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Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology

Nati Hernando
The sorting and stabilization of proteins at specific subcellular domains depend upon the formation of networks build up by specific protein-protein interactions. In addition, protein networks also ensure the specificity of many regulatory processes by bringing together regulatory molecules with their targets. Whereas the success on the identification of protein-protein interactions is (up to a point) technology-driven, the assignment of functional roles to specific partners remains a major challenge. This review summarizes the work that led to the identification of partners of the Na+ /phosphate cotransporter NaPi-IIa as well as the effects of the interactions in the expression and/or regulation of the cotransporter...
July 18, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Alexandra S Muscher-Banse, Gerhard Breves
Ruminants have a unique utilization of phosphate (Pi ) based on the so-called endogenous Pi recycling to guarantee adequate Pi supply for ruminal microbial growth and for buffering short-chain fatty acids. Large amounts of Pi enter the gastrointestinal tract by salivary secretion. The high saliva Pi concentrations are generated by active secretion of Pi from blood into primary saliva via basolateral sodium (Na+ )-dependent Pi transporter type II. The following subsequent intestinal absorption of Pi is mainly carried out in the jejunum by the apical located secondary active Na+ -dependent Pi transporters NaPi IIb (SLC34A2) and PiT1 (SLC20A1)...
July 16, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Stefan J Schaller, Michio Nagashima, Martin Schönfelder, Tomoki Sasakawa, Fabian Schulz, Mohammed A S Khan, William R Kem, Gerhard Schneider, Jürgen Schlegel, Heidrun Lewald, Manfred Blobner, J A Jeevendra Martyn
Muscle changes of critical illness are attributed to systemic inflammatory responses and disuse atrophy. GTS-21 (3-(2,4-dimethoxy-benzylidene)anabaseine), also known as DMBX-A) is a synthetic derivative of the natural product anabaseine that acts as an agonist at α7-acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs). Hypothesis tested was that modulation of inflammation by agonist GTS-21 (10 mg/kg b.i.d. intraperitoneally) will attenuate body weight (BW) and muscle changes. Systemic sham inflammation was produced in 125 rats by Cornyebacterium parvum (C...
July 13, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Samiya Al-Robaiy, Anke Kindermann, Susanne Wodischeck, Andreas Simm, Hendrik Treede, Babett Bartling
The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is an immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule predominantly expressed in the lung, but its pulmonary importance is incompletely understood. Since RAGE alters the respiratory mechanics, which is also challenged by endurance running activity, we studied the RAGE-dependent effect of higher running activity on selected lung parameters in a long-term animal model using wild-type (WT) and RAGE knockout (RAGE-KO) mice. Higher long-term running activity of mice was ensured by providing a running wheel for 8 months...
July 7, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Alexei V Tepikin
Cellular organelles form multiple junctional complexes with one another and the emerging research area dealing with such structures and their functions is undergoing explosive growth. A new research journal named "Contact" has been recently established to facilitate the development of this research field. The current consensus is to define an organellar junction by the maximal distance between the participating organelles; and the gap of 30 nm or less is considered appropriate for classifying such structures as junctions or membrane contact sites...
July 7, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Logan K Townsend, David C Wright
The need for effective and convenient ways of combatting obesity has created great interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT). However, because adult humans have relatively little amounts of BAT, the possibility of browning white adipose tissue (WAT), i.e., switching the metabolism of WAT from an energy storing to energy burning organ, has gained considerable attention. Exercise has countless health benefits, and has consistently been shown to cause browning in rodent white adipose tissue. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of recent studies examining the effects of exercise and other interventions on the browning of white adipose tissue...
July 7, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Franziska Schuster, Gianna Huber, Ines Stölting, Emily E Wing, Kathrin Saar, Norbert Hübner, William A Banks, Walter Raasch
Obesity is a global health problem and treatment options are still insufficient. When chronically treated with the angiotensin II receptor blocker telmisartan (TEL), rodents do not develop diet-induced obesity (DIO). However, the underlying mechanism for this is still unclear. Here we investigated whether TEL prevents leptin resistance by enhancing leptin uptake across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To address this question, we fed C57BL/6 mice a high-fat diet (HFD) and treated them daily with TEL by oral gavage...
