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Environmental Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350994/the-reduction-of-chlorella-vulgaris-concentrations-through-uv-c-radiation-treatments-a-nature-based-solution-nbs
#1
Erika S Chen, Thomas B Bridgeman
Algal blooms have become a pressing issue in inland freshwater systems on local and global scales. A plausible approach to reducing algae without the use of chemical/biological agents is through the use of UV-C radiation from lamps potentially powered by in situ solar panels to eliminate algae. Yet, the quantitative scientific base has not been established. Our objective is to conduct a controlled experiment to quantify the effectiveness of UV-C radiation on the reduction of Chlorella vulgaris, a common algal species in the Great Lakes region...
March 25, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342962/intellectual-evaluation-of-children-exposed-to-phthalate-tainted-products-after-the-2011-taiwan-phthalate-episode
#2
Po-Chin Huang, Chih-Hsin Tsai, Chu-Chih Chen, Ming-Tsang Wu, Mei-Lien Chen, Shu-Li Wang, Bai-Hsiun Chen, Ching-Chang Lee, Jouni J K Jaakkola, Wen-Chiu Wu, Min-Kung Chen, Chao A Hsiung, Rapit Group
INTRODUCTION: Phthalate exposure may reduce intellectual development in young children. In 2011, numerous Taiwanese children had been reported to have consumed phthalate-tainted products. We investigated the effects of phthalate exposure on the intellectual development of these children after the 2011 Taiwan di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) episode. METHODS: We recruited 204 children, aged 3-12 y, from 3 hospitals in Taiwan between 2012 and 2013. First-morning urine samples were collected for analyzing 5 phthalate metabolites...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342961/particulate-metal-bioaccessibility-in-physiological-fluids-and-cell-culture-media-toxicological-perspectives
#3
Bérénice Leclercq, Laurent Yves Alleman, Esperanza Perdrix, Véronique Riffault, Mélanie Happillon, Alain Strecker, Jean-Marc Lo-Guidice, Guillaume Garçon, Patrice Coddeville
According to the literature, tiny amounts of transition metals in airborne fine particles (PM2.5) may induce proinflammatory cell response through reactive oxygen species production. The solubility of particle-bound metals in physiological fluids, i.e. the metal bioaccessibility is driven by factors such as the solution chemical composition, the contact time with the particles, and the solid-to-liquid phase ratio (S/L). In this work, PM2.5-bound metal bioaccessibility was assessed in various physiological-like solutions including cell culture media in order to evidence the potential impact on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) when studying the cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses of PM2...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342960/geophagy-during-pregnancy-is-there-a-health-risk-for-infants
#4
Claudia Gundacker, Ruth Kutalek, Rosina Glaunach, Coloman Deweis, Markus Hengstschläger, Armin Prinz
Prenatal lead exposure is a public health concern. Geophagy, the practice of soil eating, is documented for pregnant women of sub-Saharan Africa to treat pregnancy-related malaise. The soils however can contain substantial amounts of lead. In an exploratory study on 48 mother-child pairs in the Democratic Republic of Congo, we found striking site-specific differences in prenatal lead exposure, i.e., higher lead levels at Kisangani than at Isiro. Kisangani women consumed 1/ more often soil during the first trimester of pregnancy as well as 2/ a different type of soil compared to Isiro women (P<0...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342349/evaluation-of-individual-and-area-level-factors-as-modifiers-of-the-association-between-warm-season-temperature-and-pediatric-asthma-morbidity-in-atlanta-ga
#5
Cassandra R O'Lenick, Andrea Winquist, Howard H Chang, Michael R Kramer, James A Mulholland, Andrew Grundstein, Stefanie Ebelt Sarnat
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have found associations between respiratory morbidity and high temperatures; however, few studies have explored associations in potentially sensitive sub-populations. METHODS: We evaluated individual and area-level factors as modifiers of the association between warm-season (May-Sept.) temperature and pediatric respiratory morbidity in Atlanta. Emergency department (ED) visit data were obtained for children, 5-18 years old, with primary diagnoses of asthma or respiratory disease (diagnoses of upper respiratory infections, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, or wheeze) in 20-county Atlanta during 1993-2012...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342348/circulating-thyroid-hormones-and-associated-metabolites-in-white-whales-delphinapterus-leucas-determined-using-isotope-dilution-mass-spectrometry
