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Journal of Learning Disabilities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891762/reading-and-phonological-awareness-in-africa
#1
Katherine J Alcock, Damaris S Ngorosho, Matthew C H Jukes
Literacy levels in Africa are low, and school instruction outcomes are not promising. Africa also has a disproportionate number of unschooled children. Phonological awareness (PA), especially phoneme awareness, is critically associated with literacy, but there is little evidence about whether PA is gained through literacy, schooling, or both, because most children studied are in education and can read at least letters. Our previous study of PA and reading in children in and out of school in Tanzania found that PA was associated with reading ability, not schooling or age, and many unschooled children learned to read...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799454/unpacking-direct-and-indirect-relationships-of-short-term-memory-to-word-reading-evidence-from-korean-speaking-children
#2
Young-Suk Grace Kim, Jeung-Ryeul Cho, Soon-Gil Park
We examined the relations of short-term memory (STM), metalinguistic awareness (phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness), and rapid automatized naming (RAN) to word reading in Korean, a language with a relatively transparent orthography. STM, metalinguistic awareness, and RAN have been shown to be important to word reading, but the nature of the relations of STM, metalinguistic awareness, and RAN to word reading has rarely been investigated. Two alternative models were fitted. In the indirect relation model, STM was hypothesized to be indirectly related to word reading via metalinguistic awareness and RAN...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758526/examining-predictive-validity-of-oral-reading-fluency-slope-in-upper-elementary-grades-using-quantile-regression
#3
Eunsoo Cho, Philp Capin, Greg Roberts, Sharon Vaughn
Within multitiered instructional delivery models, progress monitoring is a key mechanism for determining whether a child demonstrates an adequate response to instruction. One measure commonly used to monitor the reading progress of students is oral reading fluency (ORF). This study examined the extent to which ORF slope predicts reading comprehension outcomes for fifth-grade struggling readers ( n = 102) participating in an intensive reading intervention. Quantile regression models showed that ORF slope significantly predicted performance on a sentence-level fluency and comprehension assessment, regardless of the students' reading skills, controlling for initial ORF performance...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748729/a-categorical-content-analysis-of-highly-cited-literature-related-to-trends-and-issues-in-special-education
#4
Sarah V Arden, Jill M Pentimonti, Rochana Cooray, Stephanie Jackson
This investigation employs categorical content analysis processes as a mechanism to examine trends and issues in a sampling of highly cited (100+) literature in special education journals. The authors had two goals: (a) broadly identifying trends across publication type, content area, and methodology and (b) specifically identifying articles with disaggregated outcomes for students with learning disabilities (LD). Content analyses were conducted across highly cited (100+) articles published during a 20-year period (1992-2013) in a sample ( n = 3) of journals focused primarily on LD, and in one broad, cross-categorical journal recognized for its impact in the field...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730931/a-reading-model-from-the-perspective-of-japanese-orthography-connectionist-approach-to-the-hypothesis-of-granularity-and-transparency
#5
Mutsuo Ijuin, Taeko N Wydell
This study presents a computer simulation model of reading in Japanese syllabic kana and morphographic kanji. The model was based on the simulation model developed by Harm and Seidenberg for reading in English. The purpose of building the current model was to verify the validity of the hypothesis of granularity and transparency (HGT) postulated by Wydell and Butterworth, focusing on the granularity dimension. The HGT was developed in order to explain the behavioral dissociation between excellent reading skills in Japanese and poor reading skills in English of an English-Japanese bilingual individual as well as the relatively low incidence of developmental dyslexia in Japan...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720028/growth-of-word-and-pseudoword-reading-efficiency-in-alphabetic-orthographies-impact-of-consistency
#6
Markéta Caravolas
Word and pseudoword reading are related abilities fundamental to reading development in alphabetic orthographies. They are respectively assumed to index children's orthographic representations of words, which are in turn acquired through the underlying "self-teaching mechanism" of alphabetic pseudoword decoding. Little is known about concurrent growth trajectories of these skills in the early grades among children learning different alphabetic orthographies. In the present study, between- and within-group latent growth models of word and pseudoword reading efficiency were tested on data spanning Grades 1 and 2 from learners of the inconsistent English and consistent Czech and Slovak orthographies...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720026/models-of-reading-in-different-orthographies-an-introduction
#7
R Malatesha Joshi, Peggy McCardle
The authors provide a summary of the articles in the special series on reading development in different orthographies from various writing systems and scripts.
