hiroko Tanabe, Wen-Chien Chen, Hung-Ta Chiu
Although lifting the heels has frequently been observed during balance recovery, the function of this movement has generally been overlooked. The present study aimed to investigate the functional role of heel lifting during regaining balance from a perturbed state. Computer simulation was employed to objectively examine the effect of allowing/constraining heel lifting on balance performance. The human model consisted of 3 rigid body segments connected by frictionless joints. Movements were driven by joint torques depending on current joint angle, angular velocity, and activation level...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
M R Nikmaneshi, B Firoozabadi, M S Saidi
Interaction between intracellular dynamics and extracellular matrix (ECM) generally occurred into very thin fragment of moving cell, namely lamellipodia, enables all movable cells to crawl on ECM. In fast-moving cells such as fish Keratocytes, Lamellipodia including most cell area finds a fan-like shape during migration, with a variety of aspect ratio function of fish type. In this work, our purpose is to present a novel and more complete two-dimensional continuum mathematical model of actomyosin-cytosolic two-phase flow of a self-deforming Keratocyte with circular spreaded to steady fan-like shape...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Jérémy Dallard, Xavier Merlhiot, Noémie Petitjean, Sonia Duprey
Modeling human-object interactions is a necessary step in the ergonomic assessment of products. Fingertip finite element models can help investigating these interactions, if they are built based on realistic geometrical data and material properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the fingertip geometry and its mechanical response under compression, and to identify the parameters of a hyperelastic material property associated to the fingertip soft tissues. Fingertip compression tests in an MRI device were performed on 5 subjects at either 2 or 4 N and at 15° or 50°...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Diana T Pham, Joe G Shapter, John J Costi
Disc degeneration is a common medical affliction whose origins are not fully understood. An improved understanding of its underlying mechanisms could lead to the development of more effective treatments. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of (1) degeneration, (2) circumferential region and (3) strain rate on the microscale mechanical properties (toe region modulus, linear modulus, extensibility, phase angle) of individual fibre bundles in the anulus fibrosus lamellae of the human intervertebral disc...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Brad D Hendershot, Iman Shojaei, Julian C Acasio, Christopher L Dearth, Babak Bazrgari
Persons with lower limb amputation (LLA) perceive altered motions of the trunk/pelvis during activities of daily living as contributing factors for low back pain. When walking (at a singular speed), larger trunk motions among persons with vs. without LLA are associated with larger spinal loads; however, modulating walking speed is necessary in daily life and thus understanding the influences of walking speed on spinal loads in persons with LLA is of particular interest here. Three-dimensional trunk-pelvic kinematics, collected during level-ground walking at self-selected (SSW) and two controlled speeds (∼1...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Indrė Žliobaitė, Mikael Fortelius
How food intake and mastication scale to satisfy the metabolic needs of mammals has been the subject of considerable scientific debate. Existing theory suggests that the negative allometric scaling of metabolic rate with body mass is compensated by a matching allometric scaling of the chewing rate. Why empirical studies have found that the scaling coefficients of the chewing rate seem to be systematically smaller than expected from theory remains unknown. Here we explain this imparity by decoupling the functional surface area of teeth from overall surface area...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Kwadwo A Owusu-Akyaw, Lauren N Heckelman, Hattie C Cutcliffe, E Grant Sutter, Zoë A Englander, Charles E Spritzer, William E Garrett, Louis E DeFrate
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient patients have an increased rate of patellofemoral joint (PFJ) osteoarthritis (OA) as compared to the general population. Although the cause of post-injury OA is multi-factorial, alterations in joint biomechanics may predispose patients to cartilage degeneration. This study aimed to compare in vivo PFJ morphology and mechanics between ACL deficient and intact knees in subjects with unilateral ACL ruptures. Eight male subjects underwent baseline MRI scans of both knees...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Marco Senteler, Ameet Aiyangar, Bernhard Weisse, Mazda Farshad, Jess G Snedeker
Translational vertebral motion during functional tasks manifests itself in dynamic loci for center of rotation (COR). A shift of COR affects moment arms of muscles and ligaments; consequently, muscle and joint forces are altered. Based on posture- and level-specific trends of COR migration revealed by in vivo dynamic radiography during functional activities, it was postulated that the instantaneous COR location for a particular joint is optimized in order to minimize the joint reaction forces. A musculoskeletal multi-body model was employed to investigate the hypotheses that (1) a posterior COR in upright standing and (2) an anterior COR in forward flexed posture leads to optimized lumbar joint loads...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
F Ghezelbash, Z El Ouaaid, A Shirazi-Adl, A Plamondon, N Arjmand
Maximum voluntary exertion (MVE) tasks quantify trunk strength and maximal muscle electromyography (EMG) activities with both clinical and biomechanical implications. The aims here are to evaluate the performance of an existing trunk musculoskeletal model, estimate maximum muscle stresses and spinal forces, and explore likely differences between males and females in maximum voluntary exertions. We, therefore, measured trunk strength and EMG activities of 19 healthy right-handed subjects (9 females and 10 males) in flexion, extension, lateral and axial directions...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
A Nerot, W Skalli, X Wang
Defining a subject-specific model of the human body is required for motion analysis in many fields, such as in ergonomics and clinical applications. However, locating internal joint centers from external characteristics of the body still remains a challenging issue, in particular for the spine. Current methods mostly require a set of rarely accessible (3D back or trunk surface) or operator dependent inputs (large number of palpated landmarks and landmarks-based anthropometrics). Therefore, there is a need to provide an alternative way to estimate joint centers only using a limited number of easily palpable landmarks and the external back profile...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Thomas F Easley, Charles H Bloodworth, Vinay Bhal, Ajit P Yoganathan
