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Physiology & Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233619/fto-affects-food-cravings-and-interacts-with-age-to-influence-age-related-decline-in-food-cravings
#1
Linh C Dang, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin, Christopher T Smith, Jaime J Castrellon, Scott F Perkins, Ronald L Cowan, Daniel O Claassen, David H Zald
The fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) was the first gene identified by genome-wide association studies to correlate with higher body mass index (BMI) and increased odds of obesity. FTO remains the locus with the largest and most replicated effect on body weight, but the mechanism whereby FTO affects body weight and the development of obesity is not fully understood. Here we tested whether FTO is associated with differences in food cravings and a key aspect of dopamine function that has been hypothesized to influence food reward mechanisms...
December 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225095/restriction-of-dietary-protein-leads-to-conditioned-protein-preference-and-elevated-palatability-of-protein-containing-food-in-rats
#2
Michelle Murphy, Kate Z Peters, Bethany S Denton, Kathryn A Lee, Heramb Chadchankar, James E McCutcheon
The mechanisms by which intake of dietary protein is regulated are poorly understood despite their potential involvement in determining food choice and appetite. In particular, it is unclear whether protein deficiency results in a specific appetite for protein and whether influences on diet are immediate or develop over time. To determine the effects of protein restriction on consumption, preference, and palatability for protein we assessed patterns of intake for casein (protein) and maltodextrin (carbohydrate) solutions in adult rats...
December 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225094/the-sweet-effect-comparative-assessments-of-dietary-sugars-on-cognitive-performance
#3
Rachel Ginieis, Elizabeth A Franz, Indrawati Oey, Mei Peng
In recent years there has been increasing interest in studying cognitive effects associated with sugar consumption. Neuro-cognitive research has confirmed that glucose, as a main energy substrate for the brain, can momentarily benefit cognitive performances, particularly for memory functioning. However, there is still limited understanding of relative effects of other common sugars (e.g., fructose and sucrose) on cognitive performance. The present study tested in 49 people the effects of three common dietary sugars against a placebo sweetener (i...
December 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223712/correlated-colour-temperature-of-morning-light-influences-alertness-and-body-temperature
#4
Marije Te Kulve, Luc Schlangen, Lisje Schellen, Jan L Souman, Wouter van Marken Lichtenbelt
Though several studies have reported human alertness to be affected by the intensity and spectral composition of ambient light, the mechanism behind this effect is still largely unclear, especially for daytime exposure. Alerting effects of nocturnal light exposure are correlated with melatonin suppression, but melatonin levels are generally low during the day. The aim of this study was to explore the alerting effect of light in the morning for different correlated colour temperature (CCT) values, as well as its interaction with ambient temperature...
December 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223711/an-automated-method-to-detect-and-quantify-fungiform-papillae-in-the-human-tongue-validation-and-relationship-to-phenotypical-differences-in-taste-perception
#5
Sally Eldeghaidy, Daniel Thomas, Martha Skinner, Rebecca Ford, Timo Giesbrecht, Anna Thomas, Joanne Hort, Susan Francis
Determination of the number of fungiform papillae (FP) on the human tongue is an important measure that has frequently been associated with individual differences in oral perception, including taste sensitivity. At present, there is no standardised method consistently used to identify the number of FP, and primarily scientists manually count papillae over a small region(s) of the anterior tip of a stained tongue. In this study, a rapid automated method was developed to quantify the number of FP across the anterior 2cm of an unstained tongue from high resolution digital images...
December 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223710/behavioral-responses-of-cd-1-mice-to-conspecific-and-heterospecific-blood-odors-and-to-a-blood-odor-component
#6
Christian Lahger, Matthias Laska
The odor of blood may have both aversive and attractive properties for mammals, depending on the species of the odor donor and the species perceiving the odor. To better understand the informational content of blood odor for a prey species we assessed behavioral responses of male CD-1 mice (n=60) to the odor of blood of same-sex and opposite-sex conspecifics, of a natural predator of mice (cat), and of a herbivore (horse) and an omnivore (human) non-predator of mice. Further, we assessed their behavior towards the mammalian blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal which recent studies have shown to be as attractive to mammalian predators as the odor of real blood...
December 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221809/acute-pain-and-peripheral-sensitization-following-cautery-disbudding-in-1-and-4-week-old-calves
#7
Mirra Alessandro, Spadavecchia Claudia, Bruckmaier Rupert, Gutzwiller Andreas, Casoni Daniela
Acute pain and peripheral sensitization development after cautery disbudding was investigated in 33 calves administered preventive multimodal analgesia. The animals were assigned randomly to three groups: 1) Group SH (Control), undergoing sham disbudding at 1 and 4weeks of age; 2) Group ED (Early Disbudding), undergoing disbudding at 1week of age and sham disbudding at 4weeks of age; 3) Group LD (Late Disbudding), undergoing sham disbudding at 1week of age and disbudding at 4weeks of age. Physiological parameters (heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, invasive blood pressure, cortisol, β-endorphin, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and haptoglobin plasmatic concentration), local variables (tactile sensitivity score, pressure pain thresholds and horn temperature), behavior and pain scores [multidimensional pain scale and visual analogue scale (VAS)] were assessed at baseline and at several pre-determined time points until 24h after disbudding...
