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Journal of Learning Disabilities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792081/efficacy-of-a-word-and-text-based-intervention-for-students-with-significant-reading-difficulties
#1
Sharon Vaughn, Garrett J Roberts, Jeremy Miciak, Pat Taylor, Jack M Fletcher
We examine the efficacy of an intervention to improve word reading and reading comprehension in fourth- and fifth-grade students with significant reading problems. Using a randomized control trial design, we compare the fourth- and fifth-grade reading outcomes of students with severe reading difficulties who were provided a researcher-developed treatment with reading outcomes of students in a business-as-usual (BAU) comparison condition. A total of 280 fourth- and fifth-grade students were randomly assigned within school in a 1:1 ratio to either the BAU comparison condition ( n = 139) or the treatment condition ( n = 141)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790413/specific-language-impairment-and-reading-disability-categorical-distinction-or-continuum
#2
George C Spanoudis, Timothy C Papadopoulos, Spyroula Spyrou
Specific language impairment (SLI) and reading disability (RD) are familial, moderately heritable comorbid developmental disorders. The key deficit of SLI is oral language, whereas children with RD exhibit impairment in learning to read. The present study examines the possible co-occurrence of RD and SLI and the nature of this co-occurrence at a linguistic and a cognitive level in an orthographically consistent language. Four groups of children participated in the study: an RD group ( n = 10), an SLI group ( n = 13), a possible comorbid group ( n = 9), and a control-no deficit group ( n = 20)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790412/career-and-technical-education-inclusion-and-postsecondary-outcomes-for-students-with-learning-disabilities
#3
Roddy J Theobald, Dan D Goldhaber, Trevor M Gratz, Kristian L Holden
We used longitudinal data from Washington State to investigate the relationships among career and technical education (CTE) enrollment, inclusion in general education, and high school and postsecondary outcomes for students with learning disabilities. We replicated earlier findings that students with learning disabilities who were enrolled in a "concentration" of CTE courses had higher rates of employment after graduation than observably similar students with learning disabilities who were enrolled in fewer CTE courses...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790411/genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-achievement-outcomes-based-on-family-history-of-learning-disabilities-status
#4
Florina Erbeli, Sara A Hart, Jeanette Taylor
A risk to develop a learning disability has been shown to run in families. Having a positive family history of learning disability seems to account for mean differences in achievement outcomes (reading, math) in that children with a positive family history score significantly lower compared to their peers with no such family history. However, the role of family history status in explaining etiological (genetic and environmental) differences among these subgroups of children has yet to be established. The present study of 872 twins ( Mage = 13...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779435/class-percentage-of-students-with-reading-difficulties-on-content-knowledge-and-comprehension
#5
Sharon Vaughn, Anna-Mária Fall, Greg Roberts, Jeanne Wanzek, Elizabeth Swanson, Leticia R Martinez
We examined the efficacy of a content acquisition and reading comprehension intervention implemented in eighth-grade social studies classrooms. Using a within-teacher randomized control design, 18 eighth-grade teachers' social studies classes were randomly assigned to a treatment or comparison condition. Teachers taught all their classes (treatment and comparison) using the same content; however, in the treatment classes, teachers used instructional practices that included comprehension canopy, essential words, knowledge acquisition, and team-based learning...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779434/a-cognitive-dimensional-approach-to-understanding-shared-and-unique-contributions-to-reading-math-and-attention-skills
#6
Amanda E Child, Paul T Cirino, Jack M Fletcher, Erik G Willcutt, Lynn S Fuchs
Disorders of reading, math, and attention frequently co-occur in children. However, it is not yet clear which cognitive factors contribute to comorbidities among multiple disorders and which uniquely relate to one, especially because they have rarely been studied as a triad. Thus, the present study considers how reading, math, and attention relate to phonological awareness, numerosity, working memory, and processing speed, all implicated as either unique or shared correlates of these disorders. In response to findings that the attributes of all three disorders exist on a continuum rather than representing qualitatively different groups, this study employed a dimensional approach...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779424/current-evidence-on-the-effects-of-intensive-early-reading-interventions
#7
Jeanne Wanzek, Elizabeth A Stevens, Kelly J Williams, Nancy Scammacca, Sharon Vaughn, Katherine Sargent
