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Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology

Francisco J Arjona, Femke Latta, Sami G Mohammed, Michael Thomassen, Erwin van Wijk, René J M Bindels, Joost G J Hoenderop, Jeroen H F de Baaij
Solute carrier family 41 member A1 (SLC41A1) has been suggested to mediate magnesium (Mg2+ ) transport by several in vitro studies. However, the physiological function of SLC41A1 remains to be elucidated. In this study, cellular Mg2+ transport assays combined with zebrafish slc41a1 knockdown experiments were performed to disclose SLC41A1 function and its physiological relevance. The gene slc41a1 is ubiquitously expressed in zebrafish tissues and is regulated by water and dietary Mg2+ availability. Knockdown of slc41a1 in zebrafish larvae grown in a Mg2+ -free medium resulted in a unique phenotype characterized by a decrease in zebrafish Mg content...
November 12, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Kefan Yang, Ina Coburger, Johanna M Langner, Nicole Peter, Toshinori Hoshi, Roland Schönherr, Stefan H Heinemann
Fast N-type inactivation of voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels is important in fine-tuning of cellular excitability. To serve diverse cellular needs, N-type inactivation is regulated by numerous mechanisms. Here, we address how reactive sulfur species-the gaseous messenger H2 S and polysulfides-affect N-type inactivation of the mammalian Kv channels Kv1.4 and Kv3.4. In both channels, the H2 S donor NaHS slowed down inactivation with varying potency depending on the "aging" of NaHS solution. Polysulfides were > 1000 times more effective than NaHS with the potency increasing with the number of sulfur atoms (Na2 S2  < Na2 S3  < Na2 S4 )...
November 10, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Yingxue Cao, Yi Guan, Yun-Yu Xu, Chuan-Ming Hao
Prostacyclin, or PGI2 , is a product of PGI synthase (PGIS), down-stream of cyclooxygenase pathway. PGI2 has been demonstrated to play an important role in maintaining renal blood flow. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that inhibit cyclooxygenase are reported to increase the susceptibility of patients to acute kidney injury (AKI). This study explores the role of endothelium-derived prostacyclin in ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/RI). The renal PGIS expression and PGI2 production markedly increased following I/RI...
November 9, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Fadi H Mourad, Kassem A Barada, Nayef E Saade
Nutrients in the lumen of the small intestine are sensed by special cells in the epithelial lining. The ensuing neurohumoral reflexes affect gastrointestinal absorption/secretion, motility, and vascular perfusion. To study in vivo the effect of a monosaccharide (glucose) or polysaccharide (starch) present in the jejunum on glucose absorption from an adjacent part of the intestine and investigate the possible underlying mechanisms. Using the single pass intraluminal perfusion technique, a segment of jejunum (perfusion segment) was continuously perfused with 20 mM glucose to determine glucose absorption...
November 6, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Oliver H Wittekindt, Paul Dietl
The lung is the interface between air and blood where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs. The surface liquid that is directly exposed to the gaseous compartment covers both conducting airways and respiratory zone and forms the air-liquid interface. The barrier that separates this lining fluid of the airways and alveoli from the extracellular compartment is the pulmonary epithelium. The volume of the lining fluid must be kept in a range that guarantees an appropriate gas exchange and other functions, such as mucociliary clearance...
November 5, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Grégory Jacquillet, Robert J Unwin
Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an abundant element in the body and is essential for a wide variety of key biological processes. It plays an essential role in cellular energy metabolism and cell signalling, e.g. adenosine and guanosine triphosphates (ATP, GTP), and in the composition of phospholipid membranes and bone, and is an integral part of DNA and RNA. It is an important buffer in blood and urine and contributes to normal acid-base balance. Given its widespread role in almost every molecular and cellular function, changes in serum Pi levels and balance can have important and untoward effects...
November 5, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Dominik Langgartner, Christopher A Lowry, Stefan O Reber
There is a considerable body of evidence indicating that chronic adverse experience, especially chronic psychosocial stress/trauma, represents a major risk factor for the development of many somatic and affective disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the mechanisms underlying the development of chronic stress-associated disorders are still in large part unknown, and current treatment and prevention strategies lack efficacy and reliability. A greater understanding of mechanisms involved in the development and persistence of chronic stress-induced disorders may lead to novel approaches to prevention and treatment of these disorders...
November 1, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Richard J Marszalek, R John Solaro, Beata M Wolska
Alterations in the coronary vascular system are likely associated with a mismatch between energy demand and energy supply and critical in triggering the cascade of events that leads to symptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Targeting the early events, particularly vascular remodeling, may be a key approach to developing effective treatments. Improvement in our understanding of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy began with the results of early biophysical studies, proceeded to genetic analyses pinpointing the mutational origin, and now pertains to imaging of the metabolic and flow-related consequences of such mutations...
October 29, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Yuho Kim, Matthew Triolo, Avigail T Erlich, David A Hood
Autophagy and mitophagy are important for training-inducible muscle adaptations, yet it remains unclear how these systems are regulated throughout the adaptation process. Here, we studied autophagic and mitophagic flux in the skeletal muscles of Sprague-Dawley rats (300-500 g) exposed to chronic contractile activity (CCA; 3 h/day, 9 V, 10 Hz continuous, 0.1 ms pulse duration) for 1, 2, 5, and 7 days (N = 6-8/group). In order to determine the flux rates, colchicine (COL; 0.4 mg/ml/kg) was injected 48 h before tissue collection, and we evaluated differences of autophagosomal protein abundances (LC3-II and p62) between colchicine- and saline-injected animals...
