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Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889779/tanshinone-iia-affects-autophagy-and-apoptosis-of-glioma-cells-by-inhibiting-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-akt-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-pathway
#1
Lijuan Ding, Shudong Wang, Weiyao Wang, Peng Lv, Donghai Zhao, Feier Chen, Tianjiao Meng, Lihua Dong, Ling Qi
OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) on cell viability, cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy of human glioma cell U251 by regulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal pathway. METHODS: Tan IIA and PI3K agonist (740 Y-P) were used to treat glioma cells U251. MTT assay was used to assess cell viability and flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis and cell cycle. The expressions of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2 and Bax), autophagy-related proteins (LC3B and Beclin 1) and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway-associated proteins (p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR) were evaluated by Western blotting...
November 26, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832658/anaphylaxis-to-over-the-counter-flurbiprofen-in-a-child
#2
Mattia Giovannini, Lucrezia Sarti, Simona Barni, Neri Pucci, Elio Novembre, Francesca Mori
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are suspected to cause drug hypersensitivity very frequently in paediatric patients. In this article, we describe the first case of anaphylaxis to flurbiprofen in a child and provide insight into the possibility of severe reactions and even anaphylaxis to over-the-counter flurbiprofen. Finally, the importance of a rigorous allergy work-up in reaching a confident diagnosis and providing the patient with a safe alternative is shown.
November 11, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816979/evaluation-of-the-potential-pharmacokinetic-interaction-between-atomoxetine-and-fluvoxamine-in-healthy-volunteers
#3
Ioana Todor, Adina Popa, Maria Neag, Dana Muntean, Corina Bocsan, Anca Buzoianu, Laurian Vlase, Ana-Maria Gheldiu, Corina Briciu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with other psychiatric pathologies. Therefore, the present study investigated a possible pharmacokinetic interaction between atomoxetine (ATX), a treatment option for ADHD, and an antidepressant, namely, fluvoxamine (FVX). METHODS: Designed as an open-label, non-randomized clinical trial, the study included 2 periods. In period 1 (reference), each subject received ATX 25 mg (single-dose), whereas in period 2 (test), all subjects were given a combination of ATX 25 mg + FVX 100 mg, following a 6-day pretreatment regimen with the enzymatic inhibitor...
November 5, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806372/generation-and-measurement-of-chlorine-dioxide-gas-at-extremely-low-concentrations-in-a-living-room-implications-for-preventing-airborne-microbial-infectious-diseases
#4
Norio Ogata, Koushirou Sogawa, Yasuhiro Takigawa, Takashi Shibata
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Preventing respiratory diseases caused by airborne microbes in enclosed spaces is still not satisfactorily controlled. At extremely low concentrations (about 30 parts per billion), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas can inactivate airborne microbes and prevent respiratory disease. It has no toxic effect on animals at this level. However, controversies still remain regarding how to measure concentrations of ClO2 gas at such low levels. It is therefore necessary to prove that measured gas concentrations are accurate and reproducible...
November 2, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798943/effects-of-distigmine-on-electrical-field-stimulation-induced-contraction-of-mouse-urinary-bladder-smooth-muscles
#5
Keisuke Obara, Yurina Kobayashi, Daisuke Chino, Yoshio Tanaka
Distigmine bromide (distigmine), a reversible carbamate cholinesterase inhibitor, is used in Japan for treating detrusor underactivity, myasthenia gravis, and glaucoma. Although there is clinical evidence about the effectiveness of distigmine in the treatment of detrusor underactivity, mechanisms by which distigmine restores impaired urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM) contractility have not been fully investigated. The aims of this study were to investigate the potentiating effects of distigmine on UBSM contractions in response to parasympathetic nerve stimulation induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) in mice...
November 1, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788517/the-preventive-effect-of-the-traditional-japanese-herbal-medicine-hochuekkito-against-influenza-a-virus-via-autophagy-in-vitro
#6
Keita Takanashi, Katsuaki Dan, Sho Kanzaki, Hideki Hasegawa, Kenji Watanabe, Kaoru Ogawa
BACKGROUND: Hochuekkito (HKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, enhances the immunity of elderly or weak individuals. It is also known to have preventive effects against influenza clinically. However, the detailed mechanisms of the preventive effects have not been clarified. We examined the relationship between the preventive effects of HKT and autophagy, a known stress response and quality control mechanism, using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus...
October 28, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771722/inhibitory-effects-of-antidepressants-on-acetylcholine-induced-contractions-in-isolated-guinea-pig-urinary-bladder-smooth-muscle
#7
Junji Uno, Keisuke Obara, Hiroko Suzuki, Satomi Miyatani, Daisuke Chino, Takashi Yoshio, Yoshio Tanaka
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the potential inhibitory effects of 18 clinically available antidepressants on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contractions in guinea pig urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM) in order to predict whether they may induce voiding impairment. METHODS: Concentration-response curves for ACh-induced contractions in guinea pig UBSM strips were obtained in the absence or presence of selected antidepressants. When inhibitory effects indicated competitive antagonism, pA2 values against ACh were calculated and compared to plausible antidepressant blood concentrations...
