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Brain, Behavior and Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141247/connections-of-anterior-thalamic-visual-centers-in-the-leopard-frog-rana-pipiens
#1
Eric W Recktenwald, Elizabeth A Dudkin, Laura K Skorina, William M Saidel, Edward R Gruberg
The amphibian retina projects to two discrete regions of neuropil in the anterior thalamus: the neuropil of Bellonci and the corpus geniculatum. These retinorecipient areas are encompassed within a larger zone of surrounding neuropil we call the NCZ (for neuropil of Bellonci/corpus geniculatum zone). The NCZ is characterized electrophysiologically by a distinctive tonic oscillatory response to blue light; it appears to be a visual module involved in processing the stationary visual environment. Using horseradish peroxidase (HRP), we mapped the connections of the NCZ...
November 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130981/endocranial-casts-of-pre-mammalian-therapsids-reveal-an-unexpected-neurological-diversity-at-the-deep-evolutionary-root-of-mammals
#2
Julien Benoit, Vincent Fernandez, Paul R Manger, Bruce S Rubidge
The origin and evolution of the mammalian brain has long been the focus of scientific enquiry. Conversely, little research has focused on the palaeoneurology of the stem group of Mammaliaformes, the Permian and Triassic non-mammaliaform Therapsida (NMT). This is because the majority of the NMT have a non-ossified braincase, making the study of their endocranial cast (sometimes called the "fossil brain") problematic. Thus, descriptions of the morphology and size of NMT endocranial casts have been based largely on approximations rather than reliable determination...
November 8, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130952/efferent-axonal-projections-of-the-habenular-complex-in-the-fire-bellied-toad-bombina-orientalis
#3
Frédéric Laberge, Allison Smith
The habenular complex and its associated axonal pathways are often thought of as phylogenetically conserved features of the brain among vertebrates despite the fact that detailed studies of this brain region are limited to a few species. Here, the gross morphology and axonal projection pattern of the habenular complex of an anuran amphibian, the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis, was studied to allow comparison with the situation in other vertebrates. Axonal pathways were traced using biocytin applications in dissected brain preparations...
November 2, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141253/errata
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065406/midsagittal-brain-variation-among-non-human-primates-insights-into-evolutionary-expansion-of-the-human-precuneus
#5
Ana Sofia Pereira-Pedro, James K Rilling, Xu Chen, Todd M Preuss, Emiliano Bruner
The precuneus is a major element of the superior parietal lobule, positioned on the medial side of the hemisphere and reaching the dorsal surface of the brain. It is a crucial functional region for visuospatial integration, visual imagery, and body coordination. Previously, we argued that the precuneus expanded in recent human evolution, based on a combination of paleontological, comparative, and intraspecific evidence from fossil and modern human endocasts as well as from human and chimpanzee brains. The longitudinal proportions of this region are a major source of anatomical variation among adult humans and, being much larger in Homo sapiens, is the main characteristic differentiating human midsagittal brain morphology from that of our closest living primate relative, the chimpanzee...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059675/nasonia-parasitic-wasps-escape-from-haller-s-rule-by-diphasic-partially-isometric-brain-body-size-scaling-and-selective-neuropil-adaptations
#6
Jitte Groothuis, Hans M Smid
Haller's rule states that brains scale allometrically with body size in all animals, meaning that relative brain size increases with decreasing body size. This rule applies both on inter- and intraspecific comparisons. Only 1 species, the extremely small parasitic wasp Trichogramma evanescens, is known as an exception and shows an isometric brain-body size relation in an intraspecific comparison between differently sized individuals. Here, we investigated if such an isometric brain-body size relationship also occurs in an intraspecific comparison with a slightly larger parasitic wasp, Nasonia vitripennis, a species that may vary 10-fold in body weight upon differences in levels of scramble competition during larval development...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020667/eye-size-fovea-and-foraging-ecology-in-accipitriform-raptors
#7
Simon Potier, Mindaugas Mitkus, Francesco Bonadonna, Olivier Duriez, Pierre-François Isard, Thomas Dulaurent, Marielle Mentek, Almut Kelber
