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Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889250/surface-modified-cmos-ic-electrochemical-sensor-array-targeting-single-chromaffin-cells-for-highly-parallel-amperometry-measurements
#1
REVIEW
Meng Huang, Joannalyn B Delacruz, John C Ruelas, Shailendra S Rathore, Manfred Lindau
Amperometry is a powerful method to record quantal release events from chromaffin cells and is widely used to assess how specific drugs modify quantal size, kinetics of release, and early fusion pore properties. Surface-modified CMOS-based electrochemical sensor arrays allow simultaneous recordings from multiple cells. A reliable, low-cost technique is presented here for efficient targeting of single cells specifically to the electrode sites. An SU-8 microwell structure is patterned on the chip surface to provide insulation for the circuitry as well as cell trapping at the electrode sites...
September 9, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887593/v-snare-function-in-chromaffin-cells
#2
REVIEW
Madhurima Dhara, Ralf Mohrmann, Dieter Bruns
Vesicle fusion is elementary for intracellular trafficking and release of signal molecules, thus providing the basis for diverse forms of intercellular communication like hormonal regulation or synaptic transmission. A detailed characterization of the mechanisms underlying exocytosis is key to understand how the nervous system integrates information and generates appropriate responses to stimuli. The machinery for vesicular release employs common molecular players in different model systems including neuronal and neuroendocrine cells, in particular members of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) protein family, Sec1/Munc18-like proteins, and other accessory factors...
September 8, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875377/chromogranins-from-discovery-to-current-times
#3
REVIEW
Karen B Helle, Marie-Helene Metz-Boutigue, Maria Carmela Cerra, Tommaso Angelone
The discovery in 1953 of the chromaffin granules as co-storage of catecholamines and ATP was soon followed by identification of a range of uniquely acidic proteins making up the isotonic vesicular storage complex within elements of the diffuse sympathoadrenal system. In the mid-1960s, the enzymatically inactive, major core protein, chromogranin A was shown to be exocytotically discharged from the stimulated adrenal gland in parallel with the co-stored catecholamines and ATP. A prohormone concept was introduced when one of the main storage proteins collectively named granins was identified as the insulin release inhibitory polypeptide pancreastatin...
September 5, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875346/cftr-supports-cell-death-through-ros-dependent-activation-of-tmem16f-anoctamin-6
#4
Filipa Simões, Jiraporn Ousingsawat, Podchanart Wanitchakool, Ana Fonseca, Inês Cabrita, Roberta Benedetto, Rainer Schreiber, Karl Kunzelmann
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the essential chloride and bicarbonate channel in the apical membrane of epithelial cells. CFTR was also proposed earlier to conduct glutathione (GSH) out of airway epithelial cells to be enriched in the apical airway surface liquid to neutralize reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although earlier studies suggested that release of GSH by wild type (wt) CFTR may lead to an increase in cytosolic ROS, we did not detect different ROS levels in cells expressing wt-CFTR and mutant F508del-CFTR, independent of CFTR-activation or exposure to the ROS donor tert-butyl hydroperoxide...
September 5, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866764/l-type-calcium-channels-in-exocytosis-and-endocytosis-of-chromaffin-cells
#5
REVIEW
Carmen Nanclares, Andrés M Baraibar, Luis Gandía
The coexistence of different subtypes of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) within the same chromaffin cell (CC) and the marked interspecies variability in the proportion of VDCC subtypes that are present in the plasmalemma of the CCs raises the question on their roles in controlling different physiological functions. Particularly relevant seems to be the role of VDCCs in the regulation of the exocytotic neurotransmitter release process, and its tightly coupled membrane retrieval (endocytosis) process since both are Ca(2+)-dependent processes...
September 2, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866728/electrochemical-measurement-of-quantal-exocytosis-using-microchips
#6
REVIEW
Kevin D Gillis, Xin A Liu, Andrea Marcantoni, Valentina Carabelli
Carbon-fiber electrodes (CFEs) are the gold standard for quantifying the release of oxidizable neurotransmitters from single vesicles and single cells. Over the last 15 years, microfabricated devices have emerged as alternatives to CFEs that offer the possibility of higher throughput, subcellular spatial resolution of exocytosis, and integration with other techniques for probing exocytosis including microfluidic cell handling and solution exchange, optical imaging and stimulation, and electrophysiological recording and stimulation...
September 2, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861610/inhibitors-of-the-proteasome-stimulate-the-epithelial-sodium-channel-enac-through-sgk1-and-mimic-the-effect-of-aldosterone
#7
Morag K Mansley, Christoph Korbmacher, Marko Bertog
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) marks the tightly regulated, rate-limiting step of sodium re-absorption in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN). Stimulation of ENaC activity by aldosterone involves the serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1 (SGK1) and is mediated via complex mechanisms including inhibition of channel retrieval. Retrieved channels may be recycled or degraded, e.g. by the proteasomal pathway. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inhibitors of the proteasome affect ENaC activity and surface expression, and to explore a possible involvement of SGK1...