October 22, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756073/cardiovascular-profile-of-propranolol-after-multiple-dosing-in-infantile-hemangioma
#8
Patrizia Salice, Mario Giovanni Bianchetti, Alessandra Giavarini, Erica Gondoni, Riccardo Cavalli, Anna Maria Colli, Federico Lombardi
Propranolol is becoming the treatment of choice for complicated infantile hemangioma. We report here data on peripheral blood flow, O2-saturation, electrocardiographic PR-interval, left ventricular function, blood pressure and heart rate that were assessed before and during treatment for ≥4 weeks with propranolol 2 mg/kg of body weight daily in 67 infants <12 months of age in normal sinus rhythm and with structurally normal hearts. Management with propranolol was well tolerated in all and did not modify peripheral blood flow, O2-saturation, electrocardiographic PR-interval and left ventricular fractional shortening or ejection fraction...
October 19, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756064/effects-of-allyl-isothiocyanate-acetaminophen-and-dipyrone-in-the-guinea-pig-ileum
#9
Josef Donnerer, Ingrid Liebmann
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, mustard oil, 50-200 µmol/l), depending on specific dosages, inhibited the cholinergic twitch response in the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) strip of the guinea-pig ileum. AITC also induced short-lasting contractile responses, and decreases of the basal tone of the LMMP strip at low concentrations and increases at high concentrations. Hexamethonium, a blocker of nicotinic ganglionic transmission, was able to prevent the AITC-evoked inhibitory effect, an effect that was also observed with the opioid antagonist naloxone...
October 19, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736819/efficacy-of-fu-yuan-capsule-in-the-healing-of-fractures-of-the-lower-end-of-the-radius-in-a-rabbit-model
#10
Wei Wei, Biao-Fang Wei, Jian Cai, Wei He, Lin Wan, Ying Guan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore the efficacy of Fu-Yuan Capsule in the healing of fractures of the lower end of the radius in a rabbit model. METHODS: After establishing a rabbit fracture model, all animals were randomly divided into the model group (n = 24), the Fu-Yuan Capsule group (n = 24), and the Shenyang Hongyao group (n = 24). The X-ray was applied to observe the course of fracture healing at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after treatment. Haematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining were used to determine the histological change and the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)...
October 14, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694752/nerve-growth-factor-facilitates-the-innervation-of-perivascular-nerves-in-tumor-derived-neovasculature-in-the-mouse-cornea
#11
Yoko Sone, Shingo Takatori, Eiko Ochi, Yoshito Zamami, Akiko Matsuyama, Satoko Fukuhara, Mitsuhiro Goda, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Hiromu Kawasaki
BACKGROUND: Tumor neovascular vessels are not innervated by perivascular nerves. This study was an investigation of the effects of the nerve growth factor (NGF) on the distribution of perivascular nerves and neovessel formation in tumor tissues. METHODS: A gel containing DU145 prostate carcinoma cells or HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells was implanted into mouse corneas. NGF was subcutaneously administered using an osmotic mini-pump. The distribution of perivascular nerves in mouse corneas and densities of CD31-immunopositive neovessels and smooth muscles (α-smooth muscle actin, α-SMA) in tumor tissues were quantified...
October 1, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694749/effects-of-liraglutide-and-vitamin-e-in-fructose-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats
#12
Ayman Geddawy, Marwa Hussian, Maha Yehia Kamel, Rehab Kamal, Mohamed A Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a growing worldwide health problem. However, there is yet no effective therapy for MetS. The present work investigated the effect of liraglutide, a synthetic glucagon-like peptide-1 and vitamin E on fructose-induced MetS in rats. SUMMARY: Liraglutide (0.3 mg/kg/day) and vitamin E (100 mg/kg/day) were administered either alone or in combination with high fructose-fed male rats for 6 weeks. Fructose-fed rats developed metabolic disorders assessed by visceral fat index, serum glucose, serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and serum lipids profile and hepatic disorders assessed by liver index, serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and steatohepatitis in histopathology...
October 1, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673688/suppressive-effect-of-carvedilol-on-na-ca2-exchange-current-in-isolated-guinea-pig-cardiac-ventricular-myocytes
#13
Miyuki Tashiro, Yasuhide Watanabe, Tomomi Yamakawa, Kanna Yamashita, Satomi Kita, Takahiro Iwamoto, Junko Kimura
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carvedilol ((+/-)-1-(carbazol-4-yloxy)-3-[[2-(o-methoxyphenoxy)ethyl]amino]-2-propanol), a β-adrenoceptor-blocker, has multi-channel blocking and vasodilator properties. This agent dose-dependently improves left ventricular function and reduces mortality in patients with arrhythmia and chronic heart failure. However, the effect of carvedilol on the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) has not been investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the effects of carvedilol and metoprolol, 2 β-blockers, on Na+/Ca2+ exchange current (INCX) in guinea-pig cardiac ventricular cells and fibroblasts expressing dog cardiac NCX1...
