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Journal of Learning Disabilities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985098/a-cross-modal-working-memory-binding-span-deficit-in-reading-disability
#1
Enrico Toffalini, Mara Marsura, Ricardo Basso Garcia, Cesare Cornoldi
Successful reading demands the ability to combine visual-phonological information into a single representation and is associated with an efficient short-term memory. Reading disability may consequently involve an impaired working memory binding of visual and phonological information. The present study proposes two span tasks for assessing visual-phonological working memory binding. The tasks involved memorizing cross-modal associations between nonsense figures and nonwords, and they were administered, with other working memory measures, to children with and without a reading disability...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938599/representational-bias-in-the-radial-axis-in-children-with-dyslexia-a-landmarks-alignment-study
#2
Carine Michel, Patrick Quercia, Lise Joubert
To better identify the distinctive characteristics of space representation in the radial dimension, we have proposed a new paradigm: the landmarks alignment task where two parallel aluminum bars were radially presented. Children had to move a landmark along one bar and place it at the same location as the reference landmark placed by the examiner on the parallel bar. The major interest of this task was its capacity to assess space representation in the radial dimension when considering a spatial landmark that oriented the subject's attention toward the orthogonal dimension...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924672/corrigendum
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860921/quality-of-life-in-children-and-adolescents-with-learning-problems-development-and-validation-of-the-ld-qol15-scale
#4
Deborah P Waber, Ellen C Boiselle, Peter W Forbes, Jonathan M Girard, Georgios D Sideridis
Learning problems (LP) can have wider implications than the academic deficits per se. The goal of the present series of studies was to develop a reliable and valid quality-of-life measure targeted to children and adolescents with LP. In Study 1, using a 35-item questionnaire, we surveyed 151 parents/guardians of children referred for assessment of learning disorders. Exploratory factor analysis identified a three-factor model: Academic Performance, School Understanding, and Child/Family Psychological. These factors were validated against standardized measures of academic achievement and psychosocial functioning...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29809096/quality-of-explanation-as-an-indicator-of-fraction-magnitude-understanding
#5
Lindsay Foreman-Murray, Lynn S Fuchs
Students' explanations of their mathematical thinking and conclusions have become a greater part of the assessment landscape in recent years. With a sample of 71 fourth-grade students at risk for mathematics learning disabilities, we investigated the relation between student accuracy in comparing the magnitude of fractions and the quality of students' explanations of those comparisons, as well as the relation between those measures and scores on a criterion test: released fraction items from the National Assessment of Educational Progress...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792081/efficacy-of-a-word-and-text-based-intervention-for-students-with-significant-reading-difficulties
#6
Sharon Vaughn, Garrett J Roberts, Jeremy Miciak, Pat Taylor, Jack M Fletcher
We examine the efficacy of an intervention to improve word reading and reading comprehension in fourth- and fifth-grade students with significant reading problems. Using a randomized control trial design, we compare the fourth- and fifth-grade reading outcomes of students with severe reading difficulties who were provided a researcher-developed treatment with reading outcomes of students in a business-as-usual (BAU) comparison condition. A total of 280 fourth- and fifth-grade students were randomly assigned within school in a 1:1 ratio to either the BAU comparison condition ( n = 139) or the treatment condition ( n = 141)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790413/specific-language-impairment-and-reading-disability-categorical-distinction-or-continuum
#7
George C Spanoudis, Timothy C Papadopoulos, Spyroula Spyrou
Specific language impairment (SLI) and reading disability (RD) are familial, moderately heritable comorbid developmental disorders. The key deficit of SLI is oral language, whereas children with RD exhibit impairment in learning to read. The present study examines the possible co-occurrence of RD and SLI and the nature of this co-occurrence at a linguistic and a cognitive level in an orthographically consistent language. Four groups of children participated in the study: an RD group ( n = 10), an SLI group ( n = 13), a possible comorbid group ( n = 9), and a control-no deficit group ( n = 20)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790412/career-and-technical-education-inclusion-and-postsecondary-outcomes-for-students-with-learning-disabilities
#8
Roddy J Theobald, Dan D Goldhaber, Trevor M Gratz, Kristian L Holden
