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Journal of Antibiotics

Kenji Ueda, Teruhiko Beppu
Today, the frequency of discovery of new antibiotics in microbial culture is significantly decreasing. The evidence from whole-genome surveys suggests that many genes involved in the synthesis of unknown metabolites do exist but are not expressed under conventional cultivation conditions. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to study the conditions that make otherwise silent genes active in microbes. Here we overview the knowledge on the antibiotic production promoted by cocultivation of multiple microbial strains...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Bing-Huo Zhang, Nimaichand Salam, Juan Cheng, Han-Quan Li, Jian-Yuan Yang, Dai-Ming Zha, Qi-Gen Guo, Wen-Jun Li
A novel actinobacterium, designated strain JXJ CY 01(T), was isolated from a mucilaginous sheath of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 collected from Lake Dianchi, south-west China. Taxonomic position of the isolate was determined by polyphasic approaches. Strain JXJ CY 01(T) shared 16S rRNA sequence similarities of 98.9 and 98.0% with Microbacterium marinilacus YM11-607(T) and Microbacterium paludicola US15(T), and less than 98% with other members of the genus Microbacterium. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strains JXJ CY 01(T) and M...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Mai Ohba, Tomoichiro Oka, Takayuki Ando, Saori Arahata, Asaka Ikegaya, Hirotaka Takagi, Naohisa Ogo, Chelsea Zhu, Kazuhiro Owada, Fumihiko Kawamori, Qiuhong Wang, Linda J Saif, Akira Asai
Caliciviruses are contagious pathogens of humans and various animals. They are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans, and can cause lethal diseases in domestic animals such as cats, rabbits and immunocompromised mice. In this study, we conducted cytopathic effect-based screening of 2080 selected compounds from our in-house library to find antiviral compounds against three culturable caliciviruses: feline calicivirus, murine norovirus (MNV) and porcine sapovirus (PoSaV). We identified active six compounds, of which two compounds, both related to theaflavins, showed broad antiviral activities against all three caliciviruses; three compounds (abamectin, a mixture of avermectin B1a and B1b; avermectin B1a; and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate hydrate) were effective against PoSaV only; and a heterocyclic carboxamide derivative (BFTC) specifically inhibited MNV infectivity in cell cultures...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Ai-Jun Pan, Qing Mei, Ying Ye, Hong-Ru Li, Bao Liu, Jia-Bin Li
The purpose of this study was to validate the mutant selection window (MSW) hypothesis in vitro and in vivo with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to fosfomycin. Two standard strains of Gram-negative bacteria, those are E. coli ATCC 25922 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, were exposed to fosfomycin at concentrations below MIC, between the MIC and the mutant prevention concentration (MPC), and above the MPC in Luria-Bertani broth and in a tissue-cage infection model, respectively. With the in vitro time-kill studies, there were bacterial re-growth and emergence of resistance thereafter for both strains at antibiotic concentrations of × 4, × 8 and × 16 MIC...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Arnold L Demain, Evan Martens
We are pleased to dedicate this paper to Dr Julian E Davies. Julian is a giant among microbial biochemists. He began his professional career as an organic chemistry PhD student at Nottingham University, moved on to a postdoctoral fellowship at Columbia University, then became a lecturer at the University of Manchester, followed by a fellowship in microbial biochemistry at Harvard Medical School. In 1965, he studied genetics at the Pasteur Institute, and 2 years later joined the University of Wisconsin in the Department of Biochemistry...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Irene Saugar, Brian Molloy, Eloisa Sanz, María Blanca Sánchez, María Fernández-Lobato, Antonio Jiménez
Antibiotic A201A produced by Saccharothrix mutabilis subsp. capreolus NRRL3817 contains an aminonucleoside (N(6), N(6)-dimethyl-3'-amino-3'-deoxyadenosyl), a polyketide (α-methyl-p-coumaric acid) and a disaccharide moiety. The heterologous expression in Streptomyces lividans and Streptomyces coelicolor of a S. mutabilis genomic region of ~34 kb results in the production of A201A, which was identified by microbiological, biochemical and physicochemical approaches, and indicating that this region may contain the entire A201A biosynthetic gene cluster (ata)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Tomoko Abe, Yoshiteru Hashimoto, Sayaka Sugimoto, Kenta Kobayashi, Takuto Kumano, Michihiko Kobayashi
The adenylation domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) is responsible for the selective substrate recognition and its activation (as an acyl-O-AMP intermediate) during ATP consumption. DhbE, a stand-alone adenylation domain, acts on an aromatic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB). This activation is the initial step of the synthesis of bacillibactin that is a high-affinity small-molecule iron chelator also termed siderophore. Subsequently, the activated DHB is transferred and attached covalently to a peptidyl carrier protein domain via a thioester bond...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Douglas E Berg
This paper recounts some of my fond memories of a collaboration between Julian Davies and myself that started in 1974 in Geneva and that led to our serendipitous discovery of the bacterial kanamycin resistance transposon Tn5, and aspects of the lasting positive impact of our interaction and discovery on me and the community. Tn5 was one of the first antibiotic resistance transposons to be found. Its analysis over the ensuing decades provided valuable insights into mechanisms and control of transposition, and led to its use as a much-valued tool in diverse areas of molecular genetics, as also will be discussed here...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Zhikai Guo, Guohui Pan, Zhengren Xu, Dong Yang, Hindra, Xiangcheng Zhu, Yong Huang, Li-Xing Zhao, Yi Jiang, Yanwen Duan, Ben Shen
