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Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624952/endocrine-functions-of-the-renal-interstitium
#1
REVIEW
Armin Kurtz
This review aims to summarize the knowledge about the sensor and endocrine response functions of resident interstitial cells of the kidney. By the production of renin, erythropoietin and arachidonate metabolites (medullipin) subsets of renal interstitial fibroblasts and pericytes in different kidney zones play a central role in salt, blood pressure and oxygen homeostasis of the body. Common to these endocrine functions is that their regulation mainly occurs by (de)recruitment of active cells.
June 17, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620832/the-pro-renin-receptor-and-its-interaction-partners
#2
REVIEW
Jörg Peters
The prorenin receptor was originally discovered as a receptor that binds renin and prorenin, thereby inducing pro-fibrotic intracellular signal cascades. These effects are partially mediated in vitro by angiotensin (ANG) and partially independent of ANG. Consequently, inhibitors of the interaction between the prorenin and the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) were designed hoping that they may prevent fibrotic tissue damage, for instance, in the kidney. However, this concept was challenged by the fact that overexpression of the PRR was not harmful at all, whereas depletion of the PRR was lethal or markedly detrimental...
June 15, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616782/erratum-to-effect-of-high-fat-diet-on-rat-myometrium-during-pregnancy-isolated-myometrial-mitochondria-are-not-affected
#3
Christiane Marie Bourgin Folke Gam, Ole Hartvig Mortensen, Klaus Qvortrup, Peter Damm, Bjørn Quistorff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612138/transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-trpv4-channel-as-a-target-of-crotamiton-and-its-bimodal-effects
#4
Hiroki Kittaka, Yu Yamanoi, Makoto Tominaga
The sensation of itching can be defined as "an unpleasant cutaneous sensation that provokes a desire to scratch." The perception of itching is not critical for the maintenance of life, but persistent itching can be extremely irritating and decreases the quality of life. Crotamiton (N-ethyl-o-crotonotoluidide) has been used as an anti-itch agent for humans for around 70 years. In spite of the long use of crotamiton, its mechanism of action remains unknown. We hypothesized that crotamiton might have effects on transient receptor potential (TRP) channels expressed in the peripheral nervous system and the skin...
June 13, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612137/cross-talk-between-the-crumbs-complex-and-hippo-signaling-in-renal-epithelial-cells
#5
REVIEW
U Michgehl, H Pavenstädt, B Vollenbröker
Cell polarity has a crucial role in organizing cells into tissues and in mediating transport processes and cell-cell communication. Especially the cells of the nephron require apicobasal polarity to establish and maintain their barrier function. The Crumbs complex including the integral membrane protein Crumbs, as well as Pals1 and Patj, is essential for the establishment of apicobasal polarity. The interactions of the core proteins and the interplay with other processes have been characterized in various epithelial cell lines in detail...
June 13, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600680/tight-junctions-of-the-proximal-tubule-and-their-channel-proteins
#6
REVIEW
Michael Fromm, Jörg Piontek, Rita Rosenthal, Dorothee Günzel, Susanne M Krug
The renal proximal tubule achieves the majority of renal water and solute reabsorption with the help of paracellular channels which lead through the tight junction. The proteins forming such channels in the proximal tubule are claudin-2, claudin-10a, and possibly claudin-17. Claudin-2 forms paracellular channels selective for small cations like Na(+) and K(+). Independently of each other, claudin-10a and claudin-17 form anion-selective channels. The claudins form the paracellular "pore pathway" and are integrated, together with purely sealing claudins and other tight junction proteins, in the belt of tight junction strands surrounding the tubular epithelial cells...
June 9, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597189/a-podocyte-view-of-membranous-nephropathy-from-heymann-nephritis-to-the-childhood-human-disease
#7
REVIEW
Pierre Ronco, Hanna Debiec
Membranous nephropathy (MN) is characterized by an accumulation of immune deposits on the subepithelial side of the glomerular basement membrane, which results in complement activation and proteinuria. Since 2002, several major antigens of the podocyte have been identified in human MN, the first one being neutral endopeptidase (NEP), the alloantigen involved in neonatal cases of MN that occur in newborns from NEP-deficient mothers. This discovery opened the field to the major advances that have occurred since then in the pathophysiology and treatment of MN...
June 8, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585052/measurement-of-total-co2-in-microliter-samples-of-urine-and-other-biological-fluids-using-infrared-detection-of-co2
#8
Francesco Trepiccione, Francesco Maria Iena, Laura Catalini, Francesco Martino Carpi, Mogens Koed, Sebastian Frische
The purpose of this study is to describe a low-cost and simply made instrument capable of measuring the total CO2 content of microliter volumes of biological fluids utilizing a commercially available CO2 sensor based on a NDIR detector. The described instrument is based on transformation of dissolved HCO3(-) to CO2 by acidification and subsequent measurement of the produced CO2. The instrument has a linear response in the range 0.025-10 μmol HCO3(-), which enables measurements in fresh urine and plasma samples down to 5 μl...
