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Journal of Learning Disabilities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799454/unpacking-direct-and-indirect-relationships-of-short-term-memory-to-word-reading-evidence-from-korean-speaking-children
#1
Young-Suk Grace Kim, Jeung-Ryeul Cho, Soon-Gil Park
We examined the relations of short-term memory (STM), metalinguistic awareness (phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness), and rapid automatized naming (RAN) to word reading in Korean, a language with a relatively transparent orthography. STM, metalinguistic awareness, and RAN have been shown to be important to word reading, but the nature of the relations of STM, metalinguistic awareness, and RAN to word reading has rarely been investigated. Two alternative models were fitted. In the indirect relation model, STM was hypothesized to be indirectly related to word reading via metalinguistic awareness and RAN...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758526/examining-predictive-validity-of-oral-reading-fluency-slope-in-upper-elementary-grades-using-quantile-regression
#2
Eunsoo Cho, Philp Capin, Greg Roberts, Sharon Vaughn
Within multitiered instructional delivery models, progress monitoring is a key mechanism for determining whether a child demonstrates an adequate response to instruction. One measure commonly used to monitor the reading progress of students is oral reading fluency (ORF). This study examined the extent to which ORF slope predicts reading comprehension outcomes for fifth-grade struggling readers ( n = 102) participating in an intensive reading intervention. Quantile regression models showed that ORF slope significantly predicted performance on a sentence-level fluency and comprehension assessment, regardless of the students' reading skills, controlling for initial ORF performance...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748729/a-categorical-content-analysis-of-highly-cited-literature-related-to-trends-and-issues-in-special-education
#3
Sarah V Arden, Jill M Pentimonti, Rochana Cooray, Stephanie Jackson
This investigation employs categorical content analysis processes as a mechanism to examine trends and issues in a sampling of highly cited (100+) literature in special education journals. The authors had two goals: (a) broadly identifying trends across publication type, content area, and methodology and (b) specifically identifying articles with disaggregated outcomes for students with learning disabilities (LD). Content analyses were conducted across highly cited (100+) articles published during a 20-year period (1992-2013) in a sample ( n = 3) of journals focused primarily on LD, and in one broad, cross-categorical journal recognized for its impact in the field...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730931/a-reading-model-from-the-perspective-of-japanese-orthography-connectionist-approach-to-the-hypothesis-of-granularity-and-transparency
#4
Mutsuo Ijuin, Taeko N Wydell
This study presents a computer simulation model of reading in Japanese syllabic kana and morphographic kanji. The model was based on the simulation model developed by Harm and Seidenberg for reading in English. The purpose of building the current model was to verify the validity of the hypothesis of granularity and transparency (HGT) postulated by Wydell and Butterworth, focusing on the granularity dimension. The HGT was developed in order to explain the behavioral dissociation between excellent reading skills in Japanese and poor reading skills in English of an English-Japanese bilingual individual as well as the relatively low incidence of developmental dyslexia in Japan...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720028/growth-of-word-and-pseudoword-reading-efficiency-in-alphabetic-orthographies-impact-of-consistency
#5
Markéta Caravolas
Word and pseudoword reading are related abilities fundamental to reading development in alphabetic orthographies. They are respectively assumed to index children's orthographic representations of words, which are in turn acquired through the underlying "self-teaching mechanism" of alphabetic pseudoword decoding. Little is known about concurrent growth trajectories of these skills in the early grades among children learning different alphabetic orthographies. In the present study, between- and within-group latent growth models of word and pseudoword reading efficiency were tested on data spanning Grades 1 and 2 from learners of the inconsistent English and consistent Czech and Slovak orthographies...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720026/models-of-reading-in-different-orthographies-an-introduction
#6
R Malatesha Joshi, Peggy McCardle
The authors provide a summary of the articles in the special series on reading development in different orthographies from various writing systems and scripts.
