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Physiology & Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232209/is-decision-making-in-hypoxia-affected-by-pre-acclimatisation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Martin Niedermeier, Andreas Weisleitner, Claus Lamm, Larissa Ledochowski, Anika Frühauf, Maria Wille, Martin Burtscher, Martin Kopp
INTRODUCTION: Decision making is impaired in hypoxic environments, which may have serious or even lethal consequences for mountaineers. An acclimatisation period prior to high altitude exposures may help to overcome adverse effects of hypoxia. Thus, we investigated possible effects of short-term pre-acclimatisation on decision making in hypoxia. METHODS: In a randomized controlled study design, 52 healthy participants were allocated to a hypoxia group (HG: short-term pre-acclimatisation by the use of intermittent hypoxia 7×1h at FiO2=12...
February 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223036/does-a-single-bout-of-exercise-influence-subsequent-physical-activity-and-sedentary-time-in-overweight-boys
#2
Vitor Barreto Paravidino, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano, Rosely Sichieri
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of a single bout of exercise on subsequent physical activity and sedentary time among overweight boys. METHODS: A crossover study on 24 overweight boys (11-13years old) was conducted with three different experimental sessions: control, one bout of moderate exercise, and one bout of vigorous exercise. Physical activity was measured using triaxial accelerometers and time spent in light, moderate, vigorous, and sedentary activities was assessed during six days of follow-up...
February 18, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223035/effects-of-quinestrol-on-the-vocal-behavior-of-mice-during-courtship-interactions
#3
Yi Chen, Qianqian Su, Quansheng Liu
Vocalizations are a crucial part of courtship and mating in a wide variety of species. Mating behavior, including courtship calls, is modulated by sex steroid hormones. Male mice produce courtship ultrasonic vocalizations to attract females during heterosexual encounters. However, rare is the knowledge on whether vocal behavior of mice changes under sterilant treatment which will affect gonadal hormone levels. In the present study, we treat male mice with quinestrol, which interferes with the release of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and has a significant anti-fertility effect in rodents...
February 18, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219697/effect-of-salvia-miltiorrhiza-root-extract-on-brain-acetylcholinesterase-and-butyrylcholinesterase-activities-their-mrna-levels-and-memory-evaluation-in-rats
#4
Marcin Ozarowski, Przemyslaw L Mikolajczak, Anna Piasecka, Radoslaw Kujawski, Joanna Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Anna Bogacz, Michal Szulc, Ewa Kaminska, Malgorzata Kujawska, Agnieszka Gryszczynska, Piotr Kachlicki, Waldemar Buchwald, Andrzej Klejewski, Agnieszka Seremak-Mrozikiewicz
Salvia miltiorrhiza (Lamiaceae), one of the most important and popular plants of traditional medicine of Asia, is used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and in central nervous system disturbances. The main aim of this study was to assess the influence of subchronic (28-fold) administration of Salvia miltiorrhiza root extract (SE, 200mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioural activity and memory of rats and to evaluate the activities of cholinesterases (AChE and BuChE) and gene expression levels of AChE and BuChE as well as of beta-secretase (BACE1) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex in vivo...
February 17, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215424/bi-directional-associations-between-child-fussy-eating-and-parents-pressure-to-eat-who-influences-whom
#5
Pauline W Jansen, Lisanne M de Barse, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Oscar H Franco, Henning Tiemeier
BACKGROUND: Fussy eating is common in young children, often raising concerns among parents. The use of pressuring feeding practices may provoke or worsen child fussiness, but these practices could equally be a parent's response to child fussy eating. OBJECTIVE: In longitudinal analyses, we assessed directionality in the relation between fussy eating and parent's pressure to eat across childhood. METHODS: Study participants were 4845 mother-child dyads from the population-based Generation R cohort in the Netherlands...
February 16, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213205/sensory-trigeminal-ulf-tens-stimulation-reduces-hrv-response-to-experimentally-induced-arithmetic-stress-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Monaco Annalisa, Cattaneo Ruggero, Ortu Eleonora, Constantinescu Marian Vladimir, Pietropaoli Davide
Ultra Low Frequency Transcutaneous Electric Nervous Stimulation (ULF-TENS) is extensively used for pain relief and for the diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). In addition to its local effects, ULF-TENS acts on the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with particular reference to the periaqueductal gray (PAG), promoting the release of endogenous opioids and modulating descending pain systems. It has been suggested that the PAG participates in the coupling between the emotional stimulus and the appropriate behavioral autonomic response...
