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FEBS Letters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815577/emerging-roles-of-rhomboid-like-pseudoproteases-in-inflammatory-and-innate-immune-responses
#1
REVIEW
Wei-Wei Luo, Hong-Bing Shu
Rhomboid-like pseudoproteases are a conserved superfamily of proteins related to rhomboid intramembrane serine proteases that lack key catalytic residues. iRhom2, a member of the rhomboid-like pseudoprotease superfamily, has been reported to regulate the maturation and trafficking of ADAM17, and be associated with inflammatory arthritis. Recent studies demonstrate that iRhom2 is also involved in innate immunity by regulating the trafficking and stability of MITA (also called STING), which is a central adaptor in innate antiviral signalling pathways...
August 17, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815570/tat-transport-in-escherichia-coli-requires-zwitterionic-phosphatidylethanolamine-but-no-specific-negatively-charged-phospholipid
#2
LETTER
Claudia Rathmann, Amelie S Schlösser, Jürgen Schiller, Mikhail Bogdanov, Thomas Brüser
Translocation of folded proteins by the Tat system of Escherichia coli is believed to rely on the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and the negatively charged phospholipids cardiolipin (CL) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). Here we show that while PE is indeed essential for activity, the Tat system is fully functional in a clsA/clsB/clsC deletion strain lacking CL, and in a pgsA deletion strain lacking both PG and CL during aerobic growth on complex media. In contrast to early studies that relied on strains with reduced lipid levels, this study therefore demonstrates that PG and CL are dispensable for Tat transport...
August 17, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805250/peer-review-the-future-is-here
#3
Maria Papatriantafyllou
Several divergent standpoints are hosted under the umbrella of Peer Review. Authors, who wish to see the results of scrupulous work published, in the anticipation of career promotion or secure funding. Editors, who are under pressure to identify sound and novel research. Reviewers, who try to fit a thoughtful and time-consuming process within busy schedules, often receiving no credit for it. And Publishers competing in a transforming landscape of fast and abundant science publishing. This article is protected by copyright...
August 14, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805244/epigenetic-barrier-against-the-propagation-of-fluctuating-gene-expression-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#4
LETTER
Yuki Saito, Akira Kunitomi, Tomohisa Seki, Shugo Tohyama, Dai Kusumoto, Makoto Takei, Shin Kashimura, Hisayuki Hashimoto, Gakuto Yozu, Chikaaki Motoda, Masaya Shimojima, Toru Egashira, Mayumi Oda, Keiichi Fukuda, Shinsuke Yuasa
The expression of pluripotency genes fluctuates in a population of embryonic stem (ES) cells and the fluctuations in the expression of some pluripotency genes correlate. However, no correlation in the fluctuation of Pou5f1, Zfp42 and Nanog expression was observed in ES cells. Correlation between Pou5f1 and Zfp42 fluctuations was demonstrated in ES cells containing a knockout in the NuRD component Mbd3. ES cells containing a triple knockout in the DNA methyltransferases Dnmt1, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b showed correlation between the fluctuation of Pou5f1, Zfp42 and Nanog gene expression...
August 14, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796901/from-peroxisomal-disorders-to-common-neurodegenerative-diseases-the-role-of-ether-phospholipids-in-the-nervous-system
#5
REVIEW
Fabian Dorninger, Sonja Forss-Petter, Johannes Berger
The emerging diverse roles of ether (phospho)lipids in nervous system development and function in health and disease are currently attracting growing interest. Plasmalogens, a subgroup of ether lipids, are important membrane components involved in vesicle fusion and membrane raft composition. They store polyunsaturated fatty acids and may serve as antioxidants. Ether lipid metabolites act as precursors for the formation of glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchors; others, like platelet-activating factor, are implicated in signaling functions...
August 10, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796890/an-involvement-of-phospholipase-a-acyltransferase-family-proteins-in-peroxisome-regulation-and-plasmalogen-metabolism
#6
REVIEW
Toru Uyama, Kazuhito Tsuboi, Natsuo Ueda
The HRAS-like suppressor (HRASLS) is a protein family consisting of five members in humans. Despite their discovery as tumor suppressors, we demonstrated that all these proteins are phospholipid-metabolizing enzymes, such as phospholipase A1 /A2 and acyltransferase. We thus proposed to rename HRASLS1-5 as phospholipase A/acyltransferase (PLAAT)-1-5. Notably, PLAATs exhibit N-acyltransferase activity to biosynthesize N-acylated ethanolamine phospholipids, including N-acyl-plasmalogen, which serve as precursors of bioactive N-acylethanolamines...