July 5, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Volodymyr V Balatskyi, Larysa L Macewicz, Ana-Maria Gan, Sergii V Goncharov, Paulina Pawelec, Georgiy V Portnichenko, Tetiana Yu Lapikova-Bryginska, Viktor O Navrulin, Victor E Dosenko, Adam Olichwier, Pawel Dobrzyn, Oksana O Piven
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The published paper presented an incorrect version of Table 1. The corrected Table is given here.
July 4, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Maksymilian Prondzynski, Giulia Mearini, Lucie Carrier
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited myocardial disease with an estimated prevalence of 1:200 caused by mutations in sarcomeric proteins. It is associated with hypertrophy of the left ventricle, increased interstitial fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction for heterozygous mutation carriers. Carriers of double heterozygous, compound heterozygous, and homozygous mutations often display more severe forms of cardiomyopathies, ultimately leading to premature death. So far, there is no curative treatment against HCM, as current therapies are focused on symptoms relief by pharmacological intervention and not on the cause of HCM...
July 3, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Arezoo Daryadel, Carla Bettoni, Thomas Haider, Pedro H Imenez Silva, Udo Schnitzbauer, Eva Maria Pastor-Arroyo, Roland H Wenger, Max Gassmann, Carsten A Wagner
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a major endocrine regulator of phosphate and 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 metabolism and is mainly produced by osteocytes. Its production is upregulated by a variety of factors including 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 , high dietary phosphate intake, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Recently, iron deficiency and hypoxia have been suggested as additional regulators of FGF23 and a role of erythropoietin (EPO) was shown. However, the regulation of FGF23 by EPO and the impact on phosphate and 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 are not completely understood...
July 2, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Caroline M Kristensen, Mette A Olsen, Henrik Jessen, Nina Brandt, Jacob N Meldgaard, Henriette Pilegaard
The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that PGC-1α is involved in the regulation of hepatic UPR and autophagy in response to both exercise and fasting in mice. Liver-specific PGC-1α knockout (LKO) mice and their floxed littermates (lox/lox) were used in two experimental parts. Liver and plasma were obtained from (1) fed and 18 h fasted mice and (2) immediately after, 2, 6, and 10 h after 1-h treadmill running as well as from resting mice, where one resting group was euthanized at time points corresponding to 0 and 2 h and another corresponding to 6 and 10 h of recovery...
June 30, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Yucong Xue, Honglin Li, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xue Han, Gaohua Zhang, Wenya Li, Huiran Zhang, Yue Lin, Pingping Chen, Xiaorun Sun, Yalei Liu, Li Chu, Jianping Zhang, Mingyun Zhang, Xuan Zhang
Natural flavonoids are ubiquitous in dietary plants and vegetables and have been proposed to have antiviral, antioxidant, cardiovascular protective, and anticancer effects. Volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs), which are essential for cell volume regulation, have been proposed to play a key role in cell proliferation and migration, apoptosis, transepithelial transport, and cancer development. In this study, we screened a group of 53 structurally related natural flavonoids and three synthetic flavonoids for their inhibitory activities on VRAC currents...
June 30, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Alexei V Tepikin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 30, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
S Hering, E-M Zangerl-Plessl, S Beyl, A Hohaus, S Andranovits, E N Timin
Tuned calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels is a key requirement for many cellular functions. This is ensured by channel gates which open during membrane depolarizations and seal the pore at rest. The gating process is determined by distinct sub-processes: movement of voltage-sensing domains (charged S4 segments) as well as opening and closure of S6 gates. Neutralization of S4 charges revealed that pore opening of CaV1.2 is triggered by a "gate releasing" movement of all four S4 segments with activation of IS4 (and IIIS4) being a rate-limiting stage...
