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Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology

Joanna Kalucka, Laura Bierhansl, Ben Wielockx, Peter Carmeliet, Guy Eelen
Angiogenesis and inflammation go hand in hand in various (patho-)physiological conditions. Several studies have highlighted the interconnection between endothelial cells (ECs) and macrophages in these conditions at the level of growth factor and cytokine signaling, yet the importance of metabolism and metabolic signaling has been largely overlooked. Modulating macrophage and/or endothelial functions by interfering with metabolic pathways offers new perspectives for therapeutic strategies. In this review, we highlight the complexity of the interrelationship between the inflammatory response and angiogenesis...
February 24, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Sven Wehner, Daniel Robert Engel
Macrophages reside in a dense cellular network in the intestinal muscularis externa, and there is emerging evidence that the functionality of these cells determines the local microenvironment. Inflammatory responses during intestinal diseases change the homeostatic functionality of these cells causing inflammation and intestinal dysmotility. Such disturbances are not only induced by a change in the cellular composition in the intestinal muscularis but also by an altered crosstalk with the peripheral and central nervous system...
February 24, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Christina Oxlund, Birgül Kurt, Ilona Schwarzensteiner, Mie R Hansen, Mette Stæhr, Per Svenningsen, Ib A Jacobsen, Pernille B Hansen, Anne D Thuesen, Anja Toft, Gitte R Hinrichs, Claus Bistrup, Boye L Jensen
The proteinase prostasin is a candidate mediator for aldosterone-driven proteolytic activation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). It was hypothesized that the aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) pathway stimulates prostasin abundance in kidney and urine. Prostasin was measured in plasma and urine from type 2 diabetic patients with resistant hypertension (n = 112) randomized to spironolactone/placebo in a clinical trial. Prostasin protein level was assessed by immunoblotting in (1) human and rat urines with/without nephrotic syndrome, (2) human nephrectomy tissue, (3) urine and kidney from aldosterone synthase-deficient (AS(-/-)) mice and ANGII- and aldosterone-infused mice, and in (4) kidney from adrenalectomized rats...
February 24, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Mario A R Lauterbach, F Thomas Wunderlich
The steadily increasing obesity epidemic affects currently 30% of western populations and is causative for numerous disorders. It has been demonstrated that immune cells such as macrophages reside in or infiltrate metabolic organs under obese conditions and cause the so-called low-grade inflammation or metaflammation that impairs insulin action thus leading to the development of insulin resistance. Here, we report on data that specifically address macrophage biology/physiology in obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance...
February 23, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Holly R Chinnery, Paul G McMenamin, Samantha J Dando
The eye is a complex sensory organ composed of a range of tissue types including epithelia, connective tissue, smooth muscle, vascular and neural tissue. While some components of the eye require a high level of transparency to allow light to pass through unobstructed, other tissues are characterized by their dense pigmentation, which functions to absorb light and thus control its passage through the ocular structures. Macrophages are present in all ocular tissues, from the cornea at the anterior surface through to the choroid/sclera at the posterior pole...
February 23, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Diana A Yanez, Richard K Lacher, Aurobind Vidyarthi, Oscar R Colegio
The skin and its appendages comprise the largest and fastest growing organ in the body. It performs multiple tasks and maintains homeostatic control, including the regulation of body temperature and protection from desiccation and from pathogen invasion. The skin can perform its functions with the assistance of different immune cell populations. Monocyte-derived cells are imperative for the completion of these tasks. The comprehensive role of macrophages and Langerhans cells in establishing and maintaining skin homeostasis remains incompletely defined...
February 23, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Stoyan Ivanov, Gwendalyn J Randolph
The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is indispensable for health. In particular, removal of toxic compounds from cells and organs is a vital process for the organism. The lymphatic vasculature works in order to ensure the efficient removal of tissue waste. Forbidden over the last decade when more attention was paid to the blood vasculature, studies on the lymphatic vasculature have gained momentum during the last couple of years. The lymphatic vasculature naturally runs parallel to the blood vasculature and their synergistic work is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis...
February 20, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Anna Hammer, Johannes Stegbauer, Ralf A Linker
Macrophages are essential players of the innate immune system which are involved in the initiation and progression of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases including neuroinflammation. In the past few years, it has become increasingly clear that the regulation of macrophage responses by the local tissue milieu is also influenced by mediators which were first discovered as regulators in the nervous or also cardiovascular system. Here, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a major focus of current research...
February 11, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Olga Zavaritskaya, Lubomir T Lubomirov, Serdar Altay, Rudolf Schubert
The Src tyrosine kinase family contributes to the signalling mechanism mediating serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT))-induced vasoconstriction. These kinases were reported to influence the calcium sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. Whether Src kinases affect also the intracellular calcium concentration during constriction of intact arteries is unknown. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that constriction of arteries is associated with a Src kinase-dependent alteration of the intracellular calcium concentration...
February 11, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Siamon Gordon, Luisa Martinez-Pomares
Macrophages are present in mammals from midgestation, contributing to physiologic homeostasis throughout life. Macrophages arise from yolk sac and foetal liver progenitors during embryonic development in the mouse and persist in different organs as heterogeneous, self-renewing tissue-resident populations. Bone marrow-derived blood monocytes are recruited after birth to replenish tissue-resident populations and to meet further demands during inflammation, infection and metabolic perturbations. Macrophages of mixed origin and different locations vary in replication and turnover, but are all active in mRNA and protein synthesis, fulfilling organ-specific and systemic trophic functions, in addition to host defence...