Birds with larger eyes are predicted to have higher spatial resolution because of their larger retinal image. Raptors are well known for their acute vision, mediated by their deep central fovea. Because foraging strategies may demand specific visual adaptations, eye size and fovea may differ between species with different foraging ecology. We tested whether predators (actively hunting mobile prey) and carrion eaters (eating dead prey) from the order Accipitriformes differ in eye size, foveal depth, and retinal thickness using spectral domain optical coherence tomography and comparative phylogenetic methods...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988246/comments-on-the-updated-tetrapartite-pallium-model-in-the-mouse-and-chick-featuring-a-homologous-claustro-insular-complex
#8
Luis Puelles
This essay reviews step by step the conceptual changes of the updated tetrapartite pallium model from its tripartite and early tetrapartite antecedents. The crucial observations in mouse material are explained first in the context of assumptions, tentative interpretations, and literature data. Errors and the solutions offered to resolve them are made explicit. Next, attention is centered on the lateral pallium sector of the updated model, whose definition is novel in incorporating a claustro-insular complex distinct from both olfactory centers (ventral pallium) and the isocortex (dorsal pallium)...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988244/evolution-of-sound-source-localization-circuits-in-the-nonmammalian-vertebrate-brainstem
#9
Peggy L Walton, Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard, Catherine E Carr
The earliest vertebrate ears likely subserved a gravistatic function for orientation in the aquatic environment. However, in addition to detecting acceleration created by the animal's own movements, the otolithic end organs that detect linear acceleration would have responded to particle movement created by external sources. The potential to identify and localize these external sources may have been a major selection force in the evolution of the early vertebrate ear and in the processing of sound in the central nervous system...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988242/names-matter-commentary-on-luis-puelles-article
#10
Mario F Wullimann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988236/vertebrate-sensory-systems-and-brains-from-genes-to-behavior
#11
Mario F Wullimann, Benedikt Grothe, Hans Straka, Oliver Behrend, Hans J Ten Donkelaar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988234/dynamics-of-goldfish-subregional-hippocampal-pallium-activity-throughout-spatial-memory-formation
#12
Francisco M Ocaña, Sara Uceda, Jorge L Arias, Cosme Salas, Fernando Rodríguez
The teleost fish hippocampal pallium, like the hippocampus of tetrapods, is essential for relational map-like spatial memories. In mammals, these relational memories involve the dynamic interactions among different hippocampal subregions and between the hippocampus-neocortex network, which performs specialized operations such as memory encoding and retrieval. However, how the teleost hippocampal homologue operates to achieve comparably sophisticated spatial cognition capabilities is largely unknown. In the present study, the progressive changes in the metabolic activity of the pallial regions that have been proposed as possible homologues of the mammalian hippocampus were monitored in goldfish...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988233/sensing-external-and-self-motion-with-hair-cells-a-comparison-of-the-lateral-line-and-vestibular-systems-from-a-developmental-and-evolutionary-perspective
#13
Boris P Chagnaud, Jacob Engelmann, Bernd Fritzsch, Joel C Glover, Hans Straka
Detection of motion is a feature essential to any living animal. In vertebrates, mechanosensory hair cells organized into the lateral line and vestibular systems are used to detect external water or head/body motion, respectively. While the neuronal components to detect these physical attributes are similar between the two sensory systems, the organizational pattern of the receptors in the periphery and the distribution of hindbrain afferent and efferent projections are adapted to the specific functions of the respective system...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988231/principles-of-current-vertebrate-neuromorphology
#14
Rudolf Nieuwenhuys
Causal analysis of molecular patterning at neural plate and early neural tube stages has shown that the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates is essentially organized into transverse neural segments or neuromeres and longitudinal zones which follow the curved axis of the brain. The intersection of the longitudinal and transverse patterning processes in the embryonic brain leads to the formation of a checkerboard pattern of distinct progenitor domains called "fundamental morphological units" (FMUs). The topologically invariant pattern formed by the ventricular surfaces of the FMUs of a given taxon represents the "Bauplan" or "blueprint" of the brain of that taxon...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869944/evidence-for-concerted-and-mosaic-brain-evolution-in-dragon-lizards
