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Environmental Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738300/paternal-and-maternal-preconception-urinary-phthalate-metabolite-concentrations-and-child-behavior
#1
Carmen Messerlian, David Bellinger, Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Megan E Romano, Jennifer B Ford, Paige L Williams, Antonia M Calafat, Russ Hauser, Joseph M Braun
BACKGROUND: Prenatal phthalate exposure has been associated with behavioral problems and lower performance on measures of cognitive ability in children. However, the potential effect of phthalate exposure during the sensitive preconception period is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the association of maternal and paternal preconception urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with child behavior and evaluate potential modification by child sex. METHODS: We used data from 166 children (111 singletons, 26 pairs of twins, and 1 set of triplets) born to 134 mothers and 100 fathers participating in a prospective preconception cohort study of subfertile couples from the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738299/the-impact-of-bmi-on-non-malignant-respiratory-symptoms-and-lung-function-in-arsenic-exposed-adults-of-northern-chile
#2
Anthony Nardone, Catterina Ferreccio, Johanna Acevedo, Wayne Enanoria, Alden Blair, Allan H Smith, John Balmes, Craig Steinmaus
BACKGROUND: Elevated body mass index (BMI) and arsenic are both associated with cancer and with non-malignant lung disease. Using a unique exposure situation in Northern Chile with data on lifetime arsenic exposure, we previously identified the first evidence of an interaction between arsenic and BMI for the development of lung cancer. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether there was an interaction between arsenic and BMI for the development of non-malignant lung disease...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735231/exploring-the-association-between-heat-and-mortality-in-switzerland-between-1995-and-2013
#3
Martina S Ragettli, Ana M Vicedo-Cabrera, Christian Schindler, Martin Röösli
Designing effective public health strategies to prevent adverse health effect of hot weather is crucial in the context of global warming. In Switzerland, the 2003 heat have caused an estimated 7% increase in all-cause mortality. As a consequence, the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health developed an information campaign to raise public awareness on heat threats. For a better understanding on how hot weather affects daily mortality in Switzerland, we assessed the effect of heat on daily mortality in eight Swiss cities and population subgroups from 1995 to 2013 using different temperature metrics (daily mean (Tmean), maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin) and maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax)), and aimed to evaluate variations of the heat effect after 2003 (1995-2002 versus 2004-2013)...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735230/granulometry-microbial-composition-and-biological-activity-of-dusts-collected-in-french-dairy-farms
#4
Hugo Pfister, Claudie Morzadec, Pierre Le Cann, Laurent Madec, Valérie Lecureur, Martine Chouvet, Stéphane Jouneau, Laurent Vernhet
BACKGROUND: Dairy working increases the prevalence of lower airway respiratory diseases, especially COPD and asthma. Epidemiological studies have reported that chronic inhalation of organic dusts released during specific daily tasks could represent a major risk factor for development of these pathologies in dairy workers. Knowledge on size, nature and biological activity of such organic dusts remain however limited. OBJECTIVE: To compare size distribution, microbial composition and cellular effects of dusts liberated by the spreading of straw bedding in five French dairy farms located in Brittany...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734255/use-of-electronic-cigarettes-in-public-and-private-settings-in-barcelona-spain
#5
Nuria Matilla-Santander, Marcela Fu, Montse Ballbè, Kailey Bunch, Cristina Lidón-Moyano, Juan Carlos Martín-Sánchez, Esteve Fernández, Jose M Martínez-Sánchez
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of e-cigarette users who use them in selected indoor public and workplaces, and private venues in Barcelona (Spain) in 2015. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of a sample of e-cigarette users (≥ 18 years) from Barcelona (n = 600). We calculated the proportion of e-cigarette users who used the device in public and private settings (in the last 30 days). We fit multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for sex and age to calculate the odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) of e-cigarette use by socio-demographic factors, dual use and nicotine-containing e-cigarettes...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734254/childhood-polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-pbde-exposure-and-neurobehavior-in-children-at-8-years
#6
Ann M Vuong, Kimberly Yolton, Changchun Xie, Glenys M Webster, Andreas Sjödin, Joseph M Braun, Kim N Dietrich, Bruce P Lanphear, Aimin Chen
BACKGROUND: Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure has been associated with decrements in IQ and increased attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder related behaviors in children; however, data are limited for the role of postnatal exposures. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between a series of childhood PBDE concentrations and Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) and externalizing problems at 8 years. METHODS: We used data from 208 children in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734253/polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-flame-retardant-concentrations-in-faeces-from-young-children-in-queensland-australia-and-associations-with-environmental-and-behavioural-factors
#7
