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Physiology & Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716609/oxytocin-reduces-alcohol-consumption-in-prairie-voles
#1
J R Stevenson, S M Wenner, D M Freestone, C C Romaine, M C Parian, S M Christian, A E Bohidar, J R Ndem, I R Vogel, C M O'Kane
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) negatively affects millions of people every year in the United States, and effective treatments for AUD are still needed. The neuropeptide oxytocin has shown promise for reducing alcohol drinking in mice and rats. Because oxytocin also plays a key role in complex prosocial behaviors like bonding and attachment, we tested the effect of oxytocin on alcohol drinking in prairie voles, a species that both consumes high amounts of alcohol and forms oxytocin dependent social bonds in a manner similar to humans...
July 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716608/opioidergic-and-dopaminergic-modulation-of-cost-benefit-decision-making-in-long-evans-rats
#2
Ileana Morales, Paul J Currie, Timothy D Hackenberg, Raúl Pastor
Eating disorders are associated with impaired decision-making and dysfunctional reward-related neurochemistry. The present study examined the potential contributions of dopamine and opioid signaling to these processes using two different decision-making tasks. In one task, Long Evans Rats chose between working for a preferred food (high-carbohydrate banana-flavored sucrose pellets) by lever pressing on a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement vs. obtaining less preferred laboratory chow that was concurrently available...
July 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712864/thermal-comfort-zone-of-the-hands-feet-and-head-in-males-and-females
#3
Urša Ciuha, Igor B Mekjavic
INTRODUCTION: The present study compared the thermal comfort zones (TCZ) of the hands, feet and head in eight male and eight female participants, assessed with water-perfused segments (WPS). METHODS: On separate occasions, and separated by a minimum of one day, participants were requested to regulate the temperature of three distal skin regions (hands, feet and head) within their TCZ. On each occasion they donned a specific water-perfused segment (WPS), either gloves, socks or hood for assessing the TCZ of the hands, feet and head, respectively...
July 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711395/silymarin-ameliorates-experimentally-induced-depressive-like-behavior-in-rats-involvement-of-hippocampal-bdnf-signaling-inflammatory-cytokines-and-oxidative-stress-response
#4
Vishnu N Thakare, Manoj K Aswar, Yogesh P Kulkarni, Rajesh R Patil, Bhoomika M Patel
Silymarin is a polyphenolic flavonoid of Silybum marianum, exhibited neuroprotection and antidepressant like activity in acute restraint stressed mice. The main objective of the present study is to investigate possible antidepressant like activity of silymarin in experimentally induced depressive behavior in rats. The depressive behaviors were induced in rats by olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) technique. Wistar rats were administered with silymarin at a dose of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg, by per oral in OBX and sham operated rats...
July 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711394/exercise-prevents-ifn-%C3%AE-induced-mood-and-cognitive-dysfunction-and-increases-bdnf-expression-in-the-rat
#5
Charlotte K Callaghan, Jennifer Rouine, Shane M O'Mara
Aerobic exercise has marked effects on mood and cognition. Here, we used an interferon-alpha (IFN-α) induced depression model to evaluate the potential efficacy of chronic treadmill running on mood and cognition in the rat. IFN-α treatment induces behavioral deficits in the forced swim test (FST), open field test and object exploration task. Male han Wistar rats (n=8 per group, 3month old) were injected 3 times weekly with recombinant human IFN-α or saline (control) for 4weeks. One group was exercised 3 times (1h treadmill running) per week while the other remained sedentary...
July 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705536/effects-of-confinement-duration-and-parity-on-stereotypic-behavioral-and-physiological-responses-of-pregnant-sows
#6
Ming-Yue Zhang, Xiang Li, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Hong-Gui Liu, Jian-Hong Li, Jun Bao
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of space restriction stress on the stereotypic behavioral and physiological responses of different parity sows, and it is necessary to understand such effects due to space restriction to improve the welfare of the sows in confined conditions. We selected fifty pregnant sows (Large White) at primiparity and first to fifth parity in a confined farm with the same body condition and due date (3±1.5days). Behavioral observations and physiological analysis were carried out during spatial confinement throughout pregnancy...
July 11, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705535/clozapine-blockade-of-mk-801-induced-learning-memory-impairment-in-the-mepm-role-of-5-ht1a-receptors-and-hippocampal-bdnf-levels
#7
Ximena López Hill, Analía Richeri, María Cecilia Scorza
Cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) is highly prevalent and affects the overall functioning of patients. Clozapine (Clz), an atypical antipsychotic drug, significantly improves CIAS although the underlying mechanisms remain under study. The role of the 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1A-R) in the ability of Clz to prevent the learning/memory impairment induced by MK-801 was investigated using the modified elevated plus-maze (mEPM) considering the Transfer latency (TL) as an index of spatial memory...
