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Physiology & Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689249/effects-of-estrus-cycle-stage-on-defensive-behavior-in-female-long-evans-hooded-rats
#1
Nathan S Pentkowski, Yoav Litvin, D Caroline Blanchard, Robert J Blanchard
This study investigated the influence of the estrus cycle in mediating cat odor-induced unconditioned and conditioned defensive behaviors in female Long-Evans hooded rats. Unconditioned defensive behaviors were assessed during predatory cue exposure; conditioned defensive behaviors were examined 24 h after threat exposure. Estrus phases were determined by microscopic examination of vaginal smears within 10 min of completing the behavioral tests. Compared to no-odor controls, female rats exposed to cat odor exhibited both unconditioned and conditioned defensive behaviors, including elevated levels of freezing, risk assessment and avoidance...
April 21, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684415/the-effect-of-mastication-on-food-intake-satiety-and-body-weight
#2
James H Hollis
As mastication is the major component of the oral processing of solid foods a better understanding of its influence on ingestion, digestion and metabolism may lead to new approaches to improve health. A growing number of studies provide evidence that mastication may influence energy balance through several routes: activation of histaminergic neurons, reducing eating rate, altered digestion kinetics, and changes in macronutrient availability. Indeed, accumulating evidence indicates that increasing the number of masticatory cycles before swallowing reduces food intake and increases satiety...
April 20, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680707/mice-selectively-bred-for-high-voluntary-wheel-running-behavior-conserve-more-fat-despite-increased-exercise
#3
Layla Hiramatsu, Theodore Garland
Physical activity is an important component of energy expenditure, and acute changes in activity can lead to energy imbalances that affect body composition, even under ad libitum food availability. One example of acute increases in physical activity is four replicate, selectively-bred High Runner (HR) lines of mice that voluntarily run ~3-fold more wheel revolutions per day over 6-day trials and are leaner, as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. We expected that voluntary exercise would increase food consumption, build lean mass, and reduce fat mass, but that these effects would likely differ between HR and C lines or between the sexes...
April 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679661/evolutionary-compromises-to-metabolic-toxins-ammonia-and-urea-tolerance-in-drosophila-suzukii-and-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
Virginia Belloni, Alessia Galeazzi, Giulia Bernini, Mauro Mandrioli, Elisabetta Versace, Albrecht Haase
The invasive pest Drosophila suzukii has evolved morphological and behavioural adaptations to lay eggs under the skin of fresh fruits. This results in severe damage to a wide range of small fruits. Drosophila suzukii females typically lay few eggs per fruit, preferring healthy fruits. Hence, larvae are exposed to a reduced amount of nitrogenous waste. Differently, the innocuous Drosophila melanogaster lays eggs on fermented fruits already infested by conspecifics, with larvae developing in a crowded environment with the accumulation of nitrogenous waste such as ammonia and urea...
April 18, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679660/effects-of-aerobic-training-resistance-training-or-both-on-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-adolescents-with-obesity-the-hearty-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Gary S Goldfield, Glen P Kenny, Denis Prud'Homme, Martin Holcik, Angela S Alberga, Margaret Fahnestock, Jameason D Cameron, Steve Doucette, Stasia Hadjiyannakis, Heather Tulloch, Mark S Tremblay, Jeremy Walsh, Eva Guerin, Katie E Gunnell, Amedeo D'Angiulli, Ronald J Sigal
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that plays a critical role in modulating cognition in animals and humans. Aerobic exercise often increases BDNF in adults, but effects of this exercise modality and others among adolescents remain uncertain. This study examined the effects of aerobic training, resistance training, and combined training on resting serum BDNF levels in adolescents with overweight and obesity. After a 4-week pre-randomization treatment, 304 post-pubertal, adolescents with overweight or obesity (70% females) aged 14-18 years were randomized to one of four groups for 22 weeks: aerobic training (N = 75), resistance training (N = 78), combined aerobic and resistance training (N = 75), or non-exercising control (N = 76)...
April 18, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679659/measurement-of-emotional-contagion-using-synchronization-of-heart-rhythm-pattern-between-two-persons-application-to-sales-managers-and-sales-force-synchronization
#6
Sangin Park, Soo Ji Choi, Sungchul Mun, Mincheol Whang
The purpose of this study was to measure emotional contagion, determine its direction, and compare the intensity between positive and negative contagion using the synchronization of heart rhythm pattern (HRP). A total of 64 undergraduate students (32 women and 32 men) participated in the experiment, and were randomly categorized as either leaders or followers. Followers were required to imitate the facial expression (happy and sad) of the leader (emotional contagion) or of a facial image (emotional non-contagion)...
