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Journal of Learning Disabilities

Nathan H Clemens, Michelle M Soohoo, Colby P Wiley, Yu-Yu Hsiao, Ivonne Estrella, Paula J Allee-Smith, Myeongsun Yoon
Although several measures exist for frequently monitoring early reading progress, little research has specifically investigated their technical properties when administered on a frequent basis with kindergarten students. In this study, kindergarten students ( N = 137) of whom the majority was receiving supplemental intervention for reading skills were monitored using Letter Sound Fluency, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency, Word Reading Fluency, Nonsense Word Fluency, Highly Decodable Passages, and Spelling on a biweekly basis between February and May...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Li-Chih Wang, Hsien-Ming Yang
This study aimed to investigate the development of visual and auditory temporal processing among children with and without dyslexia and to examine the roles of temporal processing in reading and reading-related abilities. A total of 362 Chinese children in Grades 1-6 were recruited from Taiwan. Half of the children had dyslexia, and the other half were typically developing children who matched the dyslexic group on age, intelligence, and gender. Our results indicate that for typically developing children, the visual and auditory modalities follow the same developmental trend: The children in first and second grades performed significantly worse than the older children...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Richard S Kruk, Cassia Luther Ruban
Visual processes in Grade 1 were examined for their predictive influences in nonalphanumeric and alphanumeric rapid naming (RAN) in 51 poor early and 69 typical readers. In a lagged design, children were followed longitudinally from Grade 1 to Grade 3 over 5 testing occasions. RAN outcomes in early Grade 2 were predicted by speeded and nonspeeded visual processing measures, after controlling for initial (Grade 1) RAN, matrix reasoning, phonological awareness, and word decoding abilities. A predictive influence of backward visual masking-a speeded visual discrimination task-was found for nonalphanumeric RAN in early Grade 2 but not for alphanumeric RAN or subsequent RAN ability in Grades 2 and 3...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Percival G Matthews, Edward M Hubbard
The three target articles presented in this special issue converged on an emerging theme: the importance of spatial proportional reasoning. They suggest that the ability to map between symbolic fractions (like 1/5) and nonsymbolic, spatial representations of their sizes or magnitudes may be especially important for building robust fractions knowledge. In this commentary, we first reflect upon where these findings stand in a larger theoretical context, largely borrowed from mathematics education research. Next, we emphasize parallels between this work and emerging work suggesting that nonsymbolic proportional reasoning may provide an intuitive foundation for understanding fraction magnitudes...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Rosemary Tannock, Jan C Frijters, Rhonda Martinussen, Erin Jacquelyn White, Abel Ickowicz, Nancy J Benson, Maureen W Lovett
To evaluate the relative efficacy of two reading programs with and without adjunctive stimulant medication for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid reading disorder (ADHD+RD). Sixty-five children (7-11 years in age) were assigned randomly to one of three intensive remedial academic programs (phonologically or strategy-based reading instruction, or general academic strategy and social skills training) in combination with either immediate-release methylphenidate or placebo. Multiple-blind procedures were used for medication/placebo, given twice daily...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Michele Poletti, Elisa Carretta, Laura Bonvicini, Paolo Giorgi-Rossi
The heterogeneity among children with learning disabilities still represents a barrier and a challenge in their conceptualization. Although a dimensional approach has been gaining support, the categorical approach is still the most adopted, as in the recent fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders The introduction of the single overarching diagnostic category of specific learning disorder (SLD) could underemphasize interindividual clinical differences regarding intracategory cognitive functioning and learning proficiency, according to current models of multiple cognitive deficits at the basis of neurodevelopmental disorders...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Cesare Cornoldi, Agnese Capodieci, Carla Colomer Diago, Ana Miranda, Katharine G Shepherd
In recent years, teachers in Western countries have developed beliefs and attitudes related to working with students with specific learning disabilities (LD) that may be critical in shaping their educational practices with them; however, their beliefs and attitudes differ across political and geographical contexts and may be influenced by specific contextual circumstances and national legislation. This study examines these issues by comparing beliefs and attitudes among 557 primary school teachers from specific areas of three countries (Italy, Spain, and the United States)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Eunsoo Cho, Donald L Compton, Jennifer K Gilbert, Laura M Steacy, Alyson A Collins, Esther R Lindström
Dynamic assessment (DA) of word reading measures learning potential for early reading development by documenting the amount of assistance needed to learn how to read words with unfamiliar orthography. We examined the additive value of DA for predicting first-grade decoding and word recognition development while controlling for autoregressive effects. Additionally, we examined whether predictive validity of DA would be higher for students who have poor phonological awareness skills. First-grade students (n = 105) were assessed on measures of word reading, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and DA in the fall and again assessed on word reading measures in the spring...
January 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Bradley W Bergey, S Hélène Deacon, Rauno K Parrila
University students who report a history of reading difficulties have been demonstrated to have poorer word reading and reading comprehension skills than their peers; yet, without a diagnosed learning disability, these students do not have access to the same support services, potentially placing them at academic risk. This study provides a comprehensive investigation of first-year academic achievement for students with a history of reading difficulties (n = 244) compared to students with no such history (n = 603)...
January 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Peng Peng, Douglas Fuchs
Researchers are increasingly interested in working memory (WM) training. However, it is unclear whether it strengthens comprehension in young children who are at risk for learning difficulties. We conducted a modest study of whether the training of verbal WM would improve verbal WM and passage listening comprehension and whether training effects differed between two approaches: training with and without strategy instruction. A total of 58 first-grade children were randomly assigned to three groups: WM training with a rehearsal strategy, WM training without strategy instruction, and controls...
