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Physiology & Behavior

Patrick V Stutz, Lalit Kumar Golani, Jeffrey M Witkin
Fatigue is common in a host of neurological and psychiatric disorders including depression and often continues unabated even after primary symptoms of disease are treated. Its high estimated prevalence combined with the lack of effective medicines has engaged the preclinical research community to search for fatigue models. The present review briefly summarizes the most common animal models that have been brought forward along with some of the associated pharmacological validation data. Like all preclinical models, these models have issues that need to be appreciated in the generation and interpretation of data for the purposes of translation to human disease; specifically, there are deficiencies in construct validity, a lack of medicines that effectively address residual fatigue symptoms, and difficulties in defining specificity with respect to drug effects on fatigue per se...
December 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Michael B Hennessy, Terrence Deak, Joshua D Sensenbaugh, Darci M Gallimore, Alexis M Garybush, Jamie E Mondello, Patricia A Schiml
Disruption of attachment relations in early life is linked to greater vulnerability to depressive illness at later ages. Evidence suggests this process involves stress-induced activation of central inflammatory factors, though the specific mediators and processes involved are not known. We used a guinea pig model in which effects of maternal separation appear more clearly due to absence of the attachment figure than is the case for other laboratory rodents. Separation in a novel environment on two consecutive days evoked a depressive-like behavioral response that sensitized during a final test 9 days later...
November 30, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Jarren C Kay, Gerald C Claghorn, Zoe Thompson, Thomas G Hampton, Theodore Garland
Changes in cardiac function that occur with exercise training have been studied in detail, but those accompanying evolved increases in the duration or intensity of physical activity are poorly understood. To address this gap, we studied electrocardiograms (ECGs) of mice from an artificial selection experiment in which four replicate lines are bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR) while four non-selected lines are maintained as controls (C). ECGs were recorded using an ECGenie (Mouse Specifics, Inc.) both before and after six days of wheel access (as used in the standard protocol to select breeders)...
November 30, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Sarkawt Kolahdouzi, Mohammad Baghadam, Farhad Ahmadi Kani-Golzar, Ayoub Saeidi, Georges Jabbour, Amani Ayadi, Maysa De Sousa, Amira Zouita, Abderraouf Ben Abderrahmane, Hassane Zouhal
BACKGROUND: Circuit resistance training (CRT) is a time-efficient exercise modality for improving skeletal muscle and cardiovascular fitness. But the beneficial role of CRT in obese individuals is still not well understood. This study explores the reducing effects of progressive CRT on inflammatory biomarkers and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese young men. METHODS: Thirty obese men (Body mass index (BMI): 30.67 ± 3.06; age: 23 ± 3.2 years) were divided into CRT and control groups...
November 29, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Kathleen Landolt, Paul Maruff, Ben Horan, Michael Kingsley, Glynda Kinsella, Paul D O'Halloran, Matthew W Hale, Bradley J Wright
The job demands-resources model (JD-R) has shown an ability to predict worker engagement and exhaustion, yet to our knowledge, research has not been conducted that assesses the JD-R model with physiological indicators of chronic stress and burnout. Using the JD-R model, we assessed if occupational stress and burnout were related to dysregulated cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase awakening responses (sAA-AR). Professional apprentice jockeys comprising of males (n = 14) and females (n = 18) provided morning saliva samples and completed self-report measures relating to job demands and resources, burnout, and perceived mental and physical health...
November 29, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Zachary I Grunewald, Sunhye Lee, Rebecca Kirkland, Matthew Ross, Claire B de La Serre
Circulating levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin are chronically elevated in obesity (metabolic endotoxemia), resulting in low-grade inflammation. Metabolic endotoxemia has been identified as a triggering factor for obesity-associated metabolic complications such as insulin resistance. Furthermore, LPS has been shown to modulate endocannabinoid synthesis and notably to induce cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) ligand synthesis. CB1 activation promotes inflammation, increases food intake and impairs insulin signaling...
