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Brain, Behavior and Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268225/pattern-of-nitrergic-neuronal-system-organization-in-the-brain-of-two-holostean-fishes-actinopterygii-ginglymodi
#1
Jesús M López, Daniel Lozano, Lorena Morales, Agustín González
The study of the nitrergic system, formed by the networks of neurons containing the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS), has been extremely useful in unraveling neuroanatomical features of the organization of the central nervous system of vertebrates. Thus, data are available for representatives of most vertebrate classes and, in particular, several studies have detailed the organization of this system in teleosts. In contrast, no information is available regarding this neurotransmission system in the brains of holosteans, an early diverged and poorly understood group of actinopterygian fishes, currently considered a sister group of teleosts that contains only 8 species...
March 8, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241131/ontogenetic-shifts-in-brain-organization-in-the-bluespotted-stingray-neotrygon-kuhlii-chondrichthyes-dasyatidae
#2
Thomas J Lisney, Kara E Yopak, Victoria Camilieri-Asch, Shaun P Collin
Fishes exhibit lifelong neurogenesis and continual brain growth. One consequence of this continual growth is that the nervous system has the potential to respond with enhanced plasticity to changes in ecological conditions that occur during ontogeny. The life histories of many teleost fishes are composed of a series of distinct stages that are characterized by shifts in diet, habitat, and behavior. In many cases, these shifts correlate with changes in overall brain growth and brain organization, possibly reflecting the relative importance of different senses and locomotor performance imposed by the new ecological niches they encounter throughout life...
February 28, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231568/fiber-connections-of-the-caudal-corpus-cerebelli-with-special-reference-to-the-intrinsic-circuitry-in-a-teleost-oreochromis-niloticus
#3
Kosuke Imura, Naoyuki Yamamoto, Masami Yoshimoto, Masato Endo, Kengo Funakoshi, Hironobu Ito
The caudal part of the corpus cerebelli of Nile tilapia can be divided into dorsal and ventral regions. The granule cell layer of the dorsal (dGL) and ventral (vGL) regions of the caudal corpus cerebelli is known to receive indirect inputs from the telencephalon relayed by the nucleus paracommissuralis. The descending pathways are topographically organized, and the dGL and vGL receive inputs from different dorsal telencephalic parts. The caudal corpus cerebelli, in turn, projects extracerebellar efferents. However, it remains unknown how the descending telencephalic inputs are processed within the cerebellum...
February 24, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214875/a-developmental-study-of-the-cerebellar-nucleus-in-the-catshark-a-basal-gnathostome
#4
Sol Pose-Méndez, Isabel Rodríguez-Moldes, Eva Candal, Sylvie Mazan, Ramón Anadón
The output of the cerebellar cortex is mainly released via cerebellar nuclei which vary in number and complexity among gnathostomes, extant vertebrates with a cerebellum. Cartilaginous fishes, a basal gnathostome lineage, show a conspicuous, well-organized cerebellar nucleus, unlike ray-finned fishes. To gain insight into the evolution and development of the cerebellar nucleus, we analyzed in the shark Scyliorhinus canicula (a chondrichthyan model species) the developmental expression of several genes coding for transcription factors (ScLhx5,ScLhx9,ScTbr1, and ScEn2) and the distribution of the protein calbindin, since all appear to be involved in cerebellar nuclei patterning in other gnathostomes...
February 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214856/the-central-nervous-system-of-jawless-vertebrates-encephalization-in-lampreys-and-hagfishes
#5
Carlos A Salas, Kara E Yopak, Thomas J Lisney, Ian C Potter, Shaun P Collin
Lampreys and hagfishes are the sole surviving representatives of the early agnathan (jawless) stage in vertebrate evolution, which has previously been regarded as the least encephalized group of all vertebrates. Very little is known, however, about the extent of interspecific variation in relative brain size in these fishes, as previous studies have focused on only a few species, even though lampreys exhibit a variety of life history traits. While some species are parasitic as adults, with varying feeding behaviors, others (nonparasitic species) do not feed after completing their macrophagous freshwater larval phase...
February 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125804/cellular-scaling-rules-for-the-brains-of-marsupials-not-as-primitive-as-expected
#6
Sandra E Dos Santos, Jairo Porfirio, Felipe B da Cunha, Paul R Manger, William Tavares, Leila Pessoa, Mary Ann Raghanti, Chet C Sherwood, Suzana Herculano-Houzel
In the effort to understand the evolution of mammalian brains, we have found that common relationships between brain structure mass and numbers of nonneuronal (glial and vascular) cells apply across eutherian mammals, but brain structure mass scales differently with numbers of neurons across structures and across primate and nonprimate clades. This suggests that the ancestral scaling rules for mammalian brains are those shared by extant nonprimate eutherians - but do these scaling relationships apply to marsupials, a sister group to eutherians that diverged early in mammalian evolution? Here we examine the cellular composition of the brains of 10 species of marsupials...
