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Physiology & Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821448/cognitive-impairment-and-gene-expression-alterations-in-a-rodent-model-of-binge-eating-disorder
#1
A Chawla, Z A Cordner, G Boersma, T H Moran
Binge eating disorder (BED) is defined as recurrent, distressing over-consumption of palatable food (PF) in a short time period. Clinical studies suggest that individuals with BED may have impairments in cognitive processes, executive functioning, impulse control, and decision-making, which may play a role in sustaining binge eating behavior. These clinical reports, however, are limited and often conflicting. In this study, we used a limited access rat model of binge-like behavior in order to further explore the effects of binge eating on cognition...
August 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821447/time-perception-pacing-and-exercise-intensity-maximal-exercise-distorts-the-perception-of-time
#2
A M Edwards, A McCormick
INTRODUCTION: Currently there are no data examining the impact of exercise on the perception of time which is surprising as optimal competitive performance is dependent on accurate pacing using knowledge of time elapsed. METHODS: With institutional ethics approval, 12 recreationally active adult participants (f=7, m=5) undertook both 30s Wingate cycles and 20min (1200s) rowing ergometer bouts as short and long duration self-paced exercise trials, in each of three conditions on separate occasions: 1) light exertion: RPE 11, 2) heavy exertion: RPE 15, 3) maximal exertion: RPE 20...
August 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821446/diet-induced-obesity-alters-memory-consolidation-in-female-rats
#3
P Zanini, B D Arbo, G Niches, D Czarnabay, F Benetti, M F Ribeiro, A L Cecconello
Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the abnormal or excessive fat accumulation, which is caused by an energy imbalance between consumed and expended calories. Obesity leads to an inflammatory response that may result in peripheral and central metabolic changes, including insulin and leptin resistance. Insulin and leptin resistance have been associated with metabolic and cognitive dysfunctions. Obesity and some neurodegenerative diseases that lead to dementia affect mainly women. However, the effects of diet-induced obesity on memory consolidation in female rats are poorly understood...
August 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821445/effects-of-the-prebiotic-mannan-oligosaccharide-on-the-stress-response-of-feed-deprived-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#4
Mohammad Navid Forsatkar, Mohammad Ali Nematollahi, Gholamreza Rafiee, Hamid Farahmand, Christian Lawrence
Feed deprivation has deleterious effects on fish behavior and stress physiology which may susceptible them to disease outbreak. Functional ingredients in diets may substantially impact the physiology and stress responses of host organisms. Here, we hypothesized that the administration of a dietary prebiotic might attenuate the negative influences of feed deprivation on the behavioral profile of anxiety and physiological responses to stress in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were fed with either basal or mannan-oligosaccharide supplemented (0...
August 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818539/playing-a-rigged-game-inequality-s-effect-on-physiological-stress-responses
#5
Martin S Shapiro, Rhanda Rylant, Amanda de Lima, Andrea Vidaurri, Herman van de Werfhorst
High income and wealth inequality corresponds with high rates of various health and social problems. One possible factor that could be contributing to this correlation is stress experienced by those being treated unfairly in an unequal society. The present experiment attempted to simulate aspects of income inequality in a lab setting while recording several measures of stress. Participants (n=96) were assigned to one of four groups and played a memory game against a confederate opponent to earn "money" to spend in a lab market...
August 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811191/can-psychological-well-being-scales-and-hormone-levels-be-used-to-predict-acute-performance-of-anaerobic-training-tasks-in-elite-female-volleyball-players
#6
Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, Michael C Zourdos, Vicente J Clemente-Suárez, Julio Calleja-González, Amber M Shipherd
The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between pre-training psychological well-being assessment scales (General Health Questionnaire-28-GHQ-28, Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2-CSAI-2, Sport Competition Anxiety Test-SCAT, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-S-STAI-S, Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire-OSQ and Psychological Characteristics Related to Sport Performance-PCSP), and pre-training stress hormone concentrations (cortisol-C, total testosterone-TT, free testosterone-FT, adrenocorticotropic hormone-ACTH and testosterone/cortisol-T/C ratios), on acute neuromuscular performance (ANP) in female volleyballers...
August 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811190/how-to-quench-your-thirst-the-effect-of-water-based-products-varying-in-temperature-and-texture-flavour-and-sugar-content-on-thirst
#7
L van Belzen, E M Postma, S Boesveldt
The sensation of thirst plays an important role in the consumption of water or other fluids to rehydrate the body in order to keep bodily functions working properly. An increase in saliva secretion, wetting the mouth by ingestion of liquids, and cooling and sour components in products can alleviate this sensation already before absorption of fluids by the body. This study aimed to investigate the thirst-quenching ability of water-based products differing in temperature and texture (cold solids and cool liquids), flavour (flavoured and non-flavoured) and sugar content in two consecutive experiments...
