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Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology

Chun-Hsiang Tan, Peter A McNaughton
The abilities to detect warmth and heat are critical for the survival of all animals, both in order to be able to identify suitable thermal environments for the many different activities essential for life and to avoid damage caused by extremes of temperature. Several ion channels belonging to the TRP family are activated by non-noxious warmth or by heat and are therefore plausible candidates for thermal detectors, but identifying those that actually regulate warmth and heat detection in intact animals has proven problematic...
March 19, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Marta Aleksandrowicz, Ewa Kozniewska
Vasopressin (arginine vasopressin, AVP) plays a crucial role in maintaining body fluid homeostasis. Excessive release of vasopressin can lead to hyponatremia. Changes in cerebral circulation during vasopressin-induced chronic hyponatremia are not elucidated. The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of chronic vasopressin-induced hyponatremia on the regulation of the tone of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) of the rat. Chronic hyponatremia was induced in vivo with the help of vasopressin, released continuously from subcutaneously implanted ALZET mini-osmotic pumps, and a liquid diet...
March 17, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Miyuki Kuno
A proton is a ubiquitous signaling ion. Many transmembrane H+ transport pathways either maintain pH homeostasis or generate acidic compartments. The osteoclast is a bone-resorbing cell, which degrades bone tissues by secreting protons and lysosomal enzymes into the resorption pit. The plasma membrane facing bone tissue (ruffled border), generated partly by fusion of lysosomes, may mimic H+ flux mechanisms regulating acidic vesicles. We identified three electrogenic H+ -fluxes in osteoclast plasma membranes-a vacuolar H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase), a voltage-gated proton channel (Hv channel) and an acid-inducible H+ -leak-whose electrophysiological profiles and regulation mechanisms differed...
March 17, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
C Barriga-Montoya, A Huanosta-Gutiérrez, A Reyes-Vaca, A Hernández-Cruz, A Picones, F Gómez-Lagunas
The original publication of this article contained multiple technical errors that occurred during its production and printing. These errors included sentences and paragraphs with parts missing. The Publisher regrets these mistakes.
March 16, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Kotoku Kawaguchi, Ryo Hatano, Mitsunobu Matsubara, Shinji Asano
Moesin is expressed in several types of cells including epithelial and endothelial cells. Several groups reported that moesin plays important roles in the regulation of the cellular motility, and the process of internalization of membrane proteins. However, the physiological roles of moesin in the kidney still remain unclear. Herein, we examined the physiological function of moesin in the kidney using moesin knockout (Msn-/y ) mice. There was no obvious abnormality in the renal morphology of Msn-/y mice. However, we found that Msn-/y mice exhibited mild hyperchloremia, and reduced glomerular filtration rate compared to wild type (WT) mice...
March 15, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Cristina Mammucari, Anna Raffaello, Denis Vecellio Reane, Gaia Gherardi, Agnese De Mario, Rosario Rizzuto
Mitochondrial Ca2+ is involved in heterogeneous functions, ranging from the control of metabolism and ATP production to the regulation of cell death. In addition, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake contributes to cytosolic [Ca2+ ] shaping thus impinging on specific Ca2+ -dependent events. Mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration is controlled by influx and efflux pathways: the former controlled by the activity of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU), the latter by the Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger (NCLX) and the H+ /Ca2+ (mHCX) exchanger...
March 15, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Hyoung Kyu Kim, Michael Huy Cuong Pham, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Jin Han
Alternative splicing (AS) of protein-coding messenger RNAs is an essential regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic gene expression that controls the proper function of proteins. It is also implicated in the physiological regulation of mitochondria and various ion channels. Considering that mis-splicing can result in various human diseases by modifying or abrogating important physiological protein functions, a fine-tuned balance of AS is essential for human health. Accumulated data highlight the importance of alternatively spliced isoforms in various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, immune and infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic conditions...
