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Jensen A Lund, Paula N Brown, Paul R Shipley
For compliance with US Current Good Manufacturing Practice regulations for dietary supplements, manufacturers must provide identity of source plant material. Despite the popularity of hawthorn as a dietary supplement, relatively little is known about the comparative phytochemistry of different hawthorn species, and in particular North American hawthorns. The combination of NMR spectrometry with chemometric analyses offers an innovative approach to differentiating hawthorn species and exploring the phytochemistry...
May 20, 2017: Phytochemistry
Naoki Ube, Miho Nishizaka, Tsuyoshi Ichiyanagi, Kotomi Ueno, Shin Taketa, Atsushi Ishihara
Plants have developed defensive specialized metabolites over the course of evolution. In the genus Hordeum, which includes the important cereal crop barley, specialized metabolites such as hordatines, benzoxazinones, and gramine have been identified. Hordeum species are classified into four clades, H, Xu, Xa, and I. The presence or absence of defensive specialized metabolites was analyzed in representative Hordeum species that included all of the four clades. In the H clade, Hordeum vulgare accumulated hordatines but not benzoxazinones, whereas H...
May 20, 2017: Phytochemistry
Mayra Rengifo Carrillo, Anne-Claire Mitaine-Offer, Tomofumi Miyamoto, Chiaki Tanaka, Laurent Pouységu, Stéphane Quideau, Carmelo Rosquete Porcar, Marie-Aleth Lacaille-Dubois
The phytochemical study of two cultivars of Pittosporum tenuifolium Banks & Sol. ex Gaertn, "variegatum" and "gold star", led to the isolation of eight oleanane-type glycosides: seven previously undescribed and a known one. Their aglycons are oxygenated oleanane derivatives as barringtogenol C, camelliagenin A, hederagenin, and 22α-hydroxyoleanolic acid. Their structures were established by 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry as 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21-O-angeloyl-22-O-acetylbarringtogenol C, 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21,22-di-O-angeloylbarringtogenol C, 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-22-O-angeloylcamelliagenin A, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-22-O-[(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]camelliagenin A, 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosylhederagenin 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucuronopyranosylhederagenin 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-22α-hydroxyoleanolic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, and the known ilexoside XLIX...
May 10, 2017: Phytochemistry
Bibekananda Kar, Preeti Verma, Girijesh Kumar Patel, Ashwani Kumar Sharma
The native Putranjiva roxburghii family 1 glycoside hydrolase enzyme showed β-D-fucosidase activity in addition to β-D-glucosidase and β-D-galactosidase activities reported in our previous study. A single step concanvalin A affinity chromatography for native PRGH1 improved the yield and reduced the purification time. The PRGH1 gene was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli. The full length gene contained an ORF of 1617 bp encoding a polypeptide of 538 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of PRGH1 showed maximum similarities to β-glucosidases and myrosinases...
May 10, 2017: Phytochemistry
Gina B Barbosa, Nirupama S Jayasinghe, Siria H A Natera, Ellen D Inutan, Nonita P Peteros, Ute Roessner
Zingiberaceae plants, commonly known as gingers, have been popular for their medicinal and culinary uses since time immemorial. In spite of their numerous health-promoting applications, many Zingiberaceae plants still receive no scientific attention. Moreover, existing reports mostly focused only on the Zingiberaceae rhizomes. Here, untargeted metabolite profiling using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to compare the metabolic composition of leaves and rhizomes of the more common gingers, Zingiber officinale Rosc...
May 9, 2017: Phytochemistry
Hamid R Kalhor, Hossein Ashrafian
A number of human diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's have been linked to amyloid formation. To search for an anti-amyloidogenic product, alkaloid enriched extract from borage leaves was examined for anti-amyloidogenic activity using Hen Egg White Lysozyme (HEWL) as a model protein. After isolation of the plant extract using rHPLC, only one fraction indicated a significant bioactivity. TEM analysis confirmed a remarkable reduction of amyloid fibrils in the presence of the bioactive fraction. To identify the effective substance in the fraction, mass spectrometry, FTIR, and NMR were performed...
May 9, 2017: Phytochemistry
Mosaab Yahyaa, Samah Ali, Rachel Davidovich-Rikanati, Muhammad Ibdah, Alona Shachtier, Yoram Eyal, Efraim Lewinsohn, Mwafaq Ibdah
Apple (Malus x domestica Brokh.) is a widely cultivated deciduous tree species of significant economic importance. Apple leaves accumulate high levels of flavonoids and dihydrochalcones, and their formation is dependent on enzymes of the chalcone synthase family. Three CHS genes were cloned from apple leaves and expressed in Escherichia coli. The encoded recombinant enzymes were purified and functionally characterized. In-vitro activity assays indicated that MdCHS1, MdCHS2 and MdCHS3 code for proteins exhibiting polyketide synthase activity that accepted either p-dihydrocoumaroyl-CoA, p-coumaroyl-CoA, or cinnamoyl-CoA as starter CoA substrates in the presence of malonyl-CoA, leading to production of phloretin, naringenin chalcone, and pinocembrin chalcone...
