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Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924355/avp-dynamically-increases-paracellular-na-permeability-and-transcellular-nacl-transport-in-the-medullary-thick-ascending-limb-of-henle-s-loop
#1
REVIEW
Nina Himmerkus, Allein Plain, Rita D Marques, Svenja R Sonntag, Alexander Paliege, Jens Leipziger, Markus Bleich
The medullary thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (mTAL) is crucial for urine-concentrating ability of the kidney. It is water tight and able to dilute the luminal fluid by active transcellular NaCl transport, fueling the counter current mechanism by increasing interstitial osmolality. While chloride is exclusively transported transcellularly, approx. 50% of sodium transport occurs via the paracellular route, driven by the lumen-positive transepithelial potential. Antidiuretic hormone (AVP) is known to increase active NaCl transport to support collecting duct water reabsorption...
December 6, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924354/physiology-pathophysiology-and-clinical-impact-of-claudins
#2
EDITORIAL
Markus Bleich, Dorothee Günzel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921211/helix-o-modulates-voltage-dependency-of-clc-1
#3
Ju Yong Seong, Kotdaji Ha, Chansik Hong, Jongyun Myeong, Hyun-Ho Lim, Dongki Yang, Insuk So
The chloride channel (CLC) family of proteins consists of channels and transporters that share similarities in architecture and play essential roles in physiological functions. Among the CLC family, CLC-1 channels have the representative homodimeric double-barreled structure carrying two gating processes. One is protopore gating that acts on each pore independently by glutamate residue (Eext). The other is common gating that closes both pores simultaneously in association with large conformational changes across each subunit...
December 5, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921210/tight-junctions-in-pulmonary-epithelia-during-lung-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
Oliver H Wittekindt
Inflammatory lung diseases like asthma bronchiale, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allergic airway inflammation are widespread public diseases that constitute an enormous burden to the health systems. Mainly classified as inflammatory diseases, the treatment focuses on strategies interfering with local inflammatory responses by the immune system. Inflammatory lung diseases predispose patients to severe lung failures like alveolar oedema, respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury. These life-threatening syndromes are caused by increased permeability of the alveolar and airway epithelium and exudate formation...
December 5, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915449/common-variants-in-cldn14-are-associated-with-differential-excretion-of-magnesium-over-calcium-in-urine
#5
REVIEW
Tanguy Corre, Eric Olinger, Sarah E Harris, Michela Traglia, Sheila Ulivi, Stefania Lenarduzzi, Hendrica Belge, Sonia Youhanna, Natsuko Tokonami, Olivier Bonny, Pascal Houillier, Ozren Polasek, Ian J Deary, John M Starr, Daniela Toniolo, Paolo Gasparini, Peter Vollenweider, Caroline Hayward, Murielle Bochud, Olivier Devuyst
The nature and importance of genetic factors regulating the differential handling of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) by the renal tubule in the general population are poorly defined. We conducted a genome-wide meta-analysis of urinary magnesium-to-calcium ratio to identify associated common genetic variants. We included 9320 adults of European descent from four genetic isolates and three urban cohorts. Urinary magnesium and calcium concentrations were measured centrally in spot urine, and each study conducted linear regression analysis of urinary magnesium-to-calcium ratio on ~2...
December 3, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904960/active-and-passive-involvement-of-claudins-in-the-pathophysiology-of-intestinal-inflammatory-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Christian Barmeyer, Michael Fromm, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke
Intestinal inflammatory diseases, four of which are discussed here, are associated with alterations of claudins. In ulcerative colitis, diarrhea and antigen entry into the mucosa occurs. Claudin-2 is upregulated but data on other claudins are still limited or vary (e.g., claudin-1 and -4). Apart from that, tight junction changes contribute to diarrhea via a leak flux mechanism, while protection against antigen entry disappears behind epithelial gross lesions (erosions) and apoptotic foci. Crohn's disease is additionally characterized by a claudin-5 and claudin-8 reduction which plays an active role in antigen uptake already before gross lesions appear...
