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Yana Y Toporkova, Elena O Smirnova, Svetlana S Gorina, Lucia S Mukhtarova, Alexander N Grechkin
The CYP74M2 gene of a model plant, the spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii Hieron, was cloned and the catalytic properties of corresponding recombinant protein were studied. The recombinant CYP74M2 protein was active towards 13-hydroperoxides of linoleic and a-linolenic acids (13-HPOD and 13-HPOT, respectively). In contrast to previously studied CYP74M1 and CYP74M3, which possessed the divinyl ether synthase activity, CYP74M2 behaved as a dedicated epoxyalcohol synthase (EAS). For instance, the 13-HPOD was converted to three epimeric oxiranyl carbinols 1-3 (formed at a ratio ca...
September 5, 2018: Phytochemistry
Katrina Cornish, Deborah J Scott, Wenshuang Xie, Christopher J D Mau, Yi Feng Zheng, Xiao-Hui Liu, Glenn D Prestwich
Rubber particles from rubber-producing plant species have many different species-specific proteins bound to their external monolayer biomembranes. To date, identification of those proteins directly involved in enzymatic catalysis of rubber polymerization has not been fully accomplished using solubilization, purification or reconstitution approaches. In an alternative approach, we use several tritiated photoaffinity-labeled benzophenone analogs of the allylic pyrophosphate substrates, required by rubber transferase (RT-ase) to initiate the synthesis of new rubber molecules, to identify the proteins involved in catalysis...
September 5, 2018: Phytochemistry
Satisha Hegde, Sandeep Ramchandra Pai, Rasika M Bhagwat, Archana Saini, Poonam Kanwar Rathore, Sunil Satyappa Jalalpure, Harsha Vasudev Hegde, Attayoor Purushottaman Sugunan, Vidya S Gupta, Sanjiva D Kholkute, Subarna Roy
Saraca asoca (Roxb.) De Wilde (Caesalpiniaceae) is a highly traded IUCN red listed tree species used in Ayurvedic medicines for the treatment of various disorders, especially gynaecological problems. However, information about the genetic variations between populations and corresponding variation in specialized metabolites of S. asoca remains unclear. To address this issue, we analysed 11 populations of S. asoca with 106 accessions collected from Western Ghats of India using ISSR markers along with selected phytocompounds using RP-HPLC...
September 4, 2018: Phytochemistry
Pratik Satya, Avrajit Chakraborty, Debabrata Sarkar, Maya Karan, Debajeet Das, Nur Alam Mandal, Dipnarayan Saha, Subhojit Datta, Soham Ray, Chandan Sourav Kar, Pran Gobinda Karmakar, Jiban Mitra, Nagendra Kumar Singh
Enzyme β-galactosidase (EC is known to influence vascular differentiation during early vegetative growth of plants, but its role in hypocotyl development is not yet fully understood. We generated the hypocotyl transcriptome data of a hypocotyl-defect jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) mutant (52,393 unigenes) and its wild-type (WT) cv. JRC-212 (44,720 unigenes) by paired-end RNA-seq and identified 11 isoforms of β-galactosidase, using a combination of sequence annotation, domain identification and structural-homology modeling...
August 30, 2018: Phytochemistry
Karin Schmidt, Jan Petersen, Jennifer Munkert, Claudia Egerer-Sieber, Michael Hornig, Yves A Muller, Wolfgang Kreis
PRISEs (progesterone 5β-reductase and/or iridoid synthase-like 1,4-enone reductases) are involved in cardenolide and iridoid biosynthesis. We here investigated a PRISE (rAtSt5βR) from Arabidopsis thaliana, a plant producing neither cardenolides nor iridoids. The structure of rAtSt5βR was elucidated with X-ray crystallography and compared to the known structures of PRISEs from Catharanthus roseus (rCrISY) and Digitalis lanata (rDlP5βR). The three enzymes show a high degree of sequence and structure conservation in the active site...
August 29, 2018: Phytochemistry
Chanrith Phoeurk, Jamorn Somana, Thakorn Sornwatana, Somsiri Udompaisarn, Somchoke Traewachiwiphak, Phanthila Sirichaiyakul, Thanawat Phongsak, Dumrongkiet Arthan
The deficiency of α-galactosidase activity in coconut endosperm has been reported to cause a disability to hydrolyze oligogalactomannan in endosperm resulting in curd coconut phenotype. However, neither the α-galactosidase encoding gene in coconut nor the mutation type has been identified and characterized in normal and curd coconuts. In this study, cDNA and genomic DNA encoding α-galactosidase gene alleles from a normal and two curd coconuts were successfully cloned and characterized. The deduced amino acid of wild type α-galactosidase contains 398 amino acid residues with a 17 N-terminal amino acids signal peptide sequence...
