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Patrizia Salice, Mario Giovanni Bianchetti, Alessandra Giavarini, Erica Gondoni, Riccardo Cavalli, Anna Maria Colli, Federico Lombardi
Propranolol is becoming the treatment of choice for complicated infantile hemangioma. We report here data on peripheral blood flow, O2-saturation, electrocardiographic PR-interval, left ventricular function, blood pressure and heart rate that were assessed before and during treatment for ≥4 weeks with propranolol 2 mg/kg of body weight daily in 67 infants <12 months of age in normal sinus rhythm and with structurally normal hearts. Management with propranolol was well tolerated in all and did not modify peripheral blood flow, O2-saturation, electrocardiographic PR-interval and left ventricular fractional shortening or ejection fraction...
October 19, 2016: Pharmacology
Josef Donnerer, Ingrid Liebmann
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, mustard oil, 50-200 µmol/l), depending on specific dosages, inhibited the cholinergic twitch response in the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) strip of the guinea-pig ileum. AITC also induced short-lasting contractile responses, and decreases of the basal tone of the LMMP strip at low concentrations and increases at high concentrations. Hexamethonium, a blocker of nicotinic ganglionic transmission, was able to prevent the AITC-evoked inhibitory effect, an effect that was also observed with the opioid antagonist naloxone...
October 19, 2016: Pharmacology
Wei Wei, Biao-Fang Wei, Jian Cai, Wei He, Lin Wan, Ying Guan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore the efficacy of Fu-Yuan Capsule in the healing of fractures of the lower end of the radius in a rabbit model. METHODS: After establishing a rabbit fracture model, all animals were randomly divided into the model group (n = 24), the Fu-Yuan Capsule group (n = 24), and the Shenyang Hongyao group (n = 24). The X-ray was applied to observe the course of fracture healing at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after treatment. Haematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining were used to determine the histological change and the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)...
October 14, 2016: Pharmacology
Yoko Sone, Shingo Takatori, Eiko Ochi, Yoshito Zamami, Akiko Matsuyama, Satoko Fukuhara, Mitsuhiro Goda, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Hiromu Kawasaki
BACKGROUND: Tumor neovascular vessels are not innervated by perivascular nerves. This study was an investigation of the effects of the nerve growth factor (NGF) on the distribution of perivascular nerves and neovessel formation in tumor tissues. METHODS: A gel containing DU145 prostate carcinoma cells or HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells was implanted into mouse corneas. NGF was subcutaneously administered using an osmotic mini-pump. The distribution of perivascular nerves in mouse corneas and densities of CD31-immunopositive neovessels and smooth muscles (α-smooth muscle actin, α-SMA) in tumor tissues were quantified...
October 1, 2016: Pharmacology
Ayman Geddawy, Marwa Hussian, Maha Yehia Kamel, Rehab Kamal, Mohamed A Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a growing worldwide health problem. However, there is yet no effective therapy for MetS. The present work investigated the effect of liraglutide, a synthetic glucagon-like peptide-1 and vitamin E on fructose-induced MetS in rats. SUMMARY: Liraglutide (0.3 mg/kg/day) and vitamin E (100 mg/kg/day) were administered either alone or in combination with high fructose-fed male rats for 6 weeks. Fructose-fed rats developed metabolic disorders assessed by visceral fat index, serum glucose, serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and serum lipids profile and hepatic disorders assessed by liver index, serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and steatohepatitis in histopathology...
October 1, 2016: Pharmacology
Miyuki Tashiro, Yasuhide Watanabe, Tomomi Yamakawa, Kanna Yamashita, Satomi Kita, Takahiro Iwamoto, Junko Kimura
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carvedilol ((+/-)-1-(carbazol-4-yloxy)-3-[[2-(o-methoxyphenoxy)ethyl]amino]-2-propanol), a β-adrenoceptor-blocker, has multi-channel blocking and vasodilator properties. This agent dose-dependently improves left ventricular function and reduces mortality in patients with arrhythmia and chronic heart failure. However, the effect of carvedilol on the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) has not been investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the effects of carvedilol and metoprolol, 2 β-blockers, on Na+/Ca2+ exchange current (INCX) in guinea-pig cardiac ventricular cells and fibroblasts expressing dog cardiac NCX1...