Using in vitro models, the mechanics as well as surgical techniques for mitral valves (MV) and MV devices can be studied in a more controlled environment with minimal monetary investment and risk. However, these current models rely on certain simplifications, one being that the MV has a static, rigid annulus. In order to study more complex issues of imaging diagnostics and implanted device function, it would be more advantageous to verify their use for a dynamic environment in a dynamic simulator. This study provides the novel design and development of a dynamically contracting annulus (DCA) within an in vitro simulator, and its subsequent use to study MV biomechanics...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Deva D Chan, Luyao Cai, Kent D Butz, Eric A Nauman, Darryl A Dickerson, Ilse Jonkers, Corey P Neu
Functional imaging of tissue biomechanics can reveal subtle changes in local softening and stiffening associated with disease or repair, but noninvasive and nondestructive methods to acquire intratissue measures in well-defined animal models are largely lacking. We utilized displacement encoded MRI to measure changes in cartilage deformation following creation of a critical-sized defect in the medial femoral condyle of ovine (sheep) knees, a common in situ and large animal model of tissue damage and repair...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Yu-Shiuan Cheng, Ramona Reisdorf, Alyssa Vrieze, Steven L Moran, Peter C Amadio, Kai-Nan An, Chunfeng Zhao
Kinetic analysis of canine gait has been extensively studied, including normal and abnormal gait. However, no research has looked into how flexor tendon injury and further treatment would affect the walking pattern comparing to the uninjured state. Therefore, this study was aimed to utilize a portable pressure walkway system, which has been commonly used for pedobarographic and kinetic analysis in the veterinary field, to examine the effect of a failed tendon repair and tendon graft reconstruction on canine digit kinetics during gait...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Kevin C Townsend, Holly D Thomas-Aitken, M James Rudert, Andrew M Kern, Michael C Willey, Donald D Anderson, Jessica E Goetz
Evaluation of abnormalities in joint contact stress that develop after inaccurate reduction of an acetabular fracture may provide a potential means for predicting the risk of developing post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Discrete element analysis (DEA) is a computational technique for calculating intra-articular contact stress distributions in a fraction of the time required to obtain the same information using the more commonly employed finite element analysis technique. The goal of this work was to validate the accuracy of DEA-computed contact stress against physical measurements of contact stress made in cadaveric hips using Tekscan sensors...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Vittorio Gatti, Evan M Azoulay, Susannah P Fritton
Loading-induced interstitial fluid flow in the microporosities of bone is critical for osteocyte mechanotransduction and for the maintenance of tissue health, enhancing convective transport in the lacunar-canalicular system. In recent studies, our group has reported alterations of bone's vascular porosity and lacunar-canalicular system microarchitecture in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this work, poroelastic finite element analysis was used to investigate whether these microstructural changes can affect interstitial fluid flow around osteocytes...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
E Allseits, V Agrawal, J Lučarević, R Gailey, I Gaunaurd, C Bennett
The use of Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) for spatial gait analysis has opened the door to unconstrained measurements within the home and community. Bandwidth, cost limitations, and ease of use has historically restricted the number and location of sensors worn on the body. In this paper, we describe a four-sensor configuration of IMUs placed on the shanks and thighs that is sufficient to provide an accurate measure of temporal gait parameters, spatial gait parameters, and joint angle dynamics during ambulation...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Seyed Reza M Moghaddam, Arjun Acharya, Mark S Redfern, Kurt E Beschorner
Understanding the frictional interactions between the shoe and floor during walking is critical to prevention of slips and falls, particularly when contaminants are present. A multiscale finite element model of shoe-floor-contaminant friction was developed that takes into account the surface and material characteristics of the shoe and flooring in microscopic and macroscopic scales. The model calculates shoe-floor coefficient of friction (COF) in boundary lubrication regime where effects of adhesion friction and hydrodynamic pressures are negligible...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
O Trabelsi, M Gutierrez, S Farzaneh, A Duprey, S Avril
Ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAA) are a life-threatening pathology provoking an irreversible dilation with a high associated risk of aortic rupture or dissection and death of the patient. Rupture or dissection of ATAAs remains unpredictable and has been documented to occur at diameters less than 4.5 cm for nearly 60% of patients. Other factors than the aneurysm diameter may highly affect the predisposition to rupture. In order to have a better insight in rupture risk prediction, a bulge inflation bench was developed to test ATAAs samples collected on patients during surgical interventions...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Claudia Menichini, Zhuo Cheng, Richard G J Gibbs, Xiao Yun Xu
Thoracic endovascular repair (TEVAR) has recently been established as the preferred treatment option for complicated type B dissection. This procedure involves covering the primary entry tear to stimulate aortic remodelling and promote false lumen thrombosis thereby restoring true lumen flow. However, complications associated with incomplete false lumen thrombosis, such as aortic dilatation and stent graft induced new entry tears, can arise after TEVAR. This study presents the application and validation of a recently developed mathematical model for patient-specific prediction of thrombus formation and growth under physiologically realistic flow conditions...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
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