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720016/first-grade-cognitive-predictors-of-writing-disabilities-in-grades-2-through-4-elementary-school-students
#7
Lara-Jeane Costa, Melissa Green, John Sideris, Stephen R Hooper
The primary aim of this study was determining Grade 1 cognitive predictors of students at risk for writing disabilities in Grades 2 through 4. Applying cognitive measures selected to align with theoretical and empirical models of writing, tasks were administered to Grade 1 students assessing fine-motor, linguistic, and executive functions: 84 at risk (bottom quartile for age-base expectations) and 54 typically developing. A model with individual predictors was compared to a previously developed latent trait model to determine the relative predictive worth of each approach...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715927/mawrid-a-model-of-arabic-word-reading-in-development
#8
Elinor Saiegh-Haddad
This article offers a model of Arabic word reading according to which three conspicuous features of the Arabic language and orthography shape the development of word reading in this language: (a) vowelization/vocalization, or the use of diacritical marks to represent short vowels and other features of articulation; (b) morphological structure, namely, the predominance and transparency of derivational morphological structure in the linguistic and orthographic representation of the Arabic word; and (c) diglossia, specifically, the lexical and lexico-phonological distance between the spoken and the standard forms of Arabic words...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707504/behavioral-executive-functions-among-adolescents-with-mathematics-difficulties
#9
Marja E Holm, Pirjo Aunio, Piia M Björn, Liisa Klenberg, Johan Korhonen, Markku S Hannula
This study investigates behavioral executive functions (EFs) in the mathematics classroom context among adolescents with different mathematics performance levels. The EF problems were assessed by teachers using a behavioral rating inventory. Using cutoff scores on a standardized mathematics assessment, groups with mathematics difficulties (MD; n = 124), low mathematics performance (LA; n = 140), and average or higher scores (AC; n = 355) were identified. Results showed that the MD group had more problems with distractibility, directing attention, shifting attention, initiative, execution of action, planning, and evaluation than the LA group, whereas the differences in hyperactivity, impulsivity, and sustaining attention were not significant...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693370/toward-a-graded-psycholexical-space-mapping-model-sublexical-and-lexical-representations-in-chinese-character-reading-development
#10
Xiuli Tong, Catherine McBride
Following a review of contemporary models of word-level processing for reading and their limitations, we propose a new hypothetical model of Chinese character reading, namely, the graded lexical space mapping model that characterizes how sublexical radicals and lexical information are involved in Chinese character reading development. The underlying assumption of this model is that Chinese character recognition is a process of competitive mappings of phonology, semantics, and orthography in both lexical and sublexical systems, operating as functions of statistical properties of print input based on the individual's specific level of reading...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693368/what-reading-disability-evidence-for-multiple-latent-profiles-of-struggling-readers-in-a-large-russian-sibpair-sample-with-at-least-one-sibling-at-risk-for-reading-difficulties
#11
Sergey A Kornilov, Elena L Grigorenko
In this study, we performed a latent profile analysis of reading and related skills in a large ( n = 733) sibpair sample of Russian readers at risk for reading difficulties. The analysis suggested the presence of seven latent profiles, of which two were characterized by relatively high performance on measures of spelling and reading comprehension and the remaining five included severely as well as moderately affected readers with deficits in the domains of phonological, orthographic, and morphological processing...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685668/investigating-the-asymmetrical-roles-of-syllabic-and-phonemic-awareness-in-akshara-processing
#12
Pooja R Nakamura, R Malatesha Joshi, Xuejun Ryan Ji
In this study, we examine the relative contributions of syllabic awareness, phonemic awareness, and oral vocabulary knowledge in early akshara reading ability from Grades 1 through 5. The performance of 488 students in two states of South India, Karnataka (Kannada language) and Andhra Pradesh (Telugu language), was measured. Results from a commonality analysis indicate that there was an increasing independent contribution of syllabic awareness to Kannada and Telugu decoding through the five grades, but the unique contribution of phonemic awareness steadily declined through the five grades, as it became subsumed within syllabic awareness...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653560/difficulties-in-comprehending-affirmative-and-negative-sentences-evidence-from-chinese-children-with-reading-difficulties
#13
Shenai Hu, Maria Vender, Gaetano Fiorin, Denis Delfitto
Recent experimental results suggest that negation is particularly challenging for children with reading difficulties. This study looks at how young poor readers, speakers of Mandarin Chinese, comprehend affirmative and negative sentences as compared with a group of age-matched typical readers. Forty-four Chinese children were tested with a truth value judgment task. The results reveal that negative sentences were harder to process than affirmative ones, irrespective of the distinction between poor and typical readers...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635417/suicide-attempts-among-individuals-with-specific-learning-disorders-an-underrecognized-issue
