Read by QxMD icon Read


Jane Adams, Patricia Bittner, Harpal S Buttar, Christina D Chambers, Thomas F X Collins, George P Daston, Karen Filkins, Thomas J Flynn, John M Graham, Kenneth Lyons Jones, Carole Kimmel, Edward Lammer, Ronald Librizzi, Joseph Mitala, Janine E Polifka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2002: Teratology
Gloria E Mao, Michael D Collins
BACKGROUND: Previous studies observed that retinoic acid receptor-gamma (RARgamma) is expressed in the open caudal neuroepithelium but that RARbeta is expressed in the closed neural tube. Furthermore, retinoic acid (RA) induces RARbeta expression, a molecular event associated with neural tube closure, but treatment with RA at the appropriate gestation time causes failure of neural tube closure. Since there are four isoforms of RARbeta, perhaps the isoforms expressed in the closed neural tube and induced by RA are different...
December 2002: Teratology
Suzan L Carmichael, Gary M Shaw, Verne Nelson
BACKGROUND: Although previous studies provide some evidence that timing of prenatal care initiation is associated with risks of congenital malformation, the issue has not previously been examined in depth. This study uses data from a large population-based registry to explore the association of timing of prenatal care initiation with risks of selected congenital malformation phenotypes. METHODS: Data on cases were grouped according to four-digit malformation codes of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9)...
December 2002: Teratology
Franciszek Burdan, Ingrid Rozylo-Kalinowska, T Katarzyna Rozylo, Ibrahim Chahoud
BACKGROUND: Presently, bone ossification is assessed by the study of single-stained fetal bones (alizarin red-S) or double-stained bones and cartilaginous structures (alcian blue followed by alizarin red-S). Both methods, especially double-staining, are labor-intensive, time-consuming, and provide qualitative information regarding skeleton ossification. Quantitative evaluation of ossification is more difficult and is usually based on determination of calcium and other minerals in the bone by means of atomic absorption spectrometry...
December 2002: Teratology
Daniel Hunt
BACKGROUND: Hormesis is being recognized in the field of toxicology due to the stimulating effects of some toxic compounds at low exposure levels. Therefore, it is desirable that experimental designs for toxicological studies be flexible enough to aid in the detection of hormetic effects. Current designs may still not have enough power to do this. METHODS: A simulation study was conducted to determine teratological study designs that would yield more power over standard designs in detecting hormesis...
December 2002: Teratology
Sarah Yacobi, Asher Ornoy, Zeev Blumenfeld, Richard K Miller
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with or without evidence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPA) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is associated with a high rate of spontaneous abortions. The placenta is thought to be the site of pathological damage in many of these abortions. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of sera obtained from women with SLE with or without treatment on human placental explants in culture. METHODS: We cultured 5...
December 2002: Teratology
Chunwei Huang, Barbara F Hales
BACKGROUND: Caspases play a pivotal role in the regulation and execution of apoptosis, an essential process during limb development. Caspase 8 activation is usually downstream of the Fas/FasL death receptors, whereas caspase 9 mediates the mitochondrial signaling pathway of apoptosis. Caspase 3 is an effector caspase. Previous studies have shown that the exposure of embryonic murine limbs in vitro to 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-OOHCPA), an activated analog of the anticancer alkylating agent, cyclophosphamide, induced limb malformations and apoptosis...
December 2002: Teratology
June Wu, David A Staffenberg, John B Mulliken, Alan L Shanske
BACKGROUND: We present a case of partial facial duplication in a male infant. METHODS: The clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings for this patient are described, followed by a review of the literature. RESULTS: Craniofacial duplication is a rare form of conjoined twinning and presents in a wide spectrum, from dicephalus to diprosopus to partial facial duplication. Many of these cases can be diagnosed prenatally. Prenatal assessment of our patient revealed only agenesis of the corpus callosum...
December 2002: Teratology
She Min Zeng, Jerome Yankowitz, Jeffrey C Murray
BACKGROUND: The etiology of monozygotic twinning is not known. Some investigators have implicated abnormal X-inactivation, which could also be related to the increased female:male ratio in higher order multiple gestations in general, and in monozygotic and conjoined twins (CTS) in particular. CTS are rare, and even more unusual when part of a triplet pregnancy. METHODS: DNA polymorphism analysis using 13 markers in the buccal cells of the triplets and the lymphocytes of the parents were used to evaluate zygosity...
December 2002: Teratology
Thomas H Shepard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2002: Teratology
Gideon Koren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2002: Teratology
Gautam S Ghatnekar, Hanna S Gracz, Ida W Smoak
BACKGROUND: Glucose metabolites can be detected in embryonic mouse tissues using 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The advantage of this method is in its chemical specificity and the ability to follow metabolic changes. METHODS: In this study, CD-1 mice were mated and embryos excised on gestational day (GD) 10.5 (plug = GD 0.5). Hearts were isolated and cultured in 150 mg/dl glucose (normoglycemic medium) or 40 mg/dl glucose (hypoglycemic medium) for 6 hr. 13C-labeled glucose comprised 62%-64% of total glucose in the culture medium...
