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Physiology & Behavior

J P Hanifin, S W Lockley, K Cecil, K West, M Jablonski, B Warfield, M James, M Ayers, B Byrne, E Gerner, C Pineda, M Rollag, G C Brainard
Wavelength comparisons have indicated that circadian phase-shifting and enhancement of subjective and EEG-correlates of alertness have a higher sensitivity to short wavelength visible light. The aim of the current study was to test whether polychromatic light enriched in the blue portion of the spectrum (17,000 K) has increased efficacy for melatonin suppression, circadian phase-shifting, and alertness as compared to an equal photon density exposure to a standard white polychromatic light (4000 K). Twenty healthy participants were studied in a time-free environment for 7 days...
October 5, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Maria Soledad Ausas, Laura Mazzitelli-Fuentes, Fernanda Ruth Roman, Sonia Alejandra Crichigno, Ana Paula De Vincenti, Lucas Alberto Mongiat
Alterations in the social environment, such as isolating an individual that would normally live in a social group, can generate physiological responses that compromise an individual's capacity to learn. To investigate this, we tested whether social isolation impairs learning skills in the rainbow trout. We show that rainbow trout can achieve an active avoidance (AA) learning program with inter-individual variability. Moreover, c-Fos expression in dorsomedial telencephalon (Dm) correlates with the AA performance, indicating that this structure is involved in this cognitive task...
October 5, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Jeremy J Walsh, Francisco L Colino, Olave E Krigolson, Stephen Luehr, Brendon J Gurd, Michael E Tschakovsky
A single bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) improves behavioural measures of cognitive function; however, investigations using event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the systems that underlie these cognitive improvements are lacking. The reward positivity is a positive-going ERP component that indexes reward processing evoked by 'win' feedback and is a candidate marker of an underlying human reinforcement learning system. While HIIE improves behavioural measures of learning, it is unknown how HIIE affects the amplitude of the reward positivity...
October 5, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Kedong Xu, Pingping Li, Yi Miao, Nan Dong, Jianbo Zhang, Shuguang Wei, Shengbin Li, Fang Cao
Ovarian hormones reportedly have beneficial effects on affective behaviors. However, the functions of ovarian hormones in neurotransmitter signaling must be identified to understand their role in anxiety and depression. Several studies have provided evidence of the relationship between ovarian hormones and the dopaminergic system, but the interaction between ovarian hormones and dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of DRD3 in the anxiety-like and depression-like behavioral changes induced by estrogen and progesterone...
October 4, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Jennifer M Singleton, Theodore Garland
Glucocorticoids, a class of metabolic hormones, impact a wide range of traits (e.g., behavior, skeletal growth, muscle maintenance, glucose metabolism), and variation in concentrations of circulating glucocorticoids (such as corticosterone), at the level of natural individual variation, in relation to endocrine disorders, or from exogenous supplementation, have manifold effects. Changes in circulating corticosterone concentrations can also impact multiple aspects of locomotor behavior, including both motivation and physical ability for exercise...
October 4, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Jacobo Á Rubio-Arias, Vicente Ávila-Gandía, Francisco Javier López-Román, Fulgencio Soto-Méndez, Pedro E Alcaraz, Domingo J Ramos-Campo
The aims of this study were 1) to describe the effects of a 54 km and 111 km ultra-endurance mountain race on the biomarkers of muscle damage and inflammation, 2) to compare the effects between the two races regarding the biomarkers of muscle damage and inflammation. Sixteen ultra-endurance amateur runners volunteered to participate in this study. Ten runners completed a 54 km race (Group 1; age: 27.0 ± 5.7; height: 179.5 ± 5.8 cm; and body mass: 77.3 ± 10.7 kg) and six completed a 111 km race (Group 2; age: 30...
October 3, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Camilla Munsterhjelm, Janicke Nordgreen, Frida Aae, Mari Heinonen, Anna Valros, Andrew M Janczak
Poor health is associated with an increased risk of tail biting outbreaks in pigs. We propose that this is because illness changes social dynamics either by changing the behaviour of the sick pig towards its penmates, the behaviour of the healthy penmates towards the sick pig, or both. We tested the effect of immune stimulation (lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection: O111:B4; 1.5 μg kg-1 IV) on social behaviour in gilts housed in triplets in a cross-over experiment. Each pen was subjected to the control treatment (all three pigs injected with saline) and then LPS treatment (one pig injected with LPS, two injected with saline), or vice versa...
October 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Antonia M H Piergies, Maurice E Hicks, Jacob P Schwartz, Sarah H Meerts
Female rats with mating experience spend more time with the male rat, exhibit shorter contact-return latency to intromission, and display more proceptive behaviors in the male rat's compartment than during the first mating experience. The present study tested 1) whether mating induced conditioned object preference (COP) is possible with a single conditioning trial and 2) whether a preference is induced for an object associated with the first mating encounter or the fifth mating encounter in female rats. Ovariectomized, Long-Evans female rats were primed with estradiol benzoate + progesterone and either exposed to an empty paced mating chamber for 15 min (Naïve) or received a 15 intromission test of paced mating behavior (Experienced) on four separate occasions before undergoing the COP procedure...
October 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Inga Dziembowska, Justyna Kwapisz, Paweł Izdebski, Ewa Żekanowska
The function of central nervous system (CNS) processes is highly dependent on iron containing enzymes and proteins. Therefore, even mild iron deficiency (ID) may result in decreased endurance, increased irritability and withdrawal behavior among women. The current study was designed to assess the effects of iron status on perceived energy level along with its electroencephalographical (EEG) correlates and cognitive capacity of young women, since this group is at particular risk of experiencing depleted iron stores and iron deficiency anemia...