August 29, 2018: Phytochemistry
Henrique Bridi, Gabriela de Carvalho Meirelles, Gilsane Lino von Poser
Plants of the genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae) are used in folk medicine all over the world, H. perforatum being the most well-known species. Standardized extracts of this plant are commercially-available to treat mild to moderate depression cases. The present review summarizes the literature published up to 2016 concerning the phloroglucinol derivatives isolated from Hypericum species, together with their structural features and biological activities. These phytochemical studies led to the isolation of 101 prenylated phloroglucinols, chromanes and chromenes, 35 dimeric acylphloroglucinols, 235 polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols, 25 simple benzophenones and 33 phloroglucinol-terpene adducts...
August 25, 2018: Phytochemistry
Fabrizio Dal Piaz, Ammar Bader, Nicola Malafronte, Massimiliano D'Ambola, Anna Maria Petrone, Amalia Porta, Taibi Ben Hadda, Nunziatina De Tommasi, Angela Bisio, Lorella Severino
The surface extract of an accession of Psiadia punctulata (DC.) Vatke (Asteraceae) growing in Saudi Arabia was investigated for its phytochemical composition. A bio-guided investigation of the extract led to the isolation of thirteen ent-kaurane and trachylobane diterpenes and seventeen compounds previously described, including nine flavonoids and eight diterpenes. Three flavonoids and one ent-kaurane diterpene showed antimicrobial activity with MIC100 values ranging from 25 to 150 μg/ml. The extract showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC100  = 180 μg/ml) and antifungal activity against Candida albicans (MIC0  = 130 μg/ml)...
August 24, 2018: Phytochemistry
Luigi Lucini, Greta Baccolo, Youssef Rouphael, Giuseppe Colla, Luigi Bavaresco, Marco Trevisan
The stimulation of the plant response to pathogen attack by the application of resistance inducers, called elicitors, could represent an environmentally and commercially viable alternative or complement to existing pathogen control methods. In this work, the elicitor chitosan was sprayed on grape (Vitus vinifera L.) berries growing on the vine to shed light into the elicitation mechanisms underlying its application, with untreated bunches as controls. To gain a more comprehensive picture of the complex molecular processes elicited by chitosan, a proteomic approach was complemented by target and untargeted mass spectrometric analyses...
August 24, 2018: Phytochemistry
Lin-Fen Ding, Jia Su, Zheng-Hong Pan, Zhi-Jun Zhang, Xiao-Nian Li, Liu-Dong Song, Xing-De Wu, Qin-Shi Zhao
Nine previously undescribed sesquiterpenoids, named magnograndins A-I, as well as fourteen known ones, were obtained from the 70% acetone extract of the leaves of Magnolia grandiflora. Their structures were ascertained based on the spectroscopic evidences. The assignment of the relative configuration of magnograndin A was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. 1β,10α-Epoxyparthenolide, parthenolide, and micheliolide exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-468, AGS, HCT116, Hela, and MDA-MB-231 human cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 1...
August 23, 2018: Phytochemistry
Jun Wang, Thi Kim Quy Ha, Yan-Ping Shi, Won Keun Oh, Jun-Li Yang
To search for bioactive gypenosides and their analogues, a saponin enriched fraction and its hydrolyzate from Gynostemma pentaphyllum were phytochemically investigated. Fractionation by diverse chromatographic methods, including HPLC, Sephadex LH-20, silica gel, and C18 reverse phase silica gel, led to the isolation and purification of twelve triterpenes, including five undescribed and seven known. The chemical structures of all compounds were determined as analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS), infrared spectrum (IR), optical rotation, and chemical transformations...
August 18, 2018: Phytochemistry
Jiangping Wu, Xia Li, Jianping Zhao, Ruijuan Wang, Zifei Xia, Xiaoran Li, Yanli Liu, Qiongming Xu, Ikhlas A Khan, Shilin Yang
Six undescribed withanolides were isolated and characterized during the investigation of anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic constituents from the whole plants of Physalis minima L. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses (IR, UV, HR-ESI-MS, 1D-NMR, and 2D-NMR), and their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities were evaluated in vitro. All the compounds exhibited anti-inflammatory ability via inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264...
August 17, 2018: Phytochemistry
Hui Zhang, Ning Zhang, Zhiqiang Xiong, Guangqiang Wang, Yongjun Xia, Phoency Lai, Lianzhong Ai
A high purity of β-D-glucan (80.8%) from hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hook. f.) (HBBG) was isolated by alkali extraction and multi-precipitation with ethanol. The molecular weight (Mw) of HBBG was determined as 571.4 kDa with a broad distribution (Mw/Mn = 1.6) by using HPSEC. According to methylation and GC-MS analysis, HBBG was identified to be composed of (1 → 4)- and (1 → 3)-glucopyranosyl (Glcp) residues with a ratio of (3.19 ± 0.01). The MALDI-TOF MS and NMR spectroscopy were further conducted to analyze the enzyme hydrolysate released by lichenase digestion on HBBG...