Isofuranonaphthoquinones (IFQs) and Isoindolequinones (IIQs) comprise a small family of natural products, with the latter ones are especially uncommon in nature. Here we report the discovery of seven new IFQs, IFQ A-G (1-7), and three new IIQs, IIQ A-C (8-10), along with the known anthraquinone desoxyerythrolaccin (11), from Streptomyces sp. CB01883, expanding the chemical diversity of this family of natural products. The structures of these natural products were established on the basis of their HR-ESI-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Yoshinari Wakiyama, Ko Kumura, Eijiro Umemura, Satomi Masaki, Kazutaka Ueda, Yasuo Sato, Takashi Watanabe, Yoko Hirai, Keiichi Ajito
Novel lincomycin derivatives possessing an aryl phenyl group or a heteroaryl phenyl group at the C-7 position via sulfur atom were synthesized by Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of 7(S)-7-deoxy-7-thiolincomycin (5) with various aryl halides. This reaction is the most useful method to synthesize a variety of 7(S)-7-deoxy-7-thiolincomycin derivatives. On the basis of analysis of structure-activity relationships of these novel lincomycin derivatives, we found that (a) the location of basicity in the C-7 side chain was an important factor to enhance antibacterial activities, and (b) compounds 22, 36, 42, 43 and 44 had potent antibacterial activities against a variety of Streptococcus pneumoniae with erm gene, which cause severe respiratory infections, even compared with our C-7-modified lincomycin analogs (1-4) reported previously...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Zhibo Jiang, Xuan Lei, Minghua Chen, Bingya Jiang, Linzhuan Wu, Xuexia Zhang, Zhihui Zheng, Xinxin Hu, Xuefu You, Shuyi Si, Lifei Wang, Bin Hong
Norvancomycin (NVCM) is widely used in China to treat bacterial infections of Gram-positive cocci and bacilli, especially infections of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. This study is a chemical investigation of the drug substance of NVCM, and led to the identification, by 1D, 2D NMR spectra and HRESIMS, of three as yet undescribed impurities, one D-O-E ring expanded NVCM analog (1) and two derivatives of NVCM lacking sugars (2, 3).The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 5 October 2016; doi:10...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Teppei Kawahara, Masashi Itoh, Miho Izumikawa, Noriaki Sakata, Toshio Tsuchida, Kazuo Shin-Ya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Ikuko Nakamura, Seiji Yoshimura, Teruhisa Masaki, Shigehiro Takase, Keisuke Ohsumi, Michizane Hashimoto, Shigetada Furukawa, Akihiko Fujie
The novel antifungal agent ASP2397 (Vical's compound ID VL-2397) is produced by the fungal strain MF-347833 that was isolated from Malaysian leaf litter and is identified here as an Acremonium species based on its morphology, physiological properties and 28S ribosomal DNA sequence. Because of its potential importance for producing novel antifungal agents, we determined the taxonomic and biologic properties of MF-347833. We show here that ASP2397 is a cyclic hexapeptide that chelates aluminum ion and is therefore similar to ferrichrome, a hydroxamate siderophore...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Xu Wan, Hui-Jun Ren, Min-Na Du, Huan Qi, Hui Zhang, An-Liang Chen, Ji-Dong Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Nalli Yedukondalu, Palak Arora, Bhumika Wadhwa, Fayaz Ahmad Malik, Ram A Vishwakarma, Vivek K Gupta, Syed Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Asif Ali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Fumitaka Kudo, Takahiro Tokumitsu, Tadashi Eguchi
A radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine dehydratase AprD4 and an NADPH-dependent reductase AprD3 are responsible for the C3'-deoxygenation of pseudodisaccharide paromamine in the biosynthesis of apramycin. These enzymes are involved in the construction of the characteristic structural motif that is not modified by 3'-phosphotransferase in aminoglycoside-resistant bacterial strains. AprD4 catalyzes the C3'-dehydration of paromamine via a radical-mediated reaction mechanism to give 4'-oxolividamine, which is then reduced by AprD3 with NADPH to afford lividamine...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Mei-Yue Gao, Huan Qi, Jian-Song Li, Hui Zhang, Ji Zhang, Ji-Dong Wang, Wen-Sheng Xiang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Issara Kaweewan, Mayumi Ohnishi-Kameyama, Shinya Kodani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Toshihiko Nogawa, Akiko Okano, Chung Liang Lim, Yushi Futamura, Takeshi Shimizu, Shunji Takahashi, Darah Ibrahim, Hiroyuki Osada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Ikuko Nakamura, Ryuichi Kanasaki, Koji Yoshikawa, Shigetada Furukawa, Akihiko Fujie, Hiroshi Hamamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
Natural products are the major source of currently available drugs. However, screening natural product presents several challenges, including the time-consuming and labor-intensive steps required for the isolation of a drug from crude extracts as well as the differences between the activities of compounds in vitro and in vivo. To address these challenges, we used silkworm larvae infected with Aspergillus fumigatus to screen a natural products library for potent drugs to treat invasive aspergillosis. A rationally designed library was constructed using numerous, geographically diverse fungal species and then screened to collect extracts of microorganisms that had detectable anti-Aspergillus activity...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
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