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Brain, Behavior and Evolution

Daniel Lozano, Agustín González, Jesús M López
Holosteans form a small group of actinopterygian fishes considered the sister group of teleosts. Despite this proximity to the biggest group of vertebrates, relatively few studies have been conducted to investigate the organization of the central nervous system of this group of fishes. In this study, the neuroanatomical distribution of orexin/hypocretin-like immunoreactive (OX-ir) cell bodies and fibers was analyzed in the brain of 3 representative species of the 2 orders of extant holosteans, the spotted gar Lepisosteus oculatus, the Florida gar Lepisosteus platyrhincus, and the bowfin Amia calva...
July 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Robin N Abbey-Lee, Emily J Uhrig, Josefina Zidar, Anna Favati, Johan Almberg, Josefin Dahlbom, Svante Winberg, Hanne Løvlie
The causes of individual variation in behavior are often not well understood, and potential underlying mechanisms include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as early environmental, physiological, and genetic differences. In an exploratory laboratory study, we raised three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) under 4 different environmental conditions (simulated predator environment, complex environment, variable social environment, and control). We investigated how these manipulations related to behavior, brain physiology, and gene expression later in life, with focus on brain dopamine and serotonin levels, turnover rates, and gene expression...
June 29, 2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Kathleen S Lynch, Matthew I M Louder, Mark E Hauber
Species recognition mediates the association of individuals with conspecifics. Learned cues often facilitate species recognition via early social experience with parents and siblings. Yet, in some songbirds, the production of species-typical vocalizations develops in the absence of early social experiences. Here, we investigate the auditory-evoked neural responses of juvenile red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), a nonparasitic (parental) species within the Icterid family and contrast these results with a closely related Icterid parasitic species that lacks parental care, the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater)...
June 19, 2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Ana F Navarrete, Erwin L A Blezer, Murillo Pagnotta, Elizabeth S M de Viet, Orlin S Todorov, Patrik Lindenfors, Kevin N Laland, Simon M Reader
Since the publication of the primate brain volumetric dataset of Stephan and colleagues in the early 1980s, no major new comparative datasets covering multiple brain regions and a large number of primate species have become available. However, technological and other advances in the last two decades, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the creation of institutions devoted to the collection and preservation of rare brain specimens, provide opportunities to rectify this situation. Here, we present a new dataset including brain region volumetric measurements of 39 species, including 20 species not previously available in the literature, with measurements of 16 brain areas...
June 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Ian G G Pengra, Margaret A Marchaterre, Andrew H Bass
Motivated by studies of speech deficits in humans, several studies over the past two decades have investigated the potential role of a forkhead domain transcription factor, FoxP2, in the central control of acoustic signaling/vocalization among vertebrates. Comparative neuroanatomical studies that mainly include mammalian and avian species have mapped the distribution of FoxP2 expression in multiple brain regions that imply a greater functional significance beyond vocalization that might be shared broadly across vertebrate lineages...
April 19, 2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Sharleen T Sakai, Blake Whitt, Bradley M Arsznov, Barbara L Lundrigan
The purpose of this study was to examine the pattern of postnatal brain growth in two wild canid species: the coyote (Canis latrans) and gray wolf (Canis lupus). Adult regional and total brain volume differences were also compared between the two species as well as within each species by sex. Three-dimensional virtual endocasts of endocranial airspace were created from computed tomography scans of 52 coyote skulls (28 female, 24 male; 1 day to 13.4 years) and 46 gray wolf skulls (25 female, 21 male; 1 day to 7...