August 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807538/lactose-malabsorption-and-taste-aversion-learning
#8
Joe Arthurs, Jian-You Lin, Roberto Ocampo, Steve Reilly
Consumption of foods can be suppressed by two feeding system defense mechanisms: conditioned taste aversion (CTA) or taste avoidance learning (TAL). There is a debate in the literature about which form of intake suppression is caused by various aversive stimuli. For instance, illness-inducing stimuli like lithium chloride are the gold standard for producing CTA and external (or peripheral) painful stimuli, such as footshock, are the traditional model of TAL. The distinction between CTA and TAL, which have identical effects on intake, is based on differential effects on palatability...
August 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803856/bioenergetic-costs-and-state-influence-distance-perception
#9
David Francis Hunt, Heidi B N Hunt, Justin H Park
Bioenergetic resources and states have been found to influence visual perception, with greater expected energy expenditure being associated with perceptions of greater distances and steeper slopes. Here we tested whether resting metabolic rate (RMR), which can serve as a proxy for the bioenergetic costs of completing physical activity, is positively correlated with perceived distance. We also tested whether temporarily depleting bioenergetic resources through exercise would result in greater perceived distance...
August 10, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803119/the-effects-of-low-intensity-cycling-on-cognitive-performance-following-sleep-deprivation
#10
Alexis B Slutsky, Jed A Diekfuss, James A Janssen, Nate T Berry, Chia-Hao Shih, Louisa D Raisbeck, Laurie Wideman, Jennifer L Etnier
This study examined the effect of 24h of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance and assessed the effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance following sleep deprivation. Young, active, healthy adults (n=24, 14 males) were randomized to control (age=24.7±3.7years, BMI=27.2±7.0) or exercise (age=25.3±3.3years, BMI=25.6±5.1) groups. Cognitive testing included a 5-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), three memory tasks with increasing cognitive load, and performance of the PVT a second time. On morning one, cognitive testing followed a typical night's sleep...
August 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803118/complex-interactions-between-the-subject-factors-of-biological-sex-and-prior-histories-of-binge-drinking-and-unpredictable-stress-influence-behavioral-sensitivity-to-alcohol-and-alcohol-intake
#11
Sema G Quadir, Eugenie Guzelian, Mason A Palmer, Douglas L Martin, Jennifer Kim, Karen K Szumlinski
Alcohol use disorders, affective disorders and their comorbidity are sexually dimorphic in humans. However, it is difficult to disentangle the interactions between subject factors influencing alcohol sensitivity in studies of humans. Herein, we combined murine models of unpredictable, chronic, mild stress (UCMS) and voluntary binge-drinking to examine for sex differences in the interactions between prior histories of excessive ethanol-drinking and stress upon ethanol-induced changes in motor behavior and subsequent drinking...
August 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782525/effects-of-maternal-cortisol-treatment-on-offspring-size-responses-to-stress-and-anxiety-related-behavior-in-wild-largemouth-bass-micropterus-salmoides
#12
Julia C Redfern, Steven J Cooke, Robert J Lennox, Michael A Nannini, David H Wahl, Kathleen M Gilmour
Cortisol, the main glucocorticoid stress hormone in teleost fish, is of interest as a mediator of maternal stress on offspring characteristics because it plays an organizational role during early development. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal exposure to cortisol treatment prior to spawn affects offspring phenotype using wild largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Baseline and stress-induced cortisol concentrations, body size (i.e. length and mass), and behavior (i.e. anxiety, exploration, boldness, and aggression) were assessed at different offspring life-stages and compared between offspring of control and cortisol-treated females...
August 4, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782524/the-psycho-hormonal-influence-of-anaerobic-fatigue-on-semi-professional-female-soccer-players
#13
Adéle Broodryk, Cindy Pienaar, David Edwards, Martinique Sparks
Globally it is assumed that high-intensity activities are the general cause of fatigue experienced during a soccer match. However, little is known about the hormonal and psychological effects of fatigue due to these activities on semi-professional female soccer players. Forty-seven female players (22.0±2.7y) from a tertiary education institution volunteered for the study. Their cortisol values (saliva sample), anxiety [Spielberger State-trait anxiety inventory questionnaire (STAI)] and mood scores [Incredible Short Profile of Mood states questionnaire (ISP)] were taken an hour and immediately prior to, and 15min after an anaerobic fatiguing test (AFT)...
August 4, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778551/brain-responses-and-self-reported-indices-of-interoception-heartbeat-evoked-potentials-are-inversely-associated-with-worrying-about-body-sensations
#14
Mindaugas Baranauskas, Aida Grabauskaitė, Inga Griškova-Bulanova
Interoception may be defined as a group of senses reflecting physiological state of the body; however the link between physiological and self-reported indices of interoception is not well established. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between the CNS representation of interoceptive processing - the late part of the heartbeat evoked potential (HEP) - and the self-reported interoceptive abilities and tendencies as assessed with the scales of Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) questionnaire...