January 27, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560929/preface
#7
Alice Schade Powers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560629/fish-neurogenesis-in-context-assessing-environmental-influences-on-brain-plasticity-within-a-highly-labile-physiology-and-morphology
#8
Kent D Dunlap
Fish have unusually high rates of brain cell proliferation and neurogenesis during adulthood, and the rates of these processes are greatly influenced by the environment. This high level of cell proliferation and its responsiveness to environmental change indicate that such plasticity might be a particularly important mechanism underlying behavioral plasticity in fish. However, as part of their highly labile physiology and morphology, fish also respond to the environment through processes that affect cell proliferation but that are not specific to behavioral change...
August 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560485/factors-that-modulate-neurogenesis-a-top-down-approach
#9
Lara D LaDage
Although hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult brain has been conserved across the vertebrate lineage, laboratory studies have primarily examined this phenomenon in rodent models. This approach has been successful in elucidating important factors and mechanisms that can modulate rates of hippocampal neurogenesis, including hormones, environmental complexity, learning and memory, motor stimulation, and stress. However, recent studies have found that neurobiological research on neurogenesis in rodents may not easily translate to, or explain, neurogenesis patterns in nonrodent systems, particularly in species examined in the field...
August 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560384/on-the-role-of-neurogenesis-and-neural-plasticity-in-the-evolution-of-animal-personalities-and-stress-coping-styles
#10
Øyvind Øverli, Christina Sørensen
Individual variation in how animals react to stress and environmental change has become a central topic in a wide range of biological disciplines, from evolutionary ecology to biomedicine. Such variation manifests phenotypically as correlated trait-clusters (referred to as coping styles, behavioral syndromes, shyness-boldness, or personality traits). Thresholds for switching from active coping (fight-flight) to inhibition and passive behavior when exposed to stress depend on experience and genetic factors. Comparative research has revealed a range of neuroendocrine-behavioral associations which are conserved throughout the vertebrate subphylum, including factors affecting perception, learning, and memory of stimuli and events...
August 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560356/adult-neurogenesis-in-mammals-variations-and-confusions
#11
Hans-Peter Lipp, Luca Bonfanti
Mammalian adult neurogenesis has remained enigmatic. Two lines of research have emerged. One focuses on a potential repair mechanism in the human brain. The other aims at elucidating its functional role in the hippocampal formation, chiefly in cognitive processes; however, thus far it has been unsuccessful. Here, we try to recognize the sources of errors and conceptual confusion in comparative studies and neurobehavioral approaches with a focus on mice. Evolutionarily, mammalian adult neurogenesis appears as protracted juvenile neurogenesis originating from precursor cells in the secondary proliferation zones, from where newly formed cells migrate to target regions in the forebrain...
August 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560194/adult-neurogenesis-lessons-from-crayfish-and-the-elephant-in-the-room
#12
Barbara S Beltz, Georg Brenneis, Jeanne L Benton
The 1st-generation neural precursors in the crustacean brain are functionally analogous to neural stem cells in mammals. Their slow cycling, migration of their progeny, and differentiation of their descendants into neurons over several weeks are features of the neural precursor lineage in crayfish that also characterize adult neurogenesis in mammals. However, the 1st-generation precursors in crayfish do not self-renew, contrasting with conventional wisdom that proposes the long-term self-renewal of adult neural stem cells...
August 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560148/adult-neurogenesis-in-the-songbird-region-specific-contributions-of-new-neurons-to-behavioral-plasticity-and-stability
#13
Carolyn L Pytte
Our understanding of the role of new neurons in learning and encoding new information has been largely based on studies of new neurons in the mammalian dentate gyrus and olfactory bulb - brain regions that may be specialized for learning. Thus the role of new neurons in regions that serve other functions has yet to be fully explored. The song system provides a model for studying new neuron function in brain regions that contribute differently to song learning, song auditory discrimination, and song motor production...
August 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559734/plasticity-and-adult-neurogenesis-in-amphibians-and-reptiles-more-questions-than-answers
#14
Alice Schade Powers
Studies of the relationship between behavioral plasticity and new cells in the adult brain in amphibians and reptiles are sparse but demonstrate that environmental and hormonal variables do have an effect on the amount of cell proliferation and/or migration. The variables that are reviewed here are: enriched environment, social stimulation, spatial area use, season, photoperiod and temperature, and testosterone. Fewer data are available for amphibians than for reptiles, but for both groups many issues are still to be resolved...
