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Phytochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433955/5-6-7-8-tetrahydro-2-2-phenylethyl-chromones-from-artificial-agarwood-of-aquilaria-sinensis-and-their-inhibitory-activity-against-acetylcholinesterase
#1
Ge Liao, Wen-Li Mei, Fan-Dong Kong, Wei Li, Jing-Zhe Yuan, Hao-Fu Dai
Thirteen previously undescribed 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones named tetrahydrochromone A-M, together with nine known ones, were isolated from artificial agarwood (induced by holing) originating from Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. The structures of these compounds were unambiguously determined based on extensive NMR spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configuration was resolved by CD analyses, X-ray crystallographic, chemical and Mosher's method. Tetrahydrochromone A, B, K-M, and Oxidoagarochromone An exhibited inhibitory activity against AChE with the percentage inhibition range from 17...
April 20, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433954/lipidomic-profile-in-three-species-of-dinoflagellates-amphidinium-carterae-cystodinium-sp-and-peridinium-aciculiferum-containing-very-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids
#2
Tomáš Řezanka, Jaromír Lukavský, Linda Nedbalová, Karel Sigler
This study describes the identification of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) in three strains of dinoflagellates (Amphidinium carterae, Cystodinium sp., and Peridinium aciculiferum). The strains were cultivated and their lipidomic profiles were obtained by high resolution mass spectrometry with the aid of positive and negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mode by Orbitrap apparatus. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC/ESI) was used to separate major lipid classes of the three genera of dinoflagellates by neutral loss scan showing the ion [M + H-28:8](+), where 28:8 was octacosaoctaenoic acid, and by precursor ion scanning of ions at m/z 407, which was an ion corresponding to the structure of acyl of 28:8 acid (C27H39COO(-))...
April 20, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432923/triterpenoid-saponins-from-the-roots-of-spergularia-marginata
#3
David Pertuit, Mustafa Larshini, Malika Aitsidi Brahim, Mohamed Markouk, Anne-Claire Mitaine-Offer, Thomas Paululat, Stéphanie Delemasure, Patrick Dutartre, Marie-Aleth Lacaille-Dubois
Phytochemical investigations of the roots of Spergularia marginata had led to the isolation of four previously undescribed triterpenoid saponins, a known one and one spinasterol glycoside. Their structures were established by extensive NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques as 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl echinocystic acid 28-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L- arabinopyranosyl ester, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl echinocystic acid 28-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)- α-L-arabinopyranosyl ester, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-3-O-sulfate-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl echinocystic acid 28-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ester, and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl 21-O-acetyl acacic acid...
April 19, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426978/visualizing-spatial-distribution-of-small-molecules-in-the-rhubarb-stalk-rheum-rhabarbarum-by-surface-transfer-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#4
Joanna Nizioł, Justyna Sekuła, Tomasz Ruman
Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (LDI-MSI) with gold nanoparticle-enhanced target (AuNPET) was used for visualization of small molecules in the rhubarb stalk (Rheum rhabarbarum L.). Analysis was focused on spatial distribution of biologically active compounds which are found in rhubarb species. Detected compounds belong to a very wide range of chemical compound classes such as anthraquinone derivatives and their glucosides, stilbenes, anthocyanins, flavonoids, polyphenols, organic acids, chromenes, chromanones, chromone glycosides and vitamins...
April 17, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414935/cdna-cloning-molecular-modeling-and-docking-calculations-of-l-type-lectins-from-swartzia-simplex-var-grandiflora-leguminosae-papilionoideae-a-member-of-the-tribe-swartzieae
#5
Paulo A C Maranhão, Claudener S Teixeira, Bruno L Sousa, Ito L Barroso-Neto, José E Monteiro-Júnior, Andreia V Fernandes, Marcio V Ramos, Ilka M Vasconcelos, José F C Gonçalves, Bruno A M Rocha, Valder N Freire, Thalles B Grangeiro
The genus Swartzia is a member of the tribe Swartzieae, whose genera constitute the living descendants of one of the early branches of the papilionoid legumes. Legume lectins comprise one of the main families of structurally and evolutionarily related carbohydrate-binding proteins of plant origin. However, these proteins have been poorly investigated in Swartzia and to date, only the lectin from S. laevicarpa seeds (SLL) has been purified. Moreover, no sequence information is known from lectins of any member of the tribe Swartzieae...