May 5, 2017: Phytochemistry
Zerihun Demessie, Kathlyn N Woolfson, Fang Yu, Yang Qu, Vincenzo De Luca
Vinca minor is a herbaceous plant from the Apocynaceae family known to produce over 50 monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs). These include several biologically active MIAs that have a range of pharmaceutical activities. The present study shows that the MIAs, vincamine, akuammicine, minovincinine, lochnericine and vincadifformine tend to be secreted on V. minor leaf surfaces. A secretion mechanism of MIAs, previously described for Catharanthus roseus, appears to be mediated by a member (CrTPT2) of the pleiotropic drug resistance ABC transporter subfamily...
May 4, 2017: Phytochemistry
Fernanda S de Sousa, Simone S Grecco, Natalia Girola, Ricardo A Azevedo, Carlos R Figueiredo, João Henrique G Lago
Six neolignans including three previously undescribed metabolites: 1-[(7R)-hydroxy-8-propenyl]-3-[3'-methoxy-1'-(8'-propenyl)-phenoxy]-4,5-dimethoxybenzene, 4-hydroxy-5-methoxy-3-[3'-methoxy-1'-(8'-propenyl)phenoxy]-1-(7-oxo-8-propenyl)benzene and 4,5-dimethoxy-3-[3'-methoxy-1'-(8'-propenyl)phenoxy]-1-(7-oxo-8-propenyl)benzene were isolated from twigs of Nectandra leucantha Nees & Mart (Lauraceae) using bioactivity-guided fractionation. Cytotoxic activity of isolated compounds was evaluated in vitro against cancer cell lines (SK BR-3, HCT, U87-MG, A2058, and B16F10), being dehydrodieugenol B and 4-hydroxy-5-methoxy-3-[3'-methoxy-1'-(8'-propenyl)phenoxy]-1-(7-oxo-8-propenyl)benzene the most active metabolites...
May 4, 2017: Phytochemistry
Fariha Tanwir, Giuseppe Dionisio, Khem B Adhikari, Inge S Fomsgaard, Per L Gregersen
Benzoxazinoids are secondary metabolites with plant defense properties and possible health-promoting effects in humans. In this study, the transcriptional activity of ScBx genes (ScBx1-ScBx5; ScBx6-like), involved in benzoxazinoid biosynthesis, was analyzed during germination and early seedling development in rye. Our results showed that ScBx genes had highest levels of expression at 24-30 h after germination, followed by a decrease at later stages. For ScBx1-ScBx5 genes expression was higher in shoots compared with root tissues and vice versa for ScBx6-like gene transcripts...
May 1, 2017: Phytochemistry
V S Pragadheesh, Chandan S Chanotiya, Shubhra Rastogi, Ajit K Shasany
Jasminum species are among the most preferred fresh cut flowers in India since ancient times. The plant produces small and fragrant flowers, which are of great demand in the preparation of fragrant garlands and also in perfume industries. Floral volatile of Jasminum grandiflorum L. (Family: Oleaceae) was extracted using solid-phase microextraction and analyzed in enantioselective gas chromatography. Chemical classes of identified volatiles revealed the presence of terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty acid derivatives...
April 29, 2017: Phytochemistry
Chun-Shun Li, Bao-Jun Yang, James Turkson, Shugeng Cao
Five previously undescribed ambuic acid derivatives, pestallic acids A-E and three known analogs were isolated from the cultured broth of Pestalotiopsis sp. FT172. The structures of the pestallic acids A-E were determined through the analysis of HRMS and NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations (ACs) of pestallic acids B-E were assigned by comparison of the experimental electric circular dichroism (ECD) spectra or the optical rotations with those in the literature. All compounds were tested against A2780 and cisplatin resistant A2780 (A2780CisR) cell lines...
April 29, 2017: Phytochemistry
Yoshinori Saito, Mayu Ichihara, Yuriko Takashima, Yasuko Okamoto, Xun Gong, Ryo Hanai, Chiaki Kuroda, Motoo Tori
Three natural hybrids and an introgressed individual of Ligularia were evaluated based on a combination of morphology, root chemicals, and nucleotide sequences of evolutionally neutral regions to understand the chemical outcomes of hybridization and introgression. Six previously undescribed eremophilane sesquiterpenes were isolated from hybrids between L. cyathiceps and L. lamarum/L. subspicata, and benzofurans were isolated from L. subspicata for the first time. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic analyses...
