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Zhenzhen Cao, Zhipei Liu, Peipei Zhang, Liangkun Hu, Jie Hao, Peihua Zhang, Youjia Tian, Zhijing Song, Quankui Zhou, Ji-Hua Ma
AIM: Sodium houttuyfonate (SH), a chemical compound originating from Houttuynia cordata, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal effects, as well as cardioprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of SH on cardiac electrophysiology, because to the best of our knowledge, this issue has not been previously investigated. METHODS: We used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to explore the effects of SH on peak sodium current (INa...
August 23, 2018: Pharmacology
Sarah F Giardina, Douglas S Werner, Maneesh Pingle, Donald E Bergstrom, Lee D Arnold, Francis Barany
β-Tryptase is released from mast cells upon degranulation in response to allergic and inflammatory stimuli. Human tryptase is a homotetrameric serine protease with 4 identical active sites directed toward a central pore. These active sites present an optimized scenario for the rational design of bivalent inhibitors, which bridge 2 adjacent active sites. Using (3-[1-acylpiperidin-4-yl]phenyl)methanamine as the pharmacophoric core and a disiloxane linker to span 2 active sites we have successfully produced a novel bivalent tryptase inhibitor, compound 1a, with a comparable profile to previously described inhibitors...
August 22, 2018: Pharmacology
Hideyuki Nakagawa, Ryoukichi Koyama, Yusuke Kamada, Atsuko Ochida, Mitsunori Kono, Junya Shirai, Satoshi Yamamoto, Geza Ambrus-Aikelin, Bi-Ching Sang, Masaharu Nakayama
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) is a master regulator of T helper 17 cells that plays a pivotal role in the production of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-17. Therefore, RORγt has attracted much attention as a target receptor for the treatment of inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and psoriasis. This study aims to characterize TAK-828F, a potent and selective RORγt inverse agonist...
August 22, 2018: Pharmacology
Briohny H Spencer, Catherine M McDermott, Russ Chess-Williams, David Christie, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Docetaxel is currently the first-line chemotherapeutic agent available for the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer (PCa). While docetaxel has been shown to modestly improve survival times for patients; they also experience significant docetaxel-induced toxicities. If treatment failure occurs, there are currently limited alternatives that show survival benefits for patients and therefore there is an urgent need for adjunct therapies. Some quinazoline-based alpha1-adrenoceptor (ADR) antagonists have previously been shown to have cytotoxic actions in PCa cells, but there is no research into their effects on docetaxel-induced toxicity...
April 17, 2018: Pharmacology
Gofarana Wilar, Kusnandar Anggadiredja, Yasuharu Shinoda, Kohji Fukunaga
Nicotine is a stimulatory component in tobacco that activates the central nervous system reward pathway and causes nicotine dependence. We found that the anti-inflammatory agent, curcuminoid, prevents nicotine dependence and relapse, as assessed by the conditioned placed preference test. Curcuminoid (1, 3.2, and 10 mg·kg-1, oral) dose-dependently inhibited nicotine dependence and enhanced nicotine extinction when administrated 30 min prior to nicotine administration (0.5 mg·kg-1, i.p.) for 7 days. In addition, curcuminoid significantly suppressed the priming effects of nicotine and inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity...
2018: Pharmacology
Debra Dorotea, Guideock Kwon, Jung Hwa Lee, Erika Saunders, Yun Soo Bae, Sung Hwan Moon, Soo Jin Lee, Dae Ryong Cha, Hunjoo Ha
BACKGROUND: NADPH oxidases (Nox) is a major enzyme system contributing to oxidative stress, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). We have shown an elevation of renal Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4 in diabetic mice. APX-115, a pan-Nox inhibitor, attenuated the progression of DKD in mice. As the standard diabetic mice cannot fully mimic human DKD, the present study was aimed to show the dose-dependent effect and to provide a confirmatory evidence of APX-115 in attenuating DKD in diabetic rats...
2018: Pharmacology
Xiu-Li Gu
AIM: To investigate the regulation of microRNA-124 -(miRNA-124) on NF-κB pathway from H2O2-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in human lens epithelial cells (hLEC). METHODS: The MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay was used to detect hLEC -viability. HLECs were divided into Blank, H2O2, mimics (miRNA-124 mimics) + H2O2, NC+ H2O2, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC; NF-κB signaling pathway inhibitor) + H2O2, and inhibitors (miRNA-124 inhibitors) + PDTC + H2O2 groups...