December 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221808/a-cannabinoid-receptor-antagonist-attenuates-ghrelin-induced-activation-of-the-mesolimbic-dopamine-system-in-mice
#8
Aimilia Lydia Kalafateli, Daniel Vallöf, Julia Winsa Jörnulf, Markus Heilig, Elisabet Jerlhag
Ghrelin has been attributed various physiological processes including food intake and reward regulation, through activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system. Reward modulation involves the mesolimbic dopamine system, consisting of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons targeting nucleus accumbens (NAc), a system that ghrelin activates through VTA-dependent mechanisms. In the first study, we found that systemic intraperitoneal (ip) administration of rimonabant attenuated intracerebroventricular (icv) ghrelin's ability to cause locomotor stimulation and NAc dopamine release in mice...
December 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217358/lack-of-agreement-between-objective-and-subjective-measures-in-the-evaluation-of-masticatory-function-a-preliminary-study
#9
Aline Pedroni-Pereira, Maria Carolina Salomé Marquezin, Darlle Santos Araujo, Luciano José Pereira, Silvana Bommarito, Paula Midori Castelo
The evaluation of mastication is important to understand the masticatory behavior and diagnose feeding difficulties. The objective of this preliminary study was to verify if there is agreement between objective and subjective validated methods of chewing evaluation in a convenience sample which consisted of 32 adolescents (mean 15.5years), complete permanent dentition and free of tooth decay. The Quality of Masticatory Function Questionnaire with the Food-Mastication, Habits, Meat, Fruit and Vegetables domains was used in the subjective evaluation...
December 4, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217357/tempol-prevents-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-induced-memory-impairment
#10
Karem H Alzoubi, Abeer M Rababa'h, Omar N Yaqoub
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health disorder that can develop after a terrifying or life threatening event. Multiple symptoms are noticed in patients with PTSD including cognitive impairment, which was shown to be is associated with oxidative stress. Tempol is a highly efficient membrane-permeable antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the possible protective effect of tempol on PTSD-induced memory impairment. To test this hypothesis, we used single prolonged stress (SPS) model (2h restrain, 20min forced swimming, 15min rest, and 1-2min diethyl ether exposure) as a model of PTSD...
December 4, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203121/using-a-memory-systems-lens-to-view-the-effects-of-estrogens-on-cognition-implications-for-human-health
#11
Donna L Korol, Wei Wang
Understanding the organizing and activating effects of gonadal steroids on adult physiology can guide insight into sex differences in and hormonal influences on health and disease, ranging from diabetes and other metabolic disorders, emotion and stress regulation, substance abuse, pain perception, immune function and inflammation, cognitive function and dysfunction accompanying neurological disorders. Because the brain is highly sensitive to many forms of estrogens, it is not surprising that many adult behaviors, including cognitive function, are modulated by estrogens...
December 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199028/sex-dependent-influences-of-morphine-and-its-metabolites-on-pain-sensitivity-in-the-rat
#12
H H Doyle, A Z Murphy
Preclinical studies report that the effective dose for morphine is approximately 2-fold higher in females than males. Following systemic administration, morphine is metabolized via Phase II glucuronidation in the liver and brain into two active metabolites: morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), each possessing distinct pharmacological profiles. M6G binds to μ opioid receptors and acts as a potent analgesic. In contrast, M3G binds to toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), initiating a neuroinflammatory response that directly opposes the analgesic effects of morphine and M6G...
November 30, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197496/exploring-the-links-between-early-life-and-young-adulthood-social-experiences-and-men-s-later-life-psychobiology-as-fathers
#13
Mallika S Sarma, Patty X Kuo, Sonny Agustin Bechayda, Christopher W Kuzawa, Lee T Gettler
Early life cues of environmental harshness and unpredictability have been hypothesized to influence within-species variation in the timing of life history transitions and the dynamics of reproductive strategies, such as investments in mating and parenting. It is also believed that adolesence is an influential developmental period for male reproductive strategies, with those who achieve greater social and sexual success during that period maintaining faster life history strategies into adulthood. If correct, such early life and post-pubertal experiences could also help shape the psychobiological pathways that mediate reproductive strategies, including the well documented physiological shifts that occur when some men become parents...
