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Journal of Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173919/elastic-modulus-and-hydraulic-permeability-of-mdck-monolayers
#1
K D Schulze, S M Zehnder, J M Urueña, T Bhattacharjee, W G Sawyer, T E Angelini
The critical role of cell mechanics in tissue health has led to the development of many in vitro methods that measure the elasticity of the cytoskeleton and whole cells, yet the connection between these local cell properties and bulk measurements of tissue mechanics remains unclear. To help bridge this gap, we have developed a monolayer indentation technique for measuring multi-cellular mechanics in vitro. Here, we measure the elasticity of cell monolayers and uncover the role of fluid permeability in these multi-cellular systems, finding that the resistance of fluid transport through cells controls their force-response at long times...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148412/acute-changes-in-knee-cartilage-transverse-relaxation-time-after-running-and-bicycling
#2
Anthony A Gatti, Michael D Noseworthy, Paul W Stratford, Elora C Brenneman, Saara Totterman, José Tamez-Peña, Monica R Maly
PURPOSE: To compare the acute effect of running and bicycling of an equivalent cumulative load on knee cartilage composition and morphometry in healthy young men. A secondary analysis investigated the relationship between activity history and the change in cartilage composition after activity. METHODS: In fifteen men (25.8±4.2 years), the vertical ground reaction force was measured to determine the cumulative load exposure of a 15-min run. The vertical pedal reaction force was recorded during bicycling to define the bicycling duration of an equivalent cumulative load...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143654/is-the-instrumented-pointer-method-of-calibrating-anatomical-landmarks-in-3d-motion-analysis-reliable
#3
Gwenllian Fflur Tawy, Philip Rowe
Instrumented-pointers are often used to calibrate anatomical landmarks in biomechanical analyses. However, little is known about the effect of altering the orientation of the pointer during calibration on the co-ordinates recorded. Incorrect positioning of a landmark influences the axes created, and thus the kinematic data recorded. This study aimed to investigate the reliability of the pointer method for anatomical calibration. Two points were drawn onto a fixed box to resemble knee joint epicondyles, then a custom-made pointer was used to define the positions of these landmarks in three-dimensions...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131487/effects-of-obesity-on-dynamic-stability-control-during-recovery-from-a-treadmill-induced-slip-among-young-adults
#4
Feng Yang, JaeEun Kim, Fei Yang
This study sought to investigate the effects of obesity on falls and dynamic stability control in young adults when subject to a standardized treadmill-induced gait-slip. Forty-four young adults (21 normal-weight and 23 obese) participated in this study. After their muscle strength was assessed at the right knee under maximum voluntary isometric (flexion and extension) contractions, participants were moved to an ActiveStep treadmill. Following 5 normal walking trials on the treadmill, all participants encountered an identical and unexpected slip defined as a perturbation in the anterior direction with the magnitude of 24-cm slip distance and 2...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131486/how-locomotion-sub-functions-can-control-walking-at-different-speeds
#5
Maziar Ahmad Sharbafi, Andre Seyfarth
Inspired from template models explaining biological locomotory systems and Raibert׳s pioneering legged robots, locomotion can be realized by basic sub-functions: elastic axial leg function, leg swinging and balancing. Combinations of these three can generate different gaits with diverse properties. In this paper we investigate how locomotion sub-functions contribute to stabilize walking at different speeds. Based on this trilogy, we introduce a conceptual model to quantify human locomotion sub-functions in walking...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126336/modular-neuromuscular-control-of-human-locomotion-by-central-pattern-generator
#6
Seyyed Arash Haghpanah, Farzam Farahmand, Hassan Zohoor
The central pattern generators (CPG) in the spinal cord are thought to be responsible for producing the rhythmic motor patterns during rhythmic activities. For locomotor tasks, this involves much complexity, due to a redundant system of muscle actuators with a large number of highly nonlinear muscles. This study proposes a reduced neural control strategy for the CPG, based on modular organization of the co-active muscles, i.e., muscle synergies. Four synergies were extracted from the EMG data of the major leg muscles of two subjects, during two gait trials each, using non-negative matrix factorization algorithm...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118977/tibio-femoral-joint-contact-in-healthy-and-osteoarthritic-knees-during-quasi-static-squat-a-bi-planar-x-ray-analysis
#7
A Zeighami, R Dumas, M Kanhonou, N Hagemeister, F Lavoie, J A de Guise, R Aissaoui
The aim of this study was to quantify the tibio-femoral contact point (CP) locations in healthy and osteoarthritic (OA) subjects during a weight-bearing squat using stand-alone biplanar X-ray images. Ten healthy and 9 severe OA subjects performed quasi-static squats. Bi-planar X-ray images were recorded at 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, and 70° of knee flexion. A reconstruction/registration process was used to create 3D models of tibia, fibula, and femur from bi-planar X-rays and to measure their positions at each posture...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168959/the-bending-stiffness-of-shoes-is-beneficial-to-running-energetics-if-it-does-not-disturb-the-natural-mtp-joint-flexion