2018: Pharmacology
Hong Wang, Wei Fu, Lian-Hua Chen, Shi-Tong Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Denervation resulted in resistance to non-depolarizing muscle relaxants (NDMRs), the magnitude of which changed after denervation in the skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changed potencies of rocuronium were due to altered γ-acetylcholine receptor (γ-AChR) expression after skeletal muscle denervation. METHODS: Innervated and denervated muscle cells were used in this study. Patch clamp and Western blotting techniques were separately applied to examine IC50 values of rocuronium and γ-AChR protein expression at different times after denervation...
2018: Pharmacology
Haifeng Liu, Lingyu Li, Chunlei Zhang, Hongzhi Li, Jieting Liu, Chunyin Tang, Yufei Zhang, Dan Wu, Yanhui Chu, Yan Wu, Xiaohuan Yuan
In this study, rat and human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) have been cloned by lentiviral transduction and expressed by CHO-K1 cells. The results showed that recombinant plasmids contained R11bhsd1 or H11bhsd1 have been constructed, which is consistent with the gene bank respectively. A clone cell was selected with G418 and cultivated to express 11β-HSD1. 11β-HSD1 catalytic activity of rat and human were 99.5 and 98.7%, respectively, determined by scanning radiometer. And the cloned CHO-K1 cells expressed the protein of 11β-HSD1 in a long-term and stable manner, which makes it suitable for screening 11β-HSD1 inhibitor...
2018: Pharmacology
Chaoyang Xie, Lei Liu, Zhigang Wang, Hongchang Xie, Yonghua Feng, Jingjun Suo, Menghao Wang, Wenjun Shang, Guiwen Feng
OBJECTIVES: Icariin (ICA) is a bioactive flavonoid with renal protective actions. This study investigated the effects of ICA on renal injury, inflammation, oxidative damage, apoptosis, and survival in a mouse model of cecal ligation and perforation (CLP)-induced sepsis. METHODS: Sepsis was induced by CLP. Mice were treated with ICA (30 or 60 mg/kg) for 3 days before CLP. Renal functions, inflammatory responses, oxidative damage, histological changes, apoptosis, and vascular permeability were examined...
2018: Pharmacology
Eva Češková, Michaela Šedová, Renata Kellnerová, Olga Starobová
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of once-a day trazodone tablets (Trittico Prolong® 300 mg) in patients with moderate to severe depression in routine clinical practice. METHODS: Men and women ≥18 years old with Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores > 21 and Clinical Global Impression - Severity (CGI/S) ≥4 were included in this post-authorization, non-interventional, observational prospective safety study, conducted in 8 psychiatric centers in the Czech -Republic...
2018: Pharmacology
Lars Petter Jordheim, Kamel Chettab, Emeline Cros-Perrial, Eva-Laure Matera, Charles Dumontet
The nucleotide excision repair protein excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) has been repeatedly shown to be involved in the sensitivity of cancer cells to platinum derivatives. In order to better understand this process, we transfected HCT-116 cells with a plasmid encoding ERCC1 and studied their in vitro and in vivo behaviour. No main differences were observed for sensitivity to platinum drugs, DNA repair capacity and clonogenicity in vitro. However, -ERCC1-transfected HCT-116 cells showed paradoxical behaviour in vivo with increased growth in mice treated with oxaliplatin as compared to untreated mice...
2018: Pharmacology
Jing Zhou, Min Li, Weifeng Jin, Xiaohong Li, Hongjin Fan, Yuyan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Protocatechuic aldehyde (PAL) and hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) are 2 effective ingredients of Danhong Injection, which is extensively used for the clinical treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. This study aims to investigate the pharmacokinetic differences between single and combined medication of PAL and HSYA and analyze the interaction of the above effective components in hyperlipidemia rats. METHODS: Thirty male SD rats were randomly divided into the control group (n = 6) and the model group (n = 24)...