April 14, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411483/guidelines-for-consistent-characterisation-and-documentation-of-plant-source-materials-for-studies-in-phytochemistry-and-phytopharmacology
#6
EDITORIAL
Christian Zidorn
Plants are still by far the most important source of natural products. For higher plants as source materials identification and documentation are less challenging than for many other groups of organisms such as microorganisms or marine invertebrates. Nonetheless, many studies in natural products chemistry and phytopharmacology involving higher plants are flawed because the plant material is erroneously assigned, inaccurately documented, untraceable, or not named in accordance with the rules of nomenclature...
April 12, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411482/guaianolide-sesquiterpenoids-from-ainsliaea-yunnanensis
#7
Xin Fang, Xi-Ke Xu, Guo-Wei Wang, Ren-Tao Zeng, Xin-Hui Tian, Zhi-Ran Shi, Zhi-Guo Zhuo, Yun-Heng Shen, Wei-Dong Zhang
Six previously undescribed C17-guaianolides, a previously undescribed guaianolide alkaloid, and two previously undescribed guaianolides as well as 10 known guaianolides were obtained from an ethanol extract of Ainsliaea yunnanensis Franch. The chemical structures of all previously reported sesquiterpenoids were determined by extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis in combination with a modified Mosher's method. All isolates were in vitro screened for inhibitory effect against nitric oxide release in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated by LPS...
April 12, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411481/a-re-evaluation-of-the-final-step-of-vanillin-biosynthesis-in-the-orchid-vanilla-planifolia
#8
Hailian Yang, Jaime Barros-Rios, Galina Kourteva, Xiaolan Rao, Fang Chen, Hui Shen, Chenggang Liu, Andrzej Podstolski, Faith Belanger, Daphna Havkin-Frenkel, Richard A Dixon
A recent publication describes an enzyme from the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia with the ability to convert ferulic acid directly to vanillin. The authors propose that this represents the final step in the biosynthesis of vanillin, which is then converted to its storage form, glucovanillin, by glycosylation. The existence of such a "vanillin synthase" could enable biotechnological production of vanillin from ferulic acid using a "natural" vanilla enzyme. The proposed vanillin synthase exhibits high identity to cysteine proteases, and is identical at the protein sequence level to a protein identified in 2003 as being associated with the conversion of 4-coumaric acid to 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde...
April 12, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407491/uv-c-radiation-increases-sterol-production-in-the-microalga-pavlova-lutheri
#9
Faruq Ahmed, Peer M Schenk
Plant sterols have become well-known to promote cardiovascular health through the reduction of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the blood. Plant sterols also have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidative and anti-atherogenicity activities. Microalgae have the potential to become a useful alternative source of plant sterols with several species reported to have higher concentrations than current commercial ones. In order to increase phytosterol production and optimise culture conditions, the high sterol producer Pavlova lutheri was treated in different dosages (50-250 mJ m(-2)) of UV-C radiation and several concentrations (1-500 μmol/L) of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the sterol contents were quantified for two days after the treatments...
April 10, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390240/defense-and-signalling-metabolites-of-the-crucifer-erucastrum-canariense-synchronized-abiotic-induction-of-phytoalexins-and-galacto-oxylipins
#10
M Soledade C Pedras, Q Huy To
Erucastrum canariense Webb & Berthel. (Brassicaceae) is a wild crucifer that grows in rocky soils, in salt and water stressed habitats, namely in the Canary Islands and similar environments. Abiotic stress induced by copper chloride triggered formation of a phytoalexin and galacto-oxylipins in E. canariense, whereas wounding induced galacto-oxylipins but not phytoalexins. Analysis of the metabolite profiles of leaves of E. canariense followed by isolation and structure determination afforded the phytoalexin erucalexin, the phytoanticipin indolyl-3-acetonitrile, the galacto-oxylipins arabidopsides A, C, and D, and the oxylipin 12-oxophytodienoic acid...
