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Physiology & Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625550/maternal-exposure-to-western-diet-affects-adult-body-composition-and-voluntary-wheel-running-in-a-genotype-specific-manner-in-mice
#1
Layla Hiramatsu, Jarren Kay, Zoe Thompson, Jennifer Singleton, Gerald Claghorn, Ralph Lacerda de Albuquerque, Brittany Ho, Brett Ho, Gabriela Sanchez, Theodore Garland
Some human diseases, including obesity, Type II diabetes, and numerous cancers, are thought to be influenced by environments experienced in early life, including in utero. Maternal diet during the perinatal period may be especially important for adult offspring energy balance, potentially affecting both body composition and physical activity. This effect may be mediated by the genetic background of individuals, including, for example, potential "protective" mechanisms for individuals with inherently high levels of physical activity or high basal metabolic rates...
June 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624479/food-restriction-induced-changes-in-motivation-differ-with-stages-of-the-estrous-cycle-and-are-closely-linked-to-rfamide-related-peptide-3-but-not-kisspeptin-in-syrian-hamsters
#2
REVIEW
Noah A Benton, Kim A Russo, Jeremy M Brozek, Ryan Andrews, Veronica Kim, Lance J Kriegsfeld, Jill E Schneider
We tested the hypothesis that the effects of food restriction on behavioral motivation are mediated by one or both of the RFamides, RFamide-related Peptide-3 (RFRP-3) and kisspeptin (Kp) in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Female hamsters fed ad libitum and given a choice between food and adult male hamsters are highly motivated to visit males instead of food on all four days of the estrous cycle, but after 8days of mild food restriction (75% of ad libitum intake) they shift their preference toward food every day of the estrous cycle until the day of estrus, when they shift their preference back toward the males...
June 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623167/the-ketogenic-diet-affects-the-social-behavior-of-young-male-rats
#3
Daniela Kasprowska-Liśkiewicz, Arkadiusz D Liśkiewicz, Marta M Nowacka-Chmielewska, Joanna Nowicka, Andrzej Małecki, Jarosław J Barski
The positive effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) on social behavior have been recently reported in patients and rodent models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Given the beneficial effects of the KD on epilepsy, mitochondrial function, carbohydrate metabolism, and inflammation, treatment based on the KD has the potential to reduce some of the ASD-associated symptoms, including abnormal social interactions. It is not known whether the KD influences sociability by reducing the pathological processes underlying ASD or through some independent mechanism...
June 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619292/psychophysiological-response-in-parachute-jumps-the-effect-of-experience-and-type-of-jump
#4
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez, José Juan Robles-Pérez, Jesús Fernández-Lucas
We aimed to analyse the effect of experience and type of parachute jump on the psychophysiological responses of jumpers. We analysed blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, blood glucose, lactate and creatinkinase, leg strength, isometric hand strength, cortical arousal, specific fine motor skills, self-confidence and cognition, and somatic and state anxiety, before and after four different parachute jumps: a sport parachute jump, a manual tactical parachute jump, tandem pilots, and tandem passengers. Independently of the parachute jump, the psychophysiological responses of experienced paratroopers were not affected by the jumps, except for an increase in anaerobic metabolism...
June 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619291/body-mass-modulates-huddling-dynamics-and-body-temperature-profiles-in-rabbit-pups
#5
Amando Bautista, José Alfredo Zepeda, Verónica Reyes, Christophe Féron, Heiko G Rödel, Robyn Hudson
Altricial mammals typically lack the physiological capacity to thermoregulate independently during the early postnatal period, and in litter-bearing species the young benefit strongly from huddling together with their litter siblings. Such litter huddles are highly dynamic systems, often characterized by competition for energetically favorable, central positions. In the present study, carried out in domestic rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus, we asked whether individual differences in body mass affect changes in body temperature during changes in the position within the huddle...
June 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606773/muscle-activation-during-resistance-training-with-no-external-load-effects-of-training-status-movement-velocity-dominance-and-visual-feedback
#6
Paulo Gentil, Martim Bottaro, Matias Noll, Scott Werner, Jessica Cabral Vasconcelos, Aldo Seffrin, Mario Hebling Campos
OBJECTIVES: To explore the acute effects of training status, movement velocity, dominance, and visual feedback on muscle activation and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during resistance training with no external load (no-load resistance training; NLRT). METHODS: Thirty-three men (17 untrained and 16 trained), performed elbow flexions in four NLRT sessions: 1) slow velocity with EMG visual feedback, 2) slow velocity without EMG visual feedback, 3) fast velocity with EMG feedback, and 4) fast velocity without EMG feedback...
