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Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315005/effect-of-nitric-oxide-on-renal-autoregulation-during-hypothermia-in-the-rat
#1
Lars Mikael Broman, Mattias Carlström, Örjan Källskog, Mats Wolgast
Hypothermia-induced reduction of metabolic rate is accompanied by depression of both glomerular perfusion and filtration. The present study investigated whether these changes are linked to changes in renal autoregulation and nitric oxide (NO) signalling. During hypothermia, renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were reduced and urine production was increased, and this was linked with reduced plasma cGMP levels and increased renal vascular resistance. Although stimulation of NO production decreased vascular resistance, blood pressure and urine flow, intravenous infusion of the NO precursor L-arginine or the NO donor sodium nitroprusside did not alter RBF or GFR...
March 17, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303387/caveolar-remodeling-is-a-critical-mechanotransduction-mechanism-of-the-stretch-induced-l-type-ca-2-channel-activation-in-vascular-myocytes
#2
Sang Woong Park, Kyung Chul Shin, Hyun Ji Park, Soon-Kyu Yoou, Jin-Yeon Park, Young-Sun Kang, Dong Jun Sung, Jae Gon Kim, Seung Hwa Park, BoKyung Kim, Hana Cho, Young Min Bae
Activation of L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCL) by membrane stretch contributes to many biological responses such as myogenic contraction of arteries. However, mechanism for the stretch-induced VDCCL activation is unclear. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that caveolar remodeling and its related signaling cascade contribute to the stretch-induced activation of VDCCL in rat mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells. The VDCCL currents were recorded with nystatin-perforated or with conventional whole-cell patch-clamp technique...
March 16, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299445/immunophysiology-macrophages-as-key-regulators-of-homeostasis-in-various-organs
#3
EDITORIAL
Jonathan Jantsch, Joachim L Schultze, Christian Kurts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289977/location-function-and-ontogeny-of-pulmonary-macrophages-during-the-steady-state
#4
REVIEW
Natalio Garbi, Bart N Lambrecht
The lung is continuously exposed to potentially hazardous environmental challenges in the form of inert material and microbes. Pulmonary macrophages are critical in maintaining a low inflammatory context in the lung to facilitate optimal gas exchange. During infection, however, they mediate the immediate response to invading microorganisms in coordination with epithelial cells and other tissue-resident immune cells including dendritic cells, innate lymphocytes and memory T cells, and pulmonary interstitial macrophages...
March 13, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285409/pharmacological-blockade-of-small-conductance-ca-2-activated-k-channels-by-ica-reduces-arrhythmic-load-in-rats-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#5
Laura A Hundahl, Stefan M Sattler, Lasse Skibsbye, Jonas G Diness, Jacob Tfelt-Hansen, Thomas Jespersen
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with development of ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a common cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD). At present, no pharmacological treatment has successfully been able to prevent VF in the acute stage of AMI. This study investigates the antiarrhythmic effect of inhibiting small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels using the pore blocker N-(pyridin-2-yl)-4-(pyridin-2-yl)thiazol-2-amine (ICA) in AMI rats. Acute coronary ligation was performed in 26 anesthetized rats, and ECG, monophasic action potentials (MAPs), and ventricular effective refractory period (vERP) were recorded...
March 11, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283748/macrophages-in-gastrointestinal-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#6
REVIEW
John R Grainger, Joanne E Konkel, Tamsin Zangerle-Murray, Tovah N Shaw
Monocyte-derived mononuclear phagocytes, particularly macrophages, are crucial to maintain gastrointestinal homeostasis in the steady state but are also important for protection against certain pathogens. However, when uncontrolled, they can promote immunopathology. Broadly two subsets of macrophages can be considered to perform the vast array of functions to complete these complex tasks: resident macrophages that dominate in the healthy gut and inflammation-elicited (inflammatory) macrophages that derive from circulating monocytes infiltrating inflamed tissue...
March 10, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280960/neurobiology-of-local-and-intercellular-bdnf-signaling
#7
REVIEW
Sasi Manju, Beatrice Vignoli, Marco Canossa, Robert Blum
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of secreted proteins. Signaling cascades induced by BDNF and its receptor, the receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB, link neuronal growth and differentiation with synaptic plasticity. For this reason, interference with BDNF signaling has emerged as a promising strategy for potential treatments in psychiatric and neurological disorders. In many brain circuits, synaptically released BDNF is essential for structural and functional long-term potentiation, two prototypical cellular models of learning and memory formation...