April 5, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384525/terphenyl-derivatives-and-drimane-phathalide-isoindolinones-from-hypoxylon-fendleri-bcc32408
#11
Chakapong Intaraudom, Nantiya Bunbamrung, Aibrohim Dramae, Nattawut Boonyuen, Palangpon Kongsaeree, Kitlada Srichomthong, Sumalee Supothina, Pattama Pittayakhajonwut
The genus Hypoxylon, a member of the family Xylariaceae, has been known to produce significant secondary metabolites in terms of chemical diversity. Moreover, the compounds isolated can also be used as chemotaxonomic characters for differentiation among the two sections, which are sect. Annulata and sect. Hypoxylon. In our continuing chemical screening programme for novel compounds, the crude extracts of H. fendleri BCC32408 gave significant chemical profiles in HPLC analyses. Thus, the chemical investigation of these crude extracts was then carried out...
April 3, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366608/the-effect-of-drought-stress-on-the-expression-of-key-genes-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-phenylpropanoids-and-essential-oil-components-in-basil-ocimum-basilicum-l
#12
Babak Abdollahi Mandoulakani, Elham Eyvazpour, Morteza Ghadimzadeh
Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), a medicinal plant of the Lamiaceae family, is used in traditional medicine; its essential oil is a rich source of phenylpropanoids. Methylchavicol and methyleugenol are the most important constituents of basil essential oil. Drought stress is proposed to enhance the essential oil composition and expression levels of the genes involved in its biosynthesis. In the current investigation, an experiment based on a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications was conducted in the greenhouse to study the effect of drought stress on the expression level of four genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway in O...
March 30, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336139/separation-of-phytochemicals-from-helichrysum-italicum-an-analysis-of-different-isolation-techniques-and-biological-activity-of-prepared-extracts
#13
REVIEW
Svetolik Maksimovic, Vanja Tadic, Dejan Skala, Irena Zizovic
Helichrysum italicum presents a valuable source of natural bioactive compounds. In this work, a literature review of terpenes, phenolic compounds, and other less common phytochemicals from H. italicum with regard to application of different separation methods is presented. Data including extraction/separation methods and experimental conditions applied, obtained yields, number of identified compounds, content of different compound groups, and analytical techniques applied are shown as corresponding tables...
March 21, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318534/a-multidrug-and-toxic-compound-extrusion-transporter-mediates-berberine-accumulation-into-vacuoles-in-coptis-japonica
#14
Kojiro Takanashi, Yasuyuki Yamada, Takayuki Sasaki, Yoko Yamamoto, Fumihiko Sato, Kazufumi Yazaki
Plants produce a large variety of alkaloids, which have diverse chemical structures and biological activities. Many of these alkaloids accumulate in vacuoles. Although some membrane proteins on tonoplasts have been identified as alkaloid uptake transporters, few have been characterized to date, and relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying alkaloid transport and accumulation in plant cells. Berberine is a model alkaloid. Although all genes involved in berberine biosynthesis, as well as the master regulator, have been identified, the gene responsible for the final accumulation of berberine at tonoplasts has not been determined...
March 16, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291597/diel-rhythms-in-the-volatile-emission-of-apple-and-grape-foliage
#15
Valentino Giacomuzzi, Luca Cappellin, Stefano Nones, Iuliia Khomenko, Franco Biasioli, Alan L Knight, Sergio Angeli
This study investigated the diel emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from intact apple (Malus x domestica Borkh., cv. Golden Delicious) and grape (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Pinot Noir) foliage. Volatiles were monitored continuously for 48 h by proton transfer reaction - time of flight - mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). In addition, volatiles were collected by closed-loop-stripping-analysis (CLSA) and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after 1 h and again 24 and 48 h later...
March 11, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291596/isolation-and-characterization-of-9-lipoxygenase-and-epoxide-hydrolase-2-genes-insight-into-lactone-biosynthesis-in-mango-fruit-mangifera-indica-l
#16
Ashish B Deshpande, Hemangi G Chidley, Pranjali S Oak, Keshav H Pujari, Ashok P Giri, Vidya S Gupta
Uniqueness and diversity of mango flavour across various cultivars are well known. Among various flavour metabolites lactones form an important class of aroma volatiles in certain mango varieties due to their ripening specific appearance and lower odour detection threshold. In spite of their biological and biochemical importance, lactone biosynthetic pathway in plants remains elusive. Present study encompasses quantitative real-time analysis of 9-lipoxygenase (Mi9LOX), epoxide hydrolase 2 (MiEH2), peroxygenase, hydroperoxide lyase and acyl-CoA-oxidase genes during various developmental and ripening stages in fruit of Alphonso, Pairi and Kent cultivars with high, low and no lactone content and explains their variable lactone content...