August 10, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796886/macrophage-metabolism-in-atherosclerosis
#7
REVIEW
Gael F P Bories, Norbert Leitinger
A key aspect of atherosclerosis is the maladaptive inflammatory response to lipoprotein accumulation in the artery. The failure to decrease lipid accumulation, to clear apoptotic cells and to resolve inflammation ultimately leads to macrophage accumulation within the vascular wall(1,2,3,4) . Several subsets of macrophages are found inside atherosclerotic plaques(5,6,7) : Pro-inflammatory M1-like macrophages potentially participate in atherosclerosis initiation and progression; M2-like macrophages are thought to be protective due to their anti-inflammatory and profibrotic properties, presumably stabilizing the plaque(8,9;) Mox macrophages develop in response to oxidized phospholipids and present a glutathione- and potentially redox-regulating phenotype(10) ; Mhem macrophages are found in areas of plaque hemorrhage(11,12) where they are involved in heme clearance...
August 10, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792591/molecular-basis-for-the-effect-of-the-l31f-mutation-on-card-function-in-arc
#8
LETTER
Hyun Ji Ha, Hyun Ho Park
The apoptosis repressor with caspase recruiting domain (ARC) is aberrantly overexpressed in various cancers. ARC contains a CARD domain that is the main mediator of protein-protein interactions. Mutation of Leu31 within the CARD of ARC to Phe (ARC_L31F) is widely used as a functionally defective mutant of ARC despite a lack of clear experimental evidence regarding how its functionality is lost. In this study, we show that L31 in helix 2 (H2) is critical for stabilization of the helix bundle fold in the CARD domain...
August 9, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792590/regulation-of-rab5-isoforms-by-transcriptional-and-post-transcriptional-mechanisms-in-yeast
#9
LETTER
Oliver Schmidt, Yannick Weyer, Matthias J Fink, Martin Müller, Sabine Weys, Marietta Bindreither, David Teis
Rab5 GTPases are master regulators of early endosome biogenesis and transport. The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes three Rab5 proteins: Vps21, the major isoform, Ypt52 and Ypt53. Here we show that Vps21 is the most abundant Rab5 protein and Ypt53 is the least abundant. In stressed cells, Ypt53 levels increase but never exceed that of Vps21. Its induction requires the transcription factors Crz1 and Gis1. In growing cells, the expression of Ypt53 is suppressed by post-transcriptional mechanisms mediated by the untranslated regions of the YPT53 mRNA...
August 9, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792588/immunosuppressive-enzymes-in-the-tumor-microenvironement
#10
REVIEW
Valérie Molinier-Frenkel, Flavia Castellano
Antigen encounter by T lymphocytes induces important metabolic changes. Anti-tumor T lymphocytes enter in a metabolic competition with tumors, which divert feedback mechanisms of the immune response. Immunosuppressive enzymes, modifying the nutrient availability and leading to the production of toxic catabolites, represent one of these mechanisms, contributing to the metabolic halo in which T lymphocytes evolve during immune responses. Two classes of immunosuppressive enzymes, expressed by the tumor cells or by cells of the microenvironment, have been described: those catabolizing essential or semi-essential amino acids, tryptophan, arginine and phenylalanine and the ectoenzymes, which degrade the ATP to produce adenosine...
August 9, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787755/a-rapid-administration-of-gw4064-inhibits-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-independent-of-farnesoid-x-receptor-agonism
#11
LETTER
Shujun Xie, Chuansheng Guo, Zhexu Chi, Bo Huang, Yihua Wu, Di Wang, Dajing Xia
GW4064 is a small molecule known to be an agonist of the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). We found that GW4064 inhibits the NLR family CARD domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in a FXR-independent manner as evidenced by its similar inhibitory effect on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in FXR-deficient macrophages. Interestingly, GW4064 decreases the nigericin-induced oligomerization and ubiquitination of ASC which is critical for the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In vivo results indicate that GW4064 could partially rescue the symptoms of NLRP3-dependent inflammatory disease models...
August 8, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786485/sequence-complementarity-at-the-ribosomal-peptidyl-transferase-center-implies-self-replicating-origin
#12
Ilana Agmon
A feasible scenario for the emergence of life requires the spontaneous materialization and sustainability of a proto-ribosome that could have catalyzed the formation of the first peptides. Models of proto-ribosomes were derived from the ribosomal PTC region, but the poor prebiotic copying abilities give rise to the question of their mode of replication. Here, complementarity is demonstrated in bacterial ribosomes, between nucleotides that constitute the two halves of the PTC cavity. The complementarity corroborates the dimeric nature of the proto-ribosome and is likely to underlie the symmetry of the PTC region...
August 8, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777890/acbd3-functions-as-a-scaffold-to-organize-the-golgi-stacking-proteins-and-a-rab33b-gap
#13
LETTER
Xihua Yue, Mengjing Bao, Romain Christiano, Siyang Li, Jia Mei, Lianhui Zhu, Feifei Mao, Qiang Yue, Panpan Zhang, Shuaiyang Jing, James E Rothman, Yi Qian, Intaek Lee
Golgin45 plays important roles in Golgi stack assembly and is known to bind both the Golgi stacking protein GRASP55 and Rab2 in the medial-Golgi cisternae. In this study, we sought to further characterize the cisternal adhesion complex using a proteomics approach. We report here that Acyl-CoA Binding Domain Containing 3 (ACBD3) is likely to be a novel binding partner of Golgin45. ACBD3 interacts with Golgin45 via its GOLD domain, while its co-expression significantly increases Golgin45 targeting to the Golgi...
