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Journal of Learning Disabilities

Youzhen Chen, Rong Lian, Lixian Yang, Jianrong Liu, Yingfang Meng
The effects of working memory (WM) demand and reminders on an event-based prospective memory (PM) task were compared between students with low and high achievement in math. WM load (1- and 2-back tasks) was manipulated as a within-subject factor and reminder (with or without reminder) as a between-subject factor. Results showed that high-achieving students outperformed low-achieving students on all PM and n-back tasks. Use of a reminder improved PM performance and thus reduced prospective interference; the performance of ongoing tasks also improved for all students...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Elisabeth Moser Opitz, Okka Freesemann, Susanne Prediger, Urs Grob, Ina Matull, Stephan Hußmann
As empirical studies have consistently shown, low achievement in mathematics at the secondary level can often be traced to deficits in the understanding of certain basic arithmetic concepts taught in primary school. The present intervention study in middle schools evaluated whether such learning deficits can be reduced effectively and whether the type of instruction influences students' progress. The sample consisted of 123 students in 34 classes, split among one control group and two intervention groups: (a) small group instruction and (b) independent work partially integrated into regular classrooms...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Eric L Oslund, Shanna Hagan-Burke, Deborah C Simmons, Nathan H Clemens, Leslie E Simmons, Aaron B Taylor, Oi-Man Kwok, Michael D Coyne
This study examined the predictive validity of formative assessments embedded in a Tier 2 intervention curriculum for kindergarten students identified as at risk for reading difficulty. We examined when (i.e., months during the school year) measures could predict reading outcomes gathered at the end of kindergarten and whether the predictive validity of measures changed across the kindergarten year. Participants consisted of 137 kindergarten students whose reading development was assessed four times from October to February...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Stuart Woodcock, Han Jiang
Claims of the importance of having positive perceptions and expectations of students with learning disabilities (LD) have been repeatedly made over recent years. This article aims to raise awareness of the importance of attributional beliefs in relation to the educational outcomes of students with LD in Australia and China. Australian and Chinese trainee teachers (N = 240) who were at the end of their training were surveyed with vignettes and Likert-scale questions to ascertain their responses to students with and without LD...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Russell Gersten, Robin F Schumacher, Nancy C Jordan
Magnitude understanding is critical for students to develop a deep understanding of fractions and more advanced mathematics curriculum. The research reports in this special issue underscore magnitude understanding for fractions and emphasize number lines as both an assessment and an instructional tool. In this commentary, we discuss how number lines broaden the concept of fractions for students who are tied to the more general part-whole representations of area models. We also discuss how number lines, compared to other representations, are a superior and more mathematically correct way to explain fraction concepts...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Paige C Pullen
Since the emergence of the field of learning disabilities (LD) in the late 1960s and early 1970s, controversy has surrounded issues regarding methods used for identification. The prevalence of students identified as LD increased steadily from the 1970s until the beginning of the 21st century, at which time it has decreased until at least 2011 (the most current data available from the U.S. Office of Education). In this article, I compare the prevalence rates of children aged 6 to 17 years being served in schools according to the Office of Special Education Programs with the prevalence rates as reported by parents on the National Survey of Children's Health...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Francis Skip Fennell, Karen Karp
The intent of this commentary is to identify elements of fraction sense and note how the research studies provided in this special issue, in related but somewhat different ways, validate the importance of such understandings. Proficiency with fractions serves as a prerequisite for student success in higher level mathematics, as well as serving as a gateway to many occupations and varied contexts beyond the mathematics classroom. Fraction sense is developed through instructional opportunities involving fraction equivalence and magnitude, comparing and ordering fractions, using fraction benchmarks, and computational estimation...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Nancy C Jordan, Ilyse Resnick, Jessica Rodrigues, Nicole Hansen, Nancy Dyson
The goal of the present article is to synthesize findings to date from the Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning. The study followed a large cohort of children (N = 536) between Grades 3 and 6. The findings showed that many students, especially those with diagnosed learning disabilities, made minimal growth in fraction knowledge and that some showed only a basic grasp of the meaning of a fraction even after several years of instruction. Children with low growth in fraction knowledge during the intermediate grades were much more likely to fail to meet state standards on a broad mathematics measure at the end of Grade 6...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Russell Gersten, Nancy C Jordan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Jing Tian, Robert S Siegler
Learning fractions is difficult for children in general and especially difficult for children with mathematics difficulties (MD). Recent research on developmental and individual differences in fraction knowledge of children with MD and typically achieving (TA) children has demonstrated that U.S. children with MD start middle school behind their TA peers in fraction understanding and fall further behind during middle school. In contrast, Chinese children, who like the MD children in the United States score in the bottom one third of the distribution in their country, possess reasonably good fraction understanding...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Riikka Heikkilä, Minna Torppa, Mikko Aro, Vesa Närhi, Timo Ahonen
This study explored the double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) in a transparent orthography (Finnish) and extended the view from reading disabilities to comorbidity of learning-related problems in math and attention. Children referred for evaluation of learning disabilities in second through sixth grade (N = 205) were divided into four groups based on rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonological awareness (PA) according to the DDH: the double-deficit group, the naming speed deficit-only group, the phonological deficit-only group, and the no-deficit group...