February 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213204/a-description-of-an-obesogenic-eating-style-that-promotes-higher-energy-intake-and-is-associated-with-greater-adiposity-in-4-5year-old-children-results-from-the-gusto-cohort
#7
Anna Fogel, Ai Ting Goh, Lisa R Fries, Suresh Anand Sadananthan, S Sendhil Velan, Navin Michael, Mya Thway Tint, Marielle Valerie Fortier, Mei Jun Chan, Jia Ying Toh, Yap-Seng Chong, Kok Hian Tan, Fabian Yap, Lynette P Shek, Michael J Meaney, Birit F P Broekman, Yung Seng Lee, Keith M Godfrey, Mary Foong Fong Chong, Ciarán G Forde
Recent findings confirm that faster eating rates support higher energy intakes within a meal and are associated with increased body weight and adiposity in children. The current study sought to identify the eating behaviours that underpin faster eating rates and energy intake in children, and to investigate their variations by weight status and other individual differences. Children (N=386) from the Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort took part in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4...
February 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213203/ghrelin-s-control-of-food-reward-and-body-weight-in-the-lateral-hypothalamic-area-is-sexually-dimorphic
#8
Lorena López-Ferreras, Jennifer E Richard, Rozita H Anderberg, Fredrik H Nilsson, Kajsa Olandersson, Scott E Kanoski, Karolina P Skibicka
Ghrelin is a stomach-produced hormone that stimulates ingestive behavior and increases motivated behavior to obtain palatable foods. Ghrelin receptors (growth hormone secretagogue receptors; Ghsr) are expressed in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), and LHA-targeted ghrelin application increases ingestive behavior in male rodents. However, the effects of LHA ghrelin signaling in females are unexplored. Here we investigated whether LHA ghrelin signaling is necessary and sufficient for control of ingestive and motivated behavior for food in male and female rats...
February 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209536/maternal-administration-of-melatonin-prevents-spatial-learning-and-memory-deficits-induced-by-developmental-ethanol-and-lead-co-exposure
#9
Elham Soleimani, Iran Goudarzi, Kataneh Abrari, Taghi Lashkarbolouki
Melatonin is a radical scavenger with the ability to remove reactive oxidant species. There is report that co-exposure to lead and ethanol during developmental stages induces learning and memory deficits and oxidative stress. Here, we studied the effect of melatonin, with strong antioxidant properties, on memory deficits induced by lead and ethanol co-exposure and oxidative stress in hippocampus. Pregnant rats in lead and ethanol co-exposure group received lead acetate of 0.2% in distilled drinking water and ethanol (4g/kg) by oral gavages once daily from the 5th day of gestation until weaning...
February 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202350/chronic-social-instability-increases-anxiety-like-behavior-and-ethanol-preference-in-male-long-evans-rats
#10
Alyssa R Roeckner, Alexandra Bowling, Tracy R Butler
Chronic stress during adolescence is related to increased prevalence of anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders in humans. This phenotype has been consistently recapitulated in animal models with male subjects, but models using female subjects are fewer. The aim of these studies was to test the hypothesis that chronic social instability (CSI) during adolescence engenders increased anxiety-like behavior, increased corticosterone, and greater ethanol intake and/or preference than control groups in male and female rats...
February 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192132/flavor-preferences-conditioned-by-nutritive-and-non-nutritive-sweeteners-in-mice
#11
Anthony Sclafani, Karen Ackroff
Recent studies suggest that preferences are conditioned by nutritive (sucrose) but not by non-nutritive (sucralose) sweeteners in mice. Here we compared the effectiveness of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners to condition flavor preferences in three mouse strains. Isopreferred sucrose and sucralose solutions both conditioned flavor preferences in C57BL/6J (B6) mice but sucrose was more effective, consistent with its post-oral appetition action. Subsequent experiments compared flavor conditioning by fructose, which has no post-oral appetition effect in B6 mice, and a sucralose+saccharin mixture (SS) which is highly preferred to fructose in 24-h choice tests...
February 10, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192131/the-effects-of-low-dose-mk-801-administration-on-nmdar-dependent-executive-functions-in-pigeons
#12
Nurper Gökhan, Lorenz S Neuwirth, Edward F Meehan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189503/self-administered-nicotine-differentially-impacts-body-weight-gain-in-obesity-prone-and-obesity-resistant-rats
#13
Laura E Rupprecht, Tracy T Smith, Eric C Donny, Alan F Sved
Obesity and tobacco smoking represent the largest challenges to public health, but the causal relationship between nicotine and obesity is poorly understood. Nicotine suppresses body weight gain, a factor impacting smoking initiation and the failure to quit, particularly among obese smokers. The impact of nicotine on body weight regulation in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant populations consuming densely caloric diets is unknown. In the current experiment, body weight gain of adult male rats maintained on a high energy diet (31...
February 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188761/kangaroo-rats-change-temperature-when-investigating-rattlesnake-predators
#14
Hannes A Schraft, Rulon W Clark
Predator presence causes acute stress in mammals. A prey animal's stress response increases its chance of survival during life-threatening situations through adaptive changes in behavior and physiology. Some components of the physiological stress response can lead to changes in body surface temperatures. Body temperature changes in prey could provide information about prey state to predators that sense heat, such as pit vipers. We determined whether wild rodents undergo a stress-induced change in body surface temperature upon detecting and investigating rattlesnake predators...
