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Physiology & Behavior

Stephan Butler, Sandra Luz, Kile McFadden, Joanna Fesi, Christopher Long, Lynn Spruce, Steven Seeholzer, Douglas Canning, Rita Valentino, Stephen Zderic
Repeated exposure to social stress shifts the voiding phenotype in male mice leading to bladder wall remodeling and is associated with increased expression of the stress neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in Barrington's nucleus neurons. In these studies, we set out to determine if the voiding phenotype could recover upon removal from the stressor. Male mice were exposed for 1h daily to an aggressor and the voiding phenotype was assessed at one month followed by randomization to three groups...
October 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Marisela Hernández-González, Enrique Hernández-Arteaga, Miguel Angel Guevara, Mayra Linné Almanza-Sepúlveda, Mayra Liliana Ramírez-Rentería, Marcela Arteaga-Silva, Herlinda Bonilla-Jaime
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) participate in the modulation of several motivated behaviors, such as the sexual behavior. Both structures are sensitive to stress when it is experienced mainly in critical periods of the life-cycle, such as the prenatal period. This study evaluated the effects of prenatal stress on electroencephalographic activity (EEG) of the mPFC and BLA during sexual motivation. EEG was recorded in the mPFC and BLA of male rats assigned to either a prenatally-stressed group (SG, dam immobilized from days 14 to 21of pregnancy), or a control group (CG), during the following conditions: awake-quiet state without sexual motivation, and awake-quiet state with sexual motivation...
October 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Aaron P Frank, Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Obesity and its associated co-morbidities are worldwide public health concerns. Obesity is characterized by excessive adipose tissue accumulation; however, it is important to recognize that human and rodent adipose tissues are made up of several distinct adipose tissue sub-types. White adipose tissue (WAT) is considered the prototypical fat cell, due to its capacity and capability to store large amounts of lipid. In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) oxidizes substrates to generate heat. BAT contains more mitochondria than WAT and express uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), which mediates BAT thermogenesis...
October 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Hao Wang, Xiaoxu Sun, Ning Zhang, Zhouye Ji, Zhanqiang Ma, Qiang Fu, Rong Qu, Shiping Ma
Cognitive impairment has been recognized as a typical characteristic of neurodegenerative disease in diabetes mellitus (DM) and this cognitive dysfunction may be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ferulic acid, a phenolic compound commonly found in a range of plants, has emerged various properties including anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In the present study, the protective activities and relevant mechanisms of ferulic acid were evaluated in diabetic rats with cognitive deficits, which were induced by a high-glucose-fat (HGF) diet and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ)...
October 4, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Cinthia Juárez-Tapia, Manuel Miranda-Anaya
Recently, the relationship between the circadian system and female reproduction has been of great interest; ovarian hormones can modify the amount and distribution of daily activity differently in rodent species. The volcano mouse Neotomodon alstoni is a species in which it is possible to study the circadian rhythm of locomotion, and it offers comparative information about the influence of ovaries on the circadian system. In this study, we used infrared crossings to compare free movement in intact and sham-operated or ovariectomized mice...
October 4, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Jacqueline M Barker, Jane R Taylor
Despite considerable evidence of higher rates of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in men than in women, there is a dearth of research into the underlying causes of this disparity. As the gap in high risk drinking between men and women closes, it is critical to disentangle the biological factors that may place men and women at different risk for the development of AUDs as well as AUD-associated health problems. While sex differences in alcohol drinking have been reported in animal models and in human alcoholics, it increasingly seems that consummatory behavior may be dissociated from propensity toward inflexible and cue-elicited drug seeking and taking that characterize alcohol use disorders...
September 30, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Pierpaolo Di Giminiani, Abozar Nasirahmadi, Emma M Malcolm, Matthew C Leach, Sandra A Edwards
Tail docking in pigs has the potential for evoking short- as well as long-term physiological and behavioural changes indicative of pain. Nonetheless, the existing scientific literature has thus far provided somewhat inconsistent data on the intensity and the duration of pain based on varying assessment methodologies and different post-procedural observation times. In this report we describe three response stages (immediate, short- and long-term) through the application of vocalisation, behavioural and nociceptive assessments in order to identify changes indicative of potential pain experienced by the piglets...
September 30, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Debra A Bangasser, Samantha R Eck, Alexander M Telenson, Madeleine Salvatore
There are sex differences in the prevalence and presentation of many psychiatric disorders. For example, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression are more common in women than men, and women with these disorders present with more hyperarousal symptoms than men. In contrast, attention deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) and schizophrenia are more common in men than women, and men with these disorders have increased cognitive deficits compared to women. A shared feature of the aforementioned psychiatric disorders is the contribution of stressful events to their onset and/or severity...
September 30, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Hannah G Caldwell, Philip N Ainslie, Lindsay A Ellis, Aaron A Phillips, Daniela Flück
Hypoxia-induced neurocognitive impairments have been of clinical interest for centuries. The mechanisms responsible for these neurocognitive impairments at altitude are unclear, but may relate to the uncoupling of local neural activity with appropriate changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF; i.e., functional hyperemia). At both sea level and following 3 and 7days at 3800m (Barcroft Research Lab, White Mountain, CA, USA), transcranial Doppler was used to index CBF during three separate tasks designed to evoke cerebral functional hyperemia in 11 healthy individuals (26...
September 28, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Wen-Jin Chen, Jian-Kui Du, Xing Hu, Qing Yu, Dong-Xia Li, Chang-Nan Wang, Xiao-Yan Zhu, Yu-Jian Liu
Growing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes may be involved in depressive disorders. Inflammation is known to induce mitochondrial dysfunction in the nervous system. However, whether mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the occurrence of inflammation-induced depressive-like behavior remains to be investigated. The present study aims to firstly, clarify whether mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression-like behavior in mice and secondly, determine whether the anti-oxidant resveratrol alleviates inflammation-induced depressive-like behavior through the prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction in the hippocampus...