February 9, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Anna C Aschenbrenner, Joachim L Schultze
Tissue macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages are under continuous influence from environmental signals that define their activation status. Along these lines, macrophages integrate tissue and stress signals and are specifically programmed by these signals towards a spectrum of functions necessary to fulfill their duty within their particular microenvironment, be it homeostatic tissue function, response to inflammatory pathophysiology, or even resolution of an inflammation. Recent years have seen tremendous progress in our understanding how macrophages at different sites are transcriptionally and epigenetically programmed to execute their diverse tasks throughout the body...
February 9, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Mark D Wright, Katrina J Binger
Macrophages are heterogeneous innate immune cells which are important in both the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and its disruption, by promoting tissue inflammation and fibrosis. The renin-angiotensin system is central to the pathophysiology of a large suite of diseases, which are driven in part by large amounts of tissue inflammation and fibrosis. Here, we review recent advances in understanding macrophage heterogeneity in origin and function, and how these may lead to new insights into the pathogenesis of these chronic diseases...
February 8, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Agnieszka Koziel, Wieslawa Jarmuszkiewicz
The goal of our study was to assess the influence of chronic exposure to hypoxia on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926 line) cultured for 6 days at 1% O2 tension. The hypoxia-induced effects were elucidated at the cellular and isolated mitochondria levels. Hypoxia elevated fermentation but did not change mitochondrial biogenesis or the aerobic respiratory capacity of endothelial cells. In endothelial cells, hypoxia caused a general decrease in mitochondrial respiration during carbohydrate, fatty acid, and amino acid oxidation but increased exclusively ketogenic amino acid oxidation...
February 8, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
E Albiñana, J G Luengo, A M Baraibar, M D Muñoz, L Gandía, J M Solís, J M Hernández-Guijo
Choline is present at cholinergic synapses as a product of acetylcholine degradation. In addition, it is considered a selective agonist for α5 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In this study, we determined how choline affects action potentials and excitatory synaptic transmission using extracellular and intracellular recording techniques in CA1 area of hippocampal slices obtained from both mice and rats. Choline caused a reversible depression of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in a concentration-dependent manner that was not affected by α7 nAChR antagonists...
February 8, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Clement Cochain, Alma Zernecke
Atherosclerosis is characterized by lipid accumulation and chronic inflammation of the arterial wall, and its main complications-myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke-together constitute the first cause of death worldwide. Accumulation of lipid-laden macrophage foam cells in the intima of inflamed arteries has long been recognized as a hallmark of atherosclerosis. However, in recent years, an unexpected complexity in the mechanisms of macrophage accumulation in lesions, in the protective and pathogenic functions performed by macrophages and how they are regulated has been uncovered...
February 6, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Petra Kleinbongard, Andreas Skyschally, Gerd Heusch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Jinhong Wie, SeungJoo Jeong, Misun Kwak, Jongyun Myeong, MeeRee Chae, Jong Kwan Park, Sung Won Lee, Insuk So
The transient receptor potential (TRP) protein superfamily consists of a diverse group of cation channels that bear structural similarities to the fruit fly Drosophila TRP. The TRP superfamily is distinct from other groups of ion channels in displaying a large diversity in ion selectivity, modes of activation, and physiological functions. Classical TRP (transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC)) channels are activated by stimulation of Gq-PLC-coupled receptors and modulated by phosphorylation. The cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-PKG pathway is involved in the regulation of TRPC3 and TRPC6 channels...
January 26, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Shuai Guo, Yafei Chen, Chunli Pang, Xuzhao Wang, Jinlong Qi, Li Mo, Hailin Zhang, Hailong An, Yong Zhan
Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) play important roles in many physiological processes, and the molecular basis of CaCCs has been identified as TMEM16A in many cell types. It is well established that TMEM16A is a drug target in many diseases, including cystic fibrosis, hypertension, asthma, and various tumors. Therefore, identifying potent and specific modulators of the TMEM16A channel is crucial. In this study, we identified the first natural activator of TMEM16A from traditional Chinese medicine and explored its mechanism...
January 25, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Kunihiro Sakuma, Wataru Aoi, Akihiko Yamaguchi
Skeletal muscle provides a fundamental basis for human function, enabling locomotion and respiration. Muscle loss occurs as a consequence of several chronic diseases (cachexia) and normal aging (sarcopenia). Although many negative regulators (atrogin-1, muscle ring finger-1, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), myostatin, etc.) have been proposed to enhance protein degradation during both sarcopenia and cachexia, the adaptation of these mediators markedly differs within both conditions. Sarcopenia and cachectic muscles have been demonstrated to be abundant in myostatin-linked molecules...
January 19, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Hikaru Hashitani, Michael J Nguyen, Haruka Noda, Retsu Mitsui, Ryuhei Higashi, Keisuke Ohta, Kei-Ichiro Nakamura, Richard J Lang
Typical and atypical smooth muscle cells (TSMCs and ASMCs, respectively) and interstitial cells (ICs) within the pacemaker region of the mouse renal pelvis were examined using focused ion beam scanning electron (FIB SEM) tomography, immunohistochemistry and Ca(2+) imaging. Individual cells within 500-900 electron micrograph stacks were volume rendered and associations with their neighbours established. 'Ribbon-shaped', Ano1 Cl(-) channel immuno-reactive ICs were present in the adventitia and the sub-urothelial space adjacent to the TSMC layer...
January 4, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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