November 28, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Banafshe Esmaeilzade, Tayebe Artimani, Iraj Amiri, Rezvan Najafi, Siamak Shahidi, Marie Sabec, Parviz Farzadinia, Mohammadali Zare, Maria Zahiri, Sara Soleimani Asl
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation therapy has been proposed as a promising approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. Chemical and pharmacological preconditioning before transplantation could optimize the therapeutic properties of transplanted MSCs. In this study, we hypothesized that preconditioning treatment with a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), will increase MSC efficacy and paracrine effects in an amyloid-β (Aβ)-injected Alzheimer rat model. MSCs were incubated in different concentrations of DMOG for 24 h...
November 27, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Tiffany J Glass, Sara L Twadell, Luke C Valmadrid, Nadine P Connor
Down syndrome (DS) in humans is associated with differences of the central nervous system and oromotor development. DS also increases risks for pediatric feeding challenges, which sometimes involve the use of altered food consistencies. Therefore, experimental food consistency paradigms are of interest to oromotor investigations in mouse models of Down syndrome (DS). The present work reports impacts of an altered food consistency paradigm on the Ts65Dn and Dp(16)1Yey mouse models of DS, and sibling control mice...
November 26, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Luzia Jaeger Hintze, Gary Goldfield, Ryan Seguin, Aleck Damphousse, Alexandre Riopel, Éric Doucet
BACKGROUND: Evidence of metabolic adaptations following weight loss is available in the literature. However, the impact of different degrees of caloric restriction on a comprehensive panel including energy expenditure (EE) and intake (EI), appetite, palatability and olfactory performance remains to be investigated. Accordingly, the purpose of the study was to investigate the changes in resting energy expenditure (REE), appetite, olfaction, palatability and EI in women who were engaged in either a slow (-500 kcal/day, 20-week) or in a rapid (-1000 kcal/ day, 10 weeks) weight loss program...
November 26, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Emma Mosley, Sylvain Laborde, Emma Kavanagh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Rebecca C Clawson, Leslie N Dela Cruz, Steven Allen, Tierney Wolgemuth, Amanda Maner, Anna Dorsett, Helen I'Anson
A large part of the daily intake of children in the U.S. consists of snacks, with the average child consuming three snacks per day. Despite this, little research has been conducted to determine the metabolic and behavioral effects of snacking. Using a developing female rat model, our studies aimed to determine the effects of snacking during development before the protective effects of estrogen on weight gain would be relevant. Additionally, to determine if snack composition is important, we created one healthy and one unhealthy snacking group provided with chow and three snacks each in addition to a chow-only group...
November 22, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Rimma Gulevich, Rimma Kozhemyakina, Svetlana Shikhevich, Maria Konoshenko, Yuri Herbeck
Oxytocin (OXT) is known to influence on social behaviors, including intermale aggression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. However, there are no data on the effects of oxytocin on intermale aggression and HPA axis activity in rats selected for elimination and enhancement of aggressiveness towards humans. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of oxytocin in expression of aggressive behavior and stress response in Norway rats selected for elimination (tame) and enhancement (aggressive) of an aggressive-defensive reaction to humans...
November 22, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Hidenori Otani, Mitsuharu Kaya, Akira Tamaki, Heita Goto, Ronald J Maughan
High radiant heat load reduces endurance exercise performance in the heat indoors, but this remains unconfirmed in outdoor exercise. The current study investigated the effects of variations in solar radiation on self-regulated exercise intensity and thermoregulatory responses in the heat outdoors at a fixed rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Ten male participants completed 45-min cycling exercise in hot outdoor environments (about 31 °C) at a freely chosen resistance and cadence at an RPE of 13 (somewhat hard)...
November 21, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Luiz Fernando Farias-Junior, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira Browne, Yuri Alberto Freire, Filipe Fernandes Oliveira-Dantas, Telma Maria Araújo Moura Lemos, Nicole Leite Galvão-Coelho, Sarah J Hardcastle, Alexandre Hideki Okano, Marcelo Saldanha Aoki, Eduardo Caldas Costa
We compared in-task affect to HIIE and MICE, and its relationship with time spent at different metabolic domains, perceived exertion (RPE), self-efficacy, enjoyment, and future intention of exercise in overweight inactive men. Muscle damage and soreness, and inflammation were assessed post-exercise. Fifteen participants (28.9 ± 5.0 yr; 29.2 ± 3.8 kg/m2 ) completed a HIIE (10 × 1 min at 100% Vmax , 1 min recovery) and MICE (20 min at 55-59% VO2reserve ) session. Affect, alertness, RPE, and self-efficacy were assessed in-task, and enjoyment and future intention post-task...
