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Journal of Learning Disabilities

Bobbie Jean Koen, Jacqueline Hawkins, Xi Zhu, Ben Jansen, Weihua Fan, Sharon Johnson
Fluency is used as an indicator of reading proficiency. Many students with reading disabilities are unable to benefit from typical interventions. This study is designed to replicate Lorusso, Facoetti, Paganoni, Pezzani, and Molteni's (2006) work using FlashWord, a computer program that tachistoscopically presents words in the right or left visual hemi-field in English and locates through fMRI imaging the processing areas involved in fluency development. Our participants were 15 students who were ages 8 to 19 years and had reading disabilities randomly assigned to Intervention ( n = 9) and Delayed Intervention ( n = 6) groups...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
David L Coker, Young-Suk Grace Kim
In this introduction to the special issue "Critical Issues in the Understanding of Young Elementary School Students at Risk for Problems in Written Expression," we consider some of the contextual factors that have changed since a similar special issue was published in the Journal of Learning Disabilities in 2002. We also explore how the five articles included in this special issue address the following important themes: early writing development, identification of students with writing difficulties, and effective interventions for struggling writers...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Kristen L McMaster, Amy Kunkel, Jaehyun Shin, Pyung-Gang Jung, Erica Lembke
The purpose of this best evidence synthesis was to identify promising interventions that align with a theoretical model of early writing development, targeting three components of early writing: transcription, text generation, and self-regulation. We determined the extent to which these interventions are effective for children who struggle with early writing skills, by calculating effect sizes for group and single-subject designs, and we examined the overall quality of the research. Twenty-five studies met inclusion criteria...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
David L Coker, Kristen D Ritchey, Ximena Uribe-Zarain, Austin S Jennings
To help all students meet the writing expectations of the Common Core State Standards, researchers need a deeper understanding of the characteristics of struggling writers. The purpose of this study was to explore the writing profiles of students including those who have or are at risk for writing disabilities. First-grade students ( N = 391) were assessed at the end of the school year using three writing assessments (spelling, sentence writing fluency, writing achievement). The researchers used latent profile analysis to identify students as fitting into one of five profiles (At Risk, Low Fluency, Low Writing, Average, and Above Average)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Teresa Limpo, Rui A Alves
Writing proficiency is heavily based on acquisition and development of self-regulation and transcription skills. The present study examined the effects of combining transcription training with a self-regulation intervention (self-regulated strategy development [SRSD]) in Grade 2 (ages 7-8). Forty-three students receiving self-regulation plus transcription (SRSD+TR) intervention were compared with 37 students receiving a self-regulation only (SRSD only) intervention and 39 students receiving the standard language arts curriculum...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Lisa van der Sande, Marloes M H G Hendrickx, Henrike J Boor-Klip, Tim Mainhard
Although many studies have found that children with learning disabilities (LD) are less liked by peers than children without LD, the results are not unequivocal. In the present study, we investigated the social status (in terms of likeability and popularity) of children with LD by considering peer academic reputation and peer reputation of teacher liking. These variables are potentially important alternative factors for differences in social status between children with and without LD. Fifth-grade students ( n = 1,453; Mage = 10...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Eddy Cavalli, Pascale Colé, Gilles Leloup, Florence Poracchia-George, Liliane Sprenger-Charolles, Abdessadek El Ahmadi
Developmental dyslexia is a lifelong impairment affecting 5% to 10% of the population. In French-speaking countries, although a number of standardized tests for dyslexia in children are available, tools suitable to screen for dyslexia in adults are lacking. In this study, we administered the Alouette reading test to a normative sample of 164 French university students without dyslexia and a validation sample of 83 students with dyslexia. The Alouette reading test is designed to screen for dyslexia in children, since it taps skills that are typically deficient in dyslexia (i...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Alyson A Collins, Esther R Lindström, Donald L Compton
Researchers have increasingly investigated sources of variance in reading comprehension test scores, particularly with students with reading difficulties (RD). The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine if the achievement gap between students with RD and typically developing (TD) students varies as a function of different reading comprehension response formats (e.g., multiple choice, cloze). A systematic literature review identified 82 eligible studies. All studies administered reading comprehension assessments to students with RD and TD students in Grades K-12...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Krisztina Tárnokiné Törő, Mónika Miklósi, Eszter Horanyi, Gábor Pers Kovács, Judit Balázs
Several studies have reported high comorbidity for reading disability (RD) and psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the comorbidity of subthreshold and full psychiatric disorders with RD while comparing subgroups based on age of RD recognition (early vs. late). We analyzed data from 130 children with RD and 82 typically developing children aged 7 to 18 years. RD was assessed with the Dyslexia Differential Diagnosis Maastricht-Hungarian Standard Test. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Kid...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Richard L Sparks, Julie Luebbers
Conventional wisdom suggests that students classified as learning disabled will exhibit difficulties with foreign language (FL) learning, but evidence has not supported a relationship between FL learning problems and learning disabilities. The simple view of reading model posits that reading comprehension is the product of word decoding and language comprehension and that there are good readers and 3 types of poor readers-dyslexic, hyperlexic, and garden variety-who exhibit different profiles of strengths and/or deficits in word decoding and language comprehension...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Asha K Jitendra, Michael R Harwell, Danielle N Dupuis, Stacy R Karl
This article reports results from a study investigating the efficacy of a proportional problem-solving intervention, schema-based instruction (SBI), in seventh grade. Participants included 806 students with mathematical difficulties in problem solving (MD-PS) from an initial pool of 1,999 seventh grade students in a larger study. Teachers and their students in the larger study were randomly assigned to an SBI or control condition and teachers in both conditions then provided instruction on the topics of ratio, proportion, and percent...