August 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122370/comparison-of-dolphins-body-and-brain-measurements-with-four-other-groups-of-cetaceans-reveals-great-diversity
#15
Sam H Ridgway, Kevin P Carlin, Kaitlin R Van Alstyne, Alicia C Hanson, Raymond J Tarpley
We compared mature dolphins with 4 other groupings of mature cetaceans. With a large data set, we found great brain diversity among 5 different taxonomic groupings. The dolphins in our data set ranged in body mass from about 40 to 6,750 kg and in brain mass from 0.4 to 9.3 kg. Dolphin body length ranged from 1.3 to 7.6 m. In our combined data set from the 4 other groups of cetaceans, body mass ranged from about 20 to 120,000 kg and brain mass from about 0.2 to 9.2 kg, while body length varied from 1.21 to 26...
2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118619/characterization-of-nadph-diaphorase-and-doublecortin-positive-neurons-in-the-lizard-hippocampal-formation
#16
Matheus Macedo-Lima, Marco Aurélio M Freire, Hugo de Carvalho Pimentel, Lívia Cristina Rodrigues Ferreira Lins, Katty Anne Amador de Lucena Medeiros, Giordano Gubert Viola, José Ronaldo Dos Santos, Murilo Marchioro
The lizard cortex has remarkable similarities with the mammalian hippocampus. Both regions process memories, have similar cytoarchitectural properties, and are important neurogenic foci in adults. Lizards show striking levels of widespread neurogenesis in adulthood and can regenerate entire cortical areas after injury. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulatory factor of mammalian neurogenesis and hippocampal function. However, little is known about its role in nonmammalian neurogenesis. Here, we analyzed the distribution, morphology, and dendritic complexity (Neurolucida reconstructions) of NO-producing neurons through NADPH diaphorase (NADPHd) activity, and how they compare with the distribution of doublecortin-positive (DCX+) neurons in the hippocampal formation of the neotropical lizard Tropidurus hispidus...
2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099952/zebrin-ii-is-expressed-in-sagittal-stripes-in-the-cerebellum-of-dragon-lizards-ctenophorus-sp
#17
Douglas R Wylie, Daniel Hoops, Joel W Aspden, Andrew N Iwaniuk
Aldolase C, also known as zebrin II (ZII), is a glycolytic enzyme that is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the vertebrate cerebellum. In both mammals and birds, ZII is expressed heterogeneously, such that there are sagittal stripes of Purkinje cells with high ZII expression (ZII+) alternating with stripes of Purkinje cells with little or no expression (ZII-). In contrast, in snakes and turtles, ZII is not expressed heterogeneously; rather all Purkinje cells are ZII+. Here, we examined the expression of ZII in the cerebellum of lizards to elucidate the evolutionary origins of ZII stripes in Sauropsida...
2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092905/endocranial-morphology-of-the-extinct-north-american-lion-panthera-atrox
#18
Andrew R Cuff, Christopher Stockey, Anjali Goswami
The extinct North American lion (Panthera atrox) is one of the largest felids (Mammalia, Carnivora) to have ever lived, and it is known from a plethora of incredibly well-preserved remains. Despite this abundance of material, there has been little research into its endocranial anatomy. CT scans of a skull of P. atrox from the Pleistocene La Brea Tar pits were used to generate the first virtual endocranium for this species and to elucidate previously unknown details of its brain size and gross structure, cranial nerves, and inner-ear morphology...
2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068650/evolution-of-gyrification-in-carnivores
#19
George A Lyras, Aggeliki Giannakopoulou, Miranda Kouvari, Georgios C Papadopoulos
The order Carnivora is a large and highly diverse mammalian group with a long and well-documented evolutionary history. Nevertheless, our knowledge on the degree of cortical folding (or degree of gyrification) is limited to just a few species. Here we investigate the degree of cortical folding in 64 contemporary and 37 fossil carnivore species. We do so by measuring the length of gyri impressions on endocranial casts. We use this approach because we have found that there is a very good correlation between the degree of cortical folding and the relative length of the gyri that are exposed on the outer surface of the hemispheres...
2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889766/telencephalic-neuronal-activation-associated-with-spatial-memory-in-the-terrestrial-toad-rhinella-arenarum-participation-of-the-medial-pallium-during-navigation-by-geometry
#20
María Inés Sotelo, M Florencia Daneri, Verner Peter Bingman, Rubén N Muzio
Amphibians are central to discussions of vertebrate evolution because they represent the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life, a transition with profound consequences for the selective pressures shaping brain evolution. Spatial navigation is one class of behavior that has attracted the interest of comparative neurobiologists because of the relevance of the medial pallium/hippocampus, yet, surprisingly, in this regard amphibians have been sparsely investigated. In the current study, we trained toads to locate a water goal relying on the boundary geometry of a test environment (Geometry-Only) or boundary geometry coupled with a prominent, visual feature cue (Geometry-Feature)...
2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
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