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Patricia N Sidharta, Paul L M van Giersbergen, Jasper Dingemanse
PURPOSE: To investigate the multiple-dose pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and tolerability of palosuran, a selective, potent antagonist of the human UT receptor. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Three dose levels were investigated for PKs, PDs, and safety in sequential groups of 8 subjects each. RESULTS: The plasma concentration-time profile is characterized by rapid absorption and 2 peaks after drug administration...
November 1, 2018: Pharmacology
Lilian Martins Castellão-Santana, Priscila Yumi Abiko, Celia Regina Ambiel, Ana Rita Peixoto, José Bernardo Noronha-Matos, Paulo Correia-de-Sá, Wilson Alves-Do-Prado
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In this study, we evaluated the functional impact of facilitatory presynaptic adenosine A2A and muscarinic M1 receptors in the recovery of neuromuscular tetanic depression caused by the blockage of high-affinity choline transporter (HChT) by hemicholinium-3 (HC-3), a condition that mimics a myasthenia-like condition. METHODS: Rat diaphragm preparations were indirectly stimulated via the phrenic nerve trunk with 50-Hz frequency trains, each consisting of 500-750 supramaximal intensity pulses...
October 31, 2018: Pharmacology
Peng-Cheng Gu, Lan Wang, Mei-Na Han, Jun Peng, Jing-Chuan Shang, Yong-Quan Pan, Wen-Li Han
BACKGROUNDS: Diabetes mellitus (DM)-induced morphological and/or functional complications may alter the pharmacokinetic profiles of mangiferin. This study aims to compare pharmacokinetic profiles of mangiferin in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats after oral and intravenous administration. METHODS: Mangiferin was administered orally (10 mg/kg) and intravenously (2 mg/kg) to normal and alloxan-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 8). Blood samples were collected at different time points post-dose...
October 25, 2018: Pharmacology
Amin Polzin, Lisa Dannenberg, Theresa Schneider, Betül Knoop, David Naguib, Carolin Helten, Martin Pöhl, Malte Kelm, Tobias Zeus, Thomas Hohlfeld
Aspirin is essential in secondary prevention of patients after myocardial infarction and with coronary artery disease. However, impaired pharmacodynamic response to aspirin is frequent (high on-treatment platelet reactivity [HTPR]). This leads to an enhanced prevalence of cardiovascular events and to an impaired clinical outcome. The current specific assays to evaluate aspirin antiplatelet effects are complex, time-consuming and demand for a high laboratory expertise. Therefore, we developed a potentially bedside assay based on the determination of malondialdehyde (MDA)...
October 24, 2018: Pharmacology
Yoshiyuki Morishima, Yuko Honda, Chikako Kamisato
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Stent thrombosis is a serious complication after percutaneous coronary intervention and femoropopliteal endovascular intervention. The aim of this study was to determine the antithrombotic effects of a direct factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban alone or in combination with antiplatelet agents in a rat model of stent thrombosis. METHODS: Stainless steel stents (4 stents per rat) were placed in an extracorporeal arteriovenous shunt. The shunt was inserted into the carotid artery and the jugular vein in each rat to circulate blood...
October 19, 2018: Pharmacology
Alessia Cenani, Robert J Brosnan, Heather K Knych
BACKGROUND: Propanidid is a γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor agonist general anesthetic and its primary metabolite is 4-(2-[diethylamino]-2-oxoethoxy)-3-methoxy-benzeneacetic acid (DOMBA). Despite having a high water solubility at physiologic pH that might predict low-affinity GABAA receptor interactions, DOMBA is reported to have no effect on GABAA receptor currents, possibly because the DOMBA concentrations studied were simply insufficient to modulate GABAA receptors. Our objectives were to measure the propanidid and DOMBA concentration responses on -GABAA receptors and to measure the behavioral responses of DOMBA in mice at concentrations that affect GABAA receptor currents in vitro...
October 17, 2018: Pharmacology
Lin Ren, Qian Wang, Yu Chen, Yanzhuo Ma, Dongmei Wang
AIM: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a severe trauma that cells undergo and is associated with cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Recently, miRNAs have been demonstrated to play an important role in cardiovascular biology and disease. However, whether the miR-133a and ER stress play a role in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protection of cardiomyocytes against I/R-induced apoptosis remains unclear. METHODS: The neonatal cardiomyocytes were prepared to be treated with H2S or transfected with miR-133a activator or miR-133a inhibitor, either separately or in combination...