April 18, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678601/motor-transfer-from-the-corticospinal-to-the-corticobulbar-pathway
#7
Alayna E Ernster, Seoung Hoon Park, Basma K Yacoubi, Evangelos A Christou, Agostina Casamento-Moran, Michele L Singer, Ianessa A Humbert
There are multiple descending neural pathways, including the corticospinal pathway (CS) and the corticobulbar pathway (CB). The corticospinal pathway has been shown to exhibit within-pathway (CS-to-CS) motor transfer. However, motor transfer across each pathway (CS-to-CB or CB-to-CS) has yet to be studied in depth. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of cross-pathway motor transfer between the ankle (CS) and tongue (CB) after training with a ballistic goal-directed motor task. Twelve healthy participants were recruited for this two-day experimental study...
April 17, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678600/when-a-new-technological-product-launching-fails-a-multi-method-approach-of-facial-recognition-and-e-wom-sentiment-analysis
#8
Dra Asunción Hernández-Fernández, Elísabet Mora, Dña María Isabel Vizcaíno Hernández
The dual aim of this research is, firstly, to analyze the physiological and unconscious emotional response of consumers to a new technological product and, secondly, link this emotional response to consumer conscious verbal reports of positive and negative product perceptions. In order to do this, biometrics and self-reported measures of emotional response are combined. On the one hand, a neuromarketing experiment based on the facial recognition of emotions of 10 subjects, when physical attributes and economic information of a technological product are exposed, shows the prevalence of the ambivalent emotion of surprise...
April 17, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678599/increasing-water-intake-influences-hunger-and-food-preference-but-does-not-reliably-suppress-energy-intake-in-adults
#9
Naomi J McKay, Ilona V Belous, Jennifer L Temple
Increasing water intake is often purported to reduce energy intake, and is recommended as a weight loss strategy. The few experimental studies that have been conducted to verify these claims have examined the impact of a single pre-load of water before a meal. Although correlational data indicate a relationship between hydration, energy intake, and weight status, there is very little experimental research in this area. The current studies examined the hypothesis that elevated hydration, through increased water intake, would suppress energy intake...
April 17, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678598/the-benefits-of-defining-snacks
#10
Julie M Hess, Joanne L Slavin
Whether eating a "snack" is considered a beneficial or detrimental behavior is largely based on how "snack" is defined. The term "snack food" tends to connote energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods high in nutrients to limit (sugar, sodium, and/or saturated fat) like cakes, cookies, chips and other salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Eating a "snack food" is often conflated with eating a "snack," however, leading to an overall perception of snacks as a dietary negative...
April 17, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678597/anxiety-but-not-depressive-like-behaviors-are-related-to-facial-hyperalgesia-in-a-model-of-trigeminal-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#11
Eder Gambeta, Marcio Augusto Batista, Gabriel Paz Maschio, Joelle de Melo Turnes, Erika Ivanna Araya, Juliana Geremias Chichorro
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a painful condition characterized by excruciating facial pain, which has a serious impact on quality of life. Depression and anxiety have been commonly associated with TN, but clinical studies report that these comorbidities are frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated in TN patients. Herein it was investigated if rats submitted to the infraorbital nerve constriction (CION), a model of trigeminal neuropathic pain, would display anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in addition to the facial sensory changes in different time points after the nerve injury...
April 17, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673860/the-endogenous-circadian-clock-programs-animals-to-eat-at-certain-times-of-the-24-hour-day-what-if-we-ignore-the-clock
#12
Peng Jiang, Fred W Turek
The discovery of the molecular mechanisms underlying the circadian clock, which functions in virtually every cell throughout the body to coordinate biological processes to anticipate and better adapt to daily rhythmic changes in the environment, is one of the major biomedical breakthroughs in the 20th century. Twenty years after this breakthrough, the biomedical community is now at a new frontier to incorporate the circadian clock mechanisms into many areas of biomedical research, as studies continue to reveal an important role of the circadian clock in a wide range of biological functions and diseases...
April 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673859/orofacial-neuropathic-pain-reduces-spontaneous-burrowing-behavior-in-rats
#13
K Deseure, G Hans
It was recently reported that spontaneous burrowing behavior is decreased after tibial nerve transection, spinal nerve transection and partial sciatic nerve ligation. It was proposed that spontaneous burrowing could be used as a measure of the impact of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. It has remained unclear whether the reduction in burrowing behavior is caused directly by pain or hypersensitivity in the affected limbs, making it more difficult to perform burrowing, or by a pain induced decrease in the general wellbeing, thus reducing the motivation to burrow...