November 21, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Christian J Cook, Blair T Crewther
The concept of competition has implications for educational contexts, as hormonal and emotional changes under competitive stress can modulate learning and memory processes. This study examined the impact of a competitive learning environment and associated hormonal and emotional responses on skill acquisition and expression in a medical domain. Using a cross-over design, sixteen male medical students participated in a competitive (in pairs facing each other) and non-competitive (alone) learning situation. In each treatment, an instructional video was followed by a timed straight-line suture evaluation with anxiety and competitiveness recorded...
November 21, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Rupert Palme
Glucocorticoids (GCs; i.e. cortisol/corticosterone) are a central component of the stress response and thus their measurement is frequently used to evaluate the impact of stressful situations. Their metabolites from faeces of various animal species are more and more taken as a non-invasive aid to assess GC release and thus adrenocortical activity. The current literature review includes an extensive collection (1324 papers) and evaluation (see also Supplementary Tables) of the literature on faecal cortisol/corticosterone metabolite (FCM) analysis published to date...
November 20, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Vincent Careau, Pierre Philippe Beauchamp, Sabine Bouchard, Julie Morand-Ferron
Standard metabolic rate (SMR) is known to be highly variable across levels of biological organisation (e.g., species, populations, among individuals, within individuals). Some of the variation in SMR can be attributed to factors such as diet, temperature, and body mass, yet much of the residual variation in SMR remains unexplained. Intuitively, we can expect SMR to co-vary with "personality", but the rapidly accumulating empirical evidence on this topic remains equivocal. The goal of this study was to test for a link between SMR and a behavioural syndrome at the among-individual level in wild-caught fall field crickets (Gryllus pennsylvanicus)...
November 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Keyne Charlot, Alexandra Malgoyre, Cyprien Bourrilhon
The Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire (LFPQ) assesses, among other components, food preference (FP) using a procedure that requires both time and concentration. Its use may therefore be difficult in a complex protocol. In this article, we assessed the suitability of two shorter versions: 1) the LFPQ-S2 , using two instead of four foods per group, and 2) the food preference questionnaire (FPQ-S16 ), using the 16 same foods as the LFPQ, displayed simultaneously, that have to be ranked in order of preference...
November 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Katarzyna Czarzasta, Monika Makowska-Zubrycka, Kaja Kasarello, Veronica M Skital, Karolina Tyszkowska, Katarzyna Matusik, Anika Jesion, Malgorzata Wojciechowska, Agnieszka Segiet, Robert Wrzesien, Michal Biały, Pawel Krzascik, Aleksandra Wisłowska-Stanek, Elzbieta M Sajdel-Sulkowska
This study aimed to develop an animal model of human depression during pregnancy and lactation to examine the effect of maternal, perinatal depression on offspring development. Maternal depression during pregnancy affects up to 20% of women and is a risk factor for both the developmental and long-term health issues. It is often comorbid with the cardiovascular disease (CVD) that affects the uteroplacental circulation and impacts offspring development. More than half of the expecting mothers with depression use antidepressants that cross the placenta and may interfere with the neurodevelopmental programming...
November 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Hiromi Tanaka, Ayuka Ehara, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Kanji Yoshimoto, Kazutaka Shimoda, Shuich Ueda
It is well known that an abusive environment in childhood is related to individual anxiety behavior in adulthood. Though an imbalance of adrenocorticosteroid receptors and a dysfunction of monoaminergic neuron systems have been proposed, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. To address these problems, we recently developed a new model of shaking brain injury (SBI) in neonatal rats. These model rats showed transient microhemorrhages in the gray matter of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Using this model, we assessed the effects of neonatal repeated mild SBI on subsequent behavior and the stress response, and we further examined the possible contribution of adrenocorticosteroid receptors in the hippocampus and central monoaminergic neuron systems mediating such abnormalities...
November 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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