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Physiology & Behavior

Z A Grieb, M A Holschbach, J S Lonstein
Most maternal caregiving behaviors change across lactation to match the developmental needs of the continuously aging offspring. However, it is mostly unknown whether the dams' postpartum stage or litter age is the primary driving force of these changes. In this study, postnatal day 1 and 8 litters were cross-fostered or in-fostered to postpartum day 1 or 8 dams. Five days later, undisturbed observations of maternal caregiving behaviors were performed on the subsequent two days. We found a main effect of dams' postpartum stage, which was driven by an interaction between postpartum stage and litter age, on the frequency that mothers spent with the pups and displayed erect postures over them (hovering over and kyphosis): early-postpartum dams were in contact with younger litters and in erect postures more often with younger litters compared to later-postpartum dams with younger litters...
June 18, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Yves Boucher, Nathan Moreau, Annie Mauborgne, Wisam Dieb
We explored the molecular and behavioral effects of a perineural Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory priming on the development and maintenance of painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PPTTN) following infra-orbital nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI-IoN) in rats. Rats were pretreated with repetitive perineural injections in the vicinity of the IoN of either LPS or vehicle (Vhcl) before being submitted to CCI-IoN. Orofacial pain-like behaviors (response to Von Frey Filament testing and spontaneous isolated face grooming) were measured during the period of LPS injections (three weeks) and following CCI-IoN surgery (two weeks)...
June 18, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Wilrike J Pasman, Henk F J Hendriks, Mans M Minekus, Rianne A F de Ligt, Maarten J Scholtes-Timmerman, Nard D S Clabbers, Nynke M Leonards, Jodee Johnson, Susann Bellmann
BACKGROUND: Appetite regulating properties of foods are usually investigated under laboratory conditions, whereas in real life, foods are consumed under at home conditions. The objective of this study was to compare the acute effects of breakfasts when tested in a laboratory condition and in an at home condition. Appetite regulating properties of two bread breakfasts and two cereal breakfasts were also compared. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this randomized cross-over trial balanced for laboratory and at home test conditions, thirty-two women consumed five breakfasts, i...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Ferenc Köteles, Péter Babulka, Renáta Szemerszky, Zsuzsanna Dömötör, Szilvia Boros
Essential oils of herbal origin are widely used in the treatment of diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract primarily due to their antibacterial and antiviral effects. Menthol, the major component of the essential oil of mint (Mentha) species, exhibits antispasmodic activity, which might result in improved lung function. In a randomized experiment, 106 healthy participants received nebulized peppermint, eucalyptus, or rosemary essential oil for 15 min or no treatment (control). None of the essential oils had an impact on the measured spirometric variables (forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow, the ratio of the volume of air forcibly blown out in the first second to forced vital capacity)...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Jameason D Cameron, Éric Doucet, Kristi B Adamo, Mark Walker, Alessandro Tirelli, Joel D Barnes, Kaamel Hafizi, Marisa Murray, Gary S Goldfield
BACKGROUND: Maternal prenatal smoking is associated with downstream childhood obesity. Although animal research suggests reduced resting energy expenditure (REE), decreased physical activity (PA), and increased energy intake as mechanisms, these relationships are unclear in humans. The objectives were to examine the association of prenatal maternal smoking with non-volitional energy expenditure (REE and the thermic effect of feeding [TEF]), child adiposity, energy intake, free-living PA (daily light PA (LPA), daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), daily sedentary behavior (SB)), and screen time (television and computer/video game) in children...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Takuya Yoshiike, Motoyasu Honma, Naoto Yamada, Yoshiharu Kim, Kenichi Kuriyama
Bright light (BL) not only regulates human emotion and circadian physiology but can also directly modulate emotional memories. Impaired fear extinction and enhanced fear acquisition and consolidation are hallmarks of fear-circuitry disorders; thus, we tested whether BL facilitates fear extinction and inhibits fear acquisition. We randomly exposed 29 healthy humans to high- (9000 lx) or low-intensity light (<500 lx) for 15 min, near the nadir of the phase response to light, in a single-blind manner...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Laura K Milton, Brian J Oldfield, Claire J Foldi
Patients suffering anorexia nervosa (AN) become anhedonic, in other words, unable or unwilling to derive normal pleasures and avoid rewarding outcomes, most profoundly in food intake. The neurobiological underpinnings of anhedonia are likely to involve mesolimbic reward circuitry. We propose here that this circuitry and its involvement in AN can be investigated using the activity-based anorexia (ABA) rodent model that recapitulates many of the characteristics of the human condition, most notably rapid weight loss...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Francisco Muñoz-Leiva, Diego Gómez-Carmona
The objective of the current paper is to verify to what extent the presentation of a restaurant dish and the origin of its food provoke reactions in the consumer's brain during the visualization and the decision-making process, from an exploratory approach. The two independent variables singled out for study were whether the presentation was well or poorly presented and if the ingredients were ecological or non-ecological. The results applying the functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) methodology reveal that well-presented dishes activate areas in the brain linked to the network of emotions indicating that the visualization in restaurant menus is not a purely cognitive and self-reflexive process but retains a strong affective component...
