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Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164310/relevance-of-trpa1-and-trpm8-channels-as-vascular-sensors-of-cold-in-the-cutaneous-microvasculature
#1
REVIEW
Y Pan, D Thapa, L Baldissera, F Argunhan, A A Aubdool, S D Brain
Cold exposure is directly related to skin conditions, such as frostbite. This is due to the cold exposure inducing a vasoconstriction to reduce cutaneous blood flow and protect against heat loss. However, a long-term constriction will cause ischaemia and potentially irreversible damage. We have developed techniques to elucidate the mechanisms of the vascular cold response. We focused on two ligand-gated transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, namely, the established "cold sensors" TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and TRP melastin (TRPM8)...
November 21, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159538/neuroinflammation-cortical-activity-and-fatiguing-behaviour-during-self-paced-exercise
#2
Nicole Vargas, Frank Marino
The present study aimed to identify whether or not the release of interleukin (IL)-6 and soluble (s) IL-6 receptor (R) is associated with fatiguing behaviour and changes in cortical activity during self-paced exercise. Relationships between the IL-6 and its soluble receptors, total work, reductions in power output, and changes in slow, alpha (α) and fast, beta (β) brain waves during self-paced exercise were evaluated. Different intensities and environments were used to manipulate the release of IL-6, whereby seven active males cycled for 60 min in heat stress (HS) or thermoneutral (TN) environments at a clamped rating of perceived exertion (RPE) equating to low intensity (RPE = 12) or high intensity (RPE = 16)...
November 20, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143938/short-hairpin-rna-interference-targeting-interleukin-1-receptor-type-i-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-attenuates-hypertension-in-rats
#3
Peng Lu, Shu-Jun Jiang, Hong Pan, Ai-Li Xu, Gui-Hua Wang, Chun-Lei Ma, Zhen Shi
Blood pressure is controlled by tonic sympathetic activities, excessive activation of which contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of hypertension. Interleukin (IL)-1β in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is involved in sympathetic overdrive and hypertension. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effects of IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1R1) gene silencing in the PVN on hypertension. Recombinant lentivirus vectors expressing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting IL-1R1 (Lv-shR-IL-1R1) or a control shRNA were microinjected into PVN of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive WKY rats...
November 16, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143219/glutamatergic-gabaergic-and-endocannabinoid-neurotransmissions-within-the-dorsal-hippocampus-modulate-the-cardiac-baroreflex-function-in-rats
#4
Nilson Carlos Ferreira-Junior, Davi Campos Lagatta, Leonardo Barbosa Moraes Resstel
The dorsal hippocampus (DH) is involved in the modulation of the cardiac baroreflex function. There is a wide expression of the NMDA and AMPA/Kainate receptors within the DH. Glutamate administration into the DH triggers both tachycardia and pressor responses. Moreover, GABAergic interneurons and endocannabinoid system play an important role in modulation of the activity of glutamatergic neurons within the DH. Therefore, the present work aimed to evaluate the involvement of the glutamatergic, GABAergic, and endocannabinoid neurotransmissions within the DH in cardiac baroreflex function in rats...
November 15, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134279/dietary-k-and-cl-independently-regulate-basolateral-conductance-in-principal-and-intercalated-cells-of-the-collecting-duct
#5
Viktor N Tomilin, Oleg Zaika, Arohan R Subramanya, Oleh Pochynyuk
The renal collecting duct contains two distinct cell types, principal and intercalated cells, expressing potassium Kir4.1/5.1 (KCNJ10/16) and chloride ClC-K2 (ClC-Kb in humans) channels on their basolateral membrane, respectively. Both channels are thought to play important roles in controlling systemic water-electrolyte balance and blood pressure. However, little is known about mechanisms regulating activity of Kir4.1/5.1 and ClC-K2/b. Here, we employed patch clamp analysis at the single channel and whole cell levels in freshly isolated mouse collecting ducts to investigate regulation of Kir4...
November 13, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127493/late-sodium-current-associated-cardiac-electrophysiological-and-mechanical-dysfunction
#6
REVIEW
Shandong Yu, Gang Li, Christopher L-H Huang, Ming Lei, Lin Wu
Late sodium current (INaL) is a small sustained inward current observed during the cardiac action potential plateau phase following decay of the early peak INa. The endogenous INaL is relatively small in normal hearts but exerts functionally significant effects on cardiomyocyte repolarization with potentially pro-arrhythmic effects in hearts with reduced repolarization reserve. Enhanced INa,L occurs in long QT syndrome 3 (LQTS 3) patients, and under a number of pathological and pharmacological cardiovascular conditions, including bradycardia, myocardial ischemia, reperfusion injury, and heart failure...