June 27, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Anders Gudiksen, Lærke Bertholdt, Tomasz Stankiewicz, Ida Villesen, Jens Bangsbo, Peter Plomgaard, Henriette Pilegaard
The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of training state on fasting-induced skeletal muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) regulation, including PDH phosphorylation. Trained and untrained subjects, matched for skeletal muscle CS activity and OXPHOS protein, fasted for 36 h after receiving a standardized meal. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was measured and blood as well as vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained 2, 12, 24, and 36 h after the meal. RER decreased with fasting only in untrained individuals, while PDHa activity decreased from 12 h after the meal in untrained, but only tended to decrease at 36 h in trained...
June 26, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Sisi Zheng, Lijuan Zhou, Guolin Ma, Tian Zhang, Jindou Liu, Jia Li, Nhung T Nguyen, Xiaoyan Zhang, Wanjie Li, Robert Nwokonko, Yandong Zhou, Fukuan Zhao, Jingguo Liu, Yun Huang, Donald L Gill, Youjun Wang
Mediated through the combined action of STIM proteins and Orai channels, store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) functions ubiquitously among different cell types. The existence of multiple STIM and Orai genes has made it difficult to assign specific roles of each STIM and Orai homolog in mediating Ca2+ signals. Using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing tools, we generated cells with both STIM or all three Orai homologs deleted and directly monitored store Ca2+ and Ca2+ signals. We found that unstimulated, SOCE null KO cells still retain 50~70% of ER Ca2+ stores of wildtype (wt) cells...
June 22, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Dong Kun Lee, Jung Yeon Park, Jae Cheal Yoo, Eun Hye Byun, Yeon-Ju Bae, Young-Sun Lee, Nammi Park, Dawon Kang, Jaehee Han, Jae Yong Park, Eunmi Hwang, Seong-Geun Hong
Transient receptor-potential, cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 (TRPM4) channels regulate a variety of physiological and pathological processes; however, their roles as functional channels under diverse conditions remain unclear. In this study, cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 6 (PTPN6) interacted with TRPM4 channels. We confirmed their interaction by performing co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays following heterologous PTPN6 and TRPM4 channel expression in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, biomolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) image analysis confirmed TRPM4-PTPN6 binding...
June 21, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Adina Vultur, Christine S Gibhardt, Hedwig Stanisz, Ivan Bogeski
The important role of mitochondria in cancer biology is gaining momentum. With their regulation of cell survival, metabolism, basic cell building blocks, and immunity, among other functions, mitochondria affect not only cancer progression but also the response and resistance to current treatments. Calcium ions are constantly shuttled in and out of mitochondria; thus, playing an important role in the regulation of various cellular processes. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) channel and its associated regulators transport calcium across the inner mitochondrial membrane to the mitochondrial matrix...
June 21, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Andrés M Baraibar, Ricardo de Pascual, Marcial Camacho, Natalia Domínguez, J David Machado, Luis Gandía, Ricardo Borges
Three divalent cations can elicit secretory responses in most neuroendocrine cells, including chromaffin cells. The extent to which secretion is elicited by the cations in intact depolarized cells was Ba2+  > Sr2+  ≥ Ca2+ , contrasting with that elicited by these cations in permeabilized cells (Ca2+  > Sr2+  > Ba2+ ). Current-clamp recordings show that extracellular Sr2+ and Ba2+ cause membrane depolarization and action potentials, which are not blocked by Cd2+ but that can be mimicked by tetra-ethyl-ammonium...
June 21, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Fabián Campos, Johanna Abrigo, Francisco Aguirre, Bruno Garcés, Marco Arrese, Saul Karpen, Daniel Cabrera, Marcelo E Andía, Felipe Simon, Claudio Cabello-Verrugio
Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and strength produced by aging or secondary to chronic diseases such as chronic liver disease (CLD). Although not all types of sarcopenia involve the same features, the most common are decreased fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain (MHC) levels, increased activity of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we aim to characterize the development of sarcopenia secondary to CLD induced by the hepatotoxin 5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC)...
June 20, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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