June 5, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577072/regulation-of-renal-na-k-cl-cotransporters-by-vasopressin
#9
REVIEW
Sebastian Bachmann, Kerim Mutig
Vasopressin (AVP) induces antidiuresis, thus playing an essential role in body water and electrolyte homeostasis. Its antidiuretic effects are mediated chiefly by V2 vasopressin receptors (V2R) expressed along the distal nephron and collecting duct epithelia. NaCl reabsorption in the distal nephron, which includes the thick ascending limb (TAL) and distal convoluted tubule (DCT), largely depends on the activity of two structurally related Na-(K)-Cl cotransporters, NKCC2 in TAL and NCC in DCT. AVP-induced activation of these transporters contributes to urine concentration and renal electrolyte reabsorption...
June 2, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573409/from-ipsc-towards-cardiac-tissue-a-road-under-construction
#10
REVIEW
Stefan Peischard, Ilaria Piccini, Nathalie Strutz-Seebohm, Boris Greber, Guiscard Seebohm
The possibility to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) opens the way to generate virtually all cell types of our human body. In combination with modern gene editing techniques like CRISPR/CAS, a new set of powerful tools becomes available for life science. Scientific fields like genotype and cell type-specific pharmacology, disease modeling, stem cell biology, and developmental biology have been dramatically fostered and their faces have been changed. However, as golden as the age of iPSC-derived cells and their manipulation has started, the shine begins to tarnish...
June 1, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567665/severe-hyperkalemia-is-rescued-by-low-potassium-diet-in-renal-%C3%AE-enac-deficient-mice
#11
Emilie Boscardin, Romain Perrier, Chloé Sergi, Marc Maillard, Johannes Loffing, Dominique Loffing-Cueni, Robert Koesters, Bernard Claude Rossier, Edith Hummler
In adulthood, an induced nephron-specific deficiency of αENaC (Scnn1a) resulted in pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA-1) with sodium loss, hyperkalemia, and metabolic acidosis that is rescued through high-sodium/low-potassium (HNa(+)/LK(+)) diet. In the present study, we addressed whether renal βENaC expression is required for sodium and potassium balance or can be compensated by remaining (α and γ) ENaC subunits using adult nephron-specific knockout (Scnn1b(Pax8/LC1)) mice. Upon induction, these mice present a severe PHA-1 phenotype with weight loss, hyperkalemia, and dehydration, but unlike the Scnn1a(Pax8/LC1) mice without persistent salt wasting...
May 31, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555350/membranous-nephropathy-one-morphologic-pattern-with-different-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Elion Hoxha, Franziska von Haxthausen, Thorsten Wiech, Rolf A K Stahl
Since the discovery of the phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R1) and thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A) as endogenous antigens involved in the development of membranous nephropathy (MN) in over 80% of adult patients, substantial progress in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of MN has been made. In most cases of patients with MN, it is now possible to specifically define the responsible pathogenic mechanisms of disease and make a diagnosis even without a renal biopsy. Moreover, the presence of antibodies in the blood and the detection of the antigens in renal biopsies allow the definite diagnosis without the morphologic uncertainties, which now still apply for only about 20% of all renal biopsies showing MN...
May 29, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551705/nerve-induced-responses-of-mouse-vaginal-smooth-muscle
#13
Dirk F van Helden, Ayumi Kamiya, Sam Kelsey, Derek R Laver, Phillip Jobling, Retsu Mitsui, Hikaru Hashitani
Neural and agonist-induced contractions of proximal (i.e. upper half adjacent to the cervix) and distal mouse vaginal smooth muscle strips were investigated. We hypothesised that nerve-mediated vaginal contractions arise through activity of cholinergic nerves. Nerve activation by bursts of electrical field stimulation (EFS) caused a primary transient contraction often accompanied by a secondary transient contraction, both larger in proximal than distal tissues (i.e. primary: 7-fold larger; secondary: 3-fold larger)...
May 27, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550472/salt-induced-na-k-atpase-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-expression-involves-soluble-adenylyl-cyclase-in-endothelial-cells
#14
Mirja Mewes, Johanna Nedele, Katrin Schelleckes, Olga Bondareva, Malte Lenders, Kristina Kusche-Vihrog, Hans-Joachim Schnittler, Stefan-Martin Brand, Boris Schmitz, Eva Brand
High dietary salt intake may lead to vascular stiffness, which predicts cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, and myocardial and cerebral infarctions as well as renal impairment. The vascular endothelium is a primary target for deleterious salt effects leading to dysfunction and endothelial stiffness. We hypothesize that the Ca(2+)- and bicarbonate-activated soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) contributes to Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase expression regulation in vascular endothelial cells and is an important regulator of endothelial stiffness...