#8
Keonyoung Oh, Sukyung Park
A local minimum for running energetics has been reported for a specific bending stiffness, implying that shoe stiffness assists in running propulsion. However, the determinant of the metabolic optimum remains unknown. Highly stiff shoes significantly increase the moment arm of the ground reaction force (GRF) and reduce the leverage effect of joint torque at ground push-off. Inspired by previous findings, we hypothesized that the restriction of the natural metatarsophalangeal (MTP) flexion caused by stiffened shoes and the corresponding joint torque changes may reduce the benefit of shoe bending stiffness to running energetics...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159312/effects-of-anterior-offsetting-of-humeral-head-component-in-posteriorly-unstable-total-shoulder-arthroplasty-finite-element-modeling-of-cadaver-specimens
#9
Gregory S Lewis, William K Conaway, Hwabok Wee, H Mike Kim
A novel technique of "anterior offsetting" of the humeral head component to address posterior instability in total shoulder arthroplasty has been proposed, and its biomechanical benefits have been previously demonstrated experimentally. The present study sought to characterize the changes in joint mechanics associated with anterior offsetting with various amounts of glenoid retroversion using cadaver specimen-specific 3-dimensional finite element models. Specimen-specific computational finite element models were developed through importing digitized locations of six musculotendinous units of the rotator cuff and deltoid muscles based off three cadaveric shoulder specimens implanted with total shoulder arthroplasty in either anatomic or anterior humeral head offset...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110933/shear-wave-elastography-of-the-supraspinatus-muscle-and-tendon-repeatability-and-preliminary-findings
#10
Timothy G Baumer, Leah Davis, Jack Dischler, Daniel S Siegal, Marnix van Holsbeeck, Vasilios Moutzouros, Michael J Bey
Shear wave elastography (SWE) is a promising tool for estimating musculoskeletal tissue properties, but few studies have rigorously assessed its repeatability and sources of error. The objectives of this study were to assess: (1) the extent to which probe positioning error and human user error influence measurement accuracy, (2) intra-user, inter-user, and day-to-day repeatability, and (3) the extent to which active and passive conditions affect shear wave speed (SWS) repeatability. Probe positioning and human usage errors were assessed by acquiring SWE images from custom ultrasound phantoms...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126335/two-biomechanical-strategies-for-locomotor-adaptation-to-split-belt-treadmill-walking-in-subjects-with-and-without-transtibial-amputation
#11
Brian P Selgrade, Megan E Toney, Young-Hui Chang
Locomotor adaptation is commonly studied using split-belt treadmill walking, in which each foot is placed on a belt moving at a different speed. As subjects adapt to split-belt walking, they reduce metabolic power, but the biomechanical mechanism behind this improved efficiency is unknown. Analyzing mechanical work performed by the legs and joints during split-belt adaptation could reveal this mechanism. Because ankle work in the step-to-step transition is more efficient than hip work, we hypothesized that control subjects would reduce hip work on the fast belt and increase ankle work during the step-to-step transition as they adapted...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109536/biomechanical-properties-of-bovine-tendon-xenografts-treated-with-a-modern-processing-method
#12
Henry B Colaço, Breck R Lord, Diane L Back, Andrew J Davies, Andrew A Amis, Adil Ajuied
Xenograft tendons have been used in few human studies, with variable results. With the advent of novel tissue processing techniques, which may mitigate against an immune-mediated rejection response without adversely affecting mechanical properties, there may now be a clinical role for xenograft tendons, particularly in knee ligament reconstruction. We hypothesize that 'BioCleanse®' processed bovine extensor digitorum medialis (EDM) tendons exhibit favorable time-zero pre-implantation biomechanical characteristics when compared to both unprocessed bovine EDM tendons and BioCleanse® processed human cadaveric allograft tibialis anterior tendons...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131485/twente-spine-model-a-complete-and-coherent-dataset-for-musculo-skeletal-modeling-of-the-lumbar-region-of-the-human-spine
#13
Riza Bayoglu, Leo Geeraedts, Karlijn H J Groenen, Nico Verdonschot, Bart Koopman, Jasper Homminga
Musculo-skeletal modeling can greatly help in understanding normal and pathological functioning of the spine. For such models to produce reliable muscle and joint force estimations, an adequate set of musculo-skeletal data is necessary. In this study, we present a complete and coherent dataset for the lumbar spine, based on medical images and dissection measurements from one embalmed human cadaver. We divided muscles into muscle-tendon elements, digitized their attachments at the bones and measured morphological parameters...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108017/influence-of-kinematics-on-the-wear-of-a-total-ankle-replacement
#14
Alexandra Smyth, John Fisher, Silvia Suñer, Claire Brockett