Many students at risk for or identified with reading disabilities need intensive reading interventions. This meta-analysis provides an update to the Wanzek and Vaughn synthesis on intensive early reading interventions. Effects from 25 reading intervention studies are analyzed to examine the overall effect of intensive early reading interventions as well as relationships between intervention and student characteristics related to outcomes. The weighted mean effect size (ES) estimate (ES = 0.39), with a mean effect size adjusted for publication bias (ES = 0...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774806/associations-between-childhood-learning-disabilities-and-adult-age-mental-health-problems-lack-of-education-and-unemployment
#8
Tuija Aro, Kenneth Eklund, Anna-Kaija Eloranta, Vesa Närhi, Elisa Korhonen, Timo Ahonen
We studied the impact of diverse subtypes of learning disabilities (LD) on adult-age mental health, education, and employment by comparing the LD group ( n = 430) with a matched control group without a known history of LD ( n = 2,149). The clinical archived data were merged with lifelong register data on sickness allowances/disability pensions granted on the basis of psychiatric illnesses, reimbursements for psychoactive medication, having a degree after compulsory education, and having received unemployment allowances...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771185/can-the-relationship-between-rapid-automatized-naming-and-word-reading-be-explained-by-a-catastrophe-empirical-evidence-from-students-with-and-without-reading-difficulties
#9
Georgios D Sideridis, Panagiotis Simos, Angeliki Mouzaki, Dimitrios Stamovlasis, George K Georgiou
The purpose of the present study was to explain the moderating role of rapid automatized naming (RAN) in word reading with a cusp catastrophe model. We hypothesized that increases in RAN performance speed beyond a critical point would be associated with the disruption in word reading, consistent with a "generic shutdown" hypothesis. Participants were 587 elementary schoolchildren (Grades 2-4), among whom 87 had reading comprehension difficulties per the IQ-achievement discrepancy criterion. Data were analyzed via a cusp catastrophe model derived from the nonlinear dynamics systems theory...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771184/replication-of-an-experimental-study-investigating-the-efficacy-of-a-multisyllabic-word-reading-intervention-with-and-without-motivational-beliefs-training-for-struggling-readers
#10
Jessica R Toste, Philip Capin, Kelly J Williams, Eunsoo Cho, Sharon Vaughn
This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of an intervention aimed at improving multisyllabic word reading (MWR) skills among fourth- and fifth-grade struggling readers ( n = 109, 48.6% male), as well as the relative effects of an embedded motivational beliefs training component. This study was a closely aligned replication of our earlier work. The intervention was replicated with a three-condition design: MWR only, MWR with a motivational beliefs component, and business-as-usual control. Students were tutored in small groups for 40 lessons (four 40-min lessons each week)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537345/difficulties-of-drivers-with-dyslexia-when-reading-traffic-signs-analysis-of-reading-eye-gazes-and-driving-performance
#11
Pilar Tejero, Beatriz Insa, Javier Roca
A group of adult individuals with dyslexia and a matched group of normally reading individuals participated in a driving simulation experiment. Participants were asked to read the word presented on every direction traffic sign encountered along a route, as far as possible from the sign, maintaining driving performance. Word frequency and word length were manipulated as within-subject factors. We analyzed (a) reading accuracy, (b) how far the sign was when the participant started to give the response, (c) where the participant looked during the time leading up to the response, and (d) the variability of the vehicle's speed during that time and during driving on similar segments of the route that did not present the traffic signs...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368546/inaugural-editorial
#12
Stephanie Al Otaiba
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179616/executive-function-variation-in-children-with-conduct-problems-influences-of-coexisting-reading-difficulties
#13
Angeliki Kallitsoglou
It is unknown whether children with conduct problems (CP) and poor reading (PR) skills exhibit more profound executive function impairments than children with CP only and whether such impairments are explained by coexisting PR. Executive functions were compared in four groups of 7- to 8-year-old children: 26 CP only, 35 PR only, 27 CP-PR, and 31 comparison (COM) children with neither CP nor PR. The Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-28 and a sentence completion reading test were used to assess CP and PR skills. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition Backward Digit Span, the Conners' Continuous Performance Test, and the Tower of London were used to assess three aspects of executive function: verbal working memory, response inhibition, and planning, respectively...