March 9, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271233/regulation-of-glomerulotubular-balance-flow-activated-proximal-tubule-function
#8
REVIEW
Tong Wang, Sheldon Weinbaum, Alan M Weinstein
The purpose of this review is to summarize our knowledge and understanding of the physiological importance and the mechanisms underlying flow-activated proximal tubule transport. Since the earliest micropuncture studies of mammalian proximal tubule, it has been recognized that tubular flow is an important regulator of sodium, potassium, and acid-base transport in the kidney. Increased fluid flow stimulates Na(+) and HCO3(-) absorption in the proximal tubule via stimulation of Na/H-exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and H(+)-ATPase...
March 7, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265756/sodium-channel-biophysics-late-sodium-current-and-genetic-arrhythmic-syndromes
#9
REVIEW
Karan R Chadda, Kamalan Jeevaratnam, Ming Lei, Christopher L-H Huang
Arrhythmias arise from breakdown of orderly action potential (AP) activation, propagation and recovery driven by interactive opening and closing of successive voltage-gated ion channels, in which one or more Na(+) current components play critical parts. Early peak, Na(+) currents (I Na) reflecting channel activation drive the AP upstroke central to cellular activation and its propagation. Sustained late Na(+) currents (I Na-L) include contributions from a component with a delayed inactivation timecourse influencing AP duration (APD) and refractoriness, potentially causing pro-arrhythmic phenotypes...
March 6, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251313/the-role-of-macrophages-in-hypertension-and-its-complications
#10
REVIEW
A Justin Rucker, Steven D Crowley
Circulating monocytes and tissue macrophages play complex roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension, a highly prevalent disease associated with catastrophic cardiovascular morbidity. In the vasculature and kidney, macrophage-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines induce endothelial and epithelial dysfunction, respectively, resulting in vascular oxidative stress and impairment of sodium excretion. By contrast, VEGF-C-expressing macrophages in the skin can facilitate the removal of excess interstitial stores of sodium by stimulating lymphangiogenesis...
March 1, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251312/-pumping-iron-how-macrophages-handle-iron-at-the-systemic-microenvironmental-and-cellular-levels
#11
REVIEW
Manfred Nairz, Igor Theurl, Filip K Swirski, Guenter Weiss
Macrophages reside in virtually every organ. First arising during embryogenesis, macrophages replenish themselves in the adult through a combination of self-renewal and influx of bone marrow-derived monocytes. As large phagocytic cells, macrophages participate in innate immunity while contributing to tissue-specific homeostatic functions. Among the key metabolic tasks are senescent red blood cell recycling, free heme detoxification, and provision of iron for de novo hemoglobin synthesis. While this systemic mechanism involves the shuttling of iron between spleen, liver, and bone marrow through the concerted function of defined macrophage populations, similar circuits appear to exist within the microenvironment of other organs...
March 1, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247013/latest-perspectives-on-macrophages-in-bone-homeostasis
#12
REVIEW
Aline Bozec, Didier Soulat
Knowledge about macrophages residing in the bone, also known as osteal macrophages or osteomacs, is still limited. A hallmark of this peculiar myeloid population is the expression of macrophage markers distinct from the markers found on osteoclast surface. In bone, osteomacs are in contact with osteoblasts, where they are involved in regulating bone homeostasis. However, additional macrophage subtypes already present in the bone marrow or recruited from the blood circulation could have further functions, which could be all important for the maintenance of the bone architecture and its associated functions...
February 28, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243733/biophysical-and-molecular-comparison-of-sodium-current-in-cells-isolated-from-canine-atria-and-pulmonary-vein
#13
Hector Barajas-Martinez, Robert J Goodrow, Dan Hu, Payal Patel, Mayurika Desai, Brian K Panama, Jacqueline A Treat, Gary L Aistrup, Jonathan M Cordeiro
The collar of the pulmonary vein (PV) is the focal point for the initiation of atrial arrhythmias, but the mechanisms underlying how PV cells differ from neighboring left atrial tissue are unclear. We examined the biophysical and molecular properties of INa in cells isolated from the canine pulmonary sleeve and compared the properties to left atrial tissue. PV and left atrial myocytes were isolated and patch clamp techniques were used to record INa. Action potential recordings from either tissue type were made using high-resistance electrodes...
