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Physiology & Behavior

Shuguang Wei, Ya Zheng, Qi Li, Weine Dai, Jinxiu Sun, Haiyan Wu, Xun Liu
Converging evidence supports that addiction involves the pathological usurpation of normal reward processes. However, the nature and direction of reward processing dysfunction in substance abusers remain unclear. The current study explored the electrophysiological responses associated with different stages of reward processing in methamphetamine (MA) use disordered individuals. Electroencephalography recording was used to compare responses of 21 MA use disordered individuals and 22 healthy controls (HC) while participants engaged in a simple gambling task...
August 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Mahtab Roohi-Azizi, Anahita Torkaman-Boutorabi, Shahin Akhondzadeh, Ali-Akbar Nejatisafa, Mitra-Sadat Sadat-Shirazi, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Depression is associated with significant functional disabilities. Application of new drugs which could enhance the effectiveness of antidepressants drug and reduce side effects of their long-term use seems necessary. Citicoline is used as an effective chemical agent for improving the symptoms of some neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, in this survey, the application of citicoline as an adjuvant drug was evaluated in mice model of depression. A total of 180 adult NMRI male albino mice were used in this study...
August 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Katharina Reiter-Scheidl, Ilona Papousek, Helmut K Lackner, Manuela Paechter, Elisabeth M Weiss, Nilüfer Aydin
The experience of social exclusion may provoke prosocial, avoidant, or antisocial (aggressive) behaviors. Multiple situational and personal factors seem to affect which course of action people adopt, and to which degree. The present study examined the relevance of the most spontaneous initiation of more passive, avoidant (disengagement) or action-oriented (engagement) coping immediately following a social exclusion experience to subsequent aggressive behavior. In a sample of n = 85 healthy female students, an ostensible discussion group excluded (versus included) the participant on the basis of her personal traits and preferences...
August 9, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Janicke Nordgreen, Camilla Munsterhjelm, Frida Aae, Anastasija Popova, Preben Boysen, Birgit Ranheim, Mari Heinonen, Joanna Raszplewicz, Petteri Piepponen, Andreas Lervik, Anna Valros, Andrew M Janczak
Most of us have experienced deterioration of mood while ill. In humans, immune activation is associated with lethargy and social withdrawal, irritability and aggression; changes in social motivation could, in theory, lead to less functional interactions. This might also be the case for animals housed in close confinement. Tail biting in pigs is an example of damaging social behavior, and sickness is thought to be a risk factor for tail biting outbreaks. One possible mechanism whereby sickness may influence behavior is through cytokines...
August 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Rémi Radel, Gavin D Tempest, Jeanick Brisswalter
Aerobic exercise enhances the ability to sustain attention (peaking at moderate intensities) by stimulating noradrenergic activity, which affects the fronto-parietal attention network. Prior exercise studies examining attention have focused on the influence of exercise intensity, yet few studies have examined the influence of the type of exercise protocol administered. Here, we propose that sustained attention is greater during (a) moderate compared to low intensity exercise, and (b) moderate intensity exercise administered at a varied-load compared to a constant-load but the same overall intensity...
August 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Francisco O Borges, Eduardo Sampaio, Cátia Figueiredo, Rui Rosa, Tiago F Grilo
Ocean acidification (OA) has been shown to disrupt behavioural responses either by affecting metabolic processes, or by effectively impairing an organisms' ability to gather and assess information and make decisions. Given the lack of information regarding the effects of high CO2 on olfactory-mediated mating behaviours in crustaceans, the possible chemosensory disruption in male mate-tracking in the keystone amphipod (Gammarus locusta) was assessed (after a two-generation acclimation to high CO2 conditions)...
August 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Arnd Florack, Simona Haasova, Sarah Hirschauer, Benjamin G Serfas
Recent research has shown that pre-exposure to food can lead to reduced subsequent consumption in older children and adults when they focus on a task with a non-eating goal during exposure. One assumption is that the reduced consumption is a consequence of self-regulation that helps to concentrate on the task. Because self-regulatory mechanisms are still under development in young children, we studied the effects of food pre-exposure in young children under the age of six (N = 81). Children played a memory game with real sweets (food pre-exposure) or similar non-food stimuli (non-food pre-exposure) and we measured their subsequent food consumption...