November 2002: Teratology
Iris A L M van Rooij, Pascal M W Groenen, Merel van Drongelen, René H M Te Morsche, Wilbert H M Peters, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen
BACKGROUND: Orofacial clefts and spina bifida are midline defects with a multifactorial etiology. Maternal smoking and medication use periconceptionally have been studied as risk factors for these malformations. The biotransformation enzyme N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2), plays a part in the inactivation of toxic compounds in cigarette smoke and medication. We investigated maternal NAT2 phenotype and the interaction with smoking and medication use periconceptionally on orofacial cleft and spina bifida risk in offspring...
November 2002: Teratology
Kelly A Volcik, Huiping Zhu, Gary M Shaw, Edward J Lammer, Richard H Finnell
BACKGROUND: Altered cholesterol metabolism and defects in cholesterol biosynthesis may influence abnormal central nervous system (CNS) development. During early stages of embryonic development, high levels of cholesterol are needed by rapidly proliferating cells that utilize cholesterol as a key cell membrane component. Alterations in cholesterol levels are influenced by variations in the apolipoprotein E (apoE) and apolipoprotein B (apoB) genes. The purpose of our study was to explore the possible association between infant genetic variations in the apoE and apoB genes and spina bifida (SB) risk...
November 2002: Teratology
Laura Martínez de Villarreal, Jesús Z Villarreal Pérez, Patricia Arredondo Vázquez, Ricardo Hernández Herrera, Ma Del Roble Velazco Campos, Roberto Ambriz López, José Luis Herrera Ramírez, Jesús Manuel Yañez Sánchez, Juan José Morales Villarreal, Manuel Treviño Garza, Adriana Limón, Abel Guzmán López, Mario Bárcenas, Juan Ramón Cepeda García, Andrés Sánchez Domínguez, Rogelio Hernández Nuñez, Jorge Luis García Ayala, Jorge Garza Martínez, Mario Tijerina González, Carlos García Alvarez, Roberto Negrete Castro
BACKGROUND: Nuevo León is a state in northeastern Mexico, near the border of Texas. Mean mortality rate from 1996-98 due to anencephaly cases was 0.6/1,000. In 1999 a surveillance program for the registry and prevention of neural tube defects (NTD) cases was initiated. METHODS: Cases were obtained from hospitals and OB-GYN clinics by immediate notification, death certificates, or fetal death registries. Only isolated cases of NTD were included. In August 1999 a folic acid campaign was initiated with the free distribution of the vitamin to low-income women with a recommendation to take a 5...
November 2002: Teratology
Karen S Kuehl, Christopher Loffredo
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to obtain information on potential familial and environmental risk factors for liveborn cases of heart disease associated with abnormal visceral and vascular sidedness, heterotaxy heart disease, so that hypotheses about this congenital cardiovascular malformation (CCVM) and its risk factors can be generated. We describe the characteristics of infants with heterotaxy heart malformations and case-control comparisons of interview data obtained on parental socio-demographic characteristics, occupational and household environmental exposures...
November 2002: Teratology
T A Lewandowski, C H Pierce, S D Pingree, S Hong, E M Faustman
BACKGROUND: The period of neurogenesis represents a window of susceptibility for in utero methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. This study examined the toxicokinetics of potentially neurotoxic doses of MeHg during neurogenesis in the developing rat to provide additional information in the areas of mercury speciation and inter-study variability. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed s.c. with 5-22 mg/kg MeHg on Day 11 of gestation to target rapidly dividing cells of the developing midbrain...
November 2002: Teratology
Pu Qin, Rebecca Cimildoro, Devendra M Kochhar, Kenneth J Soprano, Dianne Robert Soprano
BACKGROUND: Phocomelia, which is primarily due to a disruption in the proximodistal axis, is found in virtually all mouse embryos exposed to high doses of retinoic acid (RA) on 11 days post coitum (dpc). METHODS: To identify genes that potentially mediate the effects of retinoic acid (RA) on limb development, we have examined the expression of 9,000 clones from the IMAGE consortium by microarray analysis of RNA isolated from 11 dpc mouse forelimbs exposed to RA or vehicle for 6 hr...
November 2002: Teratology
Kimberly E Docterman, Susan M Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2002: Teratology
Alexandre R Vieira, Iêda M Orioli
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that late birth order is associated with some complex disorders. For orofacial clefts there is no consensus as to whether increased birth order is associated or not. A meta-analysis of published data on cleft lip or cleft palate (CL/P and CP) was carried out to ascertain whether there is an increased risk for children of high birth order to have an oral cleft. METHODS: All data available with information regarding the frequency of live births and CL/P and CP cases by birth order (1, 2, 3, and 4 or more) were included in the analysis, and the birth order category "1" was considered to be with no risk (OR = 1...
November 2002: Teratology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"