May 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Amelia S Malone, Lynn S Fuchs
The three purposes of this study were to (a) describe fraction ordering errors among at-risk fourth grade students, (b) assess the effect of part-whole understanding and accuracy of fraction magnitude estimation on the probability of committing errors, and (c) examine the effect of students' ability to explain comparing problems on the probability of committing errors. Students ( N = 227) completed a nine-item ordering test. A high proportion (81%) of problems were completed incorrectly. Most (65%) errors were due to students misapplying whole number logic to fractions...
May 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Shira Blicher, Liat Feingold, Michal Shany
This study investigated the relationship between reading comprehension (RC), trait anxiety, and preoccupation with reading disability (RD) in 88 school children in Grades 3 through 5 and in their mothers. Children's trait anxiety had a significant direct negative relationship with RC and also mediated the association between preoccupation with RD and RC. Mothers' preoccupation with their children's RDs had a direct negative association with their children's RC. This association was also mediated through children's trait anxiety...
May 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Julia Raddatz, Jörg-Tobias Kuhn, Heinz Holling, Kristina Moll, Christian Dobel
The aim of the present study was to investigate the cognitive profiles of primary school children (age 82-133 months) on a battery of basic number processing and calculation tasks. The sample consisted of four groups matched for age and IQ: arithmetic disorder only (AD; n = 20), reading disorder only (RD; n = 40), a comorbid group ( n = 27), and an unimpaired control group ( n = 40). Multiple 2 (RD vs. No RD) × 2 (AD vs. No AD) factorial ANCOVAs showed that children with RD had selective impairments in counting and number transcoding efficiency...
May 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Noor Z Al Dahhan, John R Kirby, Donald C Brien, Douglas P Munoz
Naming speed (NS) refers to how quickly and accurately participants name a set of familiar stimuli (e.g., letters). NS is an established predictor of reading ability, but controversy remains over why it is related to reading. We used three techniques (stimulus manipulations to emphasize phonological and/or visual aspects, decomposition of NS times into pause and articulation components, and analysis of eye movements during task performance) with three groups of participants (children with dyslexia, ages 9-10; chronological-age [CA] controls, ages 9-10; reading-level [RL] controls, ages 6-7) to examine NS and the NS-reading relationship...
May 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Joseph J Stevens, Ann C Schulte
This study examined mathematics achievement growth of students without disabilities (SWoD) and students with learning disabilities (LD) and tested whether growth and LD status interacted with student demographic characteristics. Growth was estimated in a statewide sample of 79,554 students over Grades 3 to 7. The LD group was significantly lower in achievement in each grade and had less growth than the SWoD group. We also found that student demographic characteristics were significantly related to mathematics growth, but only three demographic characteristics were statistically significant as interactions...
May 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Kelly J Williams, Melodee A Walker, Sharon Vaughn, Jeanne Wanzek
Spelling is one of the most challenging areas for students with learning disabilities (LD), and improving spelling outcomes for these students is of high importance. In this synthesis, we examined the effects of spelling and reading interventions on spelling outcomes for students with LD in Grades K through 12. A systematic search of peer-reviewed literature published between 2004 and 2014 was conducted using electronic databases and hand searches of relevant journals. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to meet the following criteria: (a) Participants were identified with LD and were in Grades K through 12, (b) designs were either treatment/comparison or single case, (c) a reading or spelling intervention was implemented, (d) at least one spelling outcome was measured, and (e) instruction was in English...
May 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
F Sayako Earle, Erica L Gallinat, Bernard G Grela, Alexa Lehto, Tammie J Spaulding
This study determined the effect of matching children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their peers with typical development (TD) for nonverbal IQ on the IQ test scores of the resultant groups. Studies published between January 2000 and May 2012 reporting standard nonverbal IQ scores for SLI and age-matched TD controls were categorized into those that matched and did not match children with SLI and TD on nonverbal IQ. We then compared the nonverbal IQ scores across matching criterions within each diagnostic category...
May 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
George J DuPaul, Trevor D Pinho, Brittany L Pollack, Matthew J Gormley, Seth D Laracy
Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or learning disabilities (LD) experience significant challenges in making the transition from high school to college. This study examined the ways first-year college students with ADHD, LD, ADHD+LD, and comparison peers differ in engagement, core self-evaluation, high school preparation behaviors, and goals/expectations. Participants were from the 2010 Cooperative Institutional Research Program Freshman Survey, including students with ADHD ( n = 5,511), LD ( n = 2,626), ADHD+LD ( n = 1,399), or neither disability ( n = 5,737)...
May 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Anna S Gellert, Carsten Elbro
A few studies have indicated that dynamic measures of phonological awareness may contribute uniquely to the prediction of early reading development. However, standard control measures have been few and limited by floor effects, thus limiting their predictive value. The purpose of the present study was to examine the predictive value of a dynamic test of phonological awareness while controlling for both letter knowledge and standard phonological awareness using measures with no floor effect. We administered a dynamic test of phonological awareness along with traditional tests of phonological awareness and letter knowledge to 160 children in the fall of kindergarten...
May 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
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