June 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Elizabeth M Niedbala, Zachary P Hohman, Breanna N Harris, Alexandra C Abide
Retaliating against a threatening outgroup offers group members specific rewards, such as restored group esteem, a reduction in anger, and a sense of gratification. Because retaliation is rewarding, group members may appraise an attack on the outgroup to be beneficial, even if it feels physically painful. We hypothesized that group members would be more willing to endure pain to retaliate against a threatening outgroup, and that appraising the painful retaliation as rewarding would down-regulate their physiological stress response to pain...
June 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Amanda C Kentner, Urma Khan, M MacRae, Scot E Dowd, Siyang Yan
Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to infection during early development increases the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders associated with symptoms such as a decreased desire to engage in social interactions. This disruption in social behavior can be modelled in animals by administering bacterial mimetics such as liposaccharide (LPS). However, when evaluating social interactions in the laboratory, attention is rarely directed on the reciprocal relationship as a whole, which is important as peers may drive social withdrawal...
June 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Maryam Noorbakhshnia, Arsham Rashidkaboli, Mahnaz Pakatchian, Siamak Beheshti
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is one the most worldwide problems with wide-ranging effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Chronic METH abuse can associate with cognitive abnormalities and neurodegenerative changes in the brain. Agmatine, a cationic polyamine, has been proposed as a neuromodulator that modulates many effects of abused drugs. The aim of this study was to determine if agmatine can decrease the impairment effect of METH on memory and hippocampal CaMKII-α gene expression, a gene that plays a major role in memory...
June 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Cesar H E C Poli, Kara J Thornton-Kurth, Jerrad F Legako, Carolina Bremm, Viviane S Hampel, Jeffery Hall, Ignacio R Ipharraguerre, Juan J Villalba
Plant bioactives can potentially benefit herbivores through their effects on health and nutrition. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of polyphenols and terpenes on the ability of lambs to self-select these compounds when challenged by a parasitic infection and the subsequent impact on their health and productivity. Thirty-five lambs were housed in individual pens and assigned to five treatment groups (7 animals/group), where they received: 1) A basal diet of beet pulp:soybean meal (90:10) (CONTROL); 2) The same diet, but containing 0...
June 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Felipe Borges Almeida, Alan Rios Fonseca, Núbia Heidrich, Maurício Schüler Nin, Helena Maria Tannhauser Barros
Depression is a highly incapacitating disorder known to have a multifactorial etiology, including a hereditary genetic background. The neurosteroid allopregnanolone (ALLO) is a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor and has been shown to have an antidepressant-like effect in animals. This study aimed to assess the behavioral effect of ALLO in animals with different backgrounds of depressive-like activity. An initial population (F0) of male and female Wistar rats was screened for immobility behavior utilizing the Forced Swim Test (FST)...
June 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Yuki Tada, Takahiro Yoshizaki, Izumi Tanaka, Rieko Kanehara, Misao Kato, Naoko Hatta, Azumi Hida, Yukari Kawano
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found more frequent increases in dietary intake and nonrestorative nocturnal sleep during the luteal phase than in the follicular phase, but few studies have investigated how increased energy intake at dinner influences sleep by considering the correlation between female hormone and cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. This study examined the effects of energy intake at dinner on ANS activity during nighttime sleep in order to evaluate restorative sleep in healthy women...
