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Jian-Rong Zhou, Tetsuya Shirasaki, Fumio Soeda, Kazumi Yokomizo, Kazuo Takahama
In this study, we investigated the effect of histamine on capsaicin-induced current and its influence by suplatast in rat trigeminal ganglia neurons using a patch-clamp technique. We found that histamine directly potentiated capsaicin-induced currents in rat sensory neurons, and suplatast had little effect on this potentiation. Since it has been known that suplatast suppresses histamine release from mast cells, it is possible that suplatast inhibits the activation of nociceptive fibers in the pathological condition via prevention of histamine-induced potentiation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor-mediated currents...
May 16, 2018: Pharmacology
Ayami Sato, Haruka Ueno, Momoka Fusegi, Saki Kaneko, Kakeru Kohno, Nantiga Virgona, Akira Ando, Yuko Sekine, Tomohiro Yano
BACKGROUND: Wnt signaling plays an essential role in tumor cell growth, including the development of malignant mesothelioma (MM). Epigenetic silencing of negative Wnt regulators leading to constitutive Wnt signaling has been observed in various cancers and warrants further attention. We have reported that a succinate ether derivative of α-tocotrienol (T3E) has potent cytotoxic effects in MM cells. Thus, in this study, we investigated whether the anti-MM effect of T3E could be mediated via the epigenetic alteration of the Wnt antagonist gene, Dickkopf-1 (DKK1)...
May 15, 2018: Pharmacology
Sandra D Nkandeu, Iman van den Bout, Marianne J Cronjé, Dirk H van Papendorp, Anna M Joubert
BACKGROUND: 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2) is an endogenous metabolite of 17-β-estradiol with anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic properties. Due to 2ME2's rapid metabolism and low oral bioavailability in in vivo settings, 2ME2 analogues have been designed to alleviate these issues. One of these compounds is 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra-1,3,5(10)16-tetraene (ESE-16). A previous work alluded to the ability of ESE-16 to induce autophagic cell death. Therefore, we investigated the mode of action of ESE-16 by studying its effects on autophagy, vesicle formation, and lysosomal organisation...
April 19, 2018: Pharmacology
Jingsong Liu, Lin Zhou, Liyu He, Ying Zhong, Xiaobai Zhang, Bofei Xiao, Guoyong Liu
BACKGROUND: Periplaneta americana is one of the ancient insect groups with the strongest vitality. Periplaneta americana extract (PAE) has been explored as an alternative remedy for many diseases. Although much progress has been made in the study about PAE, the role of the drug in renal disease is rarely reported, especially in renal fibrosis. This study was designed to evaluate the renoprotective effect of PAE treatment to renal fibrosis. METHOD: An in vivo, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse model was built...
April 17, 2018: Pharmacology
Briohny H Spencer, Catherine M McDermott, Russ Chess-Williams, David Christie, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Docetaxel is currently the first-line chemotherapeutic agent available for the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer (PCa). While docetaxel has been shown to modestly improve survival times for patients; they also experience significant docetaxel-induced toxicities. If treatment failure occurs, there are currently limited alternatives that show survival benefits for patients and therefore there is an urgent need for adjunct therapies. Some quinazoline-based alpha1-adrenoceptor (ADR) antagonists have previously been shown to have cytotoxic actions in PCa cells, but there is no research into their effects on docetaxel-induced toxicity...
April 17, 2018: Pharmacology
Josef Donnerer, Ingrid Liebmann
This study aimed at investigating whether the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist (+)-WIN 55212-2 has neurogenic and myogenic relaxant effects on the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) strip of the guinea-pig ileum. (+)-WIN 55212-2, 1-1,000 nmol/L, concentration-dependently inhibited both the electrical stimulation-induced cholinergic twitch responses as well as the myogenic smooth muscle contractions in the LMMP preparation. SR-141716A (rimonabant) 1-1,000 nmol/L, the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, being without effect on its own, antagonized the (+)-WIN 55212-2-induced effects...
April 6, 2018: Pharmacology
Lin Sang, Xiaoyan Wang, Xingbo Zhao
Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most common gynecological malignancies, and metastasis limits the use of surgical resection. Metapristone (MIF) was reported to suppress the proliferation and migration of several cancer cells. Exosomes play a variety of roles in cellular biological processes. The relation of exosomes and CC is less studied. Cell viability, apoptosis assay and migration assay was conducted in HeLa cells treated by MIF by CCK-8 kit, staining by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide, and wound test respectively...