August 31, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861607/glomerular-and-tubular-effects-of-nitric-oxide-no-are-regulated-by-angiotensin-ii-ang-ii-in-an-age-dependent-manner-through-activation-of-both-angiotensin-receptors-at1rs-and-at2rs-in-conscious-lambs
#8
Angela E Vinturache, Francine G Smith
Renin-angiotensin (RAS) and nitric oxide (NO) systems and the balance and interaction between them are considered of primary importance in maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. It has been suggested that the effects of NO may be modulated at least in part by the angiotensin (Ang) II, yet the roles of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) are not well understood. Even though both Ang II and NO are elevated at birth and during the newborn period, their contribution to the adaptation of the newborn to life after birth as well as their physiological roles during development are poorly understood...
August 31, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852855/how-does-the-stimulus-define-exocytosis-in-adrenal-chromaffin-cells
#9
REVIEW
Fernando D Marengo, Ana M Cárdenas
The extent and type of hormones and active peptides secreted by the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla have to be adjusted to physiological requirements. The chromaffin cell secretory activity is controlled by the splanchnic nerve firing frequency, which goes from approximately 0.5 Hz in basal conditions to more than 15 Hz in stress. Thus, these neuroendocrine cells maintain a tonic release of catecholamines under resting conditions, massively discharge intravesicular transmitters in response to stress, or adequately respond to moderate stimuli...
August 29, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849300/trpc6-channels-modulate-the-response-of-pancreatic-stellate-cells-to-hypoxia
#10
Nikolaj Nielsen, Kateryna Kondratska, Tobias Ruck, Benedikt Hild, Ilya Kovalenko, Sandra Schimmelpfennig, Jana Welzig, Sarah Sargin, Otto Lindemann, Sven Christian, Sven G Meuth, Natalia Prevarskaya, Albrecht Schwab
Pancreatic cancer is characterized by a massive fibrosis (desmoplasia), which is primarily caused by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). This leads to a hypoxic tumor microenvironment further reinforcing the activation of PSCs by stimulating their secretion of growth factors and chemokines. Since many of them elicit their effects via G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), we tested whether TRPC6 channels, effector proteins of many G-protein-coupled receptor pathways, are required for the hypoxic activation of PSCs...
August 28, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849267/heart-regeneration-and-the-cardiomyocyte-cell-cycle
#11
REVIEW
Michael Hesse, Armin Welz, Bernd K Fleischmann
Cardiovascular disease and in particular, heart failure are still main causes of death; therefore, novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Loss of contractile substrate in the heart and limited regenerative capacity of cardiomyocytes are mainly responsible for the poor cardiovascular outcome. This is related to the postmitotic state of differentiated cardiomyocytes, which is partly due to their polyploid nature caused by cell cycle variants. As such, the cardiomyocyte cell cycle is a key player, and its manipulation could be a promising strategy for enhancing the plasticity of the heart by inducing cardiomyocyte proliferation...
August 28, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842746/expression-profiling-and-immunolocalization-of-na-d-glucose-cotransporter-1-in-mice-employing-knockout-mice-as-specificity-control-indicate-novel-locations-and-differences-between-mice-and-rats
#12
Ivana Vrhovac Madunić, Davorka Breljak, Dean Karaica, Hermann Koepsell, Ivan Sabolić
The expression and localization of sodium-D-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 (SLC5A1), which is involved in small intestinal glucose absorption and renal glucose reabsorption, is of high biomedical relevance because SGLT1 inhibitors are currently tested for antidiabetic therapy. In human and rat organs, detailed expression profiling of SGLT1/Sglt1 mRNA and immunolocalization of the transporter protein has been performed. Using polyspecific antibodies and preabsorption with antigenic peptide as specificity control, in several organs, different immunolocalizations of SGLT1/Sglt1 between human and rat were obtained...
August 26, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840222/erratum-to-activation-of-liver-x-receptor-inhibits-oct2-mediated-organic-cation-transport-in-renal-proximal-tubular-cells
#13
Teerasak Wongwan, Suticha Kittayaruksakul, Nithi Asavapanumas, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Sunhapas Soodvilai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836008/alpha2-adrenoceptors-in-adrenomedullary-chromaffin-cells-functional-role-and-pathophysiological-implications
#14
REVIEW
Antonio R Artalejo, Luis Alcides Olivos-Oré
Chromaffin cells from the adrenal medulla participate in stress responses by releasing catecholamines into the bloodstream. Main control of adrenal catecholamine secretion is exerted both neurally (by the splanchnic nerve fibers) and humorally (by corticosteroids, circulating noradrenaline, etc.). It should be noted, however, that secretory products themselves (catecholamines, ATP, opioids, ascorbic acid, chromogranins) could also influence the secretory response in an autocrine/paracrine manner. This form of control is activity-dependent and can be either inhibitory or excitatory...
