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Brain, Behavior and Evolution

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August 23, 2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Christine Köppl, Viviane Wilms, Ian John Russell, Hans Gerd Nothwang
The ear of extant vertebrates reflects multiple independent evolutionary trajectories. Examples include the middle ear or the unique specializations of the mammalian cochlea. Another striking difference between vertebrate inner ears concerns the differences in the magnitude of the endolymphatic potential. This differs both between the vestibular and auditory part of the inner ear as well as between the auditory periphery in different vertebrates. Here we provide a comparison of the cellular and molecular mechanisms in different endorgans across vertebrates...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Michael D Mann, Lawrence G Frank, Stephen E Glickman, Arnold L Towe
The relationship between brain size and body size across species "from mouse to elephant" is described by a function of positive slope. Almost uniformly, the relationship between brain size and body size within a species has a positive slope, though this is less steep than across species. The spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta, differs from most other mammals in a number of ways including the fact that, on average, adult females weigh more than adult males and occasionally display greater body lengths...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Kenneth C Catania
The emerald jewel wasp (Ampulex compressa) is renowned for its ability to zombify the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) with a sting to the brain. When the venom takes effect, the cockroach becomes passive and can be led by its antenna into a hole, where the wasp deposits an egg and then seals the exit with debris. The cockroach has the ability to walk, run, or fly if properly stimulated, but it does not try to escape as it is slowly eaten alive by the developing wasp larva. Although the composition and effects of the wasp's venom have been investigated, no studies have detailed how cockroaches might prevent this grim fate...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Adam P A Cardilini, Sarah Micallef, Valerie R Bishop, Craig D H Sherman, Simone L Meddle, Katherine L Buchanan
Cognitive traits are predicted to be under intense selection in animals moving into new environments and may determine the success, or otherwise, of dispersal and invasions. In particular, spatial information related to resource distribution is an important determinant of neural development. Spatial information is predicted to vary for invasive species encountering novel environments. However, few studies have tested how cognition or neural development varies intraspecifically within an invasive species. In Australia, the non-native common starling Sturnus vulgaris inhabits a range of habitats that vary in seasonal resource availability and distribution...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Vanessa Naimoli, Jennifer Donnelly-Greenberg, Nicolette M Gabel, Daniel J Libby, Emily R Panigrosso, Kathryn Rhindress, Alice Schade Powers
Research on mammals and turtles has suggested that acetylcholine is involved in attention in these groups. Two experiments investigated the ability of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) to ignore irrelevant stimuli when the basal forebrain acetylcholine system was compromised. In experiment 1, turtles given lesions of the basal magnocellular cholinergic nucleus (NBM) or sham lesions were tested on a go/no go discrimination between horizontal and vertical stripes with or without irrelevant inserts in the box...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Eduardo Garza-Gisholt, Nathan S Hart, Shaun P Collin
The majority of holocephalans live in the mesopelagic zone of the deep ocean, where there is little or no sunlight, but some species migrate to brightly lit shallow waters to reproduce. This study compares the retinal morphology of two species of deep-sea chimaeras, the Pacific spookfish (Rhinochimaera pacifica) and the Carpenter's chimaera (Chimaera lignaria), with the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), a vertical migrator that lives in the mesopelagic zone but migrates to shallow water to reproduce. The two deep-sea chimaera species possess pure rod retinae with long photoreceptor outer segments that might serve to increase visual sensitivity...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Ashley C Morhardt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
David C Van Essen, Chad J Donahue, Matthew F Glasser
Cerebral cortex and cerebellar cortex both vary enormously across species in their size and complexity of convolutions. We discuss the development and evolution of cortical structures in terms of anatomy and functional organization. We propose that the distinctive shapes of cerebral and cerebellar cortex can be explained by relatively few developmental processes, notably including mechanical tension along axons and dendrites. Regarding functional organization, we show how maps of myelin content in cerebral cortex are evolutionarily conserved across primates but differ in the proportion of cortex devoted to sensory, cognitive, and other functions...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Paul M Gignac, Nathan J Kley
Advancements in imaging techniques have drastically improved our ability to visualize, study, and digitally share complex, often minute, anatomical relationships. The recent adoption of soft-tissue X-ray imaging techniques, such as diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT), is beginning to offer previously unattainable insights into the detailed configurations of soft- tissue complexes across Metazoa. As a contrast agent, dissolved iodine diffuses deeply throughout preserved specimens to bind fats and carbohydrates that are natural ly present within metazoan soft tissues, increasing the radiodensities of these tissues in predictable ways...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Haley D O'Brien