November 10, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124349/acknowledgment-to-referees
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110079/old-and-emerging-concepts-on-adrenal-chromaffin-cell-stimulus-secretion-coupling
#8
EDITORIAL
Ricardo Borges, Luis Gandía, Emilio Carbone
The chromaffin cells (CCs) of the adrenal medulla play a key role in the control of circulating catecholamines to adapt our body function to stressful conditions. A huge research effort over the last 35 years has converted these cells into the Escherichia coli of neurobiology. CCs have been the testing bench for the development of patch-clamp and amperometric recording techniques and helped clarify most of the known molecular mechanisms that regulate cell excitability, Ca(2+) signals associated with secretion, and the molecular apparatus that regulates vesicle fusion...
November 6, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101464/gabaa-receptor-a-unique-modulator-of-excitability-ca-2-signaling-and-catecholamine-release-of-rat-chromaffin-cells
#9
REVIEW
Tzitzitlini Alejandre-García, Johanna G Peña-Del Castillo, Arturo Hernández-Cruz
The role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in adrenal medulla chromaffin cell (CC) function is just beginning to unfold. GABA is stored in catecholamine (CA)-containing dense core granules and is presumably released together with CA, ATP, and opioids in response to physiological stimuli, playing an autocrine-paracrine role on CCs. The reported paradoxical "dual action" of GABAA-R activation (enhancement of CA secretion and inhibition of synaptically evoked CA release) is only one aspect of GABA's multifaceted actions...
November 3, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082441/deletion-of-t-type-calcium-channels-cav3-1-or-cav3-2-attenuates-endothelial-dysfunction-in-aging-mice
#10
Anne D Thuesen, Kenneth Andersen, Kristina S Lyngsø, Mark Burton, Charlotte Brasch-Andersen, Paul M Vanhoutte, Pernille B L Hansen
Impairment of endothelial function with aging is accompanied by reduced nitric oxide (NO) production. T-type Cav3.1 channels augment nitric oxide and co-localize with eNOS. Therefore, the hypothesis was that T-type channels contribute to the endothelial dysfunction of aging. Endothelial function was determined in mesenteric arteries (perfusion) and aortae (isometric contraction) of young and old wild-type (WT), Cav3.1, and Cav3.2 knockout mice. NO production was measured by fluorescence imaging in mesenteric arteries...
October 29, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058146/human-nicotinic-receptors-in-chromaffin-cells-characterization-and-pharmacology
#11
REVIEW
Almudena Albillos, J Michael McIntosh
During the last 10 years, we have been working on human chromaffin cells obtained from the adrenal gland of organ donors that suffered encephalic or cardiac death. We first electrophysiologically characterized the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) activated by acetylcholine, and their contribution to the exocytosis of chromaffin vesicles and release of catecholamines. We have shown that these cells possess an adrenergic phenotype. This phenotype may contribute to an increased expression of α7 nAChRs in these cells, allowing for recording of α7 nAChR currents, something that had previously not been achieved in non-human species...
October 20, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043432/recent-advances-in-pharmacological-hormonal-and-nutritional-intervention-for-sarcopenia
#12
REVIEW
Kunihiro Sakuma, Akihiko Yamaguchi
Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, is characterized by a deterioration of muscle quantity and quality leading to a gradual slowing of movement, a decline in strength and power, increased risk of fall-related injury, and often frailty. This review focuses on the recent advances of pharmacological, hormonal, and nutritional approaches for attenuating sarcopenia. The article is composed of the data reported in many basic and some clinical studies for mammalian muscles. Resistance training combined with amino acid-containing supplements is the gold standard to prevent sarcopenia...
October 18, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032506/differential-effects-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-in-isolated-rat-atria-subjected-to-simulated-ischemia-reperfusion-depending-on-the-energetic-substrates-available
#13
Romina Hermann, Victoria Evangelina Mestre Cordero, María de Las Mercedes Fernández Pazos, Federico Joaquín Reznik, Débora Elisabet Vélez, Enrique Alberto Savino, María Gabriela Marina Prendes, Alicia Varela
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine-threonine kinase that functions primarily as a metabolic sensor to coordinate anabolic and catabolic processes in the cell, via phosphorylation of multiple proteins involved in metabolic pathways, aimed to re-establish energy homeostasis at a cell-autonomous level. Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion represents a metabolic stress situation for myocytes. Whether AMPK plays a critical role in the metabolic and functional responses involved in these conditions remains uncertain...
October 14, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032505/impaired-chemosensory-control-of-breathing-after-depletion-of-bulbospinal-catecholaminergic-neurons-in-rats
#14
Milene R Malheiros-Lima, Leonardo T Totola, Ana C Takakura, Thiago S Moreira
Bulbospinal catecholaminergic neurons located in the rostral aspect of the ventrolateral medulla (C1 neurons) or within the ventrolateral pons (A5 neurons) are involved in the regulation of blood pressure and sympathetic outflow. A stimulus that commonly activates the C1 or A5 neurons is hypoxia, which is also involved in breathing activation. Although pharmacological and optogenetic evidence suggests that catecholaminergic neurons also regulate breathing, a specific contribution of the bulbospinal neurons to respiratory control has not been demonstrated...