March 13, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Benjamin Gottschalk, Christinae Klec, Markus Waldeck-Weiermair, Roland Malli, Wolfgang F Graier
Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that essentially contribute to cell signaling by sophisticated mechanisms of communications. Live cell imaging studies showed that mitochondria are dynamic and complex structures that form ramified networks by directed movements, fission, and fusion events. There is emerging evidence that the morphology of mitochondria determines cellular functions and vice versa. Several intracellular signaling pathways and messengers including Ca2+ dynamically influence the architecture of mitochondria...
March 12, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Amelia S Power, Anthony J Hickey, David J Crossman, Denis S Loiselle, Marie-Louise Ward
Currently, there are no tailored therapies available for the treatment of right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy, and the cellular mechanisms that underlie the disease are poorly understood. We investigated the cellular changes that occur early in the progression of the disease, when RV hypertrophy is evident, but prior to the onset of heart failure. Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+ ]i ) handling was examined in a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension and subsequent RV hypertrophy. [Ca2+ ]i and stress production were measured in isolated RV trabeculae under baseline conditions (1-Hz stimulation, 1...
March 10, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Kang Pa Lee, Suji Baek, Seung Hyo Jung, Long Cui, Donghyen Lee, Dong-Youb Lee, Wahn Soo Choi, Hyun Woo Chung, Byeong Han Lee, Bokyung Kim, Kyung Jong Won
DJ-1 and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors (S1PRs) are implicated in the control of physiology and pathophysiology of cardiovascular systems such as blood pressure, atherosclerosis, and restenosis. Here, we investigated whether DJ-1 with antioxidant function participates in the regulation of S1PR1 and S1PR2 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and whether this response is related to vascular neointima formation. In vitro studies used cellular migration assay, western blot, reverse transcriptase and real-time PCR analysis, and immunocytochemistry...
March 6, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Stéphane Doutreleau, Irina Enache, Cristina Pistea, Bernard Geny, Anne Charloux
In this study, we hypothesized that adding CO2 to an inhaled hypoxic gas mixture will limit the rise of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) induced by a moderate exercise. Eight 20-year-old males performed four constant-load exercise tests on cycle at 40% of maximal oxygen consumption in four conditions: ambient air, normobaric hypoxia (12.5% O2 ), inhaled CO2 (4.5% CO2 ), and combination of hypoxia and inhaled CO2 . Doppler echocardiography was used to measure systolic (s)PAP, cardiac output (CO). Total pulmonary resistance (TPR) was calculated...
March 3, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Yasumasa Mototani, Tadashi Okamura, Motohito Goto, Yukiko Shimizu, Rieko Yanobu-Takanashi, Aiko Ito, Naoya Kawamura, Yuka Yagisawa, Daisuke Umeki, Megumi Nariyama, Kenji Suita, Yoshiki Ohnuki, Kouichi Shiozawa, Yoshinori Sahara, Tohru Kozasa, Yasutake Saeki, Satoshi Okumura
The G protein-regulated inducer of neurite growth (GRIN) family has three isoforms (GRIN1-3), which bind to the Gαi/o subfamily of G protein that mediate signal processing via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here, we show that GRIN3 is involved in regulation of dopamine-dependent behaviors and is essential for activation of the dopamine receptors (DAR)-β-arrestin signaling cascade. Analysis of functional regions of GRIN3 showed that a di-cysteine motif (Cys751/752) is required for plasma membrane localization...
March 2, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Elisa Bovo, Stefan R Mazurek, Aleksey V Zima
Defective Ca2+ regulation plays a key role in the blunted force-frequency response in heart failure (HF). Since HF is commonly associated with oxidative stress, we studied whether oxidation of ryanodine receptor (RyR2) contributes to this defect. In control ventricular myocytes, oxidative stress induced formation of disulfide bonds between RyR2 subunits: intersubunit cross-linking (XL). Western blot analysis and Ca2+ imaging revealed a strong positive correlation between RyR2 XL and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak...