August 23, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836001/the-reduced-myofilament-responsiveness-to-calcium-contributes-to-the-negative-force-frequency-relationship-in-rat-cardiomyocytes-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-p-38-map-kinase
#15
María Sofía Espejo, Ignacio Aiello, Marisa Sepúlveda, Martín G Vila Petroff, Ernesto A Aiello, Verónica C De Giusti
The force-frequency relationship (FFR) is an important intrinsic regulatory mechanism of cardiac contractility. However, a decrease (negative FFR) or no effect (flat FFR) on contractile force in response to an elevation of heart rate is present in the normal rat or in human heart failure. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act as intracellular signaling molecules activating diverse kinases as calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and p-38 MAP kinase (p-38K). Our aim was to elucidate the intracellular molecules implicated in the FFR of isolated rat ventricular myocytes...
August 23, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823085/chromaffin-cells-as-a-model-to-evaluate-mechanisms-of-cell-death-and-neuroprotective-compounds
#16
REVIEW
Cristobal de Los Rios, Maria F Cano-Abad, Mercedes Villarroya, Manuela G López
In this review, we show how chromaffin cells have contributed to evaluate neuroprotective compounds with diverse mechanisms of action. Chromaffin cells are considered paraneurons, as they share many common features with neurons: (i) they synthesize, store, and release neurotransmitters upon stimulation and (ii) they express voltage-dependent calcium, sodium, and potassium channels, in addition to a wide variety of receptors. All these characteristics, together with the fact that primary cultures from bovine adrenal glands or chromaffin cells from the tumor pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 are easy to culture, make them an ideal model to study neurotoxic mechanisms and neuroprotective drugs...
August 19, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823083/erratum-to-modulation-of-spontaneous-intracellular-ca-2-fluctuations-and-spontaneous-cholinergic-transmission-in-rat-chromaffin-cells-in-situ-by-endogenous-gaba-acting-on-gabaa-receptors
#17
Tzitzitlini Alejandre-García, Pedro Segura-Chama, Elia Martha Pérez-Armendáriz, Rodolfo Delgado-Lezama, Arturo Hernández-Cruz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821956/effects-of-ageing-on-pro-arrhythmic-ventricular-phenotypes-in-incrementally-paced-murine-pgc-1%C3%AE-hearts
#18
Shiraz Ahmad, Haseeb Valli, Charlotte E Edling, Andrew A Grace, Kamalan Jeevaratnam, Christopher L-H Huang
A range of chronic clinical conditions accompany cardiomyocyte energetic dysfunction and constitute independent risk factors for cardiac arrhythmia. We investigated pro-arrhythmic and arrhythmic phenotypes in energetically deficient C57BL mice with genetic ablation of the mitochondrial promoter peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1β (Pgc-1β), a known model of ventricular arrhythmia. Pro-arrhythmic and cellular action potential (AP) characteristics were compared in intact Langendorff-perfused hearts from young (12-16 week) and aged (> 52 week), wild-type (WT) and Pgc-1β (-/-) mice...
August 18, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803436/acute-regulated-expression-of-pendrin-in-human-urinary-exosomes
#19
Ganesh Pathare, Nasser Dhayat, Nilufar Mohebbi, Carsten A Wagner, Lydie Cheval, Thomas J Neuhaus, Daniel G Fuster
It is well known that pendrin, an apical Cl(-)/HCO3(-)exchanger in type B intercalated cells, is modulated by chronic acid-base disturbances and electrolyte intake. To study this adaptation further at the acute level, we analyzed urinary exosomes from individuals subjected to oral acute acid, alkali, and NaCl loading. Acute oral NH4Cl loading (n = 8) elicited systemic acidemia with a drop in urinary pH and an increase in urinary NH4 excretion. Nadir urinary pH was achieved 5 h after NH4Cl loading. Exosomal pendrin abundance was dramatically decreased at 3 h after acid loading...
August 12, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801866/neurosecretion-what-can-we-learn-from-chromaffin-cells
#20
REVIEW
Erwin Neher
Many of the molecular players in the stimulus-secretion chain are similarly active in neurosecretion and catecholamine release. Therefore, studying chromaffin cells uncovered many details of the processes of docking, priming, and exocytosis of vesicles. However, morphological specializations at synapses, called active zones (AZs), confer extra speed of response and another layer of control to the fast release of vesicles by action potentials. Work at the Calyx of Held, a glutamatergic nerve terminal, has shown that in addition to such rapidly released vesicles, there is a pool of "Slow Vesicles," which are held to be perfectly release-competent, but lack a final step of tight interaction with the AZ...
August 11, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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