2018: Pharmacology
Ju-Yong Song, Do Vinh Truong, Beom-Seok Yang
AIM: Previous studies have suggested that quercetin is effective for treating diverse chronic disorders including organ fibrosis and airway and cardiovascular disorders. To access the pharmacological background for its broad efficacy, we examined the ability of quercetin to modulate the inflammatory and fibrotic responses associated with organ injury that commonly underlie the pathogenesis of those disorders. METHODS: A cutaneous wound model on rabbit ear was used for in vivo study...
2018: Pharmacology
Jian Chen, Jian Sun, Julian Jiang, Jie Zhou
Cyanidin is an anthocyanidin extracted from a variety of fruits and vegetables. Cyanidin showed benefits against diabetes, cancer, and atherosclerosis. However, the potential neuroprotective effects of cyanidin against Parkinson's disease (PD) have not been examined. Indicated concentrations of cyanidin (1, 3, 10, and 30 μmol/L) were incubated together with 0.5 mmol/L 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) to human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We found cyanidin prevented MPP+-induced cell demise in a concentration-dependent manner...
2018: Pharmacology
Ali Sigaroudi, Martina Kinzig, Oliver Wahl, Christoph Stelzer, Michael Schroeter, Uwe Fuhr, Ulrike Holzgrabe, Fritz Sörgel
BACKGROUND: A drug must reach the central nervous system (CNS) in order to directly cause CNS adverse effects (AEs). Our current study addressed the pharmacokinetic (PK) background of the assumption that CNS concentrations of hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) and ramiprilate may directly cause CNS AEs such as headache and drowsiness. METHODS: In neurological patients, paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were withdrawn simultaneously. Some of them were treated with HCT (n = 15, daily chronic doses 7...
2018: Pharmacology
Christian Ellermann, Anja Kohnke, Dirk G Dechering, Simon Kochhäuser, Florian Reinke, Michael Fehr, Lars Eckardt, Gerrit Frommeyer
OBJECTIVES: Levosimendan is a calcium sensitizer that is used as positive inotropic drug in acute decompensated heart failure. An increased incidence of atrial fibrillation after levosimendan-treatment was observed in clinical and experimental studies. Due to the limited range of antiarrhythmic drugs, the aim of the present study was to assess potential antiarrhythmic effects of ranolazine in levosimendan-pretreated isolated rabbit hearts. METHODS: Twelve rabbit hearts were excised and retrogradely perfused employing the Langendorff setup...
2018: Pharmacology
Dietmar Enko, Sophia Harringer, Christian Oberkanins, Helene Pühringer, Gabriele Halwachs-Baumann, Gernot Kriegshäuser
Statin-induced myopathy is reported to be significantly associated with the SCLO1B1 c.521T>C polymorphism. To date, SLCO1B1 c.521T>C epidemiologic data for the Austrian population is still lacking. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the genotype and allele frequencies of the SLCO1B1 c.521T>C variant in Austria and evaluating the clinical performance of 2 commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Genomic DNA isolated from 181 healthy individuals was analyzed for the SLCO1B1 c...
2018: Pharmacology
Luyao Wang, Haojie Shan, Bin Wang, Nan Wang, Zubin Zhou, Chenhao Pan, Feng Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative joint disease and causes major pain and disability in adults. It has been reported that mitochondrial dysfunction in chondrocytes was associated with osteoarthritis. Puerarin has multiple effects including restoring mitochondrial function. In this study, the potential effects of puerarin on osteoarthritis and osteoarthritis associated mitochondrial dysfunctions were evaluated. METHODS: Osteoarthritis rats were treated with puerarin and the severity of osteoarthritis and cartilage damages was evaluated...
2018: Pharmacology
Min Sung Gee, Sung-Bae Kang, Namkwon Kim, Jiyoon Choi, Nam-Jung Kim, Bum-Joon Kim, Kyung-Soo Inn, Jong Kil Lee
Bardoxolone methyl (CDDO-me) is a synthetic triterpenoid that has been shown to suppress various cancers and inflammation. It has been implicated for the suppression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-mediated signaling, which plays crucial roles in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previously, we showed that hepatitis B virus (HBV) large surface protein (LHB) variant W4P promotes carcinogenesis and tumor progression through STAT3 activation. Thus, we examined the anti-cancer activity of CDDO-me against HCC using W4P-LHB-expressing NIH3T3 cells and HepG2 and Huh7 HCC cell lines...
2018: Pharmacology
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