November 30, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900462/effects-of-a-trpv1-agonist-capsaicin-on-respiratory-rhythm-generation-in-brainstem-spinal-cord-preparation-from-newborn-rats
#7
Mariho Tani, Sayumi Kotani, Chikara Hayakawa, Shih-Tien Lin, Saki Irie, Keiko Ikeda, Kiyoshi Kawakami, Hiroshi Onimaru
The heat-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels are expressed in the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, there is no report on how the activation of TRPV1 causes the modulation of neuronal activity in the medullary respiratory center. We examined effects of capsaicin, a specific agonist of TRPV1 channels, on respiratory rhythm generation in brainstem-spinal cord preparation from newborn rats. Capsaicin induced a biphasic response in the respiratory rhythm (a transient decrease followed by an increase in the C4 rate)...
November 29, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888337/claudins-vital-partners-in-transcellular-and-paracellular-transport-coupling
#8
REVIEW
Dorothee Günzel
Tight junction (TJ) strands between epithelial or endothelial cells are formed by claudins, a protein family comprising up to 27 members in mammals. Although many more proteins are involved in the formation of TJ complexes, claudins are the only TJ proteins that are able to form TJ-like strands when overexpressed in cells that are normally devoid of TJs (e.g., fibroblasts). Within the paracellular cleft, the extracellular domains of claudins provide the matrix that seals the paracellular pathway. However, within this matrix, some claudins act as channels that specifically allow certain ions to cross this barrier...
November 25, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885488/claudins-in-viral-infection-from-entry-to-spread
#9
REVIEW
Che C Colpitts, Thomas F Baumert
Tight junctions are critically important for many physiological functions, including the maintenance of cell polarity, regulation of paracellular permeability, and involvement in signal transduction pathways to regulate integral cellular processes. Furthermore, tight junctions enable epithelial cells to form physical barriers, which act as an innate immune mechanism that can impede viral infection. Viruses, in turn, have evolved mechanisms to exploit tight junction proteins to gain access to cells or spread through tissues in an infected host...
November 24, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878608/claudins-in-barrier-and-transport-function-the-kidney
#10
REVIEW
Yongfeng Gong, Jianghui Hou
Claudins are discovered to be key players in renal epithelial physiology. They are involved in developmental, physiological, and pathophysiological differentiation. In the glomerular podocytes, claudin-1 is an important determinant of cell junction fate. In the proximal tubule, claudin-2 plays important roles in paracellular salt reabsorption. In the thick ascending limb, claudin-14, -16, and -19 regulate the paracellular reabsorption of calcium and magnesium. Recessive mutations in claudin-16 or -19 cause an inherited calcium and magnesium losing disease...
November 23, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866274/ryanodine-receptor-type-3-does-not-contribute-to-contractions-in-the-mouse-myometrium-regardless-of-pregnancy
#11
Katsuhito Matsuki, Masashi Takemoto, Yoshiaki Suzuki, Hisao Yamamura, Susumu Ohya, Hiroshi Takeshima, Yuji Imaizumi
Ryanodine receptor type 3 (RyR3) is expressed in myometrial smooth muscle cells (MSMCs). The short isoform of RyR3 is a dominant negative variant (DN-RyR3) and negatively regulates the functions of RyR2 and full-length (FL)-RyR3. DN-RyR3 has been suggested to function as a major RyR3 isoform in non-pregnant (NP) mouse MSMCs, and FL-RyR3 may also be upregulated during pregnancy (P). This increase in the FL-RyR3/DN-RyR3 ratio may contribute to the strong contractions by MSMCs for parturition. In the present study, spontaneous contractions by the myometrium in NP and P mice were highly susceptible to nifedipine but were not affected by ryanodine...
November 20, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864644/targeting-and-alteration-of-tight-junctions-by-bacteria-and-their-virulence-factors-such-as-clostridium-perfringens-enterotoxin
#12
REVIEW
Miriam Eichner, Jonas Protze, Anna Piontek, Gerd Krause, Jörg Piontek
The integrity of tight junctions, which regulate paracellular permeability, is challenged by many bacterial pathogens. This is caused by inflammatory responses triggered by pathogens and direct interaction of bacteria or their toxins with host epithelial cells. In some cases, tight junction proteins represent receptors for cell surface proteins or toxins of the pathogen, such as Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE). CPE causes diarrhea and cramps-the symptoms of a common foodborne illness, caused by C...
November 18, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853878/tight-junctions-in-skin-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
Katja Bäsler, Johanna M Brandner
Inflammation of the skin is found after various external stimuli, e.g., UV radiation, allergen uptake, microbial challenge, or contact with irritants, as well as due to intrinsic, not always well-defined, stimuli, e.g., in autoimmune responses. Often, it is also triggered by a combination of both. The specific processes, which mean the kind of cytokines and immune cells involved and the extent of the reaction, depend not only on the trigger but also on the predisposition of the individual. Tight junctions (TJs) in the skin have been shown to form a barrier in the granular cell layer of the epidermis...