#14
Esme Fuller-Thomson, Samara Z Carroll, Wook Yang
Several studies have linked specific learning disorders (SLDs) with suicidal ideation, but less is known about the disorders' association with suicide attempts. This gap in the literature is addressed via the 2012 nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey ( n = 21,744). The prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts among those with an SLD was much higher than those without (11.1% vs. 2.7%, p < .001). In comparison with their peers without SLDs, adults with SLDs had 46% higher odds of having ever attempted suicide, even after adjusting for most known risk factors (e...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621157/predicting-individual-differences-in-reading-and-spelling-skill-with-artificial-script-based-letter-speech-sound-training
#15
Sebastián Aravena, Jurgen Tijms, Patrick Snellings, Maurits W van der Molen
In this study, we examined the learning of letter-speech sound correspondences within an artificial script and performed an experimental analysis of letter-speech sound learning among dyslexic and normal readers vis-à-vis phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, reading, and spelling. Participants were provided with 20 min of training aimed at learning eight new basic letter-speech sound correspondences, followed by a short assessment of mastery of the correspondences and word-reading ability in this unfamiliar script...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613114/enhancing-accessibility-for-students-with-decoding-difficulties-on-large-scale-reading-assessments
#16
Allison Gruner Gandhi, Burhan Ogut, Laura Stein, Robin Bzura, Louis Danielson
This study reports findings from studies examining potential read-aloud accommodations on standardized reading comprehension assessments for students with decoding difficulties. Three types of accommodations were evaluated: question stems and answer options read aloud; question stems, answer options, and proper nouns read aloud; and full read-aloud. Drawing from a sample of 207 fourth-grade students with and without decoding difficulties, we used 3-level hierarchical linear modeling to assess whether there were significant differences between students with and without decoding difficulties in the effect of each accommodation relative to no accommodation...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613104/a-systematic-review-of-longitudinal-studies-of-mathematics-difficulty
#17
Gena Nelson, Sarah R Powell
Some students may be diagnosed with a learning disability in mathematics or dyscalculia, whereas other students may demonstrate below-grade-level mathematics performance without a disability diagnosis. In the literature, researchers often identify students in both groups as experiencing math difficulty. To understand the performance of students with math difficulty, we examined 35 studies that reported longitudinal results of mathematics achievement (i.e., mathematics performance measured across at least a 12-month span)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608732/beyond-auditory-sensory-processing-deficits-lexical-tone-perception-deficits-in-chinese-children-with-developmental-dyslexia
#18
Xiuhong Tong, Xiuli Tong, Fung King Yiu
Increasing evidence suggests that children with developmental dyslexia exhibit a deficit not only at the segmental level of phonological processing but also, by extension, at the suprasegmental level. However, it remains unclear whether such a suprasegmental phonological processing deficit is due to a difficulty in processing acoustic cues of speech rhythm, such as rise time and intensity. This study set out to investigate to what extent suprasegmental phonological processing (i.e., Cantonese lexical tone perception) and rise time sensitivity could distinguish Chinese children with dyslexia from typically developing children...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597728/theorization-and-an-empirical-investigation-of-the-component-based-and-developmental-text-writing-fluency-construct
#19
Young-Suk Grace Kim, Brandy Gatlin, Stephanie Al Otaiba, Jeanne Wanzek
We discuss a component-based, developmental view of text writing fluency, which we tested using data from children in Grades 2 and 3. Text writing fluency was defined as efficiency and automaticity in writing connected texts, which acts as a mediator between text generation (oral language), transcription skills, and writing quality. We hypothesized that in the beginning phase, text writing fluency would be largely constrained by transcription skills (spelling and handwriting), while at a later phase, oral language would make an independent contribution to text writing fluency...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597718/effect-of-working-memory-updating-training-on-retrieving-symptoms-of-children-with-learning-disabilities
#20
Xiaoying Chen, Maolin Ye, Lei Chang, Weigang Chen, Renlai Zhou
Working memory (WM) deficiency is a primary reason for the poor academic performance of children with learning disabilities (LDs). Studies have shown that the WM of typical children could be improved through training, and WM training contributes to improving their fluid intelligence and academic achievement. However, few studies have investigated WM training for children with LDs, and results have been inconsistent. The present study examined the long-term effects of WM updating training and whether it can mitigate LD symptoms...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
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