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Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754249/trpa1-channels-expression-in-non-neuronal-murine-lung-tissues-and-dispensability-for-hyperoxia-induced-alveolar-epithelial-hyperplasia
#1
Martina Kannler, Robin Lüling, Ali Önder Yildirim, Thomas Gudermann, Dirk Steinritz, Alexander Dietrich
Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channels were originally characterized in neuronal tissues but also identified in lung epithelium by staining with fluorescently coupled TRPA1 antibodies. Its exact function in non-neuronal tissues, however, is elusive. TRPA1 is activated in vitro by hypoxia and hyperoxia and is therefore a promising TRP candidate for sensing hyperoxia in pulmonary epithelial cells and for inducing alveolar epithelial hyperplasia. Here, we isolated tracheal, bronchial, and alveolar epithelial cells and show low but detectable TRPA1 mRNA levels in all these cells as well as TRPA1 protein by Western blotting in alveolar type II (AT II) cells...
May 12, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748711/calcium-and-voltage-gated-bk-channels-in-vascular-smooth-muscle
#2
REVIEW
Alex M Dopico, Anna N Bukiya, Jonathan H Jaggar
Ion channels in vascular smooth muscle regulate myogenic tone and vessel contractility. In particular, activation of calcium- and voltage-gated potassium channels of large conductance (BK channels) results in outward current that shifts the membrane potential toward more negative values, triggering a negative feed-back loop on depolarization-induced calcium influx and SM contraction. In this short review, we first present the molecular basis of vascular smooth muscle BK channels and the role of subunit composition and trafficking in the regulation of myogenic tone and vascular contractility...
May 11, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748710/critical-role-of-angiotensin-ii-type-2-receptors-in-the-control-of-mitochondrial-and-cardiac-function-in-angiotensin-ii-preconditioned-rat-hearts
#3
Rebeca E Nuñez, Sabzali Javadov, Nelson Escobales
Angiotensin II preconditioning (APC) involves an angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R)-dependent translocation of PKCε and survival kinases to the mitochondria leading to cardioprotection after ischemia-reperfusion (IR). However, the role that mitochondrial AT1-Rs and angiotensin II type 2 receptors (AT2-Rs) play in APC is unknown. We investigated whether pretreatment of Langendorff-perfused rat hearts with losartan (L, AT1-R blocker), PD 123,319 (PD, AT2-R blocker), or their combination (L + PD) affects mitochondrial AT1-R, AT2-R, PKCε, PKCδ, Akt, PKG-1, MAPKs (ERK1/2, JNK, p38), mitochondrial respiration, cardiac function, and infarct size (IS)...
May 10, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744639/drug-transporter-expression-profiling-in-a-three-dimensional-kidney-proximal-tubule-in-vitro-nephrotoxicity-model
#4
Dorina Diekjürgen, David W Grainger
Given currently poor toxicity translational predictions for drug candidates, improved mechanistic understanding underlying nephrotoxicity and drug renal clearance is needed to improve drug development and safety screening. Therefore, better relevant and well-characterized in vitro screening models are required to reliably predict human nephrotoxicity. Because kidney proximal tubules are central to active drug uptake and secretion processes and therefore to nephrotoxicity, this study acquired regio-specific expression data from recently reported primary proximal tubule three-dimensional (3D) hyaluronic acid gel culture and non-gel embedded cultured murine proximal tubule suspensions used in nephrotoxicity assays...
May 9, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736684/regional-increase-in-ros-within-stretched-region-exacerbates-arrhythmias-in-rat-trabeculae-with-nonuniform-contraction
#5
Masahito Miura, Yuhto Taguchi, Tetsuya Handoh, Taiki Hasegawa, Yui Takahashi, Natsuki Morita, Ayana Matsumoto, Haruka Sato, Chiyohiko Shindoh
In diseased hearts, impaired muscle within the hearts is passively stretched by contractions of the more viable neighboring muscle during the contraction phase. We investigated whether in the myocardium with nonuniform contraction such passive stretch regionally generates ROS within the stretched region and exacerbates arrhythmias. In trabeculae from rat hearts, force, intracellular Ca2+ , and membrane potential were measured. To assess regional ROS generation, the slope of the change in the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence (DCFslope ) was calculated at the each pixel position along the long axis of trabeculae using DCF fluorescence images...
May 8, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721607/hydrogen-sulphide-facilitates-exocytosis-by-regulating-the-handling-of-intracellular-calcium-by-chromaffin-cells
#6
Ricardo de Pascual, Andrés M Baraibar, Iago Méndez-López, Martín Pérez-Ciria, Ignacio Polo-Vaquero, Luis Gandía, Sunny E Ohia, Antonio G García, Antonio M G de Diego
Gasotransmitter hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) has emerged as a regulator of multiple physiological and pathophysiological processes throughout. Here, we have investigated the effects of NaHS (fast donor of H2 S) and GYY4137 (GYY, slow donor of H2 S) on the exocytotic release of catecholamines from fast-perifused bovine adrenal chromaffin cells (BCCs) challenged with sequential intermittent pulses of a K+ -depolarizing solution. Both donors caused a concentration-dependent facilitation of secretion. This was not due to an augmentation of Ca2+ entry through voltage-activated Ca2+ channels (VACCs) because, in fact, NaHS and GYY caused a mild inhibition of whole-cell Ca2+ currents...