#6
Martin Hansen, Gro D Villanger, Thea Bechshoft, Milton Levin, Heli Routti, Kit M Kovacs, Christian Lydersen
Blood was sampled from nine free-ranging white whales (beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard, Norway during the summers of 2013 and 2014. Total concentrations of eleven thyroid hormones and metabolites were measured in serum using a novel liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analytical method. Measurements of these compounds in plasma gave the same results as in serum. The three hormones found in highest concentrations were 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3), 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) and thyroxine (T4)...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342347/assumed-non-persistent-environmental-chemicals-in-human-adipose-tissue-matrix-stability-and-correlation-with-levels-measured-in-urine-and-serum
#7
F Artacho-Cordón, J P Arrebola, O Nielsen, P Hernández, N E Skakkebaek, M F Fernández, A M Andersson, N Olea, H Frederiksen
The aim of this study was to (1) optimize a method for the measurement of parabens and phenols in adipose tissue, (2) evaluate the stability of chemical residues in adipose tissue samples, and (3) study correlations of these compounds in urine, serum, and adipose tissue. Samples were obtained from adults undergoing trauma surgery. Nine phenols and seven parabens were determined by isotope diluted TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS. The analytical method showed good accuracy and precision. Limits of detection (LOD) for parabens and phenols ranged from 0...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342346/can-wastewater-based-epidemiology-be-used-to-evaluate-the-health-impact-of-temperature-an-exploratory-study-in-an-australian-population
#8
Dung Phung, Jochen Mueller, Foon Yin Lai, Jake O'Brien, Nhung Dang, Lidia Morawska, Phong K Thai
Ambient temperature is known to have impact on population health but assessing its impact by the traditional cohort approach is resource intensive. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) could be an alternative for the traditional approach. This study was to provide the first evaluation to see if WBE can be used to assess the impact of temperature exposure to a population in South East Queensland, Australia using selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as biomarkers. Daily loads of eight PPCPs in wastewater collected from a wastewater treatment plant were measured from February 2011 to June 2012...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342345/use-of-exhaled-air-as-an-improved-biomonitoring-method-to-assess-perchloroethylene-short-term-exposure
#9
Cláudia M Dias, Helvécio C Menezes, Zenilda L Cardeal
This paper shows the use of exhaled air as a biomonitoring method to assess perchloroethylene (PERC) environmental and occupational exposure. A sensitive, fast, and solvent free analytical method was developed to determine PERC in ambient and exhaled air of individuals occupationally exposed. The developed method used cold fiber solid phase microextraction (CF-SPME) as the sampling technique, and a standard permeation method to simulation of air matrix. The analysis were conducted by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS)...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342350/challenges-for-tree-officers-to-enhance-the-provision-of-regulating-ecosystem-services-from-urban-forests
#10
Helen J Davies, Kieron J Doick, Malcolm D Hudson, Kate Schreckenberg
Urbanisation and a changing climate are leading to more frequent and severe flood, heat and air pollution episodes in Britain's cities. Interest in nature-based solutions to these urban problems is growing, with urban forests potentially able to provide a range of regulating ecosystem services such as stormwater attenuation, heat amelioration and air purification. The extent to which these benefits are realized is largely dependent on urban forest management objectives, the availability of funding, and the understanding of ecosystem service concepts within local governments, the primary delivery agents of urban forests...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340488/national-and-sub-national-age-sex-specific-and-cause-specific-mortality-and-disability-adjusted-life-years-dalys-attributable-to-household-air-pollution-from-solid-cookfuel-use-hap-in-iran-1990-2013