We used longitudinal data from Washington State to investigate the relationships among career and technical education (CTE) enrollment, inclusion in general education, and high school and postsecondary outcomes for students with learning disabilities. We replicated earlier findings that students with learning disabilities who were enrolled in a "concentration" of CTE courses had higher rates of employment after graduation than observably similar students with learning disabilities who were enrolled in fewer CTE courses...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790411/genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-achievement-outcomes-based-on-family-history-of-learning-disabilities-status
#9
Florina Erbeli, Sara A Hart, Jeanette Taylor
A risk to develop a learning disability has been shown to run in families. Having a positive family history of learning disability seems to account for mean differences in achievement outcomes (reading, math) in that children with a positive family history score significantly lower compared to their peers with no such family history. However, the role of family history status in explaining etiological (genetic and environmental) differences among these subgroups of children has yet to be established. The present study of 872 twins ( Mage = 13...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779435/class-percentage-of-students-with-reading-difficulties-on-content-knowledge-and-comprehension
#10
Sharon Vaughn, Anna-Mária Fall, Greg Roberts, Jeanne Wanzek, Elizabeth Swanson, Leticia R Martinez
We examined the efficacy of a content acquisition and reading comprehension intervention implemented in eighth-grade social studies classrooms. Using a within-teacher randomized control design, 18 eighth-grade teachers' social studies classes were randomly assigned to a treatment or comparison condition. Teachers taught all their classes (treatment and comparison) using the same content; however, in the treatment classes, teachers used instructional practices that included comprehension canopy, essential words, knowledge acquisition, and team-based learning...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779434/a-cognitive-dimensional-approach-to-understanding-shared-and-unique-contributions-to-reading-math-and-attention-skills
#11
Amanda E Child, Paul T Cirino, Jack M Fletcher, Erik G Willcutt, Lynn S Fuchs
Disorders of reading, math, and attention frequently co-occur in children. However, it is not yet clear which cognitive factors contribute to comorbidities among multiple disorders and which uniquely relate to one, especially because they have rarely been studied as a triad. Thus, the present study considers how reading, math, and attention relate to phonological awareness, numerosity, working memory, and processing speed, all implicated as either unique or shared correlates of these disorders. In response to findings that the attributes of all three disorders exist on a continuum rather than representing qualitatively different groups, this study employed a dimensional approach...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779424/current-evidence-on-the-effects-of-intensive-early-reading-interventions
#12
Jeanne Wanzek, Elizabeth A Stevens, Kelly J Williams, Nancy Scammacca, Sharon Vaughn, Katherine Sargent
Many students at risk for or identified with reading disabilities need intensive reading interventions. This meta-analysis provides an update to the Wanzek and Vaughn synthesis on intensive early reading interventions. Effects from 25 reading intervention studies are analyzed to examine the overall effect of intensive early reading interventions as well as relationships between intervention and student characteristics related to outcomes. The weighted mean effect size (ES) estimate (ES = 0.39), with a mean effect size adjusted for publication bias (ES = 0...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774806/associations-between-childhood-learning-disabilities-and-adult-age-mental-health-problems-lack-of-education-and-unemployment
#13
Tuija Aro, Kenneth Eklund, Anna-Kaija Eloranta, Vesa Närhi, Elisa Korhonen, Timo Ahonen
We studied the impact of diverse subtypes of learning disabilities (LD) on adult-age mental health, education, and employment by comparing the LD group ( n = 430) with a matched control group without a known history of LD ( n = 2,149). The clinical archived data were merged with lifelong register data on sickness allowances/disability pensions granted on the basis of psychiatric illnesses, reimbursements for psychoactive medication, having a degree after compulsory education, and having received unemployment allowances...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771185/can-the-relationship-between-rapid-automatized-naming-and-word-reading-be-explained-by-a-catastrophe-empirical-evidence-from-students-with-and-without-reading-difficulties
#14
Georgios D Sideridis, Panagiotis Simos, Angeliki Mouzaki, Dimitrios Stamovlasis, George K Georgiou