April 10, 2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Khaleel A Razak
Substrate gleaning is a foraging strategy in which bats use a mixture of echolocation, prey-generated sounds, and vision to localize and hunt surface-dwelling prey. Many substrate-gleaning species depend primarily on prey-generated noise to hunt. Use of echolocation is limited to general orientation and obstacle avoidance. This foraging strategy involves a different set of selective pressures on morphology, behavior, and auditory system organization of bats compared to the use of echolocation for both hunting and navigation...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Juan F Montiel, Francisco Aboitiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Robert A Mohr, Yiran Chang, Ashwin A Bhandiwad, Paul M Forlano, Joseph A Sisneros
While the peripheral auditory system of fish has been well studied, less is known about how the fish's brain and central auditory system process complex social acoustic signals. The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, has become a good species for investigating the neural basis of acoustic communication because the production and reception of acoustic signals is paramount for this species' reproductive success. Nesting males produce long-duration advertisement calls that females detect and localize among the noise in the intertidal zone to successfully find mates and spawn...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Dean Falk, Christoph P E Zollikofer, Marcia Ponce de León, Katerina Semendeferi, José Luis Alatorre Warren, William D Hopkins
The only direct source of information about hominin brain evolution comes from the fossil record of endocranial casts (endocasts) that reproduce details of the external morphology of the brain imprinted on the walls of the braincase during life. Surface traces of sulci that separate the brain's convolutions (gyri) are reproduced sporadically on early hominin endocasts. Paleoneurologists rely heavily on published descriptions of sulci on brains of great apes, especially chimpanzees (humans' phylogenetically closest living relatives), to guide their identifications of sulci on ape-sized hominin endocasts...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Daniel Hoops
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Skirmantas Janušonis
Ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), also known as allograft inflammatory factor 1 (AIF-1), is a highly conserved cytoplasmic scaffold protein. Studies strongly suggest that Iba1 is associated with immune-like reactions in all Metazoa. In the mammalian brain, it is abundantly expressed in microglial cells and is used as a reliable marker for this cell type. The present study used multiple-label microscopy and Western blotting to examine Iba1 expression in the telencephalon of 2 galeomorph shark species, the swellshark (Cephaloscyllium ventriosum) and the horn shark (Heterodontus francisci), a member of an ancient extant order...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Mindaugas Mitkus, Gabrielle A Nevitt, Almut Kelber
Little is known about the development of vision in wild birds. It is unknown, for example, whether the ability to see can be predicted by the level of prenatal growth or whether the eyes are open at hatching in a particular species. In this study, we investigated the growth of eyes, the formation of retinal ganglion cell topography, and the appearance of simple, visually guided behaviours in chicks of a small procellariiform seabird, Leach's storm petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa). This semi-precocial species, which has a well-developed sense of smell, nests in underground burrows where adults provision chicks for 6-8 weeks in the dark before fledging...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Jesús M López, Ruth Morona, Agustín González
The distribution of DARPP-32 (a phosphoprotein related to the dopamine D1 receptor) has been widely used as a means to clarify the brain regions with dopaminoceptive cells, primarily in representative species of tetrapods. The relationship between dopaminergic and dopaminoceptive elements is frequently analyzed using the catecholamine marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). In the present study, by means of combined immunohistochemistry, we have analyzed these relationships in lungfishes, the only group of sarcopterygian fishes represented by 6 extant species that are the phylogenetically closest living relatives of tetrapods...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Eric W Recktenwald, Elizabeth A Dudkin, Laura K Skorina, William M Saidel, Edward R Gruberg
The amphibian retina projects to two discrete regions of neuropil in the anterior thalamus: the neuropil of Bellonci and the corpus geniculatum. These retinorecipient areas are encompassed within a larger zone of surrounding neuropil we call the NCZ (for neuropil of Bellonci/corpus geniculatum zone). The NCZ is characterized electrophysiologically by a distinctive tonic oscillatory response to blue light; it appears to be a visual module involved in processing the stationary visual environment. Using horseradish peroxidase (HRP), we mapped the connections of the NCZ...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Julien Benoit, Vincent Fernandez, Paul R Manger, Bruce S Rubidge
The origin and evolution of the mammalian brain has long been the focus of scientific enquiry. Conversely, little research has focused on the palaeoneurology of the stem group of Mammaliaformes, the Permian and Triassic non-mammaliaform Therapsida (NMT). This is because the majority of the NMT have a non-ossified braincase, making the study of their endocranial cast (sometimes called the "fossil brain") problematic. Thus, descriptions of the morphology and size of NMT endocranial casts have been based largely on approximations rather than reliable determination...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Frédéric Laberge, Allison Smith
The habenular complex and its associated axonal pathways are often thought of as phylogenetically conserved features of the brain among vertebrates despite the fact that detailed studies of this brain region are limited to a few species. Here, the gross morphology and axonal projection pattern of the habenular complex of an anuran amphibian, the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis, was studied to allow comparison with the situation in other vertebrates. Axonal pathways were traced using biocytin applications in dissected brain preparations...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Ana Sofia Pereira-Pedro, James K Rilling, Xu Chen, Todd M Preuss, Emiliano Bruner
The precuneus is a major element of the superior parietal lobule, positioned on the medial side of the hemisphere and reaching the dorsal surface of the brain. It is a crucial functional region for visuospatial integration, visual imagery, and body coordination. Previously, we argued that the precuneus expanded in recent human evolution, based on a combination of paleontological, comparative, and intraspecific evidence from fossil and modern human endocasts as well as from human and chimpanzee brains. The longitudinal proportions of this region are a major source of anatomical variation among adult humans and, being much larger in Homo sapiens, is the main characteristic differentiating human midsagittal brain morphology from that of our closest living primate relative, the chimpanzee...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Jitte Groothuis, Hans M Smid
Haller's rule states that brains scale allometrically with body size in all animals, meaning that relative brain size increases with decreasing body size. This rule applies both on inter- and intraspecific comparisons. Only 1 species, the extremely small parasitic wasp Trichogramma evanescens, is known as an exception and shows an isometric brain-body size relation in an intraspecific comparison between differently sized individuals. Here, we investigated if such an isometric brain-body size relationship also occurs in an intraspecific comparison with a slightly larger parasitic wasp, Nasonia vitripennis, a species that may vary 10-fold in body weight upon differences in levels of scramble competition during larval development...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
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