February 27, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236120/interaction-of-endothelial-cells-with-macrophages-linking-molecular-and-metabolic-signaling
#14
REVIEW
Joanna Kalucka, Laura Bierhansl, Ben Wielockx, Peter Carmeliet, Guy Eelen
Angiogenesis and inflammation go hand in hand in various (patho-)physiological conditions. Several studies have highlighted the interconnection between endothelial cells (ECs) and macrophages in these conditions at the level of growth factor and cytokine signaling, yet the importance of metabolism and metabolic signaling has been largely overlooked. Modulating macrophage and/or endothelial functions by interfering with metabolic pathways offers new perspectives for therapeutic strategies. In this review, we highlight the complexity of the interrelationship between the inflammatory response and angiogenesis...
February 24, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236119/resident-macrophages-in-the-healthy-and-inflamed-intestinal-muscularis-externa
#15
REVIEW
Sven Wehner, Daniel Robert Engel
Macrophages reside in a dense cellular network in the intestinal muscularis externa, and there is emerging evidence that the functionality of these cells determines the local microenvironment. Inflammatory responses during intestinal diseases change the homeostatic functionality of these cells causing inflammation and intestinal dysmotility. Such disturbances are not only induced by a change in the cellular composition in the intestinal muscularis but also by an altered crosstalk with the peripheral and central nervous system...
February 24, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233126/albuminuria-is-associated-with-an-increased-prostasin-in-urine-while-aldosterone-has-no-direct-effect-on-urine-and-kidney-tissue-abundance-of-prostasin
#16
Christina Oxlund, Birgül Kurt, Ilona Schwarzensteiner, Mie R Hansen, Mette Stæhr, Per Svenningsen, Ib A Jacobsen, Pernille B Hansen, Anne D Thuesen, Anja Toft, Gitte R Hinrichs, Claus Bistrup, Boye L Jensen
The proteinase prostasin is a candidate mediator for aldosterone-driven proteolytic activation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). It was hypothesized that the aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) pathway stimulates prostasin abundance in kidney and urine. Prostasin was measured in plasma and urine from type 2 diabetic patients with resistant hypertension (n = 112) randomized to spironolactone/placebo in a clinical trial. Prostasin protein level was assessed by immunoblotting in (1) human and rat urines with/without nephrotic syndrome, (2) human nephrectomy tissue, (3) urine and kidney from aldosterone synthase-deficient (AS(-/-)) mice and ANGII- and aldosterone-infused mice, and in (4) kidney from adrenalectomized rats...
February 24, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233125/macrophage-function-in-obesity-induced-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#17
REVIEW
Mario A R Lauterbach, F Thomas Wunderlich
The steadily increasing obesity epidemic affects currently 30% of western populations and is causative for numerous disorders. It has been demonstrated that immune cells such as macrophages reside in or infiltrate metabolic organs under obese conditions and cause the so-called low-grade inflammation or metaflammation that impairs insulin action thus leading to the development of insulin resistance. Here, we report on data that specifically address macrophage biology/physiology in obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance...
February 23, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233124/macrophage-physiology-in-the-eye
#18
REVIEW
Holly R Chinnery, Paul G McMenamin, Samantha J Dando
The eye is a complex sensory organ composed of a range of tissue types including epithelia, connective tissue, smooth muscle, vascular and neural tissue. While some components of the eye require a high level of transparency to allow light to pass through unobstructed, other tissues are characterized by their dense pigmentation, which functions to absorb light and thus control its passage through the ocular structures. Macrophages are present in all ocular tissues, from the cornea at the anterior surface through to the choroid/sclera at the posterior pole...
February 23, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233123/the-role-of-macrophages-in-skin-homeostasis
#19
REVIEW
Diana A Yanez, Richard K Lacher, Aurobind Vidyarthi, Oscar R Colegio
The skin and its appendages comprise the largest and fastest growing organ in the body. It performs multiple tasks and maintains homeostatic control, including the regulation of body temperature and protection from desiccation and from pathogen invasion. The skin can perform its functions with the assistance of different immune cell populations. Monocyte-derived cells are imperative for the completion of these tasks. The comprehensive role of macrophages and Langerhans cells in establishing and maintaining skin homeostasis remains incompletely defined...
February 23, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190090/macrophages-in-neuroinflammation-role-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system
#20
REVIEW
Anna Hammer, Johannes Stegbauer, Ralf A Linker
Macrophages are essential players of the innate immune system which are involved in the initiation and progression of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases including neuroinflammation. In the past few years, it has become increasingly clear that the regulation of macrophage responses by the local tissue milieu is also influenced by mediators which were first discovered as regulators in the nervous or also cardiovascular system. Here, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a major focus of current research...
February 11, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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