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Journal of Learning Disabilities

Peng Peng, Douglas Fuchs, Lynn S Fuchs, Amy M Elleman, Devin M Kearns, Jennifer K Gilbert, Donald L Compton, Eunsoo Cho, Samuel Patton
This study explored the developmental trajectories and predictors of word reading and reading comprehension among young at-risk readers. In fall of first grade, 185 students identified as at-risk for reading difficulties were assessed on measures of domain-specific skills (phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and vocabulary), domain-general skills (working memory, nonverbal reasoning, and processing speed), and word reading and reading comprehension. Word reading and reading comprehension were assessed again in spring of grades 1-4...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Jeanne Wanzek, Elizabeth A Stevens, Kelly J Williams, Nancy Scammacca, Sharon Vaughn, Katherine Sargent
Many students at risk for or identified with reading disabilities need intensive reading interventions. This meta-analysis provides an update to the Wanzek and Vaughn synthesis on intensive early reading interventions. Effects from 25 reading intervention studies are analyzed to examine the overall effect of intensive early reading interventions as well as relationships between intervention and student characteristics related to outcomes. The weighted mean effect size (ES) estimate (ES = 0.39), with a mean effect size adjusted for publication bias (ES = 0...
November 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Eunsoo Cho, Philip Capin, Greg Roberts, Sharon Vaughn
Within multitiered instructional delivery models, progress monitoring is a key mechanism for determining whether a child demonstrates an adequate response to instruction. One measure commonly used to monitor the reading progress of students is oral reading fluency (ORF). This study examined the extent to which ORF slope predicts reading comprehension outcomes for fifth-grade struggling readers ( n = 102) participating in an intensive reading intervention. Quantile regression models showed that ORF slope significantly predicted performance on a sentence-level fluency and comprehension assessment, regardless of the students' reading skills, controlling for initial ORF performance...
November 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Katherine J Alcock, Damaris S Ngorosho, Matthew C H Jukes
Literacy levels in Africa are low, and school instruction outcomes are not promising. Africa also has a disproportionate number of unschooled children. Phonological awareness (PA), especially phoneme awareness, is critically associated with literacy, but there is little evidence about whether PA is gained through literacy, schooling, or both, because most children studied are in education and can read at least letters. Our previous study of PA and reading in children in and out of school in Tanzania found that PA was associated with reading ability, not schooling or age, and many unschooled children learned to read...
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Young-Suk Grace Kim, Jeung-Ryeul Cho, Soon-Gil Park
We examined the relations of short-term memory (STM), metalinguistic awareness (phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness), and rapid automatized naming (RAN) to word reading in Korean, a language with a relatively transparent orthography. STM, metalinguistic awareness, and RAN have been shown to be important to word reading, but the nature of the relations of STM, metalinguistic awareness, and RAN to word reading has rarely been investigated. Two alternative models were fitted. In the indirect relation model, STM was hypothesized to be indirectly related to word reading via metalinguistic awareness and RAN...
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Mutsuo Ijuin, Taeko N Wydell
This study presents a computer simulation model of reading in Japanese syllabic kana and morphographic kanji. The model was based on the simulation model developed by Harm and Seidenberg for reading in English. The purpose of building the current model was to verify the validity of the hypothesis of granularity and transparency (HGT) postulated by Wydell and Butterworth, focusing on the granularity dimension. The HGT was developed in order to explain the behavioral dissociation between excellent reading skills in Japanese and poor reading skills in English of an English-Japanese bilingual individual as well as the relatively low incidence of developmental dyslexia in Japan...
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Mark├ęta Caravolas
Word and pseudoword reading are related abilities fundamental to reading development in alphabetic orthographies. They are respectively assumed to index children's orthographic representations of words, which are in turn acquired through the underlying "self-teaching mechanism" of alphabetic pseudoword decoding. Little is known about concurrent growth trajectories of these skills in the early grades among children learning different alphabetic orthographies. In the present study, between- and within-group latent growth models of word and pseudoword reading efficiency were tested on data spanning Grades 1 and 2 from learners of the inconsistent English and consistent Czech and Slovak orthographies...
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
R Malatesha Joshi, Peggy McCardle
The authors provide a summary of the articles in the special series on reading development in different orthographies from various writing systems and scripts.
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Elinor Saiegh-Haddad
This article offers a model of Arabic word reading according to which three conspicuous features of the Arabic language and orthography shape the development of word reading in this language: (a) vowelization/vocalization, or the use of diacritical marks to represent short vowels and other features of articulation; (b) morphological structure, namely, the predominance and transparency of derivational morphological structure in the linguistic and orthographic representation of the Arabic word; and (c) diglossia, specifically, the lexical and lexico-phonological distance between the spoken and the standard forms of Arabic words...
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
David L Share, Amalia Bar-On
We introduce a model of Hebrew reading development that emphasizes both the universal and script-specific aspects of learning to read a Semitic abjad. At the universal level, the study of Hebrew reading acquisition offers valuable insights into the fundamental dilemmas of all writing systems-balancing the competing needs of the novice versus the expert reader (Share, 2008). At the script-specific level, pointed Hebrew initially employs supplementary vowel signs, providing the beginning reader a consistent, phonologically well-specified script while helping the expert-to-be unitize words and morphemes via (consonantal) spelling constancy...
