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Journal of Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678418/a-new-method-to-quantify-liner-deformation-within-a-prosthetic-socket-for-below-knee-amputees
#1
Amy L Lenz, Katie A Johnson, Tamara Reid Bush
Many amputees who wear a leg prosthesis develop significant skin wounds on their residual limb. The exact cause of these wounds is unclear as little work has studied the interface between the prosthetic device and user. Our research objective was to develop a quantitative method for assessing displacement patterns of the gel liner during walking for patients with transtibial amputation. Using a reflective marker system and a custom clear socket, evaluations were conducted with a clear transparent test socket mounted over a plaster limb model and a deformable limb model...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678420/a-novel-validation-and-calibration-method-for-motion-capture-systems-based-on-micro-triangulation
#2
Gergely Nagymáté, Tamás Tuchband, Rita M Kiss
Motion capture systems are widely used to measure human kinematics. Nevertheless, users must consider system errors when evaluating their results. Most validation techniques for these systems are based on relative distance and displacement measurements. In contrast, our study aimed to analyse the absolute volume accuracy of optical motion capture systems by means of engineering surveying reference measurement of the marker coordinates (uncertainty: 0.75 mm). The method is exemplified on an 18 camera OptiTrack Flex13 motion capture system...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678419/finite-element-analysis-for-transverse-carpal-ligament-tensile-strain-and-carpal-arch-area
#3
Yifei Yao, Ahmet Erdemir, Zong-Ming Li
Mechanics of carpal tunnel soft tissue, such as fat, muscle and transverse carpal ligament (TCL), around the median nerve may render the median nerve vulnerable to compression neuropathy. The purpose of this study was to understand the roles of carpal tunnel soft tissue mechanical properties and intratunnel pressure on the TCL tensile strain and carpal arch area (CAA) using finite element analysis (FEA). Manual segmentation of the thenar muscles, skin, fat, TCL, hamate bone, and trapezium bone in the transverse plane at distal carpal tunnel were obtained from B-mode ultrasound images of one cadaveric hand...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678417/comparison-of-knee-injury-threshold-during-tibial-compression-based-on-limb-orientation-in-mice
#4
Allison W Hsia, Franklin D Tarke, Trevor J Shelton, Priscilla M Tjandra, Blaine A Christiansen
Our previous studies used tibial compression overload to induce anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture in mice, while others have applied similar or greater compressive magnitudes without injury. The causes of these differences in injury threshold are not known. In this study, we compared knee injury thresholds using a "prone configuration" and a "supine configuration" that differed with respect to hip, knee, and ankle flexion, and utilized different fixtures to stabilize the knee. Right limbs of female and male C57BL/6 mice were loaded using the prone configuration, while left limbs were loaded using the supine configuration...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673934/foot-structure-and-knee-joint-kinetics-during-walking-with-and-without-wedged-footwear-insoles
#5
Ryan T Lewinson, Ryan Madden, Anthony Killick, John W Wannop, J Preston Wiley, Victor M Y Lun, Chirag Patel, Jeremy M LaMothe, Darren J Stefanyshyn
The relationship between static foot structure characteristics and knee joint biomechanics during walking, or the biomechanical response to wedged insoles are currently unknown. In this study, 3D foot scanning, dual X-ray absorptiometry and gait analysis methods were used to determine structural parameters of the foot and assess their relation to knee joint loading and biomechanical response to wedged insoles in 30 patients with knee osteoarthritis. In multiple linear regression models, foot fat content, height of the medial longitudinal arch and static hind foot angle were not associated with the magnitude of the knee adduction moment (R2  = 0...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650410/assessment-of-intersegmental-coordination-of-rats-during-walking-at-different-speeds-application-of-continuous-relative-phase
#6
Peter C Raffalt, Louise R Nielsen, Stefan Madsen, Laurits Munk Højberg, Jessica Pingel, Jens Bo Nielsen, Tine Alkjær, Jacob Wienecke
The present study investigated the feasibility and reliability of continuous relative phase (CRP) and deviation phase (DP) to assess intersegmental hind limb coordination pattern and coordination variability in rats during walking. Twenty-six adult rats walked at 8 m/min, 12 m/min and 16 m/min while two-dimensional kinematics were recorded. Segment angles and segment angular velocities of the paw, shank and thigh on the left hind-limb were extracted from 15 strides and CRP was calculated for the paw-shank and shank-thigh coupling...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631749/cell-penetrating-peptide-modulation-of-membrane-biomechanics-by-molecular-dynamics
#7
Gianvito Grasso, Stefano Muscat, Martina Rebella, Umberto Morbiducci, Alberto Audenino, Andrea Danani, Marco A Deriu