March 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179613/reading-fluency-and-students-with-reading-disabilities-how-fast-is-fast-enough-to-promote-reading-comprehension
#14
Rollanda E O'Connor
The goal of improving reading rate and fluency is to positively impact reading comprehension; however, it is unclear how fast students with learning disabilities (LD) need to read to reap this benefit. The purpose of this research was to identify the point of diminishing return for students who were dysfluent readers. Participants included 337 students with reading difficulties in second and fourth grade (61% eligible for special education; 80% with a diagnosis of LD in the area of reading) and 150 typical readers from the same general education classes...
March 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653560/difficulties-in-comprehending-affirmative-and-negative-sentences-evidence-from-chinese-children-with-reading-difficulties
#15
Shenai Hu, Maria Vender, Gaetano Fiorin, Denis Delfitto
Recent experimental results suggest that negation is particularly challenging for children with reading difficulties. This study looks at how young poor readers, speakers of Mandarin Chinese, comprehend affirmative and negative sentences as compared with a group of age-matched typical readers. Forty-four Chinese children were tested with a truth value judgment task. The results reveal that negative sentences were harder to process than affirmative ones, irrespective of the distinction between poor and typical readers...
March 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406744/comparing-students-with-and-without-reading-difficulties-on-reading-comprehension-assessments-a-meta-analysis
#16
Alyson A Collins, Esther R Lindström, Donald L Compton
Researchers have increasingly investigated sources of variance in reading comprehension test scores, particularly with students with reading difficulties (RD). The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine if the achievement gap between students with RD and typically developing (TD) students varies as a function of different reading comprehension response formats (e.g., multiple choice, cloze). A systematic literature review identified 82 eligible studies. All studies administered reading comprehension assessments to students with RD and TD students in Grades K-12...
March 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406742/reading-disability-spectrum-early-and-late-recognition-subthreshold-and-full-comorbidity
#17
Krisztina Tárnokiné Törő, Mónika Miklósi, Eszter Horanyi, Gábor Pers Kovács, Judit Balázs
Several studies have reported high comorbidity for reading disability (RD) and psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the comorbidity of subthreshold and full psychiatric disorders with RD while comparing subgroups based on age of RD recognition (early vs. late). We analyzed data from 130 children with RD and 82 typically developing children aged 7 to 18 years. RD was assessed with the Dyslexia Differential Diagnosis Maastricht-Hungarian Standard Test. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Kid...
March 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380307/how-many-u-s-high-school-students-have-a-foreign-language-reading-disability-reading-without-meaning-and-the-simple-view
#18
Richard L Sparks, Julie Luebbers
Conventional wisdom suggests that students classified as learning disabled will exhibit difficulties with foreign language (FL) learning, but evidence has not supported a relationship between FL learning problems and learning disabilities. The simple view of reading model posits that reading comprehension is the product of word decoding and language comprehension and that there are good readers and 3 types of poor readers-dyslexic, hyperlexic, and garden variety-who exhibit different profiles of strengths and/or deficits in word decoding and language comprehension...
March 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199175/sequential-prediction-of-literacy-achievement-for-specific-learning-disabilities-contrasting-in-impaired-levels-of-language-in-grades-4-to-9
#19
Elizabeth A Sanders, Virginia W Berninger, Robert D Abbott
Sequential regression was used to evaluate whether language-related working memory components uniquely predict reading and writing achievement beyond cognitive-linguistic translation for students in Grades 4 through 9 ( N = 103) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in subword handwriting (dysgraphia, n = 25), word reading and spelling (dyslexia, n = 60), or oral and written language (oral and written language learning disabilities, n = 18). That is, SLDs are defined on the basis of cascading level of language impairment (subword, word, and syntax/text)...
March 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112580/does-use-of-text-to-speech-and-related-read-aloud-tools-improve-reading-comprehension-for-students-with-reading-disabilities-a-meta-analysis
#20
Sarah G Wood, Jerad H Moxley, Elizabeth L Tighe, Richard K Wagner
Text-to-speech and related read-aloud tools are being widely implemented in an attempt to assist students' reading comprehension skills. Read-aloud software, including text-to-speech, is used to translate written text into spoken text, enabling one to listen to written text while reading along. It is not clear how effective text-to-speech is at improving reading comprehension. This study addresses this gap in the research by conducting a meta-analysis on the effects of text-to-speech technology and related read-aloud tools on reading comprehension for students with reading difficulties...
January 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
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