June 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606772/dominance-status-alters-restraint-induced-neural-activity-in-brain-regions-controlling-stress-vulnerability
#7
Matthew A Cooper, Sahba Seddighi, Abigail K Barnes, J Alex Grizzell, Brooke N Dulka, Catherine T Clinard
Understanding the cellular mechanisms that control resistance and vulnerability to stress is an important step toward identifying novel targets for the prevention and treatment of stress-related mental illness. In Syrian hamsters, dominant and subordinate animals exhibit different behavioral and physiological responses to social defeat stress, with dominants showing stress resistance and subordinates showing stress vulnerability. We previously found that dominant and subordinate hamsters show different levels of defeat-induced neural activity in brain regions that modulate coping with stress, although the extent to which status-dependent differences in stress vulnerability generalize to non-social stressors is unknown...
June 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595855/dissociated-time-course-between-peak-torque-and-total-work-recovery-following-bench-press-training-in-resistance-trained-men
#8
Diogo V Ferreira, Paulo Gentil, João B Ferreira-Junior, Saulo R S Soares, Lee E Brown, Martim Bottaro
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the time course of peak torque and total work recovery after a resistance training session involving the bench press exercise. DESIGN: Repeated measures with a within subject design. METHODS: Twenty-six resistance-trained men (age: 23.7±3.7years; height: 176.0±5.7cm; mass: 79.65±7.61kg) performed one session involving eight sets of the bench press exercise performed to momentary muscle failure with 2-min rest between sets...
June 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587916/measurement-of-body-temperature-in-normothermic-and-febrile-rats-limitations-of-using-rectal-thermometry
#9
Rachael Dangarembizi, Kennedy H Erlwanger, Duncan Mitchell, Robyn S Hetem, Michael T Madziva, Lois M Harden
Stress-induced hyperthermia following rectal thermometry is reported in normothermic rats, but appears to be muted or even absent in febrile rats. We therefore investigated whether the use of rectal thermometry affects the accuracy of temperature responses recorded in normothermic and febrile rats. Using intra-abdominally implanted temperature-sensitive radiotelemeters we measured the temperature response to rectal temperature measurement in male Sprague Dawley rats (~200g) injected subcutaneously with Brewer's yeast (20ml/kg of a 20% Brewer's yeast solution=4000mg/kg) or saline (20ml/kg of 0...
June 3, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579129/theta-gamma-coupling-in-hippocampus-during-working-memory-deficits-induced-by-low-frequency-electromagnetic-field-exposure
#10
Yameng Zhang, Yan Zhang, Hejuan Yu, Yamin Yang, Weitao Li, Zhiyu Qian
The dramatically increased use of electricity is raising major concerns as to the consequences of the interaction between electromagnetic field (EMF) and neurobiology. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of magnetic field on working memory in the hippocampal region by analyzing local field potentials (LFPs) and spikes pattern in vivo. In present study, mice were exposed to EMF (50Hz, 1mT), static magnetic field (SMF, 1mT), or placed in the exposure tube but without EMF exposure (SHAM), respectively...
June 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579128/the-role-of-hunger-state-and-dieting-history-in-neural-response-to-food-cues-an-event-related-potential-study
#11
Emily H Feig, Samantha R Winter, John Kounios, Brian Erickson, Staci A Berkowitz, Michael R Lowe
A history of dieting to lose weight has been shown to be a robust predictor of future weight gain. A potential factor in propensity towards weight gain is the nature of people's reactions to the abundance of highly palatable food cues in the environment. Event Related Potentials (ERPs) have revealed differences in how the brain processes food cues between obese and normal weight individuals, as well as between restrained and unrestrained eaters. However, comparisons by weight status are not informative regarding whether differences predate or follow weight gain in obese individuals and restrained eating has not consistently been found to predict future weight gain...
June 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577887/the-contribution-of-coping-related-variables-and-cardiac-vagal-activity-on-the-performance-of-a-dart-throwing-task-under-pressure
#12
Emma Mosley, Sylvain Laborde, Emma Kavanagh
The aims of this study were 1) to assess the predictive role of coping related variables (CRV) on cardiac vagal activity (derived from heart rate variability), and 2) to investigate the influence of CRV (including cardiac vagal activity) on a dart throwing task under low pressure (LP) and high pressure (HP) conditions. Participants (n=51) completed trait CRV questionnaires: Decision Specific Reinvestment Scale, Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. They competed in a dart throwing task under LP and HP conditions...
May 31, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577886/investigating-physiological-glucose-excursions-before-during-and-after-ramadan-in-adults-without-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Maria Pallayova, Hadeel B Zaghloul, Teresa Arora, Sopna M Choudhury, Omar M Omar, Odette L Chagoury, Shahrad Taheri
AIM: The study aimed to investigate physiological effects of Ramadan fasting on continuously monitored glucose levels in relation to Ramadan in young non-diabetic adults. METHODS: Continuous glucose monitoring was employed to measure interstitial glucose for several days 1-2weeks before Ramadan, in the middle of Ramadan, and 4-6weeks after Ramadan to assess glucose exposure and glucose variability. RESULTS: A total of 34,182 accurate glucose sensor readings and 438 capillary blood glucose values [mean absolute difference median (interquartile range) 8...