June 9, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Silke Storsberg, Rafał Stryjek, Klaudia Modlińska, Katharina Gottswinter, Wolfgang D'Hanis, Andrea Kröber, Kerstin E A Wernecke, Thomas Roskoden, Markus Fendt
Laboratory rats are frequently used as animal models in research. Since the 1920s rats are bred and reared in laboratories which affect anatomy, physiology, and behavior responses. In the present study we exposed laboratory and wild rats to predator odor and comparatively analyzed their behavioral and physiological responses. In detail, Warsaw Wild Captive Pisula Stryjek (WWCPS) rats and Lister Hooded (LH) rats were exposed to the predator odor 2,3,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline (TMT), their behavior was videotaped and blood samples were collected for subsequent serum corticosterone analysis...
June 9, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
C A Wyse, X Zhang, M McLaughlin, S M Biello, D Hough, M Bellingham, A M Curtis, J E Robinson, N P Evans
Entrainment of circadian rhythms (CR) to the light dark cycle has been well described under controlled, experimental conditions. However, studies in rodents have reported that rhythms in the laboratory are not always reproduced under field conditions. The aim of this study was to characterise the CR of sheep maintained under conditions of standard UK farm animal husbandry and to investigate the effects of environmental challenges presented by season, weaning and changes in housing on CR. Male sheep (n = 9) were kept at pasture, or group housed in barns, under natural photoperiod for one year...
June 9, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Kristina A Muise, Allyson K Menzies, Craig K R Willis
Acute stressors such as capture and handling can elicit physiological responses in endothermic animals. One example of such a response is an increase in body temperature (Tb ) commonly referred to as stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH). For species that employ torpor, typically an inactive state characterized by a controlled reduction in Tb and metabolic rate, a rapid increase in Tb could be advantageous, especially in the context of escape from predators. We quantified SIH in silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) because they readily enter torpor and often roost in exposed places where they could be vulnerable to predators...
June 9, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Bridgette V Rooney, Austin B Bigley, Emily C LaVoy, Mitzi Laughlin, Charles Pedlar, Richard J Simpson
Acute exercise evokes an almost instantaneous lymphocytosis, followed by sustained lymphopenia that occurs within just 30-60 min after exercise cessation. The aim of this study was to characterize the immediate (order of minutes) post-exercise kinetics of lymphocyte and monocyte egress, and to determine whether this egress is associated with heart rate recovery following a single bout of steady state dynamic exercise. Eleven healthy subjects cycled for 30-min at ~70% of their estimated peak power. Blood samples were collected from an intravenous catheter before exercise, during exercise (E) at +15 and +30 min, and during passive recovery (R) at exactly +1, +2, +3, +4, +5 and +10 min after exercise cessation...
June 7, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Mohammad Nasehi, Faezeh Shahini, Mohaddeseh Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohammad-Ali Azarbayjani, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Chronic stress induces hippocampal-dependent memory deficits, which can be counterbalanced with prolonged exercise. On the other hand, the β-carboline alkaloid harmane exerts potential in therapies for Alzheimer's and depression diseases and modulating neuronal responses to stress. The present study investigated the effect of chronic treatment of harmane alone or during treadmill running on spatial memory deficit in restraint-stressed mice. To examine spatial memory, adult male NMRI mice were subjected to the Y-maze...
June 7, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Susan M McCabe, Catherine Elliott, Katherine Langdon, Chris R Abbiss
The relationship between patterns of change in skin temperature and sleep is well recognized. In particular, there is a rapid rise in distal skin temperature (Tdistal ) and slower rise in proximal skin temperature (Tproximal ) prior to sleep onset. The difference between Tdistal and Tproximal is known as the distal-proximal gradient (DPG). Rise in DPG is known as a measure of distal vasodilation, which contributes to the drop in core body temperature (Tcore ) that is important to sleep onset and maintenance...
June 7, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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