The purpose of the present study was to explain the moderating role of rapid automatized naming (RAN) in word reading with a cusp catastrophe model. We hypothesized that increases in RAN performance speed beyond a critical point would be associated with the disruption in word reading, consistent with a "generic shutdown" hypothesis. Participants were 587 elementary schoolchildren (Grades 2-4), among whom 87 had reading comprehension difficulties per the IQ-achievement discrepancy criterion. Data were analyzed via a cusp catastrophe model derived from the nonlinear dynamics systems theory...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771184/replication-of-an-experimental-study-investigating-the-efficacy-of-a-multisyllabic-word-reading-intervention-with-and-without-motivational-beliefs-training-for-struggling-readers
#15
Jessica R Toste, Philip Capin, Kelly J Williams, Eunsoo Cho, Sharon Vaughn
This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of an intervention aimed at improving multisyllabic word reading (MWR) skills among fourth- and fifth-grade struggling readers ( n = 109, 48.6% male), as well as the relative effects of an embedded motivational beliefs training component. This study was a closely aligned replication of our earlier work. The intervention was replicated with a three-condition design: MWR only, MWR with a motivational beliefs component, and business-as-usual control. Students were tutored in small groups for 40 lessons (four 40-min lessons each week)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720016/first-grade-cognitive-predictors-of-writing-disabilities-in-grades-2-through-4-elementary-school-students
#16
Lara-Jeane Costa, Melissa Green, John Sideris, Stephen R Hooper
The primary aim of this study was determining Grade 1 cognitive predictors of students at risk for writing disabilities in Grades 2 through 4. Applying cognitive measures selected to align with theoretical and empirical models of writing, tasks were administered to Grade 1 students assessing fine-motor, linguistic, and executive functions: 84 at risk (bottom quartile for age-base expectations) and 54 typically developing. A model with individual predictors was compared to a previously developed latent trait model to determine the relative predictive worth of each approach...
July 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597728/theorization-and-an-empirical-investigation-of-the-component-based-and-developmental-text-writing-fluency-construct
#17
Young-Suk Grace Kim, Brandy Gatlin, Stephanie Al Otaiba, Jeanne Wanzek
We discuss a component-based, developmental view of text writing fluency, which we tested using data from children in Grades 2 and 3. Text writing fluency was defined as efficiency and automaticity in writing connected texts, which acts as a mediator between text generation (oral language), transcription skills, and writing quality. We hypothesized that in the beginning phase, text writing fluency would be largely constrained by transcription skills (spelling and handwriting), while at a later phase, oral language would make an independent contribution to text writing fluency...
July 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539071/the-location-and-effects-of-visual-hemisphere-specific-stimulation-on-reading-fluency-in-children-with-the-characteristics-of-dyslexia
#18
Bobbie Jean Koen, Jacqueline Hawkins, Xi Zhu, Ben Jansen, Weihua Fan, Sharon Johnson
Fluency is used as an indicator of reading proficiency. Many students with reading disabilities are unable to benefit from typical interventions. This study is designed to replicate Lorusso, Facoetti, Paganoni, Pezzani, and Molteni's (2006) work using FlashWord, a computer program that tachistoscopically presents words in the right or left visual hemi-field in English and locates through fMRI imaging the processing areas involved in fluency development. Our participants were 15 students who were ages 8 to 19 years and had reading disabilities randomly assigned to Intervention ( n = 9) and Delayed Intervention ( n = 6) groups...
July 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498735/critical-issues-in-the-understanding-of-young-elementary-school-students-at-risk-for-problems-in-written-expression-introduction-to-the-special-series
#19
David L Coker, Young-Suk Grace Kim
In this introduction to the special series "Critical Issues in the Understanding of Young Elementary School Students at Risk for Problems in Written Expression," we consider some of the contextual factors that have changed since a similar special issue was published in the Journal of Learning Disabilities in 2002. We also explore how the five articles included in this special series address the following important themes: early writing development, identification of students with writing difficulties, and effective interventions for struggling writers...
July 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498732/early-writing-intervention-a-best-evidence-synthesis
#20
Kristen L McMaster, Amy Kunkel, Jaehyun Shin, Pyung-Gang Jung, Erica Lembke
The purpose of this best evidence synthesis was to identify promising interventions that align with a theoretical model of early writing development, targeting three components of early writing: transcription, text generation, and self-regulation. We determined the extent to which these interventions are effective for children who struggle with early writing skills, by calculating effect sizes for group and single-subject designs, and we examined the overall quality of the research. Twenty-five studies met inclusion criteria...
July 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
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