Karin English, Yiqin Chen, Leisa-Maree Toms, Paul Jagals, Robert S Ware, Jochen F Mueller, Peter D Sly
The aim of our study was to investigate children's exposure to the flame retardants polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by analysing faecal content, a non-invasive matrix, as well as responses to an exposure-assessment questionnaire. A convenience sample of 61 parents with children (aged >3 months to <2 years) completed an online pre-tested questionnaire and provided faecal samples for analysis by high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. BDE-209 was the dominant congener in faecal samples adjusted to 8...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732322/effects-of-environmental-pollutants-on-signaling-pathways-in-rat-pituitary-gh3-adenoma-cells
#8
Nicoletta Fortunati, Federica Guaraldi, Valentina Zunino, Federica Penner, Valentina D'Angelo, Francesco Zenga, Francesca Pecori Giraldi, Maria Graziella Catalano, Emanuela Arvat
An increased rate of acromegaly was reported in industrialized areas, suggesting an involvement of environmental pollutants in the pathogenesis and behavior of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas. Based on these premises, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of some widely diffused pollutants (i.e. benzene, BZ; bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, DEHP and polychlorinated biphenyls, PCB) on growth hormone secretion, the somatostatin and estrogenic pathways, viability and proliferation of rat GH-producing pituitary adenoma (GH3) cells...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732321/aggregating-exposures-cumulating-risk-for-semivolatile-organic-compounds-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Maud Pelletier, Nathalie Bonvallot, Philippe Glorennec
Increasingly, health risk assessment is addressing multiple pathway exposures to multiple contaminants. We reviewed aggregated exposure and cumulative risk approaches for contemporary and ubiquitous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC). We identified 22 studies aggregating exposure pathways, and 31 cumulating risk. Exposure aggregation is based on the addition of pathway-specific doses, using kinetic modeling where it exists, and classic external dose equations otherwise. In most cases, exposure is dominated by a single route or source of exposure - mainly the oral pathway - via dietary or non-dietary exposure...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727988/environmental-exposures-and-pediatric-kidney-function-and-disease-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Laura Y Zheng, Alison P Sanders, Jeffrey M Saland, Robert O Wright, Manish Arora
BACKGROUND: Environmental chemical exposures have been implicated in pediatric kidney disease. No appraisal of the available evidence has been conducted on this topic. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the epidemiologic studies that assessed association of environmental exposures with measures of kidney function and disease in pediatric populations. The search period went through July 2016. RESULTS: We found 50 studies that met the search criteria and were included in this systematic review...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719870/effects-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-on-estrogen-receptor-alpha-and-heat-shock-protein-60-gene-expression-in-primary-cultures-of-loggerhead-sea-turtle-caretta-caretta-erythrocytes
#11
Paolo Cocci, Martina Capriotti, Gilberto Mosconi, Francesco Alessandro Palermo
The loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) can be considered a good indicator species for studying the ecological impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on wildlife. However, the effect of these environmental pollutants on nuclear steroid hormone signaling has not yet been addressed in sea turtles mainly due to the legal constraints of their endangered status. Here we describe the use of primary erythrocyte cell cultures as in vitro models for evaluating the effects of different EDCs on the expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα)...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719869/effectiveness-of-table-top-water-pitcher-filters-to-remove-arsenic-from-drinking-water
#12
Roxanna Barnaby, Amanda Liefeld, Brian P Jackson, Thomas H Hampton, Bruce A Stanton
Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a serious threat to the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide. In the United States ~3 million individuals drink well water that contains arsenic levels above the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10μg/L. Several technologies are available to remove arsenic from well water including anion exchange, adsorptive media and reverse osmosis. In addition, bottled water is an alternative to drinking well water contaminated with arsenic...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719868/quantitative-meta-analytic-approaches-for-the-systematic-synthesis-of-data-and-hazard-identification-a-case-study-of-decreased-pain-sensitivity-due-to-trimethylbenzene-exposure
#13
J Allen Davis, Andrew Kraft
Traditionally, human health risk assessments have relied on qualitative approaches for hazard identification, which involves weight of evidence determinations that integrate evidence across multiple studies. Recently, the National Research Council has recommended the development of quantitative approaches for evidence integration, including the application of meta-analyses, to help summarize and evaluate the results of a systematic review. In the meta-analytic approach, a pooled effect size is calculated after consideration of multiple potential confounding factors in order to determine whether the entire database under consideration indicates a chemical is a hazard...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715788/smoke-free-homes-and-attitudes-towards-banning-smoking-in-vehicles-carrying-children-in-spain-2016
#14