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Xiuli Tong, Catherine McBride
Following a review of contemporary models of word-level processing for reading and their limitations, we propose a new hypothetical model of Chinese character reading, namely, the graded lexical space mapping model that characterizes how sublexical radicals and lexical information are involved in Chinese character reading development. The underlying assumption of this model is that Chinese character recognition is a process of competitive mappings of phonology, semantics, and orthography in both lexical and sublexical systems, operating as functions of statistical properties of print input based on the individual's specific level of reading...
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Sergey A Kornilov, Elena L Grigorenko
In this study, we performed a latent profile analysis of reading and related skills in a large ( n = 733) sibpair sample of Russian readers at risk for reading difficulties. The analysis suggested the presence of seven latent profiles, of which two were characterized by relatively high performance on measures of spelling and reading comprehension and the remaining five included severely as well as moderately affected readers with deficits in the domains of phonological, orthographic, and morphological processing...
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Pooja R Nakamura, R Malatesha Joshi, Xuejun Ryan Ji
In this study, we examine the relative contributions of syllabic awareness, phonemic awareness, and oral vocabulary knowledge in early akshara reading ability from Grades 1 through 5. The performance of 488 students in two states of South India, Karnataka (Kannada language) and Andhra Pradesh (Telugu language), was measured. Results from a commonality analysis indicate that there was an increasing independent contribution of syllabic awareness to Kannada and Telugu decoding through the five grades, but the unique contribution of phonemic awareness steadily declined through the five grades, as it became subsumed within syllabic awareness...
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Xiaoying Chen, Maolin Ye, Lei Chang, Weigang Chen, Renlai Zhou
Working memory (WM) deficiency is a primary reason for the poor academic performance of children with learning disabilities (LDs). Studies have shown that the WM of typical children could be improved through training, and WM training contributes to improving their fluid intelligence and academic achievement. However, few studies have investigated WM training for children with LDs, and results have been inconsistent. The present study examined the long-term effects of WM updating training and whether it can mitigate LD symptoms...
September 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Michelle Giusto, Linnea C Ehri
This experiment examined whether a partial read-aloud accommodation with pacing (PRAP) would improve the reading comprehension of poor decoders but not average decoders compared to standard testing procedures. Participants were 82 third graders with at least average listening comprehension skills: 28 were poor decoders, and 54 were average decoders; mean age 8 years, 9 months (8:9). In the PRAP condition, students' were paced through the Gates MacGinitie reading comprehension test. The examiner read aloud only directions, proper nouns, and questions with multiple choice answers while students read the passages independently...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
(no author information available yet)
Erbeli, F., Hart, S. A., & Taylor, J. (2018). Genetic and environmental influences on achievement outcomes based on family history of learning disabilities status. Journal of Learning Disabilites. Advance online publication. (Original doi: 10.1177/0022219418775116 ) In the version of this article originally published OnlineFirst, an error was made in the coding of missing data for math fluency. The mistake is limited to the math fluency measure only (a miscode of the data resulted in missing data being set to 0), and is limited to the specific numbers reported for the math achievement measure...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Christian T Doabler, Ben Clarke, Derek Kosty, Evangeline Kurtz-Nelson, Hank Fien, Keith Smolkowski, Scott K Baker
Group size and treatment intensity are understudied topics in mathematics intervention research. This study examined whether the treatment intensity and overall intervention effects of an empirically validated Tier 2 mathematics intervention varied between intervention groups with 2:1 and 5:1 student-teacher ratios. Student practice opportunities and the quality of explicit instruction served as treatment intensity metrics. A total of 465 kindergarten students with mathematics difficulties from 136 intervention groups participated...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Trelani F Milburn, Christopher J Lonigan, Beth M Phillips
The current study investigated the stability of children's risk status across the preschool year. A total of 1,102 preschool children attending Title 1 schools ( n = 631) and non-Title 1 schools ( n = 471) participated in this study. Using averaged standard scores for two measures of language, print knowledge, and phonological awareness administered at the beginning of preschool (Time 1) and midyear (Time 2), children were classified as at-risk or not at each time point. Prevalence rates were determined for four categories of risk status: (1) always at risk, (2) only at risk at Time 1, (3) never at risk, and (4) only at risk at Time 2...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Enrico Toffalini, Mara Marsura, Ricardo Basso Garcia, Cesare Cornoldi
Successful reading demands the ability to combine visual-phonological information into a single representation and is associated with an efficient short-term memory. Reading disability may consequently involve an impaired working memory binding of visual and phonological information. The present study proposes two span tasks for assessing visual-phonological working memory binding. The tasks involved memorizing cross-modal associations between nonsense figures and nonwords, and they were administered, with other working memory measures, to children with and without a reading disability...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Lara-Jeane Costa, Melissa Green, John Sideris, Stephen R Hooper
The primary aim of this study was determining Grade 1 cognitive predictors of students at risk for writing disabilities in Grades 2 through 4. Applying cognitive measures selected to align with theoretical and empirical models of writing, tasks were administered to Grade 1 students assessing fine-motor, linguistic, and executive functions: 84 at risk (bottom quartile for age-base expectations) and 54 typically developing. A model with individual predictors was compared to a previously developed latent trait model to determine the relative predictive worth of each approach...
July 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
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