March 10, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284566/benzofuran-glycosides-and-coumarins-from-the-bark-of-streblus-indicus-bur-corner
#17
Ruijie He, Yanjun Zhang, Liangdeng Wu, Hui Nie, Yan Huang, Buming Liu, Shengping Deng, Ruiyun Yang, Shuai Huang, Zhijie Nong, Jun Li, Haiyan Chen
Two pairs of rare benzofuran glucoside epimers, indicuses A and B and indicuses C and D, three biogenetically related compounds indicuses E-G, and one coumarin indicus H, as well as 11 known compounds, were isolated from the bark of Streblus indicus (Bur.) Corner. The structures of indicuses A-H were elucidated by NMR and MS data, as well as by CD. (S)-Marmesinin exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity in vitro against Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 7,8-Dihydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl) coumarin, umbelliferone, and scopoletin displayed strong cytotoxic activity in vitro against human bladder carcinoma cell line EJ...
March 8, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284565/isolation-and-structure-elucidation-of-cyclopeptide-alkaloids-from-ziziphus-nummularia-and-ziziphus-spina-christi-by-hplc-dad-ms-and-hplc-pda-hrms-spe-nmr
#18
Emmy Tuenter, Kenn Foubert, Dan Staerk, Sandra Apers, Luc Pieters
Seven cyclopeptide alkaloids were isolated from the stem bark of Ziziphus nummularia and Ziziphus spina-christi. Three previously undescribed compounds were identified: nummularine-U, spinanine-B and spinanine-C, together with the known compounds mauritine-F, nummularine-D, nummularine-E and amphibine-D. For their purification either semi-preparative HPLC with DAD and ESIMS detection or HPLC-PDA-(HRMS)-SPE-NMR was applied, together with conventional separation methods. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means...
March 8, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284564/14-15-secopregnane-type-c21-steriosides-from-the-roots-of-cynanchum-stauntonii
#19
Jin-Qian Yu, Ming-Bao Lin, An-Jun Deng, Qi Hou, Jin-Ye Bai, Zhi-Hong Li, Lin Ma, Zhi-Hui Zhang, Shao-Peng Yuan, Ren-Tao Jiang, Hai-Lin Qin
Nine 14,15-secopregnane-type C21-steriosides, stauntosides U, V, V1-V3, W and C1-C3, as well as two known C21-steriosides, were isolated from the roots of Cynanchum stauntonii. Stauntosides U, V and V1-V3 share the same basic structural features of 8α:14α,14:16,15:20,18:20-tetraepoxy-14,15-secopregn-6-ene-3β,5α,9α-triol, with the numbering system following that of C21-pregnanes. The aglycones of stauntosides U, V and V1-V3 are classified into two subcategories, the 5,9-dihydroxy groups and 5α:9α-peroxy bridge, according to the oxidative states of the two hydroxy groups at the C-5 and C-9 positions...
March 8, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283189/metal-ions-and-phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-as-interacting-effectors-of-%C3%AE-type-plant-phospholipase-d
#20
Lars Dreßler, Florian Michel, Iris Thondorf, Johanna Mansfeld, Ralph Golbik, Renate Ulbrich-Hofmann
Plant phospholipases D (PLD) are typically characterized by a C2 domain with at least two Ca(2+) binding sites. In vitro, the predominantly expressed α-type PLDs need 20-100 mM CaCl2 for optimum activity, whereas the essential activator of β- or γ-type PLDs, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), plays a secondary role. In the present paper, we have studied the interplay between PIP2 and metal ion activation of the well-known α-type PLD from cabbage (PLDα). With mixed micelles containing phosphatidyl-p-nitrophenol as substrate, PIP2-concentrations in the nanomolar range are able to activate the enzyme in addition to the essential Ca(2+) activation...
March 7, 2017: Phytochemistry
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