October 16, 2018: Pharmacology
Hyung Gon Lee, Ji A Song, Dong Soo Han, Kyeong Wan Woo, Myung Ha Yoon
This study examined the effects of intrathecal areca nut on spinal nerve-ligated and chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain (NP), and investigated the relevance of spinal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and α2-adrenergic receptors to those effects. For drug administration, intrathecal catheters were inserted into the subarachnoid space of male Sprague-Dawley rats. NP was induced either by spinal nerve ligation (left spinal nerves L5 and L6) or by chemotherapeutic injection (intraperitoneal cisplatin, 2 mg/kg/day, once daily for 4 days)...
October 10, 2018: Pharmacology
Andrew J Brown, Irene Castellano-Pellicena, Carl P Haslam, Paula L Nichols, Simon J Dowell
BACKGROUND/AIMS: CID16020046 blocks the effect of the lipid lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) at its receptor, GPR55. CID16020046 and another antagonist, ML193, have been used to investigate GPR55-mediated effects of LPI on cells, tissues, and in vivo. Here we describe the structure-activity relationship of CID16020046. METHODS: Yeast or human cells were engineered to express GPR55 or control receptors. Cells were pretreated with a test agent before agonist challenge...
October 8, 2018: Pharmacology
Can Wei, Zhengfang Liu, Luchao Li, Yanbin Zhang, Zhiqing Fang, Yidong Fan
BACKGROUND: Trametes robiniophila Murr (Huaier) has been used as an adjuvant therapy of tumor in traditional Chinese medicine for many years, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In the present study, we tested the inhibitory effect of Huaier extract on renal cancer 786-O cells and explored the possible mechanisms. METHODS: 786-O cells were treated by gradient concentrations of Huaier extract, cell viability, invasion, migration and apoptosis were assessed by cell counting kit 8, cell scratch, transwell, and flow cytometry assay in vitro...
October 8, 2018: Pharmacology
Kuan-Ming Chiu, Tzu-Yu Lin, Ming-Yi Lee, Cheng-Wei Lu, Ming-Jiuh Wang, Su-Jane Wang
BACKGROUND: Ropivacaine, a long-acting amide local anesthetic agent, has been demonstrated to inhibit glutamatergic transmission. Glutamate neurotoxicity plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of brain disorders. The purpose of this study is to investigate the neuroprotective effect of ropivacaine against brain damage induced by kainic acid (KA), an analogue of glutamate. METHODS: Rats were injected with ropivacaine (0.4 or 2 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) 30 min before KA treatment (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneal)...
September 26, 2018: Pharmacology
Masaki Imanishi, Yuki Izawa-Ishizawa, Takumi Sakurada, Yusuke Kohara, Yuya Horinouchi, Eriko Sairyo, Yoshito Zamami, Kenshi Takechi, Masayuki Chuma, Keijo Fukushima, Yasumasa Ikeda, Hiromichi Fujino, Masanori Yoshizumi, Koichiro Tsuchiya, Toshiaki Tamaki, Keisuke Ishizawa
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We have reported that nitrosonifedipine (NO-NIF), a photodegradation product of nifedipine, has strong antioxidant and endothelial protective effects, and can suppress several cardiovascular diseases in animal models. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of NO-NIF on aortic aneurysm formation. METHODS: The mice were infused with β-aminopropionitrile for 2 weeks and angiotensin II for 6 weeks to induce aortic aneurysm formation...
September 25, 2018: Pharmacology
Gil Shemesh, Nirit Kara, Haim Einat
BACKGROUND: Lithium (Li) is the prototypic mood-stabilizing drug, but the individual response to Li is highly heterogeneous. Some evidence suggest interactions between Li and stress, and it is possible to hypothesize that lithium's effects are modified by stress conditions. The current study examines the interaction between 2 chronic stressors, constant light (CL) and restrain and the behavioral responses to chronic Li in female and male mice. METHODS: Female and male ICR mice were exposed to 3 weeks of either (1) CL; (2) daily restrain or (3) no stress control...