May 2, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717355/the-function-of-trp-channels-in-neutrophil-granulocytes
#7
REVIEW
Karolina Najder, Boris Musset, Otto Lindemann, Etmar Bulk, Albrecht Schwab, Benedikt Fels
Neutrophil granulocytes are exposed to widely varying microenvironmental conditions when pursuing their physiological or pathophysiological functions such as fighting invading bacteria or infiltrating cancer tissue. Examples for harsh environmental challenges include among others mechanical shear stress during the recruitment from the vasculature or the hypoxic and acidotic conditions within the tumor microenvironment. Chemokine gradients, reactive oxygen species, pressure, matrix elasticity, and temperature can be added to the list of potential challenges...
May 1, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700598/mammalian-cold-trp-channels-impact-on-thermoregulation-and-energy-homeostasis
#8
REVIEW
Rosa Señarís, Purificación Ordás, Alfonso Reimúndez, Félix Viana
Body temperature regulation is a fundamental homeostatic function in homeothermic animals. It is governed by the central nervous system that integrates temperature signals from internal body structures and the skin and provides efferent responses to adjust heat-exchange rates with the environment. Thermoregulation has a major influence on energy balance by regulating food intake as well as heat production and energy expenditure. Surprisingly, although almost 50% of our energy expenditure is dedicated to maintaining homeothermy, very little is yet known about the molecular aspects and the neural wiring involved in the intimate interrelationship between these two critical homeostatic systems...
April 26, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679296/methylmercury-reduces-synaptic-transmission-and-neuronal-excitability-in-rat-hippocampal-slices
#9
J Gutiérrez, A M Baraibar, E Albiñana, P Velasco, J M Solís, J M Hernández-Guijo
In a previous study, we pointed out that the neurotoxic action evoked by methylmercury (MeHg), a potent environmental pollutant responsible for fatal food poisoning, is associated with alterations of cellular excitability by irreversible blockade of sodium and calcium currents. Here, we investigated the MeHg effects on synaptic transmission and neuronal plasticity using extracellular field recording in CA1 area of rat hippocampal slices. MeHg caused a fast and drastic depression of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 25...
April 21, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675676/sensors-and-regulatory-mechanisms-of-thermal-physiology
#10
REVIEW
Yasuo Mori, Thomas Voets
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671103/role-of-ca-2-in-changing-active-force-during-intermittent-submaximal-stimulation-in-intact-single-mouse-muscle-fibers
#11
Lisa D Glass, Arthur J Cheng, Brian R MacIntosh
Fatigue of single mouse fibers during repeated high-frequency stimulation results initially from decreased Ca2+ sensitivity while free myoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]m ) increases, followed by decreasing [Ca2+ ]m . Recovery of active force with low-frequency stimulation is slow and persistent fatigue results from low [Ca2+ ]m . However, the consequences of intermittent submaximal contractions are not known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes in [Ca2+ ]m and active force during intermittent submaximal contractions and subsequent recovery...
April 18, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594338/macro-and-micromechanical-remodelling-in-the-fish-atrium-is-associated-with-regulation-of-collagen-1-alpha-3-chain-expression
#12
Adam N Keen, Andrew J Fenna, James C McConnell, Michael J Sherratt, Peter Gardner, Holly A Shiels
Numerous pathologies lead to remodelling of the mammalian ventricle, often associated with fibrosis. Recent work in fish has shown that fibrotic remodelling of the ventricle is 'reversible', changing seasonally as temperature-induced changes in blood viscosity alter haemodynamic load on the heart. The atrial response to varying haemodynamic load is less understood in mammals and completely unexplored in non-mammalian vertebrates. To investigate atrial remodelling, rainbow trout were chronically cooled (from 10 ± 1 to 5 ± 1 °C) and chronically warmed (from 10 ± 1 to 18 ± 1 °C) for a minimum of 8 weeks...
March 28, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589117/the-degenerin-region-of-the-human-bile-acid-sensitive-ion-channel-basic-is-involved-in-channel-inhibition-by-calcium-and-activation-by-bile-acids
#13
Alexandr V Ilyaskin, Sonja A Kirsch, Rainer A Böckmann, Heinrich Sticht, Christoph Korbmacher, Silke Haerteis, Alexei Diakov
The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is a member of the ENaC/degenerin family of ion channels. It is activated by bile acids and inhibited by extracellular Ca2+ . The aim of this study was to explore the molecular mechanisms mediating these effects. The modulation of BASIC function by extracellular Ca2+ and tauro-deoxycholic acid (t-DCA) was studied in Xenopus laevis oocytes heterologously expressing human BASIC using the two-electrode voltage-clamp and outside-out patch-clamp techniques. Substitution of aspartate D444 to alanine or cysteine in the degenerin region of BASIC, a region known to be critically involved in channel gating, resulted in a substantial reduction of BASIC Ca2+ sensitivity...