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720016/first-grade-cognitive-predictors-of-writing-disabilities-in-grades-2-through-4-elementary-school-students
#8
Lara-Jeane Costa, Melissa Green, John Sideris, Stephen R Hooper
The primary aim of this study was determining Grade 1 cognitive predictors of students at risk for writing disabilities in Grades 2 through 4. Applying cognitive measures selected to align with theoretical and empirical models of writing, tasks were administered to Grade 1 students assessing fine-motor, linguistic, and executive functions: 84 at risk (bottom quartile for age-base expectations) and 54 typically developing. A model with individual predictors was compared to a previously developed latent trait model to determine the relative predictive worth of each approach...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715927/mawrid-a-model-of-arabic-word-reading-in-development
#9
Elinor Saiegh-Haddad
This article offers a model of Arabic word reading according to which three conspicuous features of the Arabic language and orthography shape the development of word reading in this language: (a) vowelization/vocalization, or the use of diacritical marks to represent short vowels and other features of articulation; (b) morphological structure, namely, the predominance and transparency of derivational morphological structure in the linguistic and orthographic representation of the Arabic word; and (c) diglossia, specifically, the lexical and lexico-phonological distance between the spoken and the standard forms of Arabic words...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707504/behavioral-executive-functions-among-adolescents-with-mathematics-difficulties
#10
Marja E Holm, Pirjo Aunio, Piia M Björn, Liisa Klenberg, Johan Korhonen, Markku S Hannula
This study investigates behavioral executive functions (EFs) in the mathematics classroom context among adolescents with different mathematics performance levels. The EF problems were assessed by teachers using a behavioral rating inventory. Using cutoff scores on a standardized mathematics assessment, groups with mathematics difficulties (MD; n = 124), low mathematics performance (LA; n = 140), and average or higher scores (AC; n = 355) were identified. Results showed that the MD group had more problems with distractibility, directing attention, shifting attention, initiative, execution of action, planning, and evaluation than the LA group, whereas the differences in hyperactivity, impulsivity, and sustaining attention were not significant...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693370/toward-a-graded-psycholexical-space-mapping-model-sublexical-and-lexical-representations-in-chinese-character-reading-development
#11
Xiuli Tong, Catherine McBride
Following a review of contemporary models of word-level processing for reading and their limitations, we propose a new hypothetical model of Chinese character reading, namely, the graded lexical space mapping model that characterizes how sublexical radicals and lexical information are involved in Chinese character reading development. The underlying assumption of this model is that Chinese character recognition is a process of competitive mappings of phonology, semantics, and orthography in both lexical and sublexical systems, operating as functions of statistical properties of print input based on the individual's specific level of reading...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693368/what-reading-disability-evidence-for-multiple-latent-profiles-of-struggling-readers-in-a-large-russian-sibpair-sample-with-at-least-one-sibling-at-risk-for-reading-difficulties
#12
Sergey A Kornilov, Elena L Grigorenko
In this study, we performed a latent profile analysis of reading and related skills in a large ( n = 733) sibpair sample of Russian readers at risk for reading difficulties. The analysis suggested the presence of seven latent profiles, of which two were characterized by relatively high performance on measures of spelling and reading comprehension and the remaining five included severely as well as moderately affected readers with deficits in the domains of phonological, orthographic, and morphological processing...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685668/investigating-the-asymmetrical-roles-of-syllabic-and-phonemic-awareness-in-akshara-processing
#13
Pooja R Nakamura, R Malatesha Joshi, Xuejun Ryan Ji
In this study, we examine the relative contributions of syllabic awareness, phonemic awareness, and oral vocabulary knowledge in early akshara reading ability from Grades 1 through 5. The performance of 488 students in two states of South India, Karnataka (Kannada language) and Andhra Pradesh (Telugu language), was measured. Results from a commonality analysis indicate that there was an increasing independent contribution of syllabic awareness to Kannada and Telugu decoding through the five grades, but the unique contribution of phonemic awareness steadily declined through the five grades, as it became subsumed within syllabic awareness...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608655/working-memory-load-and-reminder-effect-on-event-based-prospective-memory-of-high-and-low-achieving-students-in-math
#14
Youzhen Chen, Rong Lian, Lixian Yang, Jianrong Liu, Yingfang Meng
The effects of working memory (WM) demand and reminders on an event-based prospective memory (PM) task were compared between students with low and high achievement in math. WM load (1- and 2-back tasks) was manipulated as a within-subject factor and reminder (with or without reminder) as a between-subject factor. Results showed that high-achieving students outperformed low-achieving students on all PM and n-back tasks. Use of a reminder improved PM performance and thus reduced prospective interference; the performance of ongoing tasks also improved for all students...