April 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673858/impact-of-high-intensity-interval-exercise-on-executive-function-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-healthy-college-aged-males
#14
Aaron L Slusher, Virginia T Patterson, Charles S Schwartz, Edmund O Acevedo
Prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent executive function is enhanced immediately following high intensity interval exercise (HIIE). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is considered a biomarker associated with enhanced execute functioning capacity at rest and in response to exercise. However, the mechanisms responsible for the acute exercise-induced BDNF response in plasma and serum differ, and it is likely that the utilization of BDNF in plasma and/or serum as a biomarker of improved executive function following HIIE may be limited...
April 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655763/sleeping-oxygen-saturation-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-and-the-adaptation-of-postprandial-metabolic-function-in-insulin-sensitive-and-resistant-individuals-without-diabetes
#15
Karin A Garcia, William K Wohlgemuth, Ele Ferrannini, Andrea Mari, Alex Gonzalez, Armando J Mendez, Roberto Bizzotto, Jay S Skyler, Neil Schneiderman, Barry E Hurwitz
AIMS: Sleeping oxygen saturation (SaO2 ) and sleep stage duration have been linked with prediabetic alterations but the pathogenic pathways are not well understood. This study of insulin sensitive and resistant adults examined the effect on postprandial metabolic regulation of repeated mixed-meal challenges of different carbohydrate loading. The aim was to examine whether the relationship between lower sleeping oxygen saturation (SaO2 ) and poorer fasting and postprandial metabolic function may be linked with reduced slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) duration, independent of age, sex and total adiposity...
April 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655762/amateur-endurance-triathletes-performance-is-improved-independently-of-volume-or-intensity-based-training
#16
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez, Rosa Delgado-Moreno, Beatriz González, Javier Ortega, Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo
The aim of the present research was to compare the effects in swimming and running performance, horizontal jump test, autonomic modulation, and body composition of four training weeks with emphasis on volume versus intensity in moderate trained triathletes. Thirty-two amateur triathletes (20 males and 12 females) were randomly divided in three different groups that performed 6 training session per week: Intensity (INT): training focused on performs intensity training Volume (VOL): training focused on performs volume training; and Control (CON): physical active group with no periodized training...
April 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655761/the-relationship-between-culinary-skills-and-eating-behaviors-challenges-and-opportunities-for-parents-and-families
#17
Jessica Jarick Metcalfe, Darin Leonard
Unhealthy dietary intake among American children and adults is of great concern to public health practitioners, nutritional scientists, and child development experts. Cooking skills are related to healthier dietary intake among Americans of all ages, but remain a substantial barrier for many parents who want to serve healthy meals for their families at home. Culinary education interventions are effective solutions for many parents who do not know how to cook, but issues with participation bias mean that these programs are not effective solutions for all individuals...
April 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29654813/novel-role-of-glp-1-receptor-signaling-in-energy-expenditure-during-chronic-high-fat-diet-feeding-in-rats
#18
Jean-Philippe Krieger, Wolfgang Langhans, Shin J Lee
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreted from intestinal L-cells plays a major role in meal termination and glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Several lines of evidence indicate, however, that the acute satiating and incretin effects of GLP-1 are attenuated with high fat diet (HFD) exposure. Aim Here we tested the hypothesis that endogenous GLP-1 differentially affects energy balance and glucose homeostasis dependent on whether rats are fed chow or HFD (60% energy from fat)...
April 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29654812/intermittent-extended-access-to-preferred-food-leads-to-escalated-food-reinforcement-and-cyclic-whole-body-metabolism-in-rats-sex-differences-and-individual-vulnerability
#19
Samantha R Spierling, Alison D Kreisler, Casey A Williams, Savannah Y Fang, Sarah N Pucci, Kelsey T Kines, Eric P Zorrilla
Compulsive binge eating is a hallmark of binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa and is implicated in some obesity cases. Eating disorders are sexually dimorphic, with females more often affected than males. Animal models of binge-like eating based on intermittent access to palatable food exist; but, little is known regarding sex differences or individual vulnerability in these models with respect to the reinforcing efficacy of food, the development of compulsive- and binge-like eating, or associated changes in whole-body metabolism or body composition...
April 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653113/oral-sensations-and-secretions
#20
Cordelia A Running
Sensations experienced in the mouth influence food choices, both immediately and in the long term. Such sensations are themselves influenced by experience with flavors, the chemical environment of the mouth, genetics of receptors for flavors, and individual behavior in the chewing of food. Gustation, the sense of taste, yields information about nutrients, influences palatability, and feeds into the human body's preparation to receive those nutrients. Olfaction, the sense of smell, contributes enormously to defining and identifying food flavors (and is experienced even after placing food inside the mouth)...
April 10, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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