September 28, 2016: Pharmacology
Rui-Fang Li, Shan-Shan Cao, Wei-Jin Fang, Ying Song, Xue-Ting Luo, Hong-Yun Wang, Jian-Gang Wang
Recent studies indicate that histone deacetylases (HDACs) activity is associated with the development and progression of cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, we investigated the effects of a HDACs inhibitor, valproic acid sodium (VPA), on cardiac remodeling and the differential expression of HDACs in left ventricles (LVs) of renovascular hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced in rats by the two-kidney two-clip (2K2C) method. Cardiac remodeling, heart function and the differential expression of HDACs were examined at different weeks after 2K2C operation...
September 27, 2016: Pharmacology
Osman Beton, Lale Dinc Asarcikli, Taner Sen, Esra Gucuk Ipek, Habibe Kafes, Mehmet Yaman, Tolga Han Efe, Hakkı Kaya, Ahmet Temizhan, Mehmet Birhan Yilmaz
AIM: We aimed to evaluate the effect of echocardiographically demonstrated right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) on time in therapeutic range (TTR) in heart failure (HF) patients receiving warfarin therapy. METHODS: A total of 893 consecutive HF patients were included and classified into 4 different subgroups: HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) without RVD (n = 373), HF with reduced EF (HFrEF) without RVD (n = 215), HFpEF with RVD (n = 106) and HFrEF with RVD (n = 199)...
September 22, 2016: Pharmacology
Sophia L Markantonis, Aikaterini Melemeni, Marina Markidou, Stefania Irene Haikali, Vangelis Karalis, Argyro Fassoulaki
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The concentration-time profile of the long-acting local anesthetic ropivacaine after epidural (EP) administration at fixed time intervals or continuous subcutaneous (SC) infusion has not been fully evaluated. The objective of this work was to determine total plasma concentrations of ropivacaine and changes in cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels during EP and SC. METHODS: In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 18 patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy or myomectomy were randomly selected to receive ropivacaine either every 6 h via an EP catheter or by continuous wound infusion along the skin incision, after a bolus dose, for 48 h...
September 16, 2016: Pharmacology
Andreas Merkenschlager, Marcus Bloßfeld, Karen Nieber
We investigated the influence of the delta-opioid receptor-preferring agonist D-Ala2-D-Leu2-enkephalin (DADLE) in vitro during long- and short-term hypoxia on the single cortical neuron membrane currents, the postsynaptic currents (PSCs), and the postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in rats. Rat cortical pyramidal neurons showed 2 distinct and prognostically relevant responses to hypoxia. Type A neurons that responded to hypoxia by an inward current, followed by a steady outward current, were shown to recover during subsequent reoxygenation...
September 15, 2016: Pharmacology
Yugo Chisaki, Tomohiro Terada, Yoshitaka Yano
BACKGROUND: Hematological toxicity is a serious adverse event and is often a dose-limiting factor in anticancer drugs. The objective of the present study was to develop a modeling and simulation (M&S) procedure for predictions of time course profiles of blood cell counts that reflect myelosuppression profiles. METHODS: A method for Bayesian prediction of myelosuppression profiles during chemotherapy using a population pharmacodynamic model is proposed, and predictabilities of nadir values and times to nadir (Tnadir) after gemcitabine and carboplatin treatment were evaluated...
September 9, 2016: Pharmacology
Nour A Al-Sawalha, Brian J Knoll
The effect of stains in asthma is mediated through targeting several signaling molecules that are involved in the development of asthma phenotype. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that statins reduce airway smooth muscle cells proliferation and inflammatory mediators' release. Statins reduce chemokine release and mucus production from airway epithelial cells besides attenuating subepithelial fibrosis and eosinophils recruitment. In acute and chronic allergen driven animal models of asthma, statins reduce airway hyper-responsiveness, inflammation and remodeling...
September 8, 2016: Pharmacology
Lluis Campins, Marcella Camps, Ariadna Riera, Eulogio Pleguezuelos, Juan Carlos Yebenes, Mateu Serra-Prat
Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Reported prevalence of this geriatric syndrome, differs depending on the definition, the population and the method used to identify sarcopenia. The causes of sarcopenia are multifactorial, and can include genetic influence, immobility or disuse, endocrine factors, inflammation and nutritional deficiencies. These disorders involve an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic pathways that rules muscle mass...