September 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Paola Bonifacci, Michele Storti, Valentina Tobia, Alessandro Suardi
Despite their ascertained neurobiological origin, specific learning disorders (SLD) often have been found to be associated with some emotional disturbances in children, and there is growing interest in the environmental and contextual variables that may modulate children's developmental trajectories. The present study was aimed at evaluating the psychological profile of parents and children and the relationships between their measures. Parents of children with SLD (17 couples, 34 participants) and parents of children with typical development (17 couples, 34 participants) were administered questionnaires assessing parenting styles, reading history, parenting stress, psychopathological indexes, and evaluations of children's anxiety and depression...
September 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Dake Zhang, Pamela Stecker, Sloan Huckabee, Rhonda Miller
Research has suggested that different strategies used when solving fraction problems are highly correlated with students' problem-solving accuracy. This study (a) utilized latent profile modeling to classify students into three different strategic developmental levels in solving fraction comparison problems and (b) accordingly provided differentiated strategic training for students starting from two different strategic developmental levels. In Study 1 we assessed 49 middle school students' performance on fraction comparison problems and categorized students into three clusters of strategic developmental clusters: a cross-multiplication cluster with the highest accuracy, a representation strategy cluster with medium accuracy, and a whole-number strategy cluster with the lowest accuracy...
September 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Athanassios Protopapas, Rauno Parrila, Panagiotis G Simos
The concept of Matthew effects in reading development refers to a longitudinally widening gap between high achievers and low achievers. Various statistical approaches have been proposed to examine this idea. However, little attention has been paid to psychometric issues of scaling. Specifically, interval-level data are required to compare performance differences across performance ranges, but only ordinal-level data are available with current literacy measures. To demonstrate the interpretability problems of contrasting growth slopes, we use data from a longitudinal study of literacy development...
September 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Peter Tamboer, Harrie C M Vorst, Frans J Oort
Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A sample of 446 students (63 with dyslexia) completed a large test battery and a large questionnaire. Five factors were found in both the test battery and the questionnaire...
September 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Robert Weis, Emily L Dean, Karen J Osborne
Clinicians uniformly recommend accommodations for college students with learning disabilities; however, we know very little about which accommodations they select and the validity of their recommendations. We examined the assessment documentation of a large sample of community college students receiving academic accommodations for learning disabilities to determine (a) which accommodations their clinicians recommended and (b) whether clinicians' recommendations were supported by objective data gathered during the assessment process...
September 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Hugh W Catts, Diane Corcoran Nielsen, Mindy Sittner Bridges, Yi-Syuan Liu
Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension difficulties in third grade. A total of 366 children were administered a battery of screening measures at the beginning of kindergarten and progress monitoring probes across the school year...
September 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Susan De La Paz, Daniel R Wissinger
In this study, we explored the potential of two forms of discussion (disciplinary vs. traditional) for 39 sixth- and seventh-grade students with or at risk for learning disabilities (LD), before writing historical arguments. Nine teachers who led small group discussions in six heterogeneous social studies classrooms implemented the intervention. Students who were involved in disciplinary discussions (n = 19) scored statistically higher than their peers who engaged in traditional discussions (n = 20) on a measure of historical knowledge (partial η(2) = ...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Daniel B Berch
In this commentary, I examine some of the distinctive, foundational difficulties in learning fractions and other types of rational numbers encountered by students with a mathematical learning disability and how these differ from the struggles experienced by students classified as low achieving in math. I discuss evidence indicating that students with math disabilities exhibit a significant delay or deficit in the numerical transcoding of decimal fractions, and I further maintain that they may face unique challenges in developing the ability to effectively translate between different types of fractions and other rational number notational formats-what I call conceptual transcoding I also argue that characterizing this level of comprehensive understanding of rational numbers as rational number sense is irrational, as it misrepresents this flexible and adaptive collection of skills as a biologically based percept rather than a convergence of higher-order competencies that require intensive, formal instruction...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
John Woodward
This commentary summarizes emerging research into fractions instruction for students who are at risk for failure. Each of the three articles emphasizes a measure conception of fractions. Teaching fractions as measurement helps students learn the magnitude of rational numbers. However, measurement is only part of the way that students should conceptualize fractions. Instruction also needs to emphasize fractions as division. The article also draws attention to the teaching qualifications of those who typically instruct at-risk students in Tier 2 and 3 settings...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
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