February 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185877/female-rats-display-fewer-optimistic-responses-in-a-judgment-bias-test-in-the-absence-of-a-physiological-stress-response
#15
T H Barker, L Bobrovskaya, G S Howarth, A L Whittaker
Metabolic cages are a type of housing used in biomedical research. Metabolic cage housing has been demonstrated to elicit behavioural and physiological changes in rodents housed within them. The nature of this effect has been characterized as anxiogenic. However, few studies have evaluated positive affect in response to metabolic cage housing and the interaction between this, sex and traditional physiological measures of stress. Cognitive biasing, as measured through a judgment bias paradigm has proven a reliable measure of animal affective state, particularly through its ability to measure positive affect...
February 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185878/chronic-mild-stress-augments-mptp-induced-neurotoxicity-in-a-murine-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Udaiyappan Janakiraman, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Chinnasamy Dhanalakshmi, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Byoung-Joon Song, Gilles J Guillemin
Depression is frequently encountered during Parkinson's disease (PD) as a non-motor feature, which has been reported to cause and exaggerate motor deficits and neurodegenerative events in experimental PD models. We studied the effect of chronic mild stress (CMS) (pre, post and pre & post) exposure mediated depression on motor and non-motor symptoms, oxidative stress, inflammation and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and its related signalling molecules against the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid (MPTP/p) induced neurotoxicity in mice...
February 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185876/associations-between-food-consumption-patterns-and-saliva-composition-specificities-of-eating-difficulties-children
#17
Martine Morzel, Caroline Truntzer, Eric Neyraud, Hélène Brignot, Patrick Ducoroy, Géraldine Lucchi, Cécile Canlet, Ségolène Gaillard, Florian Nicod, Sophie Nicklaus, Noël Peretti, Gilles Feron
Identifying objective markers of diet would be beneficial to research fields such as nutritional epidemiology. As a preliminary study on the validity of using saliva for this purpose, and in order to explore the relationship between saliva and diet, we focused on clearly contrasted groups of children: children with eating difficulties (ED) receiving at least 50% of their energy intake through artificial nutrition vs healthy controls (C). Saliva of ED and C children was analyzed by various methods (targeted biochemical analyses, 2-D electrophoresis coupled to MS, (1)H NMR) and their diet was characterized using food frequency questionnaires, considering 148 food items grouped into 13 categories...
February 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174138/comparison-of-oro-sensory-exposure-duration-and-intensity-manipulations-on-satiation
#18
M P Lasschuijt, M Mars, M Stieger, S Miquel-Kergoat, C de Graaf, Pam Smeets
Oro-sensory exposure (OSE) is an important factor in the regulation of food intake with increasing OSE leading to lower food intake. Oral processing time and taste intensity both play an important role in OSE but their individual contribution to satiation is unknown. We aimed to determine the independent and combined effects of oral processing time and taste intensity on satiation. Fifty eight participants (23±9y, BMI 22±2kg/m(2)) participated in a 2×2 factorial randomized crossover study in which they consumed one of four gel-based model foods until satiation during four sessions...
February 4, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167147/alteration-of-neurotrophin-and-cytokine-expression-in-lymphocytes-as-novel-peripheral-markers-of-spatial-memory-deficits-induced-by-prenatal-stress
#19
C G Pascuan, M E Di Rosso, J E Pivoz-Avedikian, M R Wald, M A Zorrilla Zubilete, A M Genaro
Much evidence has suggested that early life adversity can have a lasting effect on behavior. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of prenatal exposure to stress on cognition in adult life and how it impacts chronic stress situations. In addition, we investigated the participation of glucocorticoids, neurotrophins and cytokines in prenatal stress effects. For this purpose, pregnant mice were placed in a cylindrical restraint tube for 2h daily during the last week of pregnancy. Control pregnant females were left undisturbed during their entire pregnancy period...
February 4, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167148/the-association-between-male-biased-sex-ratio-and-indicators-of-stress-in-red-spotted-newts
#20
Andrea S Aspbury, Kristine L Grayson, Selamawit Fantaye, Ian Nichols, Miranda Myers-Burton, Xavier Ortiz-Mangual, Caitlin R Gabor
In populations with a male-biased operational sex ratio, coercive mating by males can have fitness consequences for females. One component of reduced fitness for females in populations with a male-biased OSR may be greater activation of the stress response, resulting in higher corticosterone release rates (CORT; a glucocorticoid stress hormone in amphibians). We test the hypothesis that a male-biased sex ratio affects female activity and release rates of CORT and testosterone (T) in male and female red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens)...
February 3, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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