#11
Mehrnoosh Abtahi, Ali Koolivand, Sina Dobaradaran, Kamyar Yaghmaeian, Anoushiravan Mohseni-Bandpei, Shokooh Sadat Khaloo, Sahand Jorfi, Reza Saeedi
National and sub-national mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for household air pollution from solid cookfuel use (HAP) in Iran, 1990-2013 were estimated based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013). The burden of disease attributable to HAP was quantified by the comparative risk assessment method using four inputs: (1) exposure to HAP, (2) the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), (3) exposure-response relationships of related causes (4) disease burden of related causes...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334645/long-term-residential-road-traffic-noise-and-no2-exposure-in-relation-to-risk-of-incident-myocardial-infarction-a-danish-cohort-study
#12
Nina Roswall, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Matthias Ketzel, Anders Gammelmark, Kim Overvad, Anja Olsen, Mette Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Road traffic is a source of both air pollution and noise; two environmental hazards both found to increase the risk of ischemic heart disease. Given the high correlation between these pollutants, it is important to investigate combined effects, in relation to myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: Among 50,744 middle-aged Danes enrolled into the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort from 1993 to 97, we identified 2403 cases of incident MI during a median follow-up of 14...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334644/low-level-inorganic-arsenic-exposure-and-neuropsychological-functioning-in-american-indian-elders
#13
Clint R Carroll, Carolyn Noonan, Eva M Garroutte, Ana Navas-Acien, Steven P Verney, Dedra Buchwald
BACKGROUND: Inorganic arsenic at high and prolonged doses is highly neurotoxic. Few studies have evaluated whether long-term, low-level arsenic exposure is associated with neuropsychological functioning in adults. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between long-term, low-level inorganic arsenic exposure and neuropsychological functioning among American Indians aged 64-95. METHODS: We assessed 928 participants in the Strong Heart Study by using data on arsenic species in urine samples collected at baseline (1989-1991) and results of standardized tests of global cognition, executive functioning, verbal learning and memory, fine motor functioning, and speed of mental processing administered during comprehensive follow-up evaluations in 2009-2013...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319819/childhood-cancer-in-small-geographical-areas-and-proximity-to-air-polluting-industries
#14
Juan A Ortega-García, Fernando A López-Hernández, Alberto Cárceles-Álvarez, José L Fuster-Soler, Diana I Sotomayor, Rebeca Ramis
AIM: Pediatric cancer has been associated with exposure to certain environmental carcinogens. The purpose of this work is to analyse the relationship between environmental pollution and pediatric cancer risk. METHOD: We analysed all incidences of pediatric cancer (<15) diagnosed in a Spanish region during the period 1998-2015. The place of residence of each patient and the exact geographical coordinates of main industrial facilities was codified in order to analyse the spatial distribution of cases of cancer in relation to industrial areas...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319818/a-task-based-assessment-of-parental-occupational-exposure-to-pesticides-and-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#15
Robert B Gunier, Alice Kang, S Katharine Hammond, Kyndaron Reinier, C Suzanne Lea, Jeffrey S Chang, Monique Does, Ghislaine Scelo, Janice Kirsch, Vonda Crouse, Robert Cooper, Patricia Quinlan, Catherine Metayer
OBJECTIVES: Associations between parental occupational pesticide exposure and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) vary across studies, likely due to different exposure assessment methodologies. METHODS: We assessed parental occupational pesticide exposure from the year before pregnancy to the child's third year of life for 669 children diagnosed with ALL and 1021 controls. We conducted expert rating using task-based job modules (JM) to estimate exposure to pesticides among farmer workers, gardeners, agricultural packers, and pesticide applicators...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318508/effects-of-novel-brominated-flame-retardant-tbph-and-its-metabolite-tbmehp-on-human-vascular-endothelial-cells-implication-for-human-health-risks