September 25, 2018: Pharmacology
Chang-Cheng Lv, Man-Li Xia, Shu-Juan Shu, Fei Chen, Li-Shan Jiang
Remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia (RIH) is known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Betulinic acid (BA) was reported to reduce visceral pain owing to its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory potential. Here, we -explored whether BA can attenuate RIH through inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation in spinal dorsal horn. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Control, Incision, RIH, and RIH pre-treated with BA. After pretreated with BA (25 mg/kg, i.g.) for 7 days, rats were subcutaneously infused with remifentanil (40 μg/kg) for 30 min during right plantar incision surgery to induce RIH...
September 25, 2018: Pharmacology
Chih-Hsin Lee, Yuan-Feng Lin, Yen-Chou Chen, Shuit-Mun Wong, Shu-Hui Juan, Huei-Mei Huang
We previously synthesized new tubulin inhibitors, MPT0B169 and MPT0B002, which induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in leukemia cells. However, their effects on solid tumor cells have not been determined. In this study, we investigated the effects of MPT0B169 and MPT0B002 on glioblastoma, breast, lung, and colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. A cell viability analysis showed that MPT0B169 and MPT0B002 were more effective in inhibiting the proliferation of COLO205 and HT29 CRC cells than U87MG and GBM8401 glioblastoma, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer, and A549 lung cancer cells...
September 18, 2018: Pharmacology
Penghong Dong, Xiaochuan Gu, Guiling Zhu, Ming Li, Bin Ma, Ying Zi
The function of melatonin (MLT) in promoting fracture healing has been demonstrated in previous studies. However, the molecular mechanism underlying therapeutic effects of MLT is not entirely clear. In this study, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from rat bone marrow and identified by flow cytometry. We found that MLT treatment upregulated the neuropeptide Y (NPY) and NPY receptor Y1 (NPY1R) expression, and promoted the proliferation and migration of MSCs, which was suppressed by BIBP3226, an inhibitor of NPY1R...
September 18, 2018: Pharmacology
Zhenzhen Cao, Zhipei Liu, Peipei Zhang, Liangkun Hu, Jie Hao, Peihua Zhang, Youjia Tian, Zhijing Song, Quankui Zhou, Ji-Hua Ma
AIM: Sodium houttuyfonate (SH), a chemical compound originating from Houttuynia cordata, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal effects, as well as cardioprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of SH on cardiac electrophysiology, because to the best of our knowledge, this issue has not been previously investigated. METHODS: We used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to explore the effects of SH on peak sodium current (INa...
August 23, 2018: Pharmacology
Sarah F Giardina, Douglas S Werner, Maneesh Pingle, Donald E Bergstrom, Lee D Arnold, Francis Barany
β-Tryptase is released from mast cells upon degranulation in response to allergic and inflammatory stimuli. Human tryptase is a homotetrameric serine protease with 4 identical active sites directed toward a central pore. These active sites present an optimized scenario for the rational design of bivalent inhibitors, which bridge 2 adjacent active sites. Using (3-[1-acylpiperidin-4-yl]phenyl)methanamine as the pharmacophoric core and a disiloxane linker to span 2 active sites we have successfully produced a novel bivalent tryptase inhibitor, compound 1a, with a comparable profile to previously described inhibitors...
August 22, 2018: Pharmacology
Hideyuki Nakagawa, Ryoukichi Koyama, Yusuke Kamada, Atsuko Ochida, Mitsunori Kono, Junya Shirai, Satoshi Yamamoto, Geza Ambrus-Aikelin, Bi-Ching Sang, Masaharu Nakayama
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) is a master regulator of T helper 17 cells that plays a pivotal role in the production of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-17. Therefore, RORγt has attracted much attention as a target receptor for the treatment of inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and psoriasis. This study aims to characterize TAK-828F, a potent and selective RORγt inverse agonist...
August 22, 2018: Pharmacology
Briohny H Spencer, Catherine M McDermott, Russ Chess-Williams, David Christie, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Docetaxel is currently the first-line chemotherapeutic agent available for the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer (PCa). While docetaxel has been shown to modestly improve survival times for patients; they also experience significant docetaxel-induced toxicities. If treatment failure occurs, there are currently limited alternatives that show survival benefits for patients and therefore there is an urgent need for adjunct therapies. Some quinazoline-based alpha1-adrenoceptor (ADR) antagonists have previously been shown to have cytotoxic actions in PCa cells, but there is no research into their effects on docetaxel-induced toxicity...
April 17, 2018: Pharmacology
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