March 2, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Aaron K Korpal, Colin H Brown, Daryl O Schwenke
Elevated plasma levels of the hormone vasopressin have been implicated in the pathogenesis of some forms of hypertension. Hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei neurons regulate vasopressin secretion into the circulation. Vasopressin neuron activity is elevated by day 7 in the development of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension in Cyp1a1-Ren2 rats. While microglial activation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown contribute to the maintenance of well-established hypertension, it is not known whether these mechanisms contribute to the early onset of hypertension...
March 2, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Lydia J Hoffstaetter, Sviatoslav N Bagriantsev, Elena O Gracheva
The ability to sense temperature is crucial for the survival of an organism. Temperature influences all biological operations, from rates of metabolic reactions to protein folding, and broad behavioral functions, from feeding to breeding, and other seasonal activities. The evolution of specialized thermosensory adaptations has enabled animals to inhabit extreme temperature niches and to perform specific temperature-dependent behaviors. The function of sensory neurons depends on the participation of various types of ion channels...
February 27, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Mohammed Saeed Zayed Al-Ayed
This study aimed at investigating the potential ghrelin relaxing effect on guinea pig isolated tracheal smooth muscle (TSM). Using an in vitro experimental approach, the physiological role of the airway epithelium on smooth muscle relaxation has been investigated by analyzing the dose-response curves for carbachol- or histamine-induced contractions on epithelium intact versus denuded tracheal tissue. The relaxant effect of ghrelin (5-200 μmol/L) then investigated on carbachol-contracted, non-sensitized, and ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized guinea pig TSM with an intact or denuded epithelium...
February 26, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Futoshi Toyoda, Wei-Guang Ding, Hiroshi Matsuura
Dr. Wei-Guang Ding's given name and family name were inadvertently interchanged initially. The correct names are as shown above.
February 26, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Christian Karger, Katharina Machura, André Schneider, Christian Hugo, Vladimir T Todorov, Armin Kurtz
Pharmacological inhibition or genetic loss of function defects of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) causes compensatory renin cell hyperplasia and hyperreninemia. The triggers for the compensatory stimulation of renin synthesis and secretion in this situation may be multimodal. Since cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the macula densa is frequently increased in states of a defective RAAS, we have investigated a potential role of COX-2 and its derived prostaglandins for renin expression and secretion in aldosterone synthase-deficient mice (AS-/- ) as a model for a genetic defect of the RAAS...
February 17, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Kenji Suita, Takayuki Fujita, Wenqian Cai, Yuko Hidaka, Huiling Jin, Rajesh Prajapati, Masanari Umemura, Utako Yokoyama, Motohiko Sato, Björn C Knollmann, Satoshi Okumura, Yoshihiro Ishikawa
Sympathetic activation causes clinically important arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation (AF) and ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Although the usefulness of β-adrenergic receptor blockade therapy is widely accepted, its multiple critical side effects often prevent its initiation or continuation. The aim of this study is to determine the advantages of vidarabine, an adenylyl cyclase (AC)-targeted anti-sympathetic agent, as an alternative treatment for arrhythmia. We found that vidarabine, which we identified as a cardiac AC inhibitor, consistently shortens AF duration and reduces the incidence of sympathetic activation-induced ventricular arrhythmias...
February 16, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Xiaoguang Guo, Toshihide Kashihara, Tsutomu Nakada, Toshifumi Aoyama, Mitsuhiko Yamada
In atherosclerosis, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) migrate from the media toward the intima of the arteries in response to cytokines, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). However, molecular mechanism underlying the PDGF-induced migration of VSMCs remains unclear. The migration of rat aorta-derived synthetic VSMCs, A7r5, in response to PDGF was potently inhibited by a CaV1.2 channel inhibitor, nifedipine, and a Src family tyrosine kinase (SFK)/Abl inhibitor, bosutinib, in a less-than-additive manner...
February 13, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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