July 30, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Lucas C Pereira, Renata B Duarte, Rafael S Maior, Marilia Barros
The behavior, cortisol concentration and cerebral hemisphere activity of twelve marmoset monkeys were determined during standardized predatory stress-related events. Each subject was submitted to three 5-min trials, randomly held at 2-week intervals: a human intruder, a taxidermized oncilla cat and a no-stimulus control trial. Stimuli were positioned outside the home-cage and the ensuing reaction recorded. Baseline tympanic membrane temperature (TMT) was subtracted from the post-trial measure to determine changes in blood flow induced by ipsilateral brain activity...
July 28, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
D Thivel, J P Chaput, M Duclos
About 30 years ago, Blair and collaborators proposed a theoretical model illustrating the relationships between childhood and adulthood physical activity and health. The evolution of our societies has led to a "sedentarisation" of the subsequent generations, and the literature underlines an independent effect of physical activity and sedentary behaviors on health. We propose here an updated version of the model first designed by Blair and colleagues, suggesting the integration of the impact of sedentary behaviors on children and adult health...
July 26, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Leah C Hibel, Jill M Trumbell, Kristin Valentino, Andrea C Buhler-Wassmann
This study examines the integration of the two main branches of the stress response system: the autonomic nervous system (via salivary alpha-amylase, sAA) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (via cortisol). Mothers (n = 117) were randomized to have either a positive (n = 57) or conflictual (n = 60) discussion with their marital partner, after which mothers and infants (Mage  = 5.9 months) engaged in free-play, followed by an infant-focused challenge task. Saliva samples were collected from the mother to assess physiological reactivity and recovery to the marital discussion, and from the infant to assess physiological reactivity and recovery to the challenge task...
July 26, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Claudia Kasper, Martino Colombo, Nadia Aubin-Horth, Barbara Taborsky
In highly social species, individuals frequently face opportunities to cooperate. The molecular and neural mechanisms that integrate internal and external information prior to cooperative responses are not well understood. Using expression levels of egr-1, a genomic marker of neural activity, we quantified the neural response to an alloparental-care opportunity in a cooperatively breeding fish, a component of cooperative behaviour, across brain regions and time. In this species, alloparental care and submission are considered alternative strategies to appease dominants...
July 26, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Juliana Almeida da Silva, Rafael Carvalho Almada, Rebeca Machado de Figueiredo, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
The dorsal periaqueductal grey matter (dPAG) and the deep layers of the superior colliculus (dlSC) have been implicated in the organisation of innate fear-related defensive behaviours. Furthermore, GABAergic neurons from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) connected to the dlSC and dPAG receive convergent disinhibitory inputs from the caudate-putamen (CPu), comprising the neostriatum, and modulate defence responses elicited by midbrain tectum stimulation. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of either excitatory cortico-neostriatal input blockade or neostriato-nigral GABAergic disinhibitory output activation on the responsivity of GABAergic nigro-collicluar tonic inhibitory pathways during the elicitation of panic attack-like defensive responses produced by bicuculline administration into the dlSC...
July 25, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Mirjam Holinger, Barbara Früh, Peter Stoll, Robert Graage, Sandra Wirth, Rupert Bruckmaier, Armelle Prunier, Michael Kreuzer, Edna Hillmann
Entire male pigs display more aggressive and sexual behaviour. This might cause a condition of chronic stress and impair their welfare. In order to assess chronic stress in entire and castrated male pigs, as well as effects of providing grass silage as occupational and feed material on behaviour and health, we carried out a 2 × 2 × 2-factorial experiment with 147 growing-finishing pigs. Factors investigated were castration (entire/castrated), chronic intermittent social stress exposure (yes/no) and access to grass silage (yes/no), as well as their interactions...
July 24, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Angel Blanch, Ignacio Lucas, Ferran Balada, Eduardo Blanco, Anton Aluja
The modulation of the eyeblink component of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) has been used to study human motivation, attention, and emotion towards affective stimuli of different valence. However, sex and individual differences in personality have been rather overlooked concerning the change in the ASR to brief affective sequences. In this study, we aimed to evaluate sex differences in the ASR, together with the influence of sensitivity to punishment (SP) and sensitivity to reward (SR) in the affective modulation of the ASR to pleasant and unpleasant pictures...
