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Brain, Behavior and Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768268/qualitative-and-quantitative-analysis-of-primary-neocortical-areas-in-selected-mammals
#1
Elisabeth van Kann, Bruno Cozzi, Patrick R Hof, Helmut H A Oelschläger
The present study focuses on the relationship between neocortical structures and functional aspects in three selected mammalian species. Our aim was to compare cortical layering and neuron density in the projection areas (somatomotor, M1; somatosensory, S1; auditory, A1; and visual, V1; each in a wider sense). Morphological and design-based stereological analysis was performed in the wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) as a representative terrestrial hoofed animal (artiodactyl) and the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) as a highly derived related aquatic mammal (cetartiodactyl)...
July 29, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787709/erratum
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743119/the-37th-annual-meeting-of-the-j-b-johnston-club-for-evolutionary-neuroscience-and-the-29th-annual-karger-workshop-in-evolutionary-neuroscience-abstracts
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683451/sleep-related-electrophysiology-and-behavior-of-tinamous-eudromia-elegans-tinamous-do-not-sleep-like-ostriches
#4
Ryan K Tisdale, Alexei L Vyssotski, John A Lesku, Niels C Rattenborg
The functions of slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, distinct sleep substates present in both mammals and birds, remain unresolved. One approach to gaining insight into their function is to trace the evolution of these states through examining sleep in as many taxonomic groups as possible. The mammalian and avian clades are each composed of two extant groups, i.e., the monotremes (echidna and platypus) and therian (marsupial and eutherian [or placental]) mammals, and Palaeognaths (cassowaries, emus, kiwi, ostriches, rheas, and tinamous) and Neognaths (all other birds) among birds...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683440/genetics-of-cerebellar-and-neocortical-expansion-in-anthropoid-primates-a-comparative-approach
#5
Peter W Harrison, Stephen H Montgomery
What adaptive changes in brain structure and function underpin the evolution of increased cognitive performance in humans and our close relatives? Identifying the genetic basis of brain evolution has become a major tool in answering this question. Numerous cases of positive selection, altered gene expression or gene duplication have been identified that may contribute to the evolution of the neocortex, which is widely assumed to play a predominant role in cognitive evolution. However, the components of the neocortex co-evolve with other functionally interdependent regions of the brain, most notably in the cerebellum...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651251/electrical-potential-of-leaping-eels
#6
Kenneth C Catania
When approached by a large, partially submerged conductor, electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) will often defend themselves by leaping from the water to directly shock the threat. Presumably, the conductor is interpreted as an approaching terrestrial or semiaquatic animal. In the course of this defensive behavior, eels first make direct contact with their lower jaw and then rapidly emerge from the water, ascending the conductor while discharging high-voltage volleys. In this study, the equivalent circuit that develops during this behavior was proposed and investigated...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531897/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-brain-of-a-monotreme-the-short-beaked-echidna-tachyglossus-aculeatus
#7
Sandilya Cherupalli, Craig D Hardman, Andre Bongers, Ken W S Ashwell
We used magnetic resonance imaging to study the anatomy of cortical regions, nuclear groups, and major tracts in the brain of a monotreme, i.e., the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). Our specimens were from a collection held at the Australian Museum in Sydney and had been stored in formaldehyde solution for at least 70 years. Despite this, we were able to detect fine detail in the nuclear divisions of structures as well as in fiber tracts. In particular, we could detect the medial lemniscus as it approached the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, subdivisions within the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, lamination and subdivisions within the hippocampal formation, components of the olfactory pathways, and nuclei within the temporal amygdala...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511183/in-memoriam-heinz-stephan-1924-2016