January 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Terry T-Y Wong, Connie S-H Ho, Joey Tang
Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a specific learning disability in mathematics that affects around 6% of the population. Currently, the core deficit of DD remains unknown. While the number sense deficit hypothesis suggests that the core deficit of DD lies in the inability to represent nonsymbolic numerosity, the access deficit hypothesis suggests that the origin of this disability lies in the inability to associate numbers with the underlying magnitude representation. The present study compared the performance of DDs with their low-achieving (LA) and normally achieving peers in nonsymbolic numerosity processing and number-magnitude mapping over 1 year (from kindergarten to 1st grade)...
January 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Thérèse M Chevalier, Rauno Parrila, Krista C Ritchie, S Hélène Deacon
We examined the self-reported use of reading, study, and learning strategies in university students with a history of reading difficulties (HRD; n = 77) and with no history of reading difficulties (NRD; n = 295). We examined both between-groups differences in strategy use and strategy use as a predictive measure of academic success. Participants completed online questionnaires regarding reading history and strategy use. GPA and frequency of use of academic support services were also obtained for all students...
January 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Dana Ganor-Stern
The present study is the first to examine the computation estimation skills of dyscalculics versus controls using the estimation comparison task. In this task, participants judged whether an estimated answer to a multidigit multiplication problem was larger or smaller than a given reference number. While dyscalculics were less accurate than controls, their performance was well above chance level. The performance of controls but not of those with developmental dyscalculia (DD) improved consistently for smaller problem sizes...
January 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Bryan G Cook, Danielle N Dupuis, Asha K Jitendra
When classifying the evidence base of practices, special education scholars typically appraise study quality to identify and exclude from consideration in their reviews unacceptable-quality studies that are likely biased and might bias review findings if included. However, study quality appraisals used in the process of identifying evidence-based practices for students with learning and other disabilities have not been empirically validated (e.g., studies classified as unacceptable quality shown to have different, and presumably more biased, effects than high-quality studies)...
January 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Gauri S Joshi, Emily C Bouck
Given the history of poor postschool outcomes for students with disabilities, researchers repeatedly sought to demonstrate the links between predictor variables and postschool outcomes for students with disabilities. This secondary data analysis used the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 to examine the relationship between postsecondary education-related transition services and postsecondary education participation for students with learning disabilities. Logistic regression analyses indicated receiving core content area instruction in the general education classroom was positively related to postsecondary education participation...
January 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Youzhen Chen, Rong Lian, Lixian Yang, Jianrong Liu, Yingfang Meng
The effects of working memory (WM) demand and reminders on an event-based prospective memory (PM) task were compared between students with low and high achievement in math. WM load (1- and 2-back tasks) was manipulated as a within-subject factor and reminder (with or without reminder) as a between-subject factor. Results showed that high-achieving students outperformed low-achieving students on all PM and n-back tasks. Use of a reminder improved PM performance and thus reduced prospective interference; the performance of ongoing tasks also improved for all students...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Elisabeth Moser Opitz, Okka Freesemann, Susanne Prediger, Urs Grob, Ina Matull, Stephan Hußmann
As empirical studies have consistently shown, low achievement in mathematics at the secondary level can often be traced to deficits in the understanding of certain basic arithmetic concepts taught in primary school. The present intervention study in middle schools evaluated whether such learning deficits can be reduced effectively and whether the type of instruction influences students' progress. The sample consisted of 123 students in 34 classes, split among one control group and two intervention groups: (a) small group instruction and (b) independent work partially integrated into regular classrooms...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Riikka Heikkilä, Minna Torppa, Mikko Aro, Vesa Närhi, Timo Ahonen
This study explored the double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) in a transparent orthography (Finnish) and extended the view from reading disabilities to comorbidity of learning-related problems in math and attention. Children referred for evaluation of learning disabilities in second through sixth grade (N = 205) were divided into four groups based on rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonological awareness (PA) according to the DDH: the double-deficit group, the naming speed deficit-only group, the phonological deficit-only group, and the no-deficit group...
September 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Paola Bonifacci, Michele Storti, Valentina Tobia, Alessandro Suardi
Despite their ascertained neurobiological origin, specific learning disorders (SLD) often have been found to be associated with some emotional disturbances in children, and there is growing interest in the environmental and contextual variables that may modulate children's developmental trajectories. The present study was aimed at evaluating the psychological profile of parents and children and the relationships between their measures. Parents of children with SLD (17 couples, 34 participants) and parents of children with typical development (17 couples, 34 participants) were administered questionnaires assessing parenting styles, reading history, parenting stress, psychopathological indexes, and evaluations of children's anxiety and depression...
September 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Dake Zhang, Pamela Stecker, Sloan Huckabee, Rhonda Miller
Research has suggested that different strategies used when solving fraction problems are highly correlated with students' problem-solving accuracy. This study (a) utilized latent profile modeling to classify students into three different strategic developmental levels in solving fraction comparison problems and (b) accordingly provided differentiated strategic training for students starting from two different strategic developmental levels. In Study 1 we assessed 49 middle school students' performance on fraction comparison problems and categorized students into three clusters of strategic developmental clusters: a cross-multiplication cluster with the highest accuracy, a representation strategy cluster with medium accuracy, and a whole-number strategy cluster with the lowest accuracy...
September 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
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