April 28, 2017: Phytochemistry
Mohamed Magdy F Mansour, Esmat Farouk Ali
More than one third of the world's irrigated lands are affected by salinity, which has great impact on plant growth and yield worldwide. Proline accumulation under salt stress has been indicated to correlate with salt tolerance. Exogenous application as well as genetic engineering of metabolic pathways involved in the metabolism of proline has been successful in improving tolerance to salinity. Correlation between proline accumulation as well as its proposed roles and salt adaptation, however, has not been clearly confirmed in several plant species...
April 26, 2017: Phytochemistry
Clisiane Carla de Souza Santos, Milena Masullo, Antonietta Cerulli, Angela Mari, Charles Dos Santos Estevam, Cosimo Pizza, Sonia Piacente
The phenolic content of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of the Brazilian plant Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. (Anacardiaceae) has been evaluated together with the antioxidant activity. The good antioxidant activity exhibited in the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay (TEAC value = 3.04 mg/mL) encouraged us to investigate its constituents. An analytical approach based on LC-ESIMS(n) was applied to rapidly obtain a metabolite profile of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of S. brasiliensis...
April 24, 2017: Phytochemistry
Tijana Banjanac, Milan Dragićević, Branislav Šiler, Uroš Gašić, Borut Bohanec, Jasmina Nestorović Živković, Snežana Trifunović, Danijela Mišić
Species within the genus Centaurium readily hybridize and polyploid complexes are often seen in natural populations. We describe phytochemical profiles of newly discovered allohexaploid hybrid, here named Centaurium pannonicum, and its parental tetraploid species C. erythraea and rare C. littorale ssp. compressum. Our aim was to examine chemodiversity of these taxa in the area of Vojvodina (North Serbia) and to perform metabolomics search for chemical classifiers which would provide high resolution discrimination of parental and hybrid individuals...
April 24, 2017: Phytochemistry
Ashraf Ibrahim, Dan Sørensen, Hilary A Jenkins, Linda Ejim, Alfredo Capretta, Mark W Sumarah
Ten polyketide specialized metabolites, epoxynemanione A, nemanifuranones A-F, and nemanilactones A-C, were isolated from the culture filtrate of Nemania serpens (Pers.) Grey (1821), an endophytic fungus from a Riesling grapevine (Vitis vinifera) found in Canada's Niagara region. Additionally, four known metabolites 2-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methoxy-benzoic acid, phyllostine, 5-methylmellein and a nordammarane triterpenoid were isolated. A related known metabolite 2,3-dihydro-2-hydroxy-2,4-dimethyl-5-trans-propenylfuran-3-one has also been included for structural and biological comparison to the nemanifuranones...
April 22, 2017: Phytochemistry
Xicheng Qian, Baocai Li, Peng Li, Dong Wang, Weifeng Dai, Mi Zhang
Twenty-three undescribed previously C21 steroidal glycosides, named saccatols D-K and cynsaccatols I-W, together with six known analogs were isolated from the roots of Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight (Apocynaceae). Their structures were elucidated by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, as well as HRESIMS and GC method. All isolated compounds were tested their neuroprotective effects on the model of H2O2-induced damage to PC12 cells. Except saccatols D-F, J, cynsaccatol V and wilfoside A, other twenty-three isolates produced significantly activities against H2O2-induced cell damage (P < 0...
April 21, 2017: Phytochemistry
Clemens Stolpe, Franziska Giehren, Ute Krämer, Caroline Müller
Plants that are able to hyperaccumulate heavy metals show increased concentrations of these metals in their leaf tissue. However, little is known about the concentrations of heavy metals and of organic defence metabolites in the phloem sap of these plants in response to either heavy metal-amendment of the soil or biotic challenges such as aphid-infestation. In this study, we investigated the effects of heavy metal-exposure and of aphid-infestation on phloem exudate composition of the metal hyperaccumulator species Arabidopsis halleri L...
July 2017: Phytochemistry
Ge Liao, Wen-Li Mei, Fan-Dong Kong, Wei Li, Jing-Zhe Yuan, Hao-Fu Dai
Thirteen previously undescribed 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones named tetrahydrochromone A-M, together with nine known ones, were isolated from artificial agarwood (induced by holing) originating from Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. The structures of these compounds were unambiguously determined based on extensive NMR spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configuration was resolved by CD analyses, X-ray crystallographic, chemical and Mosher's method. Tetrahydrochromone A, B, K-M, and Oxidoagarochromone An exhibited inhibitory activity against AChE with the percentage inhibition range from 17...
July 2017: Phytochemistry
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