When comparative neuromorphological studies are extended into evolutionary contexts, traits of interest are often linked to diversification patterns. Features demonstrably associated with increases in diversification rates and the infiltration or occupation of novel niche spaces are often termed "key innovations." Within the past decade, phylogenetically informed methods have been developed to test key innovation hypotheses and evaluate the influence these traits have had in shaping modern faunas...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
James K Rilling, Martijn P van den Heuvel
A connectome is a comprehensive map of neural connections of a species nervous system. While recent work has begun comparing connectomes across a wide breadth of species, we present here a more detailed and specific comparison of connectomes across the primate order. Long-range connections are thought to improve communication efficiency and thus brain function but are costly in terms of energy and space utilization. Methods for measuring connectivity in the brain include measuring white matter volume, histological cell counting, anatomical tract tracing, diffusion-weighted imaging and tractography, and functional connectivity in MRI...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Amy M Balanoff, Mark A Norell, Aneila V C Hogan, Gabriel S Bever
Unraveling the origins of the character complexes diagnosing major crown clades is one of the greatest challenges in evolutionary biology. These origination events tend to optimize along extraordinarily long stem lineages where the comparative biology of extant lineages is relatively weak in its heuristic power. Here we add to a growing paleontological literature on the evolutionary origins of the modern avi an brain by describing the endocranial casts of two oviraptorosaur dinosaurs, Citipati osmolskae and Khaan mckennai...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Emiliano Bruner
Paleoneurology deals with the study of brain anatomy in fossil species, as inferred from the morphology of their endocranial features. When compared with other living and extinct hominids, Homo sapiens is characterized by larger parietal bones and, according to the paleoneurological evidence, also by larger parietal lobes. The dorsal elements of the posterior parietal cortex (superior parietal lobules, precuneus, and intraparietal sulcus) may be involved in these morphological changes. This parietal expansion was also associated with an increase in the corresponding vascular networks, and possibly with increased heat loads...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Brandon Neeley, Tyler Overholt, Emily Artz, Steven G Kinsey, Gary Marsat
Cannabinoid (CB) receptors are widespread in the nervous system and influence a variety of behaviors. Weakly electric fish have been a useful model system in the study of the neural basis of behavior, but we know nothing of the role played by the CB system. Here, we determine the overall behavioral effect of a nonselective CB receptor agonist, namely Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), in the weakly electric fish Apte-ronotus leptorhynchus. Using various behavioral paradigms involving social stimuli, we show that THC decreases locomotor behavior, as in many species, and influences communication and social behavior...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Daniel Lozano, Agustín González, Jesús M López
Holosteans form a small group of actinopterygian fishes considered the sister group of teleosts. Despite this proximity to the biggest group of vertebrates, relatively few studies have been conducted to investigate the organization of the central nervous system of this group of fishes. In this study, the neuroanatomical distribution of orexin/hypocretin-like immunoreactive (OX-ir) cell bodies and fibers was analyzed in the brain of 3 representative species of the 2 orders of extant holosteans, the spotted gar Lepisosteus oculatus, the Florida gar Lepisosteus platyrhincus, and the bowfin Amia calva...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Robin N Abbey-Lee, Emily J Uhrig, Josefina Zidar, Anna Favati, Johan Almberg, Josefin Dahlbom, Svante Winberg, Hanne Løvlie
The causes of individual variation in behavior are often not well understood, and potential underlying mechanisms include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as early environmental, physiological, and genetic differences. In an exploratory laboratory study, we raised three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) under 4 different environmental conditions (simulated predator environment, complex environment, variable social environment, and control). We investigated how these manipulations related to behavior, brain physiology, and gene expression later in life, with focus on brain dopamine and serotonin levels, turnover rates, and gene expression...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Kathleen S Lynch, Matthew I M Louder, Mark E Hauber
Species recognition mediates the association of individuals with conspecifics. Learned cues often facilitate species recognition via early social experience with parents and siblings. Yet, in some songbirds, the production of species-typical vocalizations develops in the absence of early social experiences. Here, we investigate the auditory-evoked neural responses of juvenile red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), a nonparasitic (parental) species within the Icterid family and contrast these results with a closely related Icterid parasitic species that lacks parental care, the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater)...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Ana F Navarrete, Erwin L A Blezer, Murillo Pagnotta, Elizabeth S M de Viet, Orlin S Todorov, Patrik Lindenfors, Kevin N Laland, Simon M Reader
Since the publication of the primate brain volumetric dataset of Stephan and colleagues in the early 1980s, no major new comparative datasets covering multiple brain regions and a large number of primate species have become available. However, technological and other advances in the last two decades, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the creation of institutions devoted to the collection and preservation of rare brain specimens, provide opportunities to rectify this situation. Here, we present a new dataset including brain region volumetric measurements of 39 species, including 20 species not previously available in the literature, with measurements of 16 brain areas...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
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