March 27, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572566/functional-characterization-of-kv11-1-herg-potassium-channels-split-in-the-voltage-sensing-domain
#14
Pilar de la Peña, Pedro Domínguez, Francisco Barros
Voltage-dependent KCNH family potassium channel functionality can be reconstructed using non-covalently linked voltage-sensing domain (VSD) and pore modules (split channels). However, the necessity of a covalent continuity for channel function has not been evaluated at other points within the two functionally independent channel modules. We find here that by cutting Kv11.1 (hERG, KCNH2) channels at the different loops linking the transmembrane spans of the channel core, not only channels split at the S4-S5 linker level, but also those split at the intracellular S2-S3 and the extracellular S3-S4 loops, yield fully functional channel proteins...
March 23, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569183/trpv4-is-functionally-expressed-in-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-and-increases-their-proliferation
#15
Kana Ohashi, Ayane Deyashiki, Takahito Miyake, Kazuki Nagayasu, Koji Shibasaki, Hisashi Shirakawa, Shuji Kaneko
Oligodendrocytes, which differentiate from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), ensheath axons with myelin, play an essential role in rapid conduction of action potentials and metabolically support neurons. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival of OPCs is considered indispensable for determining the causes of central nervous system diseases. However, the relationship between these functions of OPCs and their intracellular Ca2+ signaling has not been fully elucidated...
March 22, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552700/trpm2-and-warmth-sensation
#16
REVIEW
Chun-Hsiang Tan, Peter A McNaughton
The abilities to detect warmth and heat are critical for the survival of all animals, both in order to be able to identify suitable thermal environments for the many different activities essential for life and to avoid damage caused by extremes of temperature. Several ion channels belonging to the TRP family are activated by non-noxious warmth or by heat and are therefore plausible candidates for thermal detectors, but identifying those that actually regulate warmth and heat detection in intact animals has proven problematic...
March 19, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550928/effect-of-vasopressin-induced-chronic-hyponatremia-on-the-regulation-of-the-middle-cerebral-artery-of-the-rat
#17
Marta Aleksandrowicz, Ewa Kozniewska
Vasopressin (arginine vasopressin, AVP) plays a crucial role in maintaining body fluid homeostasis. Excessive release of vasopressin can lead to hyponatremia. Changes in cerebral circulation during vasopressin-induced chronic hyponatremia are not elucidated. The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of chronic vasopressin-induced hyponatremia on the regulation of the tone of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) of the rat. Chronic hyponatremia was induced in vivo with the help of vasopressin, released continuously from subcutaneously implanted ALZET mini-osmotic pumps, and a liquid diet...
March 17, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550927/cooperative-electrogenic-proton-transport-pathways-in-the-plasma-membrane-of-the-proton-secreting-osteoclast
#18
REVIEW
Miyuki Kuno
A proton is a ubiquitous signaling ion. Many transmembrane H+ transport pathways either maintain pH homeostasis or generate acidic compartments. The osteoclast is a bone-resorbing cell, which degrades bone tissues by secreting protons and lysosomal enzymes into the resorption pit. The plasma membrane facing bone tissue (ruffled border), generated partly by fusion of lysosomes, may mimic H+ flux mechanisms regulating acidic vesicles. We identified three electrogenic H+ -fluxes in osteoclast plasma membranes-a vacuolar H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase), a voltage-gated proton channel (Hv channel) and an acid-inducible H+ -leak-whose electrophysiological profiles and regulation mechanisms differed...
March 17, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541861/internalization-of-nkcc2-is-impaired-in-thick-ascending-limb-of-henle-in-moesin-knockout-mice
#19
Kotoku Kawaguchi, Ryo Hatano, Mitsunobu Matsubara, Shinji Asano
Moesin is expressed in several types of cells including epithelial and endothelial cells. Several groups reported that moesin plays important roles in the regulation of the cellular motility, and the process of internalization of membrane proteins. However, the physiological roles of moesin in the kidney still remain unclear. Herein, we examined the physiological function of moesin in the kidney using moesin knockout (Msn -/y ) mice. There was no obvious abnormality in the renal morphology of Msn -/y mice. However, we found that Msn -/y mice exhibited mild hyperchloremia, and reduced glomerular filtration rate compared to wild type (WT) mice...
March 15, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541860/mitochondrial-calcium-uptake-in-organ-physiology-from-molecular-mechanism-to-animal-models
#20
REVIEW
Cristina Mammucari, Anna Raffaello, Denis Vecellio Reane, Gaia Gherardi, Agnese De Mario, Rosario Rizzuto
Mitochondrial Ca2+ is involved in heterogeneous functions, ranging from the control of metabolism and ATP production to the regulation of cell death. In addition, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake contributes to cytosolic [Ca2+ ] shaping thus impinging on specific Ca2+ -dependent events. Mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration is controlled by influx and efflux pathways: the former controlled by the activity of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU), the latter by the Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger (NCLX) and the H+ /Ca2+ (mHCX) exchanger...
March 15, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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