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505612/behavioral-performance-and-neural-systems-are-robust-to-sensory-injury-in-workers-of-the-ant-pheidole-dentata
#9
Hannah K Waxman, Mario L Muscedere, James F A Traniello
Miniaturized nervous systems have been thought to limit behavioral ability, and animals with miniaturized brains may be less flexible when challenged by injuries resulting in sensory deficits that impact the development, maintenance, and plasticity of small-scale neural networks. We experimentally examined how injuries to sensory structures critical for olfactory ability affect behavioral performance in workers of the ant Pheidole dentata, which have minute brains (0.01 mm3) and primarily rely on the perception and processing of chemical signals and cues to direct their social behavior...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502972/distribution-innervation-and-cellular-organization-of-taste-buds-in-the-sea-catfish-plotosus-japonicus
#10
Tatsufumi Nakamura, Naoki Matsuyama, Masato Kirino, Masanori Kasai, Sadao Kiyohara, Takanori Ikenaga
The gustatory system of the sea catfish Plotosus japonicus, like that of other catfishes, is highly developed. To clarify the details of the morphology of the peripheral gustatory system of Plotosus, we used whole-mount immunohistochemistry to investigate the distribution and innervation of the taste buds within multiple organs including the barbels, oropharyngeal cavity, fins (pectoral, dorsal, and caudal), and trunk. Labeled taste buds could be observed in all the organs examined. The density of the taste buds was higher along the leading edges of the barbels and fins; this likely increases the chance of detecting food...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482339/sex-differences-in-forebrain-monoaminergic-response-to-song-performance
#11
Susan M Lyons, Keith W Sockman
In many species, successful reproduction is dependent on the ability to adjust social behavior in response to an ever-changing social environment. Because a sexual signal's value and meaning can differ between females and males, responses to those signals should also differ. One way individuals can modulate social behavior is through experience-dependent modulation of the sensory systems that process social signals. Central monoamines (norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin) modulate neural sensitivity to social stimuli and are key regulators of experience-dependent neuroplasticity in vertebrate sensory systems...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478445/effects-of-isometric-brain-body-size-scaling-on-the-complexity-of-monoaminergic-neurons-in-a-minute-parasitic-wasp
#12
Emma van der Woude, Hans M Smid
Trichogramma evanescens parasitic wasps show large phenotypic plasticity in brain and body size, resulting in a 5-fold difference in brain volume among genetically identical sister wasps. Brain volume scales linearly with body volume in these wasps. This isometric brain scaling forms an exception to Haller's rule, which states that small animals have relatively larger brains than large animals. The large plasticity in brain size may be facilitated by plasticity in neuron size, in the number of neurons, or both...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463847/schizophrenia-and-human-self-domestication-an-evolutionary-linguistics-approach
#13
Antonio Benítez-Burraco, Lorena Di Pietro, Marta Barba, Wanda Lattanzi
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder that entails social and cognitive deficits, including marked language problems. Its complex multifactorial etiopathogenesis, including genetic and environmental factors, is still widely uncertain. SZ incidence has always been high and quite stable in human populations, across time and regardless of cultural implications, for unclear reasons. It has been hypothesized that SZ pathophysiology may involve the biological components that changed during the recent human evolutionary history, and led to our distinctive mode of cognition, which includes language skills...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448987/a-role-for-oxytocin-like-receptor-in-social-habituation-in-a-teleost
#14
Chelsea A Weitekamp, Tessa K Solomon-Lane, Pamela Del Valle, Zegni Triki, Bridget M Nugent, Hans A Hofmann
Oxytocin (OT) mediates social habituation in rodent model systems, but its role in mediating this effect in other vertebrates is unknown. We used males of the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, to investigate two aspects of isotocin (IT; an OT homolog) signaling in social habituation. First, we examined the expression of IT receptor 2 (ITR2) as well as two immediate early genes in brain regions implicated in social recognition. Next, we examined IT neuron activity using immunohistochemistry. Patterns of gene expression in homologs of the amygdala and hippocampus implicate IT signaling in these regions in social habituation to a territorial neighbor...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437785/the-retina-of-asian-and-african-elephants-comparison-of-newborn-and-adult