November 29, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196018/differentiating-the-influence-of-incidental-anger-and-fear-on-risk-decision-making
#14
Qiwei Yang, Ding Zhao, Yan Wu, Ping Tang, Ruolei Gu, Yue-Jia Luo
Previous research has revealed that incidental emotions of different valence (positive/negative/neutral) produce distinct impacts on risk decision-making. This study went on to compare the effects of different emotions of which the valence are identical. We focused on anger and fear, both of which are negative emotions but differ in motivational and appraisal dimensions. Participants finished a forced-choice gambling task, during which incidental emotions (anger/fear/happy) were elicited by facial stimuli selected from the Chinese Facial Affective Picture System...
November 28, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179996/combined-effect-of-gestational-stress-and-postpartum-stress-on-maternal-care-in-rats
#15
Giorgia Boero, Francesca Biggio, Maria Giuseppina Pisu, Valentina Locci, Patrizia Porcu, Mariangela Serra
Variations in maternal care in the rat influence the development of individual differences in behavioral and endocrine responses to stress. This study aimed to examine the interaction between intragastric intubation during late gestation and postpartum stress, induced by pup separation, on maternal behavior and on dams' emotional state and HPA axis function. Rats received intragastric intubation of water on days 12-20 of gestation or remained untreated in their home cage (naïve dams). Pup separation was used as a model of postpartum stress...
November 24, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174913/effects-of-cordycepin-on-spontaneous-alternation-behavior-and-adenosine-receptors-expression-in-hippocampus
#16
Zhi-Ping Cao, Dan Dai, Peng-Ju Wei, Yuan-Yuan Han, Yan-Qing Guan, Han-Hang Li, Wen-Xiao Liu, Peng Xiao, Chu-Hua Li
Cordycepin, an adenosine analogue, has been reported to improve cognitive function. Important roles on learning and memory of adenosine and its receptors, such as adenosine A1 and A2A receptors (A1R and A2AR), also have been shown. Therefore, we assume that the improvement of learning and memory induced by cordycepin is likely related to hippocampal adenosine content and adenosine receptor density. Here we investigated the effects of cordycepin on the short-term spatial memory by using a spontaneous alternation behavior (SAB) test in Y-maze, and then examined hippocampal adenosine content and A1R and A2AR densities...
November 23, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174912/behavioral-responses-and-fluid-regulation-in-male-rats-after-combined-dietary-sodium-deficiency-and-water-deprivation
#17
Kimberly J Lucia, Kathleen S Curtis
Most investigators use a single treatment such as water deprivation or dietary sodium deficiency to evaluate thirst or sodium appetite, which underlie behavioral responses to body fluid challenges. The goal of the present experiments was to assess the effects of combined treatments in driving behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of combined overnight water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency on water intake and salt intake by adult male rats in 2-bottle (0.5M NaCl and water) tests. Overnight water deprivation alone increased water intake, and 10days of dietary sodium deficiency increased 0...
November 23, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174820/effect-of-rat-parental-morphine-exposure-on-passive-avoidance-memory-and-morphine-conditioned-place-preference-in-male-offspring
#18
Ardeshir Akbarabadi, Saba Niknamfar, Nasim Vousooghi, Mitra-Sadat Sadat-Shirazi, Heidar Toolee, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Drug addiction is a chronic disorder resulted from complex interaction of genetic, environmental, and developmental factors. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in the development and maintenance of addiction and also memory formation in the brain. We have examined passive avoidance memory and morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) in the offspring of male and/or female rats with a history of adulthood morphine consumption. Adult male and female animals received chronic oral morphine for 21days and then were maintained drug free for 10days...
November 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174819/considering-sex-differences-in-the-cognitive-controls-of-feeding
#19
Camille H Sample, Terry L Davidson
Women are disproportionately affected by obesity, and obesity increases women's risk of developing dementia more so than men. Remarkably little is known about how females make decisions about when and how much to eat. Research in animal models with males supports a framework in which previous experiences with external food cues and internal physiological energy states, and the ability to retrieve memories of the consequences of eating, determines subsequent food intake. Additional evidence indicates that consumption of a high-fat, high-sugar diet interferes with hippocampal-dependent mnemonic processes that operate to suppress eating, such as in situations of satiety...
November 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162505/salivary-proteins-alter-taste-guided-behaviors-and-taste-nerve-signaling-in-rat
#20
Laura Martin, Larissa Nikonova, Kristen Kay, Andrew B Paedae, Robert J Contreras, Ann-Marie Torregrossa
Taste stimuli are normally dissolved in saliva prior to interacting with their respective receptor targets. There are hundreds of proteins in saliva, and it has been hypothesized that these proteins could interact with either taste stimuli or taste receptors to alter taste signaling and diet acceptance. However, the impact of these proteins on feeding has been relatively unexplored using rodent models. We have developed a novel technique for saliva collection that allows us to link salivary protein expression with feeding behavior...
November 18, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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