September 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164994/writing-disabilities-in-spanish-speaking-children-introduction-to-the-special-series
#15
Juan E Jiménez
This special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities focuses on studies of writing disabilities in Spanish-speaking children. The World Health Organization (2001) included writing difficulties as one of the problems considered to constitute an impediment to school participation, a significant element in the normal developmental process of the child. In this introduction, I describe the background of a larger project promoted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)...
September 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27107011/spelling-errors-of-dyslexic-children-in-bosnian-language-with-transparent-orthography
#16
Mirela Duranović
The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of spelling errors made by children with dyslexia in Bosnian language with transparent orthography. Three main error categories were distinguished: phonological, orthographic, and grammatical errors. An analysis of error type showed 86% of phonological errors,10% of orthographic errors, and 4% of grammatical errors. Furthermore, the majority errors were the omissions and substitutions, followed by the insertions, omission of rules of assimilation by voicing, and errors with utilization of suffix...
September 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27098226/instructional-practices-for-spelling-by-spanish-speaking-children-with-and-without-learning-disabilities-in-early-grades
#17
Remedios Guzmán, Isabel O'Shanahan, Juan Camacho
The main objectives of this study were to examine the type of adaptations made by Grades 1 through 3 primary school teachers working with children who are poor spellers of a transparent language such as Spanish and to analyze whether these adaptations were determined by the grade taught by these teachers. Using the total population of primary school classroom teachers in the Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands as a base, the authors took a random sample that was stratified by level, resulting in a representative sample of 300 teachers...
September 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27094364/alphabet-writing-and-allograph-selection-as-predictors-of-spelling-in-sentences-written-by-spanish-speaking-children-who-are-poor-or-good-keyboarders
#18
Christian Peake, Alicia Diaz, Ceferino Artiles
This study examined the relationship and degree of predictability that the fluency of writing the alphabet from memory and the selection of allographs have on measures of fluency and accuracy of spelling in a free-writing sentence task when keyboarding. The Test Estandarizado para la Evaluación de la Escritura con Teclado ("Spanish Keyboarding Writing Test"; Jiménez, 2012) was used as the assessment tool. A sample of 986 children from Grades 1 through 3 were classified according to transcription skills measured by keyboard ability (poor vs...
September 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27091147/handwriting-development-in-spanish-children-with-and-without-learning-disabilities-a-graphonomic-approach
#19
Pablo Barrientos
The central purpose of this study was to analyze the dynamics of handwriting movements in real time for Spanish students in early grades with and without learning disabilities. The sample consisted of 120 children from Grades 1 through 3 (primary education), classified into two groups: with learning disabilities and without learning disabilities. The Early Grade Writing Assessment tasks selected for this purpose were writing the alphabet in order from memory, alphabet copying in cursive and manuscript, and allograph selection...
September 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27067940/fluency-and-accuracy-in-alphabet-writing-by-keyboarding-a-cross-sectional-study-in-spanish-speaking-children-with-and-without-learning-disabilities
#20
Elaine Bisschop, Celia Morales, Verónica Gil, Elizabeth Jiménez-Suárez
The aim of this study was to analyze whether children with and without difficulties in handwriting, spelling, or both differed in alphabet writing when using a keyboard. The total sample consisted of 1,333 children from Grades 1 through 3. Scores on the spelling and handwriting factors from the Early Grade Writing Assessment (Jiménez, in press) were used to assign the participants to one of four groups with different ability patterns: poor handwriters, poor spellers, a mixed group, and typically achieving students...
September 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
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