November 16, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629072/roles-of-the-first-generation-claudin-binder-clostridium-perfringens-enterotoxin-in-the-diagnosis-and-claudin-targeted-treatment-of-epithelium-derived-cancers
#14
Yosuke Hashimoto, Kiyohito Yagi, Masuo Kondoh
Given that most malignant tumors are derived from epithelium, developing a strategy for treatment of epithelium-derived cancers (i.e., carcinomas) is a pivotal issue in cancer therapy. Carcinomas, including ovarian, breast, prostate, and pancreatic cancers, are known to overexpress various claudins (CLDNs); in particular, CLDN-3 and -4 are frequently overexpressed in malignant case. The generation of CLDN binders is a key for expanding CLDN-targeted cancer therapy but has been delayed due to the small size of CLDN extracellular domains (approximately 50 amino acids for the first domain and 15 amino acids for the second) and their high homology among species...
September 15, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624415/claudins-in-cancer-bench-to-bedside
#15
Makoto Osanai, Akira Takasawa, Masaki Murata, Norimasa Sawada
The claudin family, in mammals, encoded by at least 27 members of a single ancestral gene, CLDN, is the main constituent as integral membrane proteins of tight junctions. It has been shown that the expression levels of claudins are often decreased or that their expressions are absent in human neoplasias. These findings are consistent with the well-accepted concept that carcinogenesis is accompanied by the disruption or loss of functional tight junctions. In contrast, accumulating data have showed elevated or aberrant expression of claudins in various cancers, indicating specific roles of claudins in tumorigenesis...
September 13, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896430/myosin-light-chain-phosphorylation-is-required-for-peak-power-output-of-mouse-fast-skeletal-muscle-in-vitro
#16
Joshua Bowslaugh, William Gittings, Rene Vandenboom
The skeletal myosin light chain kinase (skMLCK) catalyzed phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) is associated with potentiation of force, work, and power in rodent fast twitch muscle. The purpose of this study was to compare concentric responses of EDL from wild-type (WT) and skMLCK devoid (skMLCK(-/-)) muscles at a range of shortening speeds (0.05 to 0.70 V max) around that expected to produce maximal power (in vitro, 25 °C) both before (unpotentiated) and after (potentiated) a potentiating stimulus (PS)...
November 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889824/erratum-to-counter-flow-suggests-transport-of-dantrolene-and-5-oh-dantrolene-by-the-organic-anion-transporters-2-oat2-and-3-oat3
#17
Birgitta C Burckhardt, Maja Henjakovic, Yohannes Hagos, Gerhard Burckhardt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885489/acknowledgment-to-referees
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866273/omeprazole-suppressed-plasma-magnesium-level-and-duodenal-magnesium-absorption-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#19
Narongrit Thongon, Jirawat Penguy, Sasikan Kulwong, Kanyanat Khongmueang, Matthana Thongma
Hypomagnesemia is the most concerned side effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in chronic users. However, the mechanism of PPIs-induced systemic Mg(2+) deficit is currently unclear. The present study aimed to elucidate the direct effect of short-term and long-term PPIs administrations on whole body Mg(2+) homeostasis and duodenal Mg(2+) absorption in rats. Mg(2+) homeostasis was studied by determining the serum Mg(2+) level, urine and fecal Mg(2+) excretions, and bone and muscle Mg(2+) contents. Duodenal Mg(2+) absorption as well as paracellular charge selectivity were studied...
November 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838849/activation-of-the-ca-2-sensing-receptors-increases-currents-through-inward-rectifier-k-channels-via-activation-of-phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase
#20
Chung-Hung Liu, Hsueh-Kai Chang, Sue-Ping Lee, Ru-Chi Shieh
Inward rectifier K(+) channels are important for maintaining normal electrical function in many cell types. The proper function of these channels requires the presence of membrane phosphoinositide 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Stimulation of the Ca(2+)-sensing receptor CaR, a pleiotropic G protein-coupled receptor, activates both Gq/11, which decreases PIP2, and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI-4-K), which, conversely, increases PIP2. How membrane PIP2 levels are regulated by CaR activation and whether these changes modulate inward rectifier K(+) are unknown...
November 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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