July 10, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700906/vitamin-d-deficiency-impairs-neurobehavioral-development-in-male-mice
#8
Lin Fu, Yuan-Hua Chen, Xue Chen, Shen Xu, Zhen Yu, De-Xiang Xu
Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent especially in pregnant women and children. Several studies found that vitamin D status was negatively correlated with risk of senile neurobehavioral abnormality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D deficiency on neurobehavioral development in mice. In vitamin D deficiency group, dams and their male pups were fed with vitamin D deficient (VDD) diet, in which vitamin D was depleted. Anxiety-related behavior, depressive-like behavior, spatial learning and memory were measured...
July 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694157/how-methamphetamine-exposure-during-different-neurodevelopmental-stages-affects-social-behavior-of-adult-rats
#9
Ivana Hrebíčková, Mária Ševčíková, Eva Macúchová, Romana Šlamberová
Social behavior involves complex of different forms of interactions between individuals that is essential for healthy mental and physical development throughout lifespan. Psychostimulants, including methamphetamine (MA), have neurotoxic effect, especially, if they are targeting CNS during its critical periods of development. The present study was aimed on evaluation of changes in social interactions (SI) following scheduled prenatal/neonatal MA treatment in combination with acute application in adulthood. Eight groups of male and eight groups of female rats were tested in adulthood: rats, whose mothers were exposed to MA (5mg/ml/kg) or saline (SA, 1ml/kg) during the first half of gestation (ED 1-11), the second half of gestation (ED 12-22) and neonatal period (PD 1-11)...
July 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694156/sex-and-menstrual-cycle-influences-on-three-aspects-of-attention
#10
Belinda Pletzer, Ti-Anni Harris, Tuulia Ortner
Sex differences and menstrual cycle influences have been investigated in a variety of cognitive abilities, but results regarding attention are comparably sparse. In the present study, 35 men and 32 naturally cycling women completed three attention tasks, which are commonly used in neuropsychological assessment situations. All participants completed two sessions, which were time-locked to the follicular (low progesterone) and luteal cycle phase (high progesterone) in women. The results reveal higher operation speed during sustained attention in men, but no sex differences in selected and divided attention...
July 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694153/caffeinated-energy-drink-intake-modulates-motor-circuits-at-rest-before-and-after-a-movement
#11
Carmen Concerto, Carmenrita Infortuna, Eileen Chusid, Diego Coira, Jacqueline Babayev, Rowan Metwaly, Hesam Naenifard, Eugenio Aguglia, Fortunato Battaglia
Energy drinks are thought to improve certain aspects of athletic and cognitive performances. Moreover, less is understood about physiological mechanisms that might underlie these effects. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of sugar-free energy drink (SFED) ingestion on corticomotor excitability and plasticity. Fourteen college students consumed a commercially available SFED or a "dummy" drink. By using Transcranial magnetic Stimulation (TMS) we investigated resting motor threshold (RMT), motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and cortical silent period (CSP)...
July 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689742/overcoming-neonatal-sickness-sex-specific-effects-of-sickness-on-physiology-and-social-behavior
#12
Kristyn E Sylvia, Gregory E Demas
Early-life environmental stressors, including sickness, have the potential to disrupt development in ways that could severely impact fitness. Despite what is known about the effects of sickness on reproduction, the precise physiological mechanisms have not yet been determined. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of a neonatal immune challenge on adult reproductive physiology and opposite-sex social behavior. Male and female Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) pups were administered lipopolysaccharide ([LPS]; a cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria) or saline injections on postnatal days 3 and 5 and body mass, food intake, and measures of reproductive maturity were taken throughout development...
July 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694158/implication-of-the-vagus-nerve-in-breathing-pattern-during-sequential-swallowing-in-rats
#13
Yacine Ouahchi, Celia Duclos, Jean Paul Marie, Eric Verin
The ventilatory pattern during sequential swallowing is influenced by the vagal activity. As the vagus nerve is paired and mixed, we aimed (1) to determine if vagal implication in swallowing and breathing coordination is symmetric. (2) to study the importance of vagal afferences in swallowing and breathing coordination. Sixty two Wistar rats (7-11weeks, 260-400g) were studied by barometric plethysmography. In the first part of the study, we determined the effects of a right cervical vagotomy and the effects of a left cervical vagotomy on ventilatory pattern at rest and during sequential swallowing (14 rats with right vagotomy, 14 rats with left vagotomy and 14 rats with sham surgery)...