August 16, 2018: Phytochemistry
Cai-Yun Shi, Syed Bilal Hussain, Ling-Xia Guo, Huan Yang, Dong-Yuan Ning, Yong-Zhong Liu
The vacuolar H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) proton pump plays an important role in the acidification of vacuoles; however, genes encoding V-ATPase in the citrus genome and their roles in citric acid accumulation remain unclear in citrus fruit. In this study, we found at least one gene encoding subunit A, B, C, D, G, c'', d or e; two genes encoding the subunit E, F, H or a; and four genes encoding subunit c in the citrus genome. Spatial expression analysis showed that most genes were predominantly expressed in the mature leaves and/or flowers but were less expressed in root and juice cells...
August 16, 2018: Phytochemistry
Rui Guo, Yan Liu, Zhen-Peng Xu, Yong-Gang Xia, Bing-You Yang, Hai-Xue Kuang
Twelve previously undescribed withanolides, including three uncommon chemotypes of aglycones, daturafolisides (J-L), and six common structures, daturafolisides (M-U), as well as one known withanolide were isolated from the leaves of Datura metel L. Their structures were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D NMR and CD), HRESIMS experiments and comparison with published data for similar compounds. These isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activities on nitric oxide production...
August 16, 2018: Phytochemistry
Kyo Bin Kang, Shin-Jae Kang, Mi Song Kim, Dong Young Lee, Sang Il Han, Tae Bum Kim, Jee Young Park, Jinwoong Kim, Tae-Jin Yang, Sang Hyun Sung
Lonicera spp. (Caprifoliaceae) are important not only as a common medicinal herb in East Asia but also as one of the most problematic invasive species in North America. In the present study, we performed a systemic analysis of genomic and chemical diversity among six Lonicera species occurring in Korea, L. japonica, L. maackii, L. insularis, L. sachalinensis, L. praeflorens, and L. vesicaria, using chloroplast DNA whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing and LC-MS analyses. The phylogenetic and phylochemical relationships did not coincide with each other, but partial consistency could be found among them...
August 16, 2018: Phytochemistry
Manh Tuan Ha, Su Hui Seong, Tien Dat Nguyen, Won-Kyung Cho, Kim Jeong Ah, Jin Yeul Ma, Mi Hee Woo, Jae Sue Choi, Byung Sun Min
As part of our continuing research to obtain pharmacologically active compounds from Morus alba L. (Moraceae), four Diels-Alder type adducts (DAs) [morusalbins A-D], one isoprenylated flavonoid [albanin T], together with twenty-one known phenolic compounds were isolated from its root bark. The chemical structures were established using NMR, MS, and ECD spectra. The DAs including morusalbins A-D, albasin B, macrourin G, yunanensin A, mulberrofuran G and K, and albanol B exhibited strong inhibitory activities against both protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) (IC50 , 1...
August 10, 2018: Phytochemistry
Qinghao Jin, Jin Woo Lee, Hari Jang, Hye Lim Lee, Jun Gu Kim, Wanying Wu, Dongho Lee, Eun-Hee Kim, Youngsoo Kim, Jin Tae Hong, Mi Kyeong Lee, Bang Yeon Hwang
An undescribed unusual sesquiterpene trimer and three sesquiterpene dimers were isolated from the flowers of Inula japonica. Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data as well as HRESIMS data. Inulajaponicolide A has an undescribed carbon skeleton comprising of one xanthanolide and two guaianolide units with the linkage mode of C-11/C-3' and C-11'/C-1'' via a Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction. Inulajaponicolides C and D exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against A 549 and NCI-H460 human cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 8...
August 7, 2018: Phytochemistry
Yingjiao Wang, Dandan Wang, Jianhua Zhang, Dan Liu, Zihao Wang, Dali Meng
The phytochemical study on Corydalis tomentella Franch, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant in Tibet, China, led to the isolation of six previously undescribed isoquinolines, including two rarely reported N-benzyl ones, and twenty-one known ones firstly obtained from this plant. Their planar structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR experiments and high resolution mass spectrometry, and the absolute configurations were determined by NOE experiments, electronic circular dichroism, and specific rotation. Seven isoquinolines exhibited stronger hepatoprotective activities than that of positive control in D-galactosamine induced L02 cells damage model, which could be served as the leading compounds for further investigations...
August 3, 2018: Phytochemistry
Chengshuai Yang, Weichao Li, Chen Li, Zhihua Zhou, Youli Xiao, Xing Yan
Ganoderic acids, a group of oxygenated lanostane-type triterpenoids, are the major bioactive compounds produced by the well-known medicinal macro fungus Ganoderma lucidum. More than 150 ganoderic acids have been identified, and the genome of G. lucidum has been sequenced recently. However, the biosynthetic pathways of ganoderic acids have not yet been elucidated. Here, we report the functional characterization of a cytochrome P450 gene CYP512U6 from G. lucidum, which is involved in the ganoderic acid biosynthesis...
August 2, 2018: Phytochemistry
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