The efficacy of a pharmaceutical treatment is often countered by the inadequate membrane permeability, that prevents drugs from reaching their specific intracellular targets. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are able to route across cells' membrane various types of cargo, including drugs and nanoparticles. However, CPPs internalization mechanisms are not yet fully understood and depend on a wide variety of aspects. In this contest, the entry of a CPP into the lipid bilayer might induce molecular conformational changes, including marked variations on membrane's mechanical properties...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650411/interfacial-mechanical-behaviour-of-protein-mineral-nanocomposites-a-molecular-dynamics-investigation
#8
Zheng Bo Lai, Ruixiang Bai, Zhenkun Lei, Cheng Yan
Biological composite materials, such as bone, tooth and nacre, are comprised of a mixture of nano-sized hard components (e.g. mineral platelets) and soft components (e.g. protein molecules). Their mechanical behaviour greatly depends on the protein-mineral interfaces. This paper investigates the effects of mineral surface nanostructures on the interfacial interaction and mechanical behaviour of protein-mineral nanocomposites. Interfacial shear between osteopontin (OPN) and hydroxyapatite (HA) mineral layers with surface nanostructures is investigated using the atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29636179/a-biomechanical-model-for-fibril-recruitment-evaluation-in-tendons-and-arteries
#9
Tim Bevan, Nadege Merabet, Jack Hornsby, Paul N Watton, Mark S Thompson
Simulations of soft tissue mechanobiological behaviour are increasingly important for clinical prediction of aneurysm, tendinopathy and other disorders. Mechanical behaviour at low stretches is governed by fibril straightening, transitioning into load-bearing at recruitment stretch, resulting in a tissue stiffening effect. Previous investigations have suggested theoretical relationships between stress-stretch measurements and recruitment probability density function (PDF) but not derived these rigorously nor evaluated these experimentally...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609800/corrigendum-to-a-non-invasive-methodology-for-ataa-rupture-risk-estimation-j-biomech-66-2018-119-126
#10
O Trabelsi, M Gutierrez, S Farzaneh, A Duprey, S Avril
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673935/investigation-of-the-dependence-of-joint-contact-forces-on-musculotendon-parameters-using-a-codified-workflow-for-image-based-modelling
#11
Luca Modenese, Erica Montefiori, Anqi Wang, Stefan Wesarg, Marco Viceconti, Claudia Mazzà
The generation of subject-specific musculoskeletal models of the lower limb has become a feasible task thanks to improvements in medical imaging technology and musculoskeletal modelling software. Nevertheless, clinical use of these models in paediatric applications is still limited for what concerns the estimation of muscle and joint contact forces. Aiming to improve the current state of the art, a methodology to generate highly personalized subject-specific musculoskeletal models of the lower limb based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans was codified as a step-by-step procedure and applied to data from eight juvenile individuals...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661501/mechanical-strain-induced-phospho-proteomic-signaling-in-uterine-smooth-muscle-cells
#12
Christian Copley Salem, Craig Ulrich, David Quilici, Karen Schlauch, Iain L O Buxton, Heather Burkin
Mechanical strain associated with the expanding uterus correlates with increased preterm birth rates. Mechanical signals result in a cascading network of protein phosphorylation events. These signals direct cellular activities and may lead to changes in contractile phenotype and calcium signaling. In this study, the complete phospho-proteome of uterine smooth muscle cells subjected to mechanical strain for 5 min was compared to un-strained controls. Statistically significant, differential phosphorylation events were annotated by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to elucidate mechanically induced phosphorylation networks...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655486/comprehensive-simulation-on-morphological-and-mechanical-properties-of-trigger-finger-a-cadaveric-model
#13
Yu-Shiuan Cheng, Hsiao-Feng Chieh, Chien-Ju Lin, Li-Chieh Kuo, Kai-Nan An, Fong-Chin Su
Trigger finger has long been a common disorder in hand orthopedics. To clarify the unknown causative factors regarding the disease, numerous experiments were done on human cadavers, including tendon forces, tendon moment arm, mechanical properties of the pulley, gliding resistance, etc. However, most of these studies were conducted on normal fingers. As the etiology of trigger finger is still controversial on whether it is an outcome of tendon nodule or pulley scarring, in this study, a trigger finger model was built combining both the nodule created by silicone gel injection and pulley constriction by external compression...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628132/biomechanics-of-osteochondral-impact-with-cushioning-and-graft-insertion-cartilage-damage-is-correlated-with-delivered-energy
#14
Alvin W Su, Yunchan Chen, Yao Dong, Dustin H Wailes, Van W Wong, Albert C Chen, Shengqiang Cai, William D Bugbee, Robert L Sah