October 14, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032504/resistance-exercise-improves-cardiac-function-and-mitochondrial-efficiency-in-diabetic-rat-hearts
#15
Tae Hee Ko, Jubert C Marquez, Hyoung Kyu Kim, Seung Hun Jeong, SungRyul Lee, Jae Boum Youm, In Sung Song, Dae Yun Seo, Hye Jin Kim, Du Nam Won, Kyoung Im Cho, Mun Gi Choi, Byoung Doo Rhee, Kyung Soo Ko, Nari Kim, Jong Chul Won, Jin Han
Metabolic disturbance and mitochondrial dysfunction are a hallmark of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). Resistance exercise (RE) not only enhances the condition of healthy individuals but could also improve the status of those with disease. However, the beneficial effects of RE in the prevention of DC and mitochondrial dysfunction are uncertain. Therefore, this study investigated whether RE attenuates DC by improving mitochondrial function using an in vivo rat model of diabetes. Fourteen Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were assigned to sedentary control (SC, n = 7) and RE (n = 7) groups at 28 weeks of age...
October 14, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018988/circulating-chromogranin-a-and-its-fragments-as-diagnostic-and-prognostic-disease-markers
#16
REVIEW
Angelo Corti, Fabrizio Marcucci, Tiziana Bachetti
Chromogranin A (CgA), a secretory protein released in the blood by neuroendocrine cells and neurons, is the precursor of various bioactive fragments involved in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, metabolism, innate immunity, angiogenesis, and tissue repair. After the original demonstration that circulating CgA can serve as a biomarker for a wide range of neuroendocrine tumors, several studies have shown that increased levels of CgA can be present also in the blood of patients with cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and inflammatory diseases with, in certain cases, important diagnostic and prognostic implications...
October 10, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988317/identification-of-critical-amino-acids-in-the-proximal-c-terminal-of-trek-2-k-channel-for-activation-by-acidic-phi-and-atp-dependent-inhibition
#17
Joohan Woo, Young Keul Jun, Yin-Hua Zhang, Joo Hyun Nam, Dong Hoon Shin, Sung Joon Kim
TWIK-related two-pore domain K(+) channels (TREKs) are regulated by intracellular pH (pHi) and Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2). Previously, Glu(306) in proximal C-terminal (pCt) of mouse TREK-1 was identified as the pHi-sensing residue. The direction of PI(4,5)P2 sensitivity is controversial, and we have recently shown that TREKs are inhibited by intracellular ATP via endogenous PI(4,5)P2 formation. Here we investigate the anionic and cationic residues of pCt for the pHi and ATP-sensitivity in human TREK-2 (hTREK-2)...
October 8, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965274/pacap-signaling-in-stress-insights-from-the-chromaffin-cell
#18
REVIEW
Lee E Eiden, Andrew C Emery, Limei Zhang, Corey B Smith
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) was first identified in hypothalamus, based on its ability to elevate cyclic AMP in the anterior pituitary. PACAP has been identified as the adrenomedullary neurotransmitter in stress through a combination of ex vivo, in vivo, and in cellula experiments over the past two decades. PACAP causes catecholamine secretion, and activation of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes, during episodes of stress in mammals. Features of PACAP signaling allowing stress transduction at the splanchnicoadrenomedullary synapse have yielded insights into the contrasting roles of acetylcholine's and PACAP's actions as first messengers at the chromaffin cell, via differential release at low and high rates of splanchnic nerve firing, and differential signaling pathway engagement leading to catecholamine secretion and chromaffin cell gene transcription...
September 30, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963585/effects-of-eugenol-on-respiratory-burst-generation-in-newborn-rat-brainstem-spinal-cord-preparations
#19
Sayumi Kotani, Saki Irie, Masahiko Izumizaki, Hiroshi Onimaru
Eugenol is contained in several plants including clove and is used as an analgesic drug. In the peripheral and central nervous systems, this compound modulates neuronal activity through action on voltage-gated ionic channels and/or transient receptor potential channels. However, it is unknown whether eugenol exerts any effects on the respiratory center neurons in the medulla. We examined the effects of eugenol on respiratory rhythm generation in the brainstem-spinal cord preparation from newborn rat (P0-P3)...
September 29, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951968/amperometry-methods-for-monitoring-vesicular-quantal-size-and-regulation-of-exocytosis-release
#20
REVIEW
Hoda Fathali, Ann-Sofie Cans
Chemical signaling strength during intercellular communication can be regulated by secretory cells through controlling the amount of signaling molecules that are released from a secretory vesicle during the exocytosis process. In addition, the chemical signal can also be influenced by the amount of neurotransmitters that is accumulated and stored inside the secretory vesicle compartment. Here, we present the development of analytical methodologies and cell model systems that have been applied in neuroscience research for gaining better insights into the biophysics and the molecular mechanisms, which are involved in the regulatory aspects of the exocytosis machinery affecting the output signal of chemical transmission at neuronal and neuroendocrine cells...
September 27, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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