August 31, 2016: Pharmacology
Petros N Karamanakos, Periklis Pappas, Vasiliki Boumba, Theodoros Vougiouklakis, Marios Marselos
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Isoniazid (ISO) has been reported to inhibit the hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and to cause a disulfiram (DIS)-like reaction, albeit there are no reports demonstrating increased blood acetaldehyde levels after co-administration of ISO with alcohol. The aim of our study was to clarify whether the alcohol intolerance produced by ISO is indeed due to a typical DIS-like reaction. METHODS: DIS and ISO were administered to Wistar rats and the hepatic ethanol (ETH) metabolizing enzyme activities along with the levels of brain monoamines were determined...
August 27, 2016: Pharmacology
Abha Sahni, Erica D Thomasson, Riya Shah, Sanjeev K Sahni
Cellular oxidative stress in the endothelium of blood vessels leads to several pathophysiological sequelae, including vascular damage and dysfunction, inflammation and atherosclerosis. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) provides protection against oxidative stress-induced cell death and plays a crucial role in the regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in endothelial cells. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of bortezomib, a clinically used proteasome inhibitor, on the regulation of HO-1 and COX-2 in cultured human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs)...
August 27, 2016: Pharmacology
Neda Yousefirad, Ziya Kaygisiz, Yasemin Aydin
Neurotoxic beta amyloid peptides (βAPs) are involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. βAP1-42 may also play a role in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. Therefore, we investigated the possible effects of βAP1-42 on isolated rat heart and ileum. The hearts were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit solution. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), maximal rate of pressure development of left ventricle (+dP/dtmax), heart rate, coronary flow, monophasic action potential amplitude (MAPamp), MAP duration at 90% repolarization (MAP90) and contractions of ileum were measured...
August 17, 2016: Pharmacology
Bianca Hutter-Schmid, Christian Humpel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, characterized by extracellular beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, intracellular tau pathology, neurodegeneration and inflammation. There is clear evidence that the blood-brain barrier is damaged in AD and that vessel function is impaired. Alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) is a prominent protein expressed on brain vessels, especially in cells located closer to the arteriole end of the capillaries, which possibly influences the blood vessel contraction...
July 28, 2016: Pharmacology
Mohamed Elsayed Kelany, Tahir M Hakami, Adel H Omar, Mohamed A Abdallah
AIMS: The present study evaluated the effects of sitagliptin-insulin against type 2 diabetes mellitus with neuropathy in rats and possible neuroprotective mechanisms. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in 32 adult male albino rats by 6-week high-fat high-sugar diet followed by streptozotocin 30 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection. For 4 weeks thereafter, diabetic rats were divided into 4 groups, each group receiving one of the following daily: vehicle (untreated diabetic), insulin 10 IU/kg SC, sitagliptin 30 mg/kg PO or sitagliptin-insulin...
July 23, 2016: Pharmacology
Xiao-Xue Liu, Bei-Ming Xu, Hao Chen, Yan-Yan Song, Wan-Hua Yang, Bing Chen
OBJECTIVES: Limited sampling strategies (LSS) have been proposed as an alternative method for estimating area under concentration-time curve (AUC) of immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus (TAC). In this study, we aimed to develop the LSS models for predicting AUC of TAC in Chinese liver transplant patients. METHODS: Twenty-eight adult liver transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive regimen including TAC were enrolled. A total of 47 pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained after 1 or 3 weeks therapy...
July 23, 2016: Pharmacology
Tanveer Singh Kundra, Parminder Kaur
Dexmedetomidine is a selective alpha2 agonist, which is widely used for conscious sedation in ICU patients. It is being increasingly used to provide conscious sedation in out-of-theatre procedures like CT scan, MRI, endoscopies and catheterization (cath) procedures. There is limited data till date regarding the effect of dexmedetomidine on coronary vessel diameter. The aim of this prospective observational study was to observe the effect of dexmedetomidine on normal coronary vessel diameter. Fifty patients who had come for elective coronary angiography in the cath lab were enrolled in the study...
July 21, 2016: Pharmacology
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