May 31, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576672/watching-television-for-more-than-two-hours-increases-the-likelihood-of-reporting-poor-sleep-quality-among-brazilian-schoolteachers
#14
Sara Carolina Scremin de Souza, Marcela Zambrim Campanini, Selma Maffei de Andrade, Alberto Durán González, Juliana Moura de Melo, Arthur Eumann Mesas
Although time spent watching television and sleep problems have increased in the last few decades, it is unclear whether these conditions are associated in working adults after controlling for lifestyle, job characteristics and other individual aspects. The present study analyzed the association between time spent watching television and sleep quality among teachers from public schools in Londrina, Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, information from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and about time spent watching television was obtained during personal interviews...
May 30, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554527/electroencephalographic-alpha-activity-modulations-induced-by-breath-holding-in-apnoea-divers-and-non-divers
#15
Fabian Steinberg, Nils Henrik Pixa, Michael Doppelmayr
Little is known regarding cortical responses to sustained breath-holding (BH) in expert apnoea divers. The present study therefore investigated electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha activity and asymmetries in apnoea divers (experts) compared to non-divers (novices). EEG of 10 apnoea and 10 non-divers were recorded in the laboratory for either four minutes or for two minutes of BH. Alpha activity and alpha asymmetry (i.e. hemispherical EEG differences) were calculated and compared between expertise level and BH duration...
May 26, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546084/-sex-differences-in-a-real-academic-stressor-cognitive-appraisal-and-the-cortisol-response
#16
Susanne Helbig, Jutta Backhaus
Women and men differ in their physiological and psychological stress response but only a few studies have analyzed this sex difference in a naturalistic setting and focused on cognitive stress appraisal. In the present study, the salivary cortisol concentration of 24 female and 22 male subjects was measured before and several times after an oral academic presentation given by themselves (stress condition) or given by a fellow student (control condition). Feelings of subjective stress and nervousness were assessed simultaneously to the saliva samples and a questionnaire for cognitive stress appraisal was conducted right before the oral presentation...
May 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533176/the-mouse-thermoregulatory-system-its-impact-on-translating-biomedical-data-to-humans
#17
REVIEW
Christopher J Gordon
The laboratory mouse has become the predominant test species in biomedical research. The number of papers that translate or extrapolate data from mouse to human has grown exponentially since the year 2000. There are many physiological and anatomical factors to consider in the process of extrapolating data from one species to another. Body temperature is, of course, a critical determinant in extrapolation because it has a direct impact on metabolism, cardiovascular function, drug efficacy, pharmacokinetics of toxins and drugs, and many other effects...
May 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528894/the-social-facilitation-of-eating-without-the-presence-of-others-self-reflection-on-eating-makes-food-taste-better-and-people-eat-more
#18
Ryuzaburo Nakata, Nobuyuki Kawai
Food tastes better and people eat more of it when eaten with company than alone. Although several explanations have been proposed for this social facilitation of eating, they share the basic assumption that this phenomenon is achieved by the existence of co-eating others. Here, we demonstrate a similar "social" facilitation of eating in the absence of other individuals. Elderly participants tasted a piece of popcorn alone while in front of a mirror (which reflects the participant themselves eating popcorn) or in front of a wall-reflecting monitor, and were found to eat more popcorn and rate it better tasting in the self-reflecting condition than in the monitor condition...
May 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528893/body-temperature-responses-to-handling-stress-in-wintering-black-capped-chickadees-poecile-atricapillus-l
#19
Agnès Lewden, Andreas Nord, Magali Petit, François Vézina
Body temperature variation in response to acute stress is typically characterized by peripheral vasoconstriction and a concomitant increase in core body temperature (stress-induced hyperthermia). It is poorly understood how this response differs between species and within individuals of the same species, and how it is affected by the environment. We therefore investigated stress-induced body temperature changes in a non-model species, the Black-capped Chickadee, in two environmental conditions: outdoors in low ambient temperature (mean: -6...
May 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528892/hot-chicks-cold-feet
#20
Randi Oppermann Moe, Jon Bohlin, Andreas Flø, Guro Vasdal, Solveig Marie Stubsjøen
Infrared thermography (IRT) is increasingly applied as a noninvasive technique for measuring surface body temperature alterations related to e.g. stress, emotions and leg pathologies in avian species. As a basis for the validation of IRT as a future tool for veterinary diagnostics such as detection and/or prediction of subclinical footpad pathologies in broiler chickens, this study explored effects of manual restraint at two different ages on footpad temperatures. Head region temperatures were applied as additional measures of emotional arousal and stress...
May 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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