October 27, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Tian-Tian Zhu, Rui-Li Sun, Ya-Ling Yin, Jin-Ping Quan, Ping Song, Jian Xu, Ming-Xiang Zhang, Peng Li
Our study explored the effects of lncRNA UCA1 on the proliferation and apoptosis in hypoxic human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs) and highlighted the endogenous relationship between UCA1, ING5, and hnRNP I in cell proliferation. Hypoxia-induced HPASMCs were used to simulate pulmonary arterial hypertension in vitro. Microarray assay was adopted to screen the dysregulated expressed lncRNAs in HPASMCs to find out the target gene of our study. And RT-qPCR was performed to detect the expression of lncRNA UCA1 under hypoxia and normoxia...
October 23, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Pia Lenzig, Monika Wirtz, Dominik Wiemuth
Despite the identification of cholangiocytes in the liver and unipolar brush cells in the cerebellum as sites of expression, the physiological function of the bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) remains unknown. Rat BASIC (rBASIC) and mouse BASIC (mBASIC) share 97% of their amino acid sequence but show strikingly different biophysical properties. rBASIC is inactive at rest while mBASIC is constitutively active, when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. This conundrum rendered the identification of the physiological function even more difficult...
October 23, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Lívia Harumi Yamashiro, Glória Emília Petto de Souza, Denis de Melo Soares
The classic model of fever induction is based on the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria in experimental animals. LPS-induced fever results in the synthesis/release of many mediators that assemble an LPS-fever cascade. We have previously demonstrated that cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, a Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR) + chemokine, centrally administered to rats, induces fever and increases prostaglandin E2 in the cerebrospinal fluid. We now attempt to investigate the involvement of CINC-1 and its functional receptor CXCR2 on the fever induced by exogenous and endogenous pyrogens in rats...
October 22, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Georgia Wingfield, Frank E Marino, Melissa Skein
Pacing during exercise performance is well-established; however, little is known about the neural responses associated with changes in power output and the effect of exercise end-point knowledge. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of deception of cycling distance on pacing, cerebral oxy- (O2 Hb) and deoxy-haemoglobin concentrations, and alpha (α) wave activity. Ten well-trained male cyclists (23.7 ± 6.6 years) completed three cycling time trials (TT) on a stationary air-braked cycle ergometer and were informed the study was to examine the reliability of 3 × 30-km TT...
October 20, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Joanne Marks
There has recently been significant interest in the concept of directly targeting intestinal phosphate transport to control hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, we do not have a complete understanding of the cellular mechanisms that govern dietary phosphate absorption. Studies in the 1970s documented both active and passive pathways for intestinal phosphate absorption. However, following the cloning of the intestinal SLC34 cotransporter, NaPi-IIb, much of the research focused on the role of this protein in active transcellular phosphate absorption and the factors involved in its regulation...
October 20, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Cora Weigert, Miriam Hoene, Peter Plomgaard
Regular physical activity not only improves the exercise capacity of the skeletal muscle performing the contractions, but it is beneficial for the whole body. An extensive search for "exercise factors" mediating these beneficial effects has been going on for decades. Particularly skeletal muscle tissue has been investigated as a source of circulating exercise factors, and several myokines have been identified. However, exercise also has an impact on other tissues. The liver is interposed between energy storing and energy utilising tissues and is highly active during exercise, maintaining energy homeostasis...
October 18, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Thomas Eschenhagen, Lucie Carrier
Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) can be differentiated to cardiomyocytes at high efficiency and are increasingly used to study cardiac disease in a human context. This review evaluated 38 studies on hypertrophic (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) of different genetic causes asking to which extent published data allow the definition of an in vitro HCM/DCM hiPSC-CM phenotype. The data are put in context with the prevailing hypotheses on HCM/DCM dysfunction and pathophysiology. Relatively consistent findings in HCM not reported in DCM were larger cell size (156 ± 85%, n = 15), more nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT; 175 ± 65%, n = 3), and higher β-myosin heavy chain gene expression levels (500 ± 547%, n = 8) than respective controls...
October 15, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Armin Kurtz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Marina Casimir, Gaelle Chaffard, Pierre Maechler
The clonal INS-1E beta-cell line has proven to be instrumental for numerous studies investigating the mechanisms of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The composition of its culture medium has not changed over the years, although some compounds have been recently highlighted for their effects on tissue differentiation. The present study investigated the effects of long-term treatment of INS-1E cells with 1 μM resveratrol on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, testing an extended glucose dose response...
October 11, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Marc Francaux, Louise Deldicque
During the course of life, muscle mass undergoes many changes in terms of quantity and quality. Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue able to hypertrophy or atrophy according to growth, ageing, physical activity, nutrition and health state. The purpose of the present review is to present the mechanisms by which exercise can induce changes in human skeletal muscle mass by modulating protein balance and regulating the fate of satellite cells. Exercise is known to exert transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulations as well as to induce epigenetic modifications and to control messenger RNA stability, which all contribute to the regulation of protein synthesis...
October 11, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Takuro Numaga-Tomita, Sayaka Oda, Kazuhiro Nishiyama, Tomohiro Tanaka, Akiyuki Nishimura, Motohiro Nishida
Physical exercise yields beneficial effects on all types of muscle cells, which are essential for the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis and good blood circulation. Daily moderate exercise increases systemic antioxidative capacity, which can lead to the prevention of the onset and progression of oxidative stress-related diseases. Therefore, exercise is now widely accepted as one of the best therapeutic strategies for the treatment of ischemic (hypoxic) diseases. Canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) proteins are non-selective cation channels activated by mechanical stress and/or stimulation of phospholipase C-coupled surface receptors...
October 8, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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