#15
Heidrun Kuhrt, Andreas Bringmann, Wolfgang Härtig, Gudrun Wibbelt, Leo Peichl, Andreas Reichenbach
Elephants are precocial mammals that are relatively mature as newborns and mobile shortly after birth. To determine whether the retina of newborn elephants is capable of supporting the mobility of elephant calves, we compared the retinal structures of 2 newborn elephants (1 African and 1 Asian) and 2 adult animals of both species by immunohistochemical and morphometric methods. For the first time, we present here a comprehensive qualitative and quantitative characterization of the cellular composition of the newborn and the adult retinas of 2 elephant species...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407636/neuronal-regression-of-internal-leg-vibroreceptor-organs-in-a-cave-dwelling-insect-orthoptera-rhaphidophoridae-dolichopoda-araneiformis
#16
Johannes Strauß, Nataša Stritih
Animals' adaptations to cave habitats generally include elaboration of extraoptic senses, and in insects the receptor structures located on the legs are supposed to become more prominent in response to constant darkness. The receptors for detecting substrate vibrations are often highly sensitive scolopidial sensilla localized within the legs or the body. For troglobitic insects the evolutionary changes in vibroreceptor organs have not been studied. Since rock is an extremely unfavorable medium for vibration transmission, selection on vibration receptors may be weakened in caves, and these sensory organs may undergo regressive evolution...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346911/conserved-patterns-of-trigeminal-somatosensory-system-organization-in-mammals
#17
Eva K Sawyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268225/pattern-of-nitrergic-neuronal-system-organization-in-the-brain-of-two-holostean-fishes-actinopterygii-ginglymodi
#18
Jesús M López, Daniel Lozano, Lorena Morales, Agustín González
The study of the nitrergic system, formed by the networks of neurons containing the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS), has been extremely useful in unraveling neuroanatomical features of the organization of the central nervous system of vertebrates. Thus, data are available for representatives of most vertebrate classes and, in particular, several studies have detailed the organization of this system in teleosts. In contrast, no information is available regarding this neurotransmission system in the brains of holosteans, an early diverged and poorly understood group of actinopterygian fishes, currently considered a sister group of teleosts that contains only 8 species...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241131/ontogenetic-shifts-in-brain-organization-in-the-bluespotted-stingray-neotrygon-kuhlii-chondrichthyes-dasyatidae
#19
Thomas J Lisney, Kara E Yopak, Victoria Camilieri-Asch, Shaun P Collin
Fishes exhibit lifelong neurogenesis and continual brain growth. One consequence of this continual growth is that the nervous system has the potential to respond with enhanced plasticity to changes in ecological conditions that occur during ontogeny. The life histories of many teleost fishes are composed of a series of distinct stages that are characterized by shifts in diet, habitat, and behavior. In many cases, these shifts correlate with changes in overall brain growth and brain organization, possibly reflecting the relative importance of different senses and locomotor performance imposed by the new ecological niches they encounter throughout life...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231568/fiber-connections-of-the-caudal-corpus-cerebelli-with-special-reference-to-the-intrinsic-circuitry-in-a-teleost-oreochromis-niloticus
#20
Kosuke Imura, Naoyuki Yamamoto, Masami Yoshimoto, Masato Endo, Kengo Funakoshi, Hironobu Ito
The caudal part of the corpus cerebelli of Nile tilapia can be divided into dorsal and ventral regions. The granule cell layer of the dorsal (dGL) and ventral (vGL) regions of the caudal corpus cerebelli is known to receive indirect inputs from the telencephalon relayed by the nucleus paracommissuralis. The descending pathways are topographically organized, and the dGL and vGL receive inputs from different dorsal telencephalic parts. The caudal corpus cerebelli, in turn, projects extracerebellar efferents. However, it remains unknown how the descending telencephalic inputs are processed within the cerebellum...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
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