July 24, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Maud Miguet, Alicia Fillon, Marwa Khammassi, Julie Masurier, Valérie Julian, Bruno Pereira, Céline Lambert, Yves Boirie, Martine Duclos, John Edward Blundell, Graham Finlayson, David Thivel
BACKGROUND: High Intensity Interval Exercise (HIIE) is currently advocated for its beneficial effect on body composition and cardio-metabolic health in children and adolescents with obesity; however its impact on appetite control and food intake remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a single HIIE session on subsequent energy intake, appetite feelings and food reward in adolescents with obesity. METHODS: Using a randomized cross-over design, ad libitum energy intake, subjective appetite, and food reward were examined in 33 adolescents with obesity (13...
July 23, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Hu Hong-Qiang, Shu Mang-Qiao, Xue Fen, Liu Shan-Shan, Cao Hui-Juan, Hou Wu-Gang, Yan Wen-Jun, Peng Zheng-Wu
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) preconditioning (PC) has been suggested as a feasible method to provide neuroprotection from postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). However, whether HBO-PC can ameliorate cognitive deficits induced by isoflurane, and the possible mechanism by which it may exert its effect, has not yet been clarified. In the present study, middle-aged mice were exposed to isoflurane anesthesia (1.5 minimal alveolar concentration [MAC]) for 2 h to establish a POCD model. After HBO preconditioning, cognitive function and expression of hippocampal sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) were evaluated 24 h following isoflurane treatment, in the presence or absence of Sirt1 knockdown by short hairpin RNA (shRNA)...
July 21, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Boyd R Rorabaugh, Madison J Rose, Thorne S Stoops, Allison A Stevens, Sarah L Seeley, Manoranjan S D'Souza
There is a need to identify new therapeutic targets for the treatment of cocaine addiction due to the rise in cocaine abuse and deaths due to cocaine overdose. Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins such as RGS2 and RGS4 are widely distributed in brain regions that play a role in drug reward. Importantly, RGS2 and RGS4 negatively regulate G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathways of monoaminergic neurotransmitters that play a role in the rewarding effects of cocaine by enhancing the rate of hydrolysis of Gα-bound guanine nucleotide triphosphate...
July 21, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
V Srinivasa Chakravarthy, Pragathi Priyadharsini Balasubramani, Alekhya Mandali, Marjan Jahanshahi, Ahmed A Moustafa
In neuroscience literature, dopamine is often considered as a pleasure chemical of the brain. Dopaminergic neurons respond to rewarding stimuli which include primary rewards like opioids or food, or more abstract forms of reward like cash rewards or pictures of pretty faces. It is this reward-related aspect of dopamine, particularly its association with reward prediction error, that is highlighted by a large class of computational models of dopamine signaling. Dopamine is also a neuromodulator, controlling synaptic plasticity in several cortical and subcortical areas...
July 18, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Sridevi Krishnan, Karan Agrawal, Rebecca R Tryon, Lucas C Welch, William F Horn, John W Newman, Nancy L Keim
OBJECTIVE: To identify associations between circulating endocannabinoids and craving during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. This report is a secondary analysis of a trial registered in as NCT01407692. METHODS: Seventeen premenopausal women were studied during the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle. Previously we had reported fasting plasma estradiol, progesterone, leptin associations with luteal phase cravings for carbohydrate, fat, sweet-rich foods, and eating behavior...
July 18, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Hui Li, Stephen J Kentish, Gary A Wittert, Amanda J Page
Gastric vagal afferents play an important role in the peripheral control of food intake. Apelin, a central appetite regulating hormone, is also abundantly released from the stomach. Whether apelin modulates gastric vagal afferent signalling is unknown. We aimed to determine whether apelin modulates gastric vagal afferent signalling under different states of nutrition. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard laboratory diet (SLD) or a high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. An in vitro gastric vagal afferent preparation was used to determine the effect of apelin on gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity in SLD mice, fed ad libitum or fasted overnight, and HFD mice...
June 28, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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