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Brain, Behavior and Evolution

Daniel Hoops, Marta Vidal-García, Jeremy F P Ullmann, Andrew L Janke, Timothy Stait-Gardner, David A Duchêne, William S Price, Martin J Whiting, J Scott Keogh
The brain plays a critical role in a wide variety of functions including behaviour, perception, motor control, and homeostatic maintenance. Each function can undergo different selective pressures over the course of evolution, and as selection acts on the outputs of brain function, it necessarily alters the structure of the brain. Two models have been proposed to explain the evolutionary patterns observed in brain morphology. The concerted brain evolution model posits that the brain evolves as a single unit and the evolution of different brain regions are coordinated...
September 5, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Daisuke Kondoh, Kenichi Watanabe, Kaori Nishihara, Yurie S Ono, Kentaro G Nakamura, Kazutoshi Yuhara, Sohei Tomikawa, Miki Sugimoto, Saori Kobayashi, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi, Motoki Sasaki, Nobuo Kitamura
The olfactory system of mammals comprises a main olfactory system that detects hundreds of odorants and a vomeronasal system that detects specific chemicals such as pheromones. The main (MOB) and accessory (AOB) olfactory bulbs are the respective primary centers of the main olfactory and vomeronasal systems. Most mammals including artiodactyls possess a large MOB and a comparatively small AOB, whereas most cetaceans lack olfactory bulbs. The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) is semiaquatic and belongs to the order Cetartiodactyla, family Hippopotamidae, which seems to be the closest extant family to cetaceans...
August 30, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Elisabeth van Kann, Bruno Cozzi, Patrick R Hof, Helmut H A Oelschläger
The present study focuses on the relationship between neocortical structures and functional aspects in three selected mammalian species. Our aim was to compare cortical layering and neuron density in the projection areas (somatomotor, M1; somatosensory, S1; auditory, A1; and visual, V1; each in a wider sense). Morphological and design-based stereological analysis was performed in the wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) as a representative terrestrial hoofed animal (artiodactyl) and the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) as a highly derived related aquatic mammal (cetartiodactyl)...
July 29, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Mehdi Behroozi, Felix Ströckens, Martin Stacho, Onur Güntürkün
In the last two decades, the avian hippocampus has been repeatedly studied with respect to its architecture, neurochemistry, and connectivity pattern. We review these insights and conclude that we unfortunately still lack proper knowledge on the interaction between the different hippocampal subregions. To fill this gap, we need information on the functional connectivity pattern of the hippocampal network. These data could complement our structural connectivity knowledge. To this end, we conducted a resting-state fMRI experiment in awake pigeons in a 7-T MR scanner...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Tom V Smulders
Though widely studied for its function in memory and navigation, the hippocampal formation (HF) in mammals also plays an important role in regulating the stress response. If this is an ancestral feature of the hippocampus, then it is likely that the avian HF plays a similar role. Indeed, the avian HF strongly expresses both mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors, and has indirect projections to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, which controls the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
David F Sherry, Stephanie L Grella, Mélanie F Guigueno, David J White, Diano F Marrone
Birds possess a hippocampus that serves many of the same spatial and mnemonic functions as the mammalian hippocampus but achieves these outcomes with a dramatically different neuroanatomical organization. The properties of spatially responsive neurons in birds and mammals are also different. Much of the contemporary interest in the role of the mammalian hippocampus in spatial representation dates to the discovery of place cells in the rat hippocampus. Since that time, cells that respond to head direction and cells that encode a grid-like representation of space have been described in the rat brain...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Verner P Bingman, Rubén N Muzio
The vertebrate hippocampal formation has been central in discussions of comparative cognition, nurturing an interest in understanding the evolution of variation in hippocampal organization among vertebrate taxa and the functional consequences of that variation. Assuming some similarity between the medial pallium of extant amphibians and the hippocampus of stem tetrapods, we propose the hypothesis that the hippocampus of modern amniotes began with a medial pallium characterized by a relatively undifferentiated cytoarchitecture, more direct thalamic and olfactory sensory inputs, and a broad role in associative learning and memory processes that nonetheless included the map-like representation of space...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Sam Reiter, Hua-Peng Liaw, Tracy M Yamawaki, Robert K Naumann, Gilles Laurent
Our ability to navigate through the world depends on the function of the hippocampus. This old cortical structure plays a critical role in spatial navigation in mammals and in a variety of processes, including declarative and episodic memory and social behavior. Intense research has revealed much about hippocampal anatomy, physiology, and computation; yet, even intensely studied phenomena such as the shaping of place cell activity or the function of hippocampal firing patterns during sleep remain incompletely understood...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Loreta Medina, Antonio Abellán, Ester Desfilis