April 5, 2018: Pharmacology
Tae Woo Jung, Sun-Young Kim, Da-Som Kim, Eui-Cheol Shin, Yong Bae Park, Kyoung-Tae Lee
Hepatic lipid accumulation and apoptosis is elevated in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and is closely associated with severity. Saturated fatty acid palmitate stimulates lipid accumulation and apoptosis in hepatocytes. In the present study, we examined bee-bee tree oil (BO)-mediated protective effects on palmitate-induced lipid accumulation and apoptosis in mouse primary hepatocytes. Cells were cultured in a control media or the same media containing 150 or 300 µmol/L of albumin-bound palmitate for 24 h...
March 29, 2018: Pharmacology
Noreen Husain, Yasushi Yabuki, Yasuharu Shinoda, Kohji Fukunaga
Hypothyroidism is a common disorder that is associated with psychological disturbances such as dementia, depression, and psychomotor disorders. We recently found that chronic treatment with the T-type calcium channel enhancer SAK3 prevents the cholinergic neurodegeneration induced by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of methimazole (MMI; 75 mg/kg), thereby improving cognition. Here, we evaluated the acute effect of SAK3 on cognitive impairments and its mechanism of action following the induction of hypothyroidism...
March 29, 2018: Pharmacology
Joana Tenreiro Pinto, Frederico C Pereira, Maria C Loureiro, Ricardo Gama, Hugo L Fernandes
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Several guidelines for neuropathic pain management and various effective drugs are available; however, neuropathic pain remains undertreated. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of topical capsaicin 8% in peripheral neuropathic pain in a routine clinical setting. METHODS: Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated through pain intensity, using numerical pain rating scale at baseline and 7-14 days after each treatment, and using pain treatment area (PTA) assessed immediately before each treatment...
March 27, 2018: Pharmacology
Sun-Young Nam, Hee-Yun Kim, Hyung Eun Lee, Jong Hoon Ryu, Jae-Bum Jang, Hyung-Min Kim, Hyun-Ja Jeong
AIMS: Depression is one of the most common inflammatory and mental disorders. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) plays a crucial role in the pathology of mental disorders as well as inflammatory diseases. METHODS: Here we determined the role of STAT6 in the pathogenesis of depression using STAT6-deficient mice in a forced swimming test. RESULTS: The immobility time was significantly decreased in STAT6-deficient mice compared to wild-type mice without alteration of locomotor activity...
March 27, 2018: Pharmacology
Marguerite L Monogue, George Sakoulas, Victor Nizet, David P Nicolau
β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitors (BLIs) have previously demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Acinetobacter baumannii (AB). Colistin retains the highest susceptibility rate against A. baumannii, and has demonstrated synergy with other antimicrobials, including β-lactam-BLIs. Therefore, we assessed the potential individual activity and synergistic combinations in vivo against carbapenem-susceptible (CS) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii isolates in neutropenic thigh and lung infection models...
2018: Pharmacology
Shixiang Wang, Nan Tan, Cuicui Ma, Jie Wang, Pu Jia, Jianghong Liu, Yang Yang, Zhanxiong Xie, Kun Zhao, Xiaohui Zheng
AIMS: In clinical practice, herbal medicines have played an important role in the modulation of drug transporters through the combination of conventional prescription drugs, which necessitates the elucidation of herb-drug interactions. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects and mechanisms of benzaldehyde, vanillin, muscone, and borneol on P-glycoprotein (P-gp). METHODS: The effects of the 4 compounds on the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine-123 (Rho-123) in vinblastine-treated Caco-2 (VB-Caco-2) cells were studied by monitoring fluorescence intensity through a flow cytometry assay, and the effects of these compounds on Rho-123 transport through VB-Caco-2 monolayers and Rho-123 intestinal absorption in the rat everted gut sac were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography...