#16
Ping Xiang, Rong-Yan Liu, Hong-Jie Sun, Yun-Wen Yang, Xin-Yi Cui, Lena Q Ma
As a replacement for polybrominated diphenyl ethers, bis-(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBPH) is widely used as a novel flame retardant and has been detected in many environmental matrix including human blood. TBPH can be metabolized into mono-(2-ethyhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBMEHP) by carboxylesterase. However, their adverse effects on human vascular endothelium and their potential impacts on human cardiovascular disease are unknown. In this study, their adverse effects and associated molecular mechanisms on human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were investigated...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319817/indoor-air-quality-of-low-and-middle-income-urban-households-in-durban-south-africa
#17
Nkosana Jafta, Lars Barregard, Prakash M Jeena, Rajen N Naidoo
INTRODUCTION: Elevated levels of indoor air pollutants may cause cardiopulmonary disease such as lower respiratory infection, chronic obstructive lung disease and lung cancer, but the association with tuberculosis (TB) is unclear. So far the risk estimates of TB infection or/and disease due to indoor air pollution (IAP) exposure are based on self-reported exposures rather than direct measurements of IAP, and these exposures have not been validated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to characterize and develop predictive models for concentrations of three air pollutants (PM10, NO2 and SO2) in homes of children participating in a childhood TB study...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314153/sewage-sludge-disposal-strategies-for-sustainable-development
#18
Małgorzata Kacprzak, Ewa Neczaj, Krzysztof Fijałkowski, Anna Grobelak, Anna Grosser, Małgorzata Worwag, Agnieszka Rorat, Helge Brattebo, Åsgeir Almås, Bal Ram Singh
The main objective of the present review is to compare the existing sewage sludge management solutions in terms of their environmental sustainability. The most commonly used strategies, that include treatment and disposal has been favored within the present state-of-art, considering existing legislation (at European and national level), characterization, ecotoxicology, waste management and actual routs used currently in particular European countries. Selected decision making tools, namely End-of-waste criteria and Life Cycle Assessment has been proposed in order to appropriately assess the possible environmental, economic and technical evaluation of different systems...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314152/monitoring-a-large-number-of-pesticides-and-transformation-products-in-water-samples-from-spain-and-italy
#19
Nikolaos I Rousis, Richard Bade, Lubertus Bijlsma, Ettore Zuccato, Juan V Sancho, Felix Hernandez, Sara Castiglioni
Assessing the presence of pesticides in environmental waters is particularly challenging because of the huge number of substances used which may end up in the environment. Furthermore, the occurrence of pesticide transformation products (TPs) and/or metabolites makes this task even harder. Most studies dealing with the determination of pesticides in water include only a small number of analytes and in many cases no TPs. The present study applied a screening method for the determination of a large number of pesticides and TPs in wastewater (WW) and surface water (SW) from Spain and Italy...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314151/cadmium-lead-and-arsenic-contamination-in-paddy-soils-of-a-mining-area-and-their-exposure-effects-on-human-hepg2-and-keratinocyte-cell-lines
#20
Shengguo Xue, Lizheng Shi, Chuan Wu, Hui Wu, Yanyan Qin, Weisong Pan, William Hartley, Mengqian Cui
A mining district in south China shows significant metal(loid) contamination in paddy fields. In the soils, average Pb, Cd and As concentrations were 460.1, 11.7 and 35.1mgkg(-1) respectively, which were higher than the environmental quality standard for agricultural soils in China (GB15618-1995) and UK Clea Soil Guideline Value. The average contents of Pb, Cd and As in rice were 5.24, 1.1 and 0.7mgkg(-1) respectively, which were about 25, 4.5 or 2.5 times greater than the limit values of the maximum safe contaminant concentration standard in food of China (GB 2762-2012), and about 25, 10 or 1 times greater than the limit values of FAO/WHO standard...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Research
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