September 26, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Ilona Croy, Theresa Mohr, Kerstin Weidner, Thomas Hummel, Juliane Junge-Hoffmeister
Mothers can recognize the odor of their baby and typically like this odor very much. In line with this observation, infant body odors activate reward-related brain areas in the mothers. In some mother-child-dyads however, the mutual bond is impaired and mothers have trouble engaging in interaction with their child. We aimed to examine how mothers with bonding difficulties perceive their child's body odor. In total 75 mothers and their babies (aged 0-12 months) were examined: Twenty-five of those were recruited in a psychosomatic day hospital ward, which is specialized for mother-child bonding disorders...
September 24, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Jing Lv, Jianhong Li, Chao Wang, Peng Zhao, Yanju Bi, Xin Zhang, Ran Yi, Xiang Li, Jun Bao
This study investigated behavioral and physiological responses of suckling calves to either positive or negative situations. Twelve healthy female suckling Holstein calves at approximately 30 days of age were randomly selected and allocated to two groups: a) a positive situation (POS) group that received a feed reward and b) a negative situation (NEG) group that experienced food frustration. Behavior, heart rate (HR), and immune parameters were measured during the emotion-inducing periods and analyzed via ANOVA...
September 10, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Kevin G Mulvihill, Stefan M Brudzynski
The emission of 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) by rats is thought to represent a measurable expression of the individuals underlying emotional state. These calls are also posited as fulfilling important communicative functions among conspecifics. In addition to social situations, 50 kHz USVs are recorded in a variety of reward-related contexts including sugary foods and drink, consumable ethanol, and drugs of abuse. The current study sought to directly compare several of these behavioural contexts in their capability to induce and modulate 50 kHz USV emission in adult male rats...
September 7, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Filip Koidis, Shelagh Hampton, Kathryn Hart
Eating slowly has been associated with low body mass and greater cephalic phase response. This study hypothesised that the novel addition of earplugs -that block the ear canal-to a previously developed slow eating protocol would increase postprandial satiety. 12 healthy young participants [(6 M, 6F) mean age (± SD) 24.58 ± 6.64 years, mean BMI 22.23 ± 3.13 kg/m2 ] were randomised to a one way crossover study. Following anthropometric measurements an isocaloric meal was consumed and participants' normal eating rates (NER) were recorded...
September 7, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Leah C Wilson, James L Goodson, Marcy A Kingsbury
The social behavior network, a collection of reciprocally connected areas within the basal forebrain and midbrain, plays a conserved role in the regulation of vertebrate social behavior. Specific behaviors are associated with patterns of activity across the network, and these activity profiles vary with species and context. We investigated how the social behavior network responds to familiar social stimuli in a seasonally flocking songbird. Further, we explored how socially-induced neural responses are modulated by endogenous nonapeptide receptor blockade...
September 6, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Olatz Goñi-Balentziaga, Joana Perez-Tejada, Aitor Renteria-Dominguez, Andrea Lebeña, Ainitze Labaka
The risk of developing stress related disorders such as depression is two times higher in women than in men, and social stress is considered the principal etiology for this disorder. Social defeat animal model is the most common procedure to induce social stress in male rodents, but the stressful stimulus and the stress response can be different for each sex. In this regard, social defeat stress model does not fit the social nature of females, and according to the emerging evidence, the social instability stress (SIS) model could be a suitable procedure to investigate this stress related disorder in females...
September 6, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Pehr Granqvist, Karolina Vestbrant, Lillian Döllinger, Marco Tullio Liuzza, Mats J Olsson, Anna Blomkvist, Johan N Lundström
When in a stressful situation, access to adult attachment figures (e.g., romantic partners) is an important means by which adults regulate stress responses. The practice of smelling a partner's worn garment is reported as a self-treatment against stress. Here, we experimentally determined whether exposure to a partner's body odor attenuates adults' subjective discomfort and psychophysiological responses, and whether such effects are qualified by adult attachment security. In a blocked design, participants (N = 34) were presented with their partner's body odor, their own body odor, the odor of a clean t-shirt and rose odor, while exposed to weak electric shocks to induce discomfort and stress responses...
September 6, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Madelyn H Ray, Tyler Hite, Mark Gallo, Charles L Pickens
In humans, prior alcohol use is linked with impulsivity and impaired decision-making, but the nature of this relationship is unclear. In a previous study in rats, we found that prior alcohol access led to over-responding in go/no-go discrimination training, but had no effect on discrimination learning. It was unclear whether this over-responding effect would occur in a reversal learning task, or whether prior alcohol would impair reversal learning in our task. In the present experiments, we determined whether six weeks of chronic intermittent alcohol access would induce over-responding or impair reversal learning in our task...
September 4, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
S K Totsch, R Y Meir, R M Orlandella, L A Norian, R E Sorge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 3, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Karen Gjendal, Nuno H Franco, Jan Lund Ottesen, Dorte Bratbo Sørensen, I Anna S Olsson
Infrared thermography has been suggested as a non-invasive, objective tool to evaluate animal welfare. In this study, we investigated: 1) how body temperature, measured through thermal imaging, is affected by different mild stressors frequently experienced by laboratory mice; 2) which methodology to use for assessing temperature variations with infrared thermography; 3) whether the chosen stressors cause anxiety in mice. Eighty C57BL/6 male mice were included in the study. The mice were allocated to either a control group or one of three groups being subjected to a mild stressor once daily for 4 days: 1) anaesthesia with isoflurane for 10 min; 2) handling by scruffing; 3) intraperitoneal injection of 0...
September 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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