2018: Pharmacology
Islam M Ghazi, Marguerite L Monogue, Masakatsu Tsuji, David P Nicolau
We evaluated the in vivo efficacy of humanized exposures of cefiderocol, a novel siderophore cephalosporin, against a test panel of P. aeruginosa (PSA) previously shown to develop resistance to 2 preclinical candidate siderophores (MB-1 and SMC-3176). In the thigh infection model, the PSA bacterial density in untreated controls grew from 5.54 ± 0.23 to 8.68 ± 0.57 log10 CFU over 24 h. The humanized cefiderocol exposure resulted in >1 log10 CFU reduction in all 8 isolates, while MB-1 and SMC-3176 exhibited variable activity similar to that previously reported...
2018: Pharmacology
Alexandru-Florian Deftu, Violeta Ristoiu, Marc Rene Suter
The functioning of microglial cells inside the central nervous system depends on their ion channels expression. Microglia are capable of synthesizing different cytokines and chemokines, including CXCL1, and responding to their action via specific receptors. In this study, we explore the effect of intrathecal injection of CXCL1 on potassium currents, expressed in CX3CR1-Green Fluorescent Protein labeled microglia in transgenic mice. The results showed that CXCL1 hyperpolarized the cells by enhancing inward rectifying potassium currents and increasing the membrane area, suggesting an activating effect on microglia...
2018: Pharmacology
Chunsheng He, Amber Griffies, Xuan Liu, Robert Adamczyk, Shu-Pang Huang
Sample size estimates for drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies are often based on variability information from the literature or from historical studies, but small sample sizes in these sources may limit the precision of the estimates obtained. This project aimed to create an intra-subject variability library of the pharmacokinetic (PK) exposure parameters, area under the curve, and maximum plasma concentration, for probes commonly used in DDI studies. Data from 66 individual DDI studies in healthy subjects relating to 18 common probe substrates were pooled to increase the effective sample size for the identified probes by 1...
2018: Pharmacology
Yi-Wen Zhang, Xiao-Wei Zheng, Yu-Jia Liu, Luo Fang, Zong-Fu Pan, Mei-Hua Bao, Ping Huang
Oridonin, the major terpene found in Rabdosia rubescens, is widely used as a dietary supplement or therapeutic drug. However, the effects of oridonin on major CYP450s are still unclear. As oridonin can enhance the effect of other clinical drugs, in this study, we investigated the influence of oridonin on CYP450s mRNA expression and its impact on activities in human HepaRG cell to evaluate the safety by studying its potential drug interaction. HepaRG cells were cultured with series concentrations of oridonin (1, 5, 10, and 20 μmol/L), and the major CYP450s mRNA and protein expression, as well as enzyme activities were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis and UPLC-MS/MS-based metabolite assay...
2018: Pharmacology
Shiro Nakamura, Toshio Watanabe, Tetsuya Tanigawa, Sunao Shimada, Yuji Nadatani, Takako Miyazaki, Masaki Iimuro, Yasuhiro Fujiwara
Activation of the NOD-Like Receptor Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, which consists of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), and pro-caspase-1, triggers pro-caspase-1 cleavage promoting the processing of pro-interleukin (IL)-1β into mature IL-1β, which is critical for the development of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced enteropathy. We investigated the effects of isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid derived from the roots of Glycyrrhiza species, on NSAID-induced small intestinal damage and the inflammasome activation...
2018: Pharmacology
Katsuhito Nagai, Shuhei Fukuno, Keisuke Otani, Yoshiki Nagamine, Sachiko Omotani, Yasutoshi Hatsuda, Michiaki Myotoku, Hiroki Konishi
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly potent anti-neoplastic agent widely used in clinical practice, but its dosage and duration of administration are strictly limited due to dose-related organ damage. In the present study, we examined whether theanine, an amino acid derivative found in green tea leaves, can protect against DOX-induced acute nephrotoxicity in rats. Decreases in the creatinine clearance by DOX administration were attenuated by concurrent treatment with theanine, which was consistent with the change in histological renal images assessed by microscopic examination...
2018: Pharmacology
Dong Wang, Jiang Song, Huasong Ma
BACKGROUND: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]VD3) has recently been found to be an active hormone. Its biological actions are also demonstrated in various cell types. However, the precise influences of vitamin D3 (VD3) and its metabolites (25[OH]VD3, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25-(OH)2VD3]) on the osteoblast differentiation remain largely unknown. In this work, we investigated the effects of VD3 and its metabolites in different concentrations on the early and later osteoblast differentiation and biomineralization...
2018: Pharmacology
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