September 28, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Nikolaus Huber, Leonida Fusani, Andrea Ferretti, Katharina Mahr, Virginie Canoine
Stress is a collective term for certain conditions and sequences of physiological events enabling living organisms to overcome unpredictable and uncontrollable situations. The context-dependent nature, multidimensional course and large individual variability make stress responses difficult to measure. In avian species, a plethora of studies on short-term stress responses have been conducted by measuring the corticosteroid response to a standardized stress protocol. Here we aimed to test the viability of the leukocyte coping capacity (LCC), measuring oxygen radical production by leukocytes, to assess short-term stress in birds...
September 27, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Katelyn N Boggs, Meghann L Smith, Peter A Kakalec, Stephanie N Howell, Jane M Flinn
Circadian rhythms are altered in several diseases associated with aging, one of which is Alzheimer's disease (AD). One example of a circadian rhythm is the rest-activity cycle, which can be measured in mice by monitoring their wheel-running. The present study sought to investigate differences in light phase/dark phase activity between a mouse model of late onset AD (APP/E4) and control (C57Bl6J) mice, in both the pre-plaque and post-plaques stages of the disease. To assess activity level, 24-h wheel running behavior was monitored at six months (pre-plaque) and twelve months (post-plaque) for a period of nine days...
September 25, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Wendie N Marks, Lisa E Kalynchuk
Repeated exposure to high levels of stress hormones can enhance contextual and discrete fear conditioning in rats. A common belief is that this enhanced fear memory is largely mediated by the amygdala because both contextual and discrete fear conditioning are dependent on an intact amygdala. However, trace fear conditioning is thought to be amygdala independent, and therefore, it is not clear what impact stress would have on this form of fear learning. Here, we examined whether the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) would enhance memory in a hippocampal-dependent trace fear conditioning test...
September 23, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Robin M Tucker, Sze-Yen Tan
The human body associates sensory cues with metabolic consequences. Exposure to sweet-tasting sugars - even in the absence of ingestion - triggers physiological responses that are associated with carbohydrate digestion, absorption and metabolism. These responses include the release of insulin and incretin hormones, which work to reduce blood glucose. For this reason, non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) have been posited to trigger similar physiological responses and reduce postprandial blood glucose concentrations...
September 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Vineet Mehta, Tiratha Raj Singh, Malairaman Udayabanu
Chronic stress is associated with impaired neurogenesis, neurodegeneration and behavioral dysfunction, whereas the mechanism underlying stress-mediated neurological complications is still not clear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) mediated neurological alterations are associated with impaired hippocampal insulin signaling or not, and studied the effect of quercetin in this scenario. Male Swiss albino mice were subjected to 21day CUS, during which 30mg/kg quercetin treatment was given orally...
September 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Haiyang Liu, Yanping Xu, Ying Wang, Shenjie Zhong, Min Wang, Pengyan Lin, Hongyan Li, Zhenhui Liu
Recently more and more evidences raise the possibility for the taste system in the role of the perception of lipids in mammals, and the fatty acid receptor CD36 has been proved to be as an important candidate receptor of fat taste. Fish has different taste modality with mammals. No information was known about the function of cd36 in fish taste till now. Here, using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence technologies, we showed that fish cd36/Cd36 localized in taste buds. Real-time PCR technology demonstrated that, in zebrafish cd36 (zcd36)-transfected cells, linoleic acid (LA) increased the expression level of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH-1), which encodes the enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of monoamine neurotransmitter of 5-HT...
September 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Alexandre Marraffa, Mats Lekander, Peter Solsjö, Mats J Olsson, Julie Lasselin, John Axelsson
Yawning has been proposed to serve both physiological and social functions, the latter likely to have developed later in its evolution. A central hypothesis is that yawning cools the brain but whether yawning is a thermoregulatory mechanism that is activated during hyperthermia (i.e., thermoregulatory failure) or is activated in any instance of brain temperature increase (e.g., also during fever) is unclear and experimental assessments of yawning during fever are lacking. In this study, we determined the effect of experimentally induced fever on yawning frequency...
September 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Gregory L Willis, Christopher B Freelance
The role of the circadian system in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a topic of increasing scientific interest. This has emerged from recent studies demonstrating an altered response of PD patients to treatment in relation to the phase of the light/dark cycle and from other work defining the functional significance of melanocytes in PD: a cell type that the nigro-striatal dopamine (NSD) system and circadian system both contain. The present study was undertaken to determine the sensitivity of the pineal, as the final common pathway of the circadian system, to light delivered directly to the pineal via surgical implantation of LEDs...
September 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Adam N Perry, Richard J Ortiz, Keziah R Hernandez, Bruce S Cushing
Psychostimulant abuse is associated with a variety of impairments in social functioning, including an increased frequency of depression and aggression and deficits in social cognition. Psychostimulants reduce social investigation in rats and mice; however, it is less clear how other forms of social behavior (e.g., prosocial behavior) are affected. Females are also generally more sensitive to the effects of psychostimulants on locomotion and stereotyped behavior, which suggests that females might also display greater disruption of prosocial behavior...
September 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Kathryn L G Russart, Randy J Nelson
Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are often consequences of human activity; however, the effects of EEDs are not limited to humans. A primary focus over the past ∼30years has been on chemical EEDs, but the repercussions of non-chemical EEDs, such as artificial light at night (LAN), are of increasing interest. The sensitivity of the circadian system to light and the influence of circadian organization on overall physiology and behavior make the system a target for disruption with widespread effects...
September 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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