July 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694155/denervation-as-a-tool-for-testing-sympathetic-control-of-white-adipose-tissue
#14
REVIEW
Ruth B S Harris
This review summarizes the evidence derived from studies utilizing denervation procedures to demonstrate sympathetic control of white adipose tissue metabolism and body fat mass. A majority of the work demonstrating neural control of white fat was performed in the Bartness laboratory with Siberian hamsters as the predominant experimental model. These animals experience dramatic changes in body fat mass in response to changes in photoperiod, however, the mechanisms identified in hamsters have been reproduced or further elucidated by experiments with other animal models...
July 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694154/short-photoperiod-reverses-obesity-in-siberian-hamsters-via-sympathetically-induced-lipolysis-and-browning-in-adipose-tissue
#15
REVIEW
Vitaly Ryu, Eleen Zarebidaki, H Elliott Albers, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
Changes in photoperiod length are transduced into neuroendocrine signals by melatonin (MEL) secreted by the pineal gland triggering seasonally adaptive responses in many animal species. Siberian hamsters, transferred from a long-day 'summer-like' photoperiod (LD) to a short-day 'winter-like' photoperiod (SD), exhibit a naturally-occurring reversal in obesity. Photoperiod-induced changes in adiposity are mediated by the duration of MEL secretion and can be mimicked by exogenously administered MEL into animals housed in LD...
July 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689741/coconut-oil-has-less-satiating-properties-than-medium-chain-triglyceride-oil
#16
R Kinsella, T Maher, M E Clegg
It is well established that the consumption of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) can increase satiety and reduce food intake. Many media articles promote the use of coconut oil for weight loss advocating similar health benefits to that of MCT. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of MCT oil compared to coconut oil and control oil on food intake and satiety. Following an overnight fast, participants consumed a test breakfast smoothie containing 205kcal of either (i) MCT oil (ii) coconut oil or (iii) vegetable oil (control) on three separate test days...
July 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689024/a-high-fat-breakfast-attenuates-the-suppression-of-appetite-and-acylated-ghrelin-during-exercise-at-simulated-altitude
#17
Jamie Matu, Kevin Deighton, Theocharis Ispoglou, Oliver M Shannon, Lauren Duckworth
High-altitude exposure induces a negative energy balance by increasing resting energy expenditure and decreasing energy intake. This diminished energy intake is likely caused by altitude-induced anorexia and can have detrimental effects for those travelling to high-altitude. We aimed to investigate whether altering the macronutrient composition of breakfast could attenuate altitude-induced anorexia and augment energy intake at high-altitude. Twelve healthy men (aged 26 (8) years, body mass index 23.9 (2.7) kg·m(-2)) completed two, 305min experimental trials at 4300m simulated altitude (~11...
July 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687176/the-impact-of-a-single-bout-of-high-intensity-circuit-training-on-myokines-concentrations-and-cognitive-functions-in-women-of-different-age
#18
A Gmiat, K Micielska, M Kozłowska, D J Flis, M Smaruj, S Kujach, J Jaworska, P Lipińska, E Ziemann
The study aimed to assess effect of a single bout of high-intensity circuit training (HICT) on myokines concentration: interleukin-6 and irisin, inteleukin-10, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), heat shock proteins (HSP27, HSP70) and cognitive functions among women participated in HICT. It also attempted evaluating whether vitamin D could have modified the effect of HICT. Fourteen healthy, non-active women participating in the experiment were assigned to a young or middle-aged group. They performed a single session HICT using body weight as a resistance, based on the ACSM recommendations...
July 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687177/associative-learning-contributes-to-the-increased-water-intake-observed-after-daily-injections-of-angiotensin-ii
#19
Maggie Postolache, Jessica Santollo, Derek Daniels
Daily injections of angiotensin II (AngII) cause a progressive increase of water intake that resembles a classically ascribed non-associative sensitization. Consistent with the presumption that the observed increase in intake was sensitization, we hypothesized that it resulted from a pharmacological interaction between AngII and its receptor. To test this hypothesis, and remove the influence of drinking itself, we implemented a delay in water access after injection of AngII (icv) on four consecutive 'induction days,' and then measured intake on the next day ('test day') when rats were allowed to drink immediately after AngII...
July 4, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684135/to-be-blamed-or-pitied-the-effect-of-illness-on-social-behavior-cytokine-levels-and-feed-intake-in-undocked-boars
#20
C Munsterhjelm, J Nordgreen, F Aae, M Heinonen, K Olstad, T Aasmundstad, A M Janczak, A Valros
Tail biting is detrimental to animal welfare and has negative consequences for producer economy. Poor health is one of the risk factors for tail biting. The first aim of this study was therefore to test for links between health status and behavior related to tail biting at the individual level. The second aim of this study was to test whether variation in cytokines was related to variation in social behavior. These small molecules produced upon immune activation are known to influence behavior both in the direction of withdrawal and increased aggression...
July 3, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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