The hippocampal formation is a highly conserved structure of the medial pallium that works in association with the entorhinal cortex, playing a key role in memory formation and spatial navigation. Although it has been described in several vertebrates, the presence of comparable subdivisions across species remained unclear. This panorama has started to change in recent years thanks to the identification of some of the genes that regulate the development of the hippocampal formation in the mouse and help to delineate its subdivisions based on molecular features...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Menno P Witter, Heidi Kleven, Asgeir Kobro Flatmoen
The hippocampus in mammals is a morphologically well-defined structure, and so are its main subdivisions. To define the homologous structure in other vertebrate clades, using these morphological criteria has been difficult, if not impossible, since the typical mammalian morphology is absent. Although there seems to be consensus that the most medial part of the pallium represents the hippocampus in all vertebrates, there is no consensus on whether all mammalian hippocampal subdivisions are present in the derivatives of the medial pallium in all vertebrate groups...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Ann B Butler
The hippocampus was first named in mammals based on the appearance of its gross morphological features, one end of it being fancied to resemble the head of a horse and the rest of it a silkworm, or caterpillar. A hippocampus, occupying the most medial part of the telencephalic pallium, has subsequently been identified in diverse nonmammalian taxa, but in which the "horse-caterpillar" morphology is lacking. While some strikingly similar functional similarities have been identified, questions of its homology ("sameness") across these taxa and about the very fundamental relationship of structure to function in central nervous system structures remain open...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Anat Barnea, Tom V Smulders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Ryan K Tisdale, Alexei L Vyssotski, John A Lesku, Niels C Rattenborg
The functions of slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, distinct sleep substates present in both mammals and birds, remain unresolved. One approach to gaining insight into their function is to trace the evolution of these states through examining sleep in as many taxonomic groups as possible. The mammalian and avian clades are each composed of two extant groups, i.e., the monotremes (echidna and platypus) and therian (marsupial and eutherian [or placental]) mammals, and Palaeognaths (cassowaries, emus, kiwi, ostriches, rheas, and tinamous) and Neognaths (all other birds) among birds...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Peter W Harrison, Stephen H Montgomery
What adaptive changes in brain structure and function underpin the evolution of increased cognitive performance in humans and our close relatives? Identifying the genetic basis of brain evolution has become a major tool in answering this question. Numerous cases of positive selection, altered gene expression or gene duplication have been identified that may contribute to the evolution of the neocortex, which is widely assumed to play a predominant role in cognitive evolution. However, the components of the neocortex co-evolve with other functionally interdependent regions of the brain, most notably in the cerebellum...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Kenneth C Catania
When approached by a large, partially submerged conductor, electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) will often defend themselves by leaping from the water to directly shock the threat. Presumably, the conductor is interpreted as an approaching terrestrial or semiaquatic animal. In the course of this defensive behavior, eels first make direct contact with their lower jaw and then rapidly emerge from the water, ascending the conductor while discharging high-voltage volleys. In this study, the equivalent circuit that develops during this behavior was proposed and investigated...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Sandilya Cherupalli, Craig D Hardman, Andre Bongers, Ken W S Ashwell
We used magnetic resonance imaging to study the anatomy of cortical regions, nuclear groups, and major tracts in the brain of a monotreme, i.e., the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). Our specimens were from a collection held at the Australian Museum in Sydney and had been stored in formaldehyde solution for at least 70 years. Despite this, we were able to detect fine detail in the nuclear divisions of structures as well as in fiber tracts. In particular, we could detect the medial lemniscus as it approached the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, subdivisions within the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, lamination and subdivisions within the hippocampal formation, components of the olfactory pathways, and nuclei within the temporal amygdala...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Hannah K Waxman, Mario L Muscedere, James F A Traniello
Miniaturized nervous systems have been thought to limit behavioral ability, and animals with miniaturized brains may be less flexible when challenged by injuries resulting in sensory deficits that impact the development, maintenance, and plasticity of small-scale neural networks. We experimentally examined how injuries to sensory structures critical for olfactory ability affect behavioral performance in workers of the ant Pheidole dentata, which have minute brains (0.01 mm3) and primarily rely on the perception and processing of chemical signals and cues to direct their social behavior...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
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