September 28, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673327/roles-of-hdac2-and-hdac8-in-cardiac-remodeling-in-renovascular-hypertensive-rats-and-the-effects-of-valproic-acid-sodium
#14
Rui-Fang Li, Shan-Shan Cao, Wei-Jin Fang, Ying Song, Xue-Ting Luo, Hong-Yun Wang, Jian-Gang Wang
Recent studies indicate that histone deacetylases (HDACs) activity is associated with the development and progression of cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, we investigated the effects of a HDACs inhibitor, valproic acid sodium (VPA), on cardiac remodeling and the differential expression of HDACs in left ventricles (LVs) of renovascular hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced in rats by the two-kidney two-clip (2K2C) method. Cardiac remodeling, heart function and the differential expression of HDACs were examined at different weeks after 2K2C operation...
September 27, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654487/right-ventricular-dysfunction-complicates-time-in-therapeutic-range-in-heart-failure-patients-receiving-warfarin
#15
Osman Beton, Lale Dinc Asarcikli, Taner Sen, Esra Gucuk Ipek, Habibe Kafes, Mehmet Yaman, Tolga Han Efe, Hakkı Kaya, Ahmet Temizhan, Mehmet Birhan Yilmaz
AIM: We aimed to evaluate the effect of echocardiographically demonstrated right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) on time in therapeutic range (TTR) in heart failure (HF) patients receiving warfarin therapy. METHODS: A total of 893 consecutive HF patients were included and classified into 4 different subgroups: HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) without RVD (n = 373), HF with reduced EF (HFrEF) without RVD (n = 215), HFpEF with RVD (n = 106) and HFrEF with RVD (n = 199)...
September 22, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631634/ropivacaine-interleukin-6-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-plasma-levels-during-intermittent-epidural-and-continuous-wound-infusion-of-ropivacaine-for-analgesia-after-hysterectomy-or-myomectomy-an-observational-study
#16
Sophia L Markantonis, Aikaterini Melemeni, Marina Markidou, Stefania Irene Haikali, Vangelis Karalis, Argyro Fassoulaki
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The concentration-time profile of the long-acting local anesthetic ropivacaine after epidural (EP) administration at fixed time intervals or continuous subcutaneous (SC) infusion has not been fully evaluated. The objective of this work was to determine total plasma concentrations of ropivacaine and changes in cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels during EP and SC. METHODS: In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 18 patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy or myomectomy were randomly selected to receive ropivacaine either every 6 h via an EP catheter or by continuous wound infusion along the skin incision, after a bolus dose, for 48 h...
2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627741/the-delta-opioid-receptor-agonist-d-ala2-d-leu2-enkephalin-enhances-hypoxic-depression-of-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-and-improves-recovery-of-rat-cortical-neurons-from-hypoxia-in-vitro
#17
Andreas Merkenschlager, Marcus Bloßfeld, Karen Nieber
We investigated the influence of the delta-opioid receptor-preferring agonist D-Ala2-D-Leu2-enkephalin (DADLE) in vitro during long- and short-term hypoxia on the single cortical neuron membrane currents, the postsynaptic currents (PSCs), and the postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in rats. Rat cortical pyramidal neurons showed 2 distinct and prognostically relevant responses to hypoxia. Type A neurons that responded to hypoxia by an inward current, followed by a steady outward current, were shown to recover during subsequent reoxygenation...
September 15, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606802/population-pharmacodynamic-model-for-bayesian-prediction-of-myelosuppression-profiles-based-on-routine-clinical-data-after-gemcitabine-and-carboplatin-treatment
#18
Yugo Chisaki, Tomohiro Terada, Yoshitaka Yano
BACKGROUND: Hematological toxicity is a serious adverse event and is often a dose-limiting factor in anticancer drugs. The objective of the present study was to develop a modeling and simulation (M&S) procedure for predictions of time course profiles of blood cell counts that reflect myelosuppression profiles. METHODS: A method for Bayesian prediction of myelosuppression profiles during chemotherapy using a population pharmacodynamic model is proposed, and predictabilities of nadir values and times to nadir (Tnadir) after gemcitabine and carboplatin treatment were evaluated...
2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603525/statins-in-asthma-a-closer-look-into-the-pharmacological-mechanism-of-action
#19
Nour A Al-Sawalha, Brian J Knoll
The effect of stains in asthma is mediated through targeting several signaling molecules that are involved in the development of asthma phenotype. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that statins reduce airway smooth muscle cells proliferation and inflammatory mediators' release. Statins reduce chemokine release and mucus production from airway epithelial cells besides attenuating subepithelial fibrosis and eosinophils recruitment. In acute and chronic allergen driven animal models of asthma, statins reduce airway hyper-responsiveness, inflammation and remodeling...
2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578190/oral-drugs-related-with-muscle-wasting-and-sarcopenia-a-review
#20
Lluis Campins, Marcella Camps, Ariadna Riera, Eulogio Pleguezuelos, Juan Carlos Yebenes, Mateu Serra-Prat
Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Reported prevalence of this geriatric syndrome, differs depending on the definition, the population and the method used to identify sarcopenia. The causes of sarcopenia are multifactorial, and can include genetic influence, immobility or disuse, endocrine factors, inflammation and nutritional deficiencies. These disorders involve an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic pathways that rules muscle mass...
August 31, 2016: Pharmacology
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