Articular cartilage is susceptible to impact injury. Impact may occur during events ranging from trauma to surgical insertion of an OsteoChondral Graft (OCG) into an OsteoChondral Recipient site (OCR). To evaluate energy density as a mediator of cartilage damage, a specialized drop tower apparatus was used to impact adult bovine samples while measuring contact force, cartilage surface displacement, and OCG advancement. When a single impact was applied to an isolated (non-inserted) OCG, force and surface displacement each rose monotonically and then declined...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628131/order-error-in-the-calculation-of-continuous-relative-phase
#15
Sina Mehdizadeh, Paul S Glazier
The aims of this study were to demonstrate "order error" in the calculation of continuous relative phase (CRP) and to suggest two alternative methods-(i) constructing phase-plane portraits by plotting position over velocity; and (ii), the Hilbert transform-to rectify it. Order error is the change of CRP order between two degrees of freedom (e.g., body segments) when using the conventional method of constructing phase-plane portraits (i.e., velocity over position). Both sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal simulated signals as well as signals from human movement kinematics were used to investigate order error and the performance of the two alternative methods...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622481/pre-clinical-assessment-of-total-knee-replacement-anterior-posterior-constraint
#16
C Halewood, K K Athwal, A A Amis
Pre-clinical, bench-top assessment of Total Knee Replacements (TKR) can provide information about the inherent constraint provided by a TKR, which does not depend on the condition of the patient undergoing the arthroplasty. However little guidance is given by the ASTM standard on test configurations such as medial-lateral (M:L) loading distribution, flexion angle or restriction of secondary motions. Using a purpose built rig for a materials testing machine, four TKRs currently in widespread clinical use, including medial-pivot and symmetrical condyle types, were tested for anterior-posterior translational constraint...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673936/comparison-between-a-generalized-newtonian-model-and-a-network-type-multiscale-model-for-hemodynamic-behavior-in-the-aortic-arch-validation-with-4d-mri-data-for-a-case-study
#17
Marine Menut, Loïc Boussel, Xavier Escriva, Benyebka Bou-Saïd, Hélène Walter-Le Berre, Yann Marchesse, Antoine Millon, Nellie Della Schiava, Patrick Lermusiaux, John Tichy
Blood is a complex fluid in which the presence of the various constituents leads to significant changes in its rheological properties. Thus, an appropriate non-Newtonian model is advisable; and we choose a Modified version of the rheological model of Phan-Thien and Tanner (MPTT). The different parameters of this model, derived from the rheology of polymers, allow characterization of the non-Newtonian nature of blood, taking into account the behavior of red blood cells in plasma. Using the MPTT model that we implemented in the open access software OpenFOAM, numerical simulations have been performed on blood flow in the thoracic aorta for a healthy patient...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628133/radiostereometric-analysis-using-clinical-radiographic-views-development-of-a-universal-calibration-object
#18
Jordan S Broberg, Xunhua Yuan, Matthew G Teeter
Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is a highly accurate technique used to provide three-dimensional (3D) measurements of orthopaedic implant migration for clinical research applications, yet its implementation in routine clinical examinations has been limited. Previous studies have introduced a modified RSA procedure that separates the calibration examinations from the patient examinations, allowing routine clinical radiographs to be analyzed using RSA. However, in order to calibrate the wide range of clinical views, a new calibration object is required...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628130/strain-imaging-of-the-lateral-collateral-ligament-using-high-frequency-and-conventional-ultrasound-imaging-an-ex-vivo-comparison
#19
Kaj Gijsbertse, André Sprengers, Hamid Naghibi Beidokhti, Maartje Nillesen, Chris de Korte, Nico Verdonschot
Recent first attempts of in situ ultrasound strain imaging in collateral ligaments encountered a number of challenges and illustrated a clear need for additional studies and more thorough validation of the available strain imaging methods. Therefore, in this study we experimentally validated ultrasound strain measurements of ex vivo human lateral collateral ligaments in an axial loading condition. Moreover, the use of high frequency ultrasound (>20 MHz) for strain measurement was explored and its performance compared to conventional ultrasound...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625775/wall-shear-stress-fixed-points-in-cardiovascular-fluid-mechanics
#20
Amirhossein Arzani, Shawn C Shadden
Complex blood flow in large arteries creates rich wall shear stress (WSS) vectorial features. WSS acts as a link between blood flow dynamics and the biology of various cardiovascular diseases. WSS has been of great interest in a wide range of studies and has been the most popular measure to correlate blood flow to cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have emphasized different vectorial features of WSS. However, fixed points in the WSS vector field have not received much attention. A WSS fixed point is a point on the vessel wall where the WSS vector vanishes...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
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