Ana Díez-Izquierdo, Cristina Lidón-Moyano, Juan Carlos Martín-Sánchez, Nuria Matilla-Santander, Pia Cassanello-Peñarroya, Albert Balaguer, Jose M Martínez-Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: To describe the voluntary adoption of smoke-free homes and social attitudes in Spain towards banning smoking in vehicles in which children are present. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the adult Spanish population age range, 18-75 years (n=1036). The field work was conducted via a computer-assisted telephone survey in March and April 2016. Survey respondents answered questions about smoking rules at home and attitudes towards a smoking ban in cars with or without children...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715787/micronutrients-during-pregnancy-and-child-psychomotor-development-opposite-effects-of-zinc-and-selenium
#15
Kinga Polanska, Wojciech Hanke, Anna Krol, Jolanta Gromadzinska, Renata Kuras, Beata Janasik, Wojciech Wasowicz, Fiorino Mirabella, Flavia Chiarotti, Gemma Calamandrei
Studies on the impact of micronutrient levels during different pregnancy periods on child psychomotor functions are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal plasma concentrations of selected micronutrients, such as: copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), and child neuropsychological development. The study population consisted of 539 mother-child pairs from Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL). The micronutrient levels were measured in each trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and in the cord blood...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715786/background-lead-and-mercury-exposures-psychological-and-behavioral-problems-in-children
#16
Brooks B Gump, Matthew J Dykas, James A MacKenzie, Amy K Dumas, Bryce Hruska, Craig K Ewart, Patrick J Parsons, Christopher D Palmer, Kestutis Bendinskas
BACKGROUND: The potential harm from exposure to nonessential metals, particularly mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb), has been the focus of research for years. Initial interest focused on relatively high exposures; however, recent evidence suggests that even background exposures might have adverse consequences for child development. Identifying the extent of these consequences is now a priority. METHODS: We assessed blood Pb and Hg levels in a biracial sample of 9-11 year-old children (N = 203)...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715785/prenatal-exposure-estimation-of-bpa-and-dehp-using-integrated-external-and-internal-dosimetry-a-case-study
#17
M A Martínez, J Rovira, R Prasad Sharma, M Nadal, M Schuhmacher, V Kumar
Prenatal exposure to Endocrine disruptors (EDs), such as Bisphenol A (BPA) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), has been associated with obesity and diabetes diseases in childhood, as well as reproductive, behavioral and neurodevelopment problems. The aim of this study was to estimate the prenatal exposure to BPA and DEHP through food consumption for pregnant women living in Tarragona County (Spain). Probabilistic calculations of prenatal exposure were estimated by integrated external and internal dosimetry modelling, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, using a Monte-Carlo simulation...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715784/elemental-content-of-the-placenta-a-comparison-between-two-high-risk-obstetrical-populations-adult-women-carrying-multiples-and-adolescents-carrying-singletons
#18
Paolo de Angelis, Richard K Miller, Thomas H Darrah, Philip J Katzman, Eva K Pressman, Tera R Kent, Kimberly O O'Brien
BACKGROUND: The placenta is responsible for the exchange of nutrients and for preventing harmful compounds from entering the fetal circulation. With increasing industrialization, exposures to commercial and toxic metals become a concern for both pregnant women and those planning a pregnancy. The understanding of transport mechanisms and pharmacokinetics for most inorganic elements is incomplete and limited to normal term deliveries. OBJECTIVES: To obtain novel data on 46 inorganic elements in placentae from two high-risk obstetric populations, women carrying multiples and adolescents carrying singletons, evaluating differences, if present, and identifying predictors of placental content...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715783/development-of-land-use-regression-models-for-pm2-5-so2-no2-and-o3-in-nanjing-china
#19
Lei Huang, Can Zhang, Jun Bi
Ambient air pollution has been a global problem, especially in China. Comparing with other methods, Land Use Regression (LUR) models can obtain air pollutant concentration distribution at finer scale without the air pollution source data based on a few monitoring sites and predictors. However, limited LUR studies have been conducted on the basis of regular monitoring networks. Thus, we explored the applicability of conducting LUR models for four key air pollutants: PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and O3, on the basis of national monitoring networks which have good representation of areas with different characteristics in Nanjing, China...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711809/assessing-the-impact-of-hazardous-waste-on-children-s-health-the-exposome-paradigm
#20
D A Sarigiannis
Assessment of the health impacts related to hazardous waste is a major scientific challenge with multiple societal implications. Most studies related to associations between hazardous waste and public health do not provide established of mechanistic links between environmental exposure and disease burden, resulting in ineffective waste management options. The exposome concept comes to overhaul the nature vs. nurture paradigm and embraces a world of dynamic interactions between environmental exposures, endogenous exposures and genetic expression in humans...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Research
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