May 26, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550471/blood-lactate-accumulation-decreases-during-the-slow-component-of-oxygen-uptake-without-a-decrease-in-muscular-efficiency
#15
J M O'Connell, J M Weir, B R MacIntosh
Pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) slowly increases during exercise above the anaerobic threshold, and this increase is called the slow component of [Formula: see text]. The mechanism of the increase in [Formula: see text] is assumed to be due to increasing energy cost associated with increasingly inefficient muscle contraction. We hypothesized that the increase in [Formula: see text] would be accompanied by a constant or increasing rate of accumulation of blood lactate, indicating sustained anaerobic metabolism while [Formula: see text] increased...
May 26, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534088/the-ppar-gamma-binding-sequence-pal3-is-necessary-for-basal-but-dispensable-for-high-fat-diet-regulated-human-renin-expression-in-the-kidney
#16
Peter Lachmann, Jenny Selbmann, Linda Hickmann, Bernd Hohenstein, Christian Hugo, Vladimir T Todorov
We reported earlier that PPAR-gamma regulates renin transcription through a human-specific atypical binding sequence termed hRen-Pal3. Here we developed a mouse model to investigate the functional relevance of the hRen-Pal3 sequence in vivo since it might be responsible for the increased renin production in obesity and thus for the development of accompanying arterial hypertension. We used bacterial artificial chromosome construct and co-placement strategy to generate two transgenic mouse lines expressing the human renin gene from identical genomic locus without affecting the intrinsic mouse renin expression...
May 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534087/interspecies-differences-in-pth-mediated-pka-phosphorylation-of-the-epithelial-calcium-channel-trpv5
#17
Mark K van Goor, Sjoerd Verkaart, Teunis J van Dam, Martijn A Huynen, Jenny van der Wijst
The epithelial calcium (Ca(2+)) channel TRPV5 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 5) is expressed in the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney and facilitates active Ca(2+) reabsorption. This process is instrumental for the maintenance of Ca(2+) homeostasis. Therefore, all aspects of TRPV5 function are tightly regulated by the calciotropic parathyroid hormone (PTH). Rabbit (rb)TRPV5 channel activity was shown to be stimulated upon PTH-mediated protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation. Since there is incomplete conservation of the PKA consensus motif (RR/QxT) across species, the aim of this study was to extend these findings to humans and characterize the expression and function of human (h)TRPV5...
May 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534086/neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-modulation-of-intracellular-ca-2-handling-overrides-fatty-acid-potentiation-of-cardiac-inotropy-in-hypertensive-rats
#18
Chun Li Jin, Ming Zhe Yin, Jin Chul Paeng, Seunggyun Ha, Jeong Hoon Lee, Peng Jin, Chun Zi Jin, Zai Hao Zhao, Yue Wang, Keon Wook Kang, Chae Hun Leem, Jong-Wan Park, Sung Joon Kim, Yin Hua Zhang
Cardiac neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is an important molecule that regulates intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and contractility of healthy and diseased hearts. Here, we examined the effects of nNOS on fatty acid (FA) regulation of left ventricular (LV) myocyte contraction in sham and angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertensive (HTN) rats. Our results showed that palmitic acid (PA, 100 μM) increased the amplitudes of sarcomere shortening and intracellular ATP in sham but not in HTN despite oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was increased by PA in both groups...
May 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508947/podocytes-from-the-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-point-of-view
#19
REVIEW
Janina Müller-Deile, Mario Schiffer
The central role of podocytes in glomerular diseases makes this cell type an interesting diagnostic tool as well as a therapeutic target. In this review, we discuss the current literature on the use of podocytes and podocyte-specific markers as non-invasive diagnostic tools in different glomerulopathies. Furthermore, we highlight the direct effects of drugs currently used to treat primary glomerular diseases and describe their direct cellular effects on podocytes. A new therapeutic potential is seen in drugs targeting the podocytic actin cytoskeleton which is essential for podocyte foot process structure and function...
May 16, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497275/na-ca-2-exchangers-and-orai-channels-jointly-refill-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-ca-2-via-er-nanojunctions-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#20
Cristiana M L Di Giuro, Niroj Shrestha, Roland Malli, Klaus Groschner, Cornelis van Breemen, Nicola Fameli
We investigated the role of Na(+)/ Ca(2+) exchange (NCX) in the refilling of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) in vascular endothelial cells under various conditions of cell stimulation and plasma membrane (PM) polarization. Better understanding of the mechanisms behind basic ER Ca(2+) content regulation is important, since current hypotheses on the possible ultimate causes of ER stress point to deterioration of the Ca(2+) transport mechanism to/from ER itself. We measured [Ca(2+)]i temporal changes by Fura-2 fluorescence under experimental protocols that inhibit a host of transporters (NCX, Orai, non-selective transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA), Na(+)/ K(+) ATPase (NKA)) involved in the Ca(2+) communication between the extracellular space and the ER...
May 11, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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