August 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778550/effect-of-carbohydrate-and-protein-solutions-consumed-during-a-moderate-intensity-exercise-on-post-exercise-appetite
#15
Feng-Hua Sun, Gang-Yan Si
This study aimed to investigate whether co-ingestion of carbohydrate and protein during exercise affect the post-exercise ad libitum food intake. Twelve healthy active male participants (mean±SD, age: 20±1; height: 176±6cm; weight: 63.6±5.3kg; VO2peak: 51.2±7.1ml/kg/min) completed three main experimental trials in a randomized cross-over design. In each trial, the participants completed 1h of ergometer cycling at 60% VO2peak, followed by 2h recovery. The participants were required to consume one of three solutions every 15min during exercise: distilled water (DW), carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CE), and carbohydrate-electrolyte-protein solution (CEP)...
August 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774788/does-psychological-resilience-buffer-against-the-link-between-the-5-httlpr-polymorphism-and-depression-following-stress
#16
Christopher F Sharpley, David R H Christie, Vicki Bitsika, Nicholas M Andronicos, Linda L Agnew, Mary E McMillan
The comparative strength of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism as a 'predictor' of depression after major stress, versus the 'protective' effect of psychological resilience (PR) against depression after major stress, was tested in a homogeneous sample of older men who had all received a diagnosis and treatment for prostate cancer. Results supported the association between PR and lower depression after stress, but did not support the association between the 5-HTTLPR and elevated depression after stress. Examination of PR at scale, factor, and item level identified the specific PR-related behaviour that was the most powerful predictor of low depression...
July 31, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755863/estrogenic-regulation-of-memory-consolidation-a-look-beyond-the-hippocampus-ovaries-and-females
#17
Karyn M Frick, Jennifer J Tuscher, Wendy A Koss, Jaekyoon Kim, Lisa R Taxier
The potent estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2) has long been known to regulate the hippocampus and hippocampal-dependent memories in females, and research from the past decade has begun to shed light on the molecular mechanisms through which E2 mediates memory formation in females. Although E2 can also regulate hippocampal function in males, relatively little is known about how E2 influences memory formation in males, or whether sex differences in underlying mechanisms exist. This review, based on a talk given in April 2017 at the American University symposium entitled, "Sex Differences: From Neuroscience to the Clinic and Beyond", first provides an overview of the molecular mechanisms in the dorsal hippocampus through which E2 enhances memory consolidation in ovariectomized female mice...
July 26, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754268/cannabinoid-system-of-dorsomedial-telencephalon-modulates-behavioral-responses-to-noxious-stimulation-in-the-fish-leporinus-macrocephalus
#18
Carla Patricia Bejo Wolkers, Leda Menescal-de-Oliveira, Anette Hoffmann
Fish dorsomedial telencephalon has been considered a pallial region homologous to mammals amygdala, being considered a possible substrate for nociception modulation in this animal group. The present study aimed to evaluate the participation of the cannabinoid system of Dm telencephalon on nociception modulation in the fish Leporinus macrocephalus. We demonstrated that cannabidiol microinjection in Dm telecephalon inhibits the behavioral nociceptive response to the subcutaneous injection of 3% formaldehyde, and this antinociception is blocked by previous treatment with AM251 microinjection...
July 25, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739376/functional-inactivation-of-dorsal-medial-striatum-alters-behavioral-flexibility-and-recognition-process-in-mice
#19
Yanhua Qiao, Xingyue Wang, Lian Ma, Shengguang Li, Jing Liang
Deficits in behavioral flexibility and recognition memory are commonly observed in mental illnesses and neurodegenerative diseases. Abnormality of the striatum has been implicated in an association with the pathology of these diseases. However, the exact roles of striatal heterogeneous structures in these cognitive functions are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of suppressing neuronal activity in the dorsomedial striatum (DMStr) and nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) on reversal learning and novelty recognition in mice...
July 21, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736213/beyond-expectations-the-responses-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-to-visual-food-cues
#20
Luz Verastegui-Tena, Aurelia Schulte-Holierhoek, Hans van Trijp, Betina Piqueras-Fiszman
Self-report measures rely on cognitive and rational processes and may not, therefore, be the most suitable tools to investigate implicit or unconscious factors within a sensory experience. The responses from the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which are not susceptible to bias due to their involuntary nature, may provide a better insight. Expectations are important for the consumer-product interaction and should be considered. However, research using ANS responses has not focused thoroughly on expectations...
July 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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