Total ankle replacement (TAR) is an alternative to fusion, replacing the degenerated joint with a mechanical motion-preserving alternative. Minimal pre-clinical testing has been reported to date and existing wear testing standards lack definition. Ankle gait is complex, therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effect on wear of a range of different ankle gait kinematic inputs. Five Zenith (Corin Group) TARs were tested in a modified knee simulator for twelve million cycles (Mc). Different combinations of IR rotation and AP displacement were applied every 2Mc to understand the effects of the individual kinematics...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104246/overcoming-the-limitations-of-the-harmonic-ratio-for-the-reliable-assessment-of-gait-symmetry
#15
Ilaria Pasciuto, Elena Bergamini, Marco Iosa, Giuseppe Vannozzi, Aurelio Cappozzo
The Harmonic Ratio (HR) is an index based on the spectral analysis of lower trunk accelerations that is commonly used to assess the quality of gait. However, it presents several issues concerning reliability and interpretability. As a consequence, the literature provides very different values albeit corresponding to the same populations. In the present work, an improved harmonic ratio (iHR) was defined, relating the power of the intrinsic harmonics (i.e. associated with the symmetric component of gait) to the total power of the signal for each stride, leading to a normalised index ranging from 0 to 100%...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104245/assessing-kinematics-and-kinetics-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-rowing
#16
Adina E Draghici, Glen Picard, J Andrew Taylor, Sandra J Shefelbine
Hybrid functional electrical stimulation (FES) rowing has positive effects on cardiovascular fitness, producing significantly greater aerobic power than either upper body or FES exercise alone. However, there is minimal information on the kinematics, kinetics, and mechanical efficiency of FES-rowing in the spinal cord injured (SCI) population. This study examined the biomechanics of FES-rowing to determine how motions, forces, and aerobic demand change with increasing intensity. Six individuals with SCI and six able-bodied subjects performed a progressive aerobic capacity rowing test...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093261/experimental-evaluation-of-a-new-morphological-approximation-of-the-articular-surfaces-of-the-ankle-joint
#17
Claudio Belvedere, Sorin Siegler, Andrea Ensini, Jason Toy, Paolo Caravaggi, Ramya Namani, Giulia Giannini, Stefano Durante, Alberto Leardini
The mechanical characteristics of the ankle such as its kinematics and load transfer properties are influenced by the geometry of the articulating surfaces. A recent, image-based study found that these surfaces can be approximated by a saddle-shaped, skewed, truncated cone with its apex oriented laterally. The goal of this study was to establish a reliable experimental technique to study the relationship between the geometry of the articular surfaces of the ankle and its mobility and stability characteristics and to use this technique to determine if morphological approximations of the ankle surfaces based on recent discoveries, produce close to normal behavior...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089359/transient-and-long-time-kinetic-responses-of-the-cadaveric-leg-during-internal-and-external-foot-rotation
#18
Alexander R Mait, Adwait Mane, Jason L Forman, John Paul Donlon, Bingbing Nie, Richard W Kent
The purpose of this study was to determine the long-time and transient characteristics of the moment generated by external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation of the calcaneus with respect to the tibia. Two human cadaver legs were disarticulated at the knee joint while maintaining the connective tissue between the tibia and fibula. An axial rotation of 21° was applied to the proximal tibia to generate either ER or IR while the fibula was unconstrained and the calcaneus was permitted to translate in the transverse plane...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093258/stooping-crouching-and-standing-characterizing-balance-control-strategies-across-postures
#19
Tyler B Weaver, Michal N Glinka, Andrew C Laing
BACKGROUND: While stooping and crouching postures are critical for many activities of daily living, little is known about the balance control mechanisms employed during these postures. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to characterize the mechanisms driving net center of pressure (COPNet) movement across three postures (standing, stooping, and crouching) and to investigate if control in each posture was influenced by time. METHODS: Ten young adults performed the three postures for 60s each...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087063/spatial-dependent-mechanical-properties-of-the-heel-pad-by-shear-wave-elastography
#20
Che-Yu Lin, Pei-Yu Chen, Yio-Wha Shau, Hao-Chih Tai, Chung-Li Wang
The heel pad plays an important role in gait, and its biomechanical behavior and functionality are determined by its specialized architecture and mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to apply supersonic shear wave elastography, an ultrasound-based noninvasive modality that can quantitatively estimate the shear stiffness of the tissue, to investigate the spatial-dependent mechanical properties of the heel pad. Measurements were conducted in 40 heel pads of 20 normal participants aged between 20 and 30 years by shear wave elastography...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
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