August 4, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777872/the-short-isoform-of-pml-rar%C3%AE-activates-the-nrf2-ho-1-pathway-through-a-direct-interaction-with-nrf2
#14
LETTER
YuLong Li, Hongyan Wang, Xiu Jun Wang, Xiuwen Tang
The NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (NRF2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) signaling pathway plays an important role in cytoprotection. In acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), fusion of the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) with retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) results in an oncogene, PML-RARα (PR). Although previous studies have shown that both RARα and PML inhibit NRF2 activity, how PR regulates NRF2 has not been reported. Here, we discovered that PR-S, the short isoform of PR, potentiates NRF2 activity in a tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) concentration-dependent manner...
August 4, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771701/cellular-metabolism-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-functional-impact-and-consequences
#15
REVIEW
Katrin Rabold, Mihai G Netea, Gosse J Adema, Romana T Netea-Maier
Macrophages are innate immune cells that play a role not only in host defense against infections, but also in the pathophysiology of autoimmune and autoinflammatory disorders, as well as cancer. An important feature of macrophages is their high plasticity, with high ability to adapt to environmental changes by adjusting their cellular metabolism and immunological phenotype. Macrophages are one of the most abundant innate immune cells within the tumor microenvironment that have been associated with tumor growth, metastasis, angiogenesis and poor prognosis...
August 3, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771698/molecular-and-functional-genetics-of-the-proopiomelanocortin-gene-food-intake-regulation-and-obesity
#16
REVIEW
Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low
During the last decade, the obesity pandemia has skyrocketed, and the spectre is threatening children, adolescents and lower income families worldwide. Although driven by an increase in the consumption of ultra-processed edibles of poor nutritional value, the obesogenic changes in contemporary human lifestyle affect people differently, revealing that some individuals are more prone to developing increased adiposity. During the last years, we performed a variety of genetic, evolutionary, biochemical and behavioral experiments that allowed us to understand how a group of neurons present in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus regulate the expression of the proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) gene and induce satiety...
August 3, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771696/dynamics-behind-affinity-maturation-of-an-anti-hcmv-antibody-family-influencing-antigen-binding
#17
LETTER
Francesco Di Palma, Anna Tramontano
The investigation of antibody affinity maturation and its effects on antigen binding is important to understand the regulation of the immune response. In order to shed light on this crucial process we analyzed two immunoglobulins neutralizing the human cytomegalovirus: the primary germline antibody M2J1 and its related mature antibody 8F9. Both antibodies target the AD-2S1 epitope of the gB envelope-protein and are deemed to establish similar interactions with the cognate antigen. We used molecular dynamics simulations to understand the effect of mutations on the antibody-antigen interactions...
August 3, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771695/challenges-for-visualizing-three-dimensional-data-in-genomic-browsers
#18
REVIEW
Mike Goodstadt, Marc A Marti-Renom
Genomic interactions reveal the spatial organization of genomes and genomic domains, which is known to play key roles in cell function. Physical proximity can be represented as two-dimensional heat maps or matrices. From these, three-dimensional (3D) conformations of chromatin can be computed revealing coherent structures that highlight the importance of non-sequential relationships across genomic features. Mainstream genomic browsers have been classically developed to display compact, stacked tracks based on a linear, sequential, per-chromosome coordinate system...
August 3, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771691/targeting-hect-type-e3-ligases-insights-from-catalysis-regulation-and-inhibitors
#19
REVIEW
Valentina Fajner, Elena Maspero, Simona Polo
Ubiquitination plays a pivotal role in most cellular processes and is critical for protein degradation and signalling. E3 ligases are the matchmakers in the ubiquitination cascade, responsible for substrate recognition and modification with specific polyubiquitin chains. Until recently, it was not clear how the catalytic activity of E3s is modulated, but major recent studies on HECT E3 ligases is filling this void. These enzymes appear to be held in a closed, inactive conformation, which is relieved by biochemical manoeuvres unique to each member, thus ensuring exquisite regulation and specificity of the enzymes...
August 3, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771688/crystal-structure-of-lpg1832-a-virk-family-protein-from-legionella-pneumophila-reveals-a-novel-fold-for-bacterial-virk-proteins
#20
LETTER
Nannan Zhang, Shiyan Yin, Shan Liu, Aihong Sun, Mingxue Zhou, Xiaojian Gong, Honghua Ge
VirK family [Pfam06903] consists of 14 bacterial VirK proteins of around 145 residues in length. The function of this family is unknown. Herein, using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD), we determined the crystal structure of lpg1832, a VirK family protein from Legionella pneumophila, at 2.0 Å resolution. This is the first structural determination of a VirK domain-containing protein. Lpg1832 is a type II secretion system-dependent extracellular protein that folds into a novel barrel-shaped structure...
August 3, 2017: FEBS Letters
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