#15
Daniel Hoops, Marta Vidal-García, Jeremy F P Ullmann, Andrew L Janke, Timothy Stait-Gardner, David A Duchêne, William S Price, Martin J Whiting, J Scott Keogh
The brain plays a critical role in a wide variety of functions including behaviour, perception, motor control, and homeostatic maintenance. Each function can undergo different selective pressures over the course of evolution, and as selection acts on the outputs of brain function, it necessarily alters the structure of the brain. Two models have been proposed to explain the evolutionary patterns observed in brain morphology. The concerted brain evolution model posits that the brain evolves as a single unit and the evolution of different brain regions are coordinated...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866684/functional-connectivity-pattern-of-the-internal-hippocampal-network-in-awake-pigeons-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#16
Mehdi Behroozi, Felix Ströckens, Xavier Helluy, Martin Stacho, Onur Güntürkün
In the last two decades, the avian hippocampus has been repeatedly studied with respect to its architecture, neurochemistry, and connectivity pattern. We review these insights and conclude that we unfortunately still lack proper knowledge on the interaction between the different hippocampal subregions. To fill this gap, we need information on the functional connectivity pattern of the hippocampal network. These data could complement our structural connectivity knowledge. To this end, we conducted a resting-state fMRI experiment in awake pigeons in a 7-T MR scanner...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866683/the-avian-hippocampal-formation-and-the-stress-response
#17
Tom V Smulders
Though widely studied for its function in memory and navigation, the hippocampal formation (HF) in mammals also plays an important role in regulating the stress response. If this is an ancestral feature of the hippocampus, then it is likely that the avian HF plays a similar role. Indeed, the avian HF strongly expresses both mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors, and has indirect projections to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, which controls the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866682/are-there-place-cells-in-the-avian-hippocampus
#18
David F Sherry, Stephanie L Grella, Mélanie F Guigueno, David J White, Diano F Marrone
Birds possess a hippocampus that serves many of the same spatial and mnemonic functions as the mammalian hippocampus but achieves these outcomes with a dramatically different neuroanatomical organization. The properties of spatially responsive neurons in birds and mammals are also different. Much of the contemporary interest in the role of the mammalian hippocampus in spatial representation dates to the discovery of place cells in the rat hippocampus. Since that time, cells that respond to head direction and cells that encode a grid-like representation of space have been described in the rat brain...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866681/reflections-on-the-structural-functional-evolution-of-the-hippocampus-what-is-the-big-deal-about-a-dentate-gyrus
#19
Verner P Bingman, Rubén N Muzio
The vertebrate hippocampal formation has been central in discussions of comparative cognition, nurturing an interest in understanding the evolution of variation in hippocampal organization among vertebrate taxa and the functional consequences of that variation. Assuming some similarity between the medial pallium of extant amphibians and the hippocampus of stem tetrapods, we propose the hypothesis that the hippocampus of modern amniotes began with a medial pallium characterized by a relatively undifferentiated cytoarchitecture, more direct thalamic and olfactory sensory inputs, and a broad role in associative learning and memory processes that nonetheless included the map-like representation of space...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866680/on-the-value-of-reptilian-brains-to-map-the-evolution-of-the-hippocampal-formation
#20
Sam Reiter, Hua-Peng Liaw, Tracy M Yamawaki, Robert K Naumann, Gilles Laurent
Our ability to navigate through the world depends on the function of the hippocampus. This old cortical structure plays a critical role in spatial navigation in mammals and in a variety of processes, including declarative and episodic memory and social behavior. Intense research has revealed much about hippocampal anatomy, physiology, and computation; yet, even intensely studied phenomena such as the shaping of place cell activity or the function of hippocampal firing patterns during sleep remain incompletely understood...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
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