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Environmental Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161655/the-association-between-ambient-temperature-and-mortality-in-south-africa-a-time-series-analysis
#1
Noah Scovronick, Francesco Sera, Fiorella Acquaotta, Diego Garzena, Simona Fratianni, Caradee Y Wright, Antonio Gasparrini
BACKGROUND: There is an extensive literature describing temperature-mortality associations in developed regions, but research from developing countries, and Africa in particular, is limited. METHODS: We conducted a time-series analysis using daily temperature data and a national dataset of all 8.8 million recorded deaths in South Africa between 1997 and 2013. Mortality and temperature data were linked at the district municipality level and relationships were estimated with a distributed lag non-linear model with 21 days of lag, and pooled in a multivariate meta-analysis...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161654/prevalence-of-various-environmental-intolerances-in-a-swedish-and-finnish-general-population
#2
Kirsi Karvala, Markku Sainio, Eva Palmquist, Maj-Helen Nyback, Steven Nordin
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of various environmental intolerances (EIs), using several criteria in a Swedish and a Finnish general population. Ill-health attributed to low-level environmental exposures is a commonly encountered challenge in occupational and environmental medicine. METHODS: In population-based questionnaire surveys, the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study (Sweden) and the Österbotten Environmental Health Study (Finland), EI was inquired by one-item questions on symptom attribution to chemicals, certain buildings, or electromagnetic fields (EMFs), and difficulties tolerating sounds...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156344/neurotransmitter-changes-in-rat-brain-regions-following-glyphosate-exposure
#3
María-Aránzazu Martínez, Irma Ares, José-Luis Rodríguez, Marta Martínez, María-Rosa Martínez-Larrañaga, Arturo Anadón
The effects of glyphosate oral exposure (35, 75, 150 and 800mg/kg bw, 6 days) on brain region monoamine levels of male Wistar rats were examined. Glyphosate-treated rats (35, 75, 150 and 800mg/kg bw, 6 days), had no visible injury, i.e., no clinical signs of dysfunction were observed. After last dose of glyphosate, serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) and its metabolites levels were determined in the brain regions striatum, hippocampus, prefrontal, cortex, hypothalamus and midbrain, by HPLC...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156343/native-and-exotic-oysters-in-brazil-comparative-tolerance-to-hypercapnia
#4
Anthony Moreira, Etelvina Figueira, Iracy L Pecora, Amadeu M V M Soares, Rosa Freitas
Environmental hypercapnia in shallow coastal marine ecosystems can be exacerbated by increasing levels of atmospheric CO2. In these ecosystems organisms are expected to become increasingly subjected to pCO2 levels several times higher than those inhabiting ocean waters (e.g.: 10,000µatm), but still our current understanding on different species capacity to respond to such levels of hypercapnia is limited. Oysters are among the most important foundation species inhabiting these coastal ecosystems, although natural oyster banks are increasingly threatened worldwide...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156342/a-prospective-cohort-study-of-the-association-between-bisphenol-a-exposure-and-the-serum-levels-of-liver-enzymes-in-children
#5
Seonhwa Lee, Hye Ah Lee, Bomi Park, Hyejin Han, Bo Hyun Park, Se Young Oh, Young Sun Hong, Eun Hee Ha, Hyesook Park
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupter that acts in an estrogen-like manner. Few studies have investigated the association between urinary BPA concentrations and adverse liver function. Additionally, most studies were cross-sectional in nature and included only adults. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated BPA exposure levels and prospectively explored the association between BPA exposure and liver function in children. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the ongoing prospective Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort Study...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156341/urinary-bisphenol-a-concentrations-are-associated-with-reproductive-parameters-in-young-men
#6
Evdochia Adoamnei, Jaime Mendiola, Fernando Vela-Soria, Mariana F Fernández, Nicolás Olea, Niels Jørgensen, Shanna H Swan, Alberto M Torres-Cantero
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a pervasive environmental toxicant with known reproductive effects on sperm parameters and hormone levels. Several observational studies have investigated the associations between BPA exposure and male reproductive function, but findings are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between urinary BPA concentrations and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in a cross-sectional study with 215 healthy young university students (18-23 years old), investigated between 2010 and 2011 in Southern Spain (Murcia Region)...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154226/short-term-exposures-to-pm2-5-and-cause-specific-mortality-of-cardiovascular-health-in-china
#7
Chen Chen, Pengfei Zhu, Li Lan, Lian Zhou, Ruicong Liu, Qinghua Sun, Jie Ban, Wentao Wang, Dandan Xu, Tiantian Li
BACKGROUND: Many multi-center epidemiological studies have robustly examined the acute health effects of exposure to low concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on cardiovascular mortality in developed counties. However, data limitations have resulted in few related studies being conducted in developing counties with high levels of PM2.5 exposure. In recent years, people in China with a heavy cardiovascular disease burden have been exposed to particularly high levels of PM2...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154175/improving-human-health-outcomes-with-a-low-cost-intervention-to-reduce-exposures-from-lead-acid-battery-recycling-dong-mai-vietnam
#8
Bret Ericson, Thi To Duong, John Keith, Trong Cuu Nguyen, Deborah Havens, William Daniell, Catherine J Karr, Doan Ngoc Hai, Lo Van Tung, Tran Thi Nhi Ha, Brian Wilson, David Hanrahan, Gerry Croteau, Mark Patrick Taylor
This study details the first comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of a soil lead mitigation project in Dong Mai village, Vietnam. The village's population had been subject to severe lead poisoning for at least a decade as a result of informal Used Lead Acid Battery (ULAB) recycling. Between July 2013 to February 2015, Pure Earth and the Centre for Environment and Community Development (Hanoi, Vietnam) implemented a multi-faceted environmental and human health intervention. The intervention consisted of a series of institutional and low-cost engineering controls including the capping of lead contaminated surface soils, cleaning of home interiors, an education campaign and the construction of a work-clothes changing and bathing facility...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149680/modification-of-the-association-between-high-ambient-temperature-and-health-by-urban-microclimate-indicators-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Leah H Schinasi, Tarik Benmarhnia, Anneclaire J De Roos
BACKGROUND: Landscape characteristics, including vegetation and impervious surfaces, influence urban microclimates and may lead to within-city differences in the adverse health effects of high ambient temperatures. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to quantitatively summarize the epidemiologic literature that assessed microclimate indicators as effect measure modifiers (EMM) of the association between ambient temperature and mortality or morbidity. METHODS: We systematically identified papers and abstracted relative risk estimates for hot and cool microclimate indicator strata...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149679/innovative-urban-forestry-governance-in-melbourne-investigating-green-placemaking-as-a-nature-based-solution
#10
Natalie Marie Gulsrud, Kelly Hertzog, Ian Shears
A nature-based approach to climate resilience aims to challenge and re-frame conventional environmental management methods by refocusing solutions from technological strategies to socio-ecological principles such as human well-being and community-based governance models, thereby improving and legitimizing the delivery of ecosystem services (ES). There are, however, many challenges to applying a socio-ecological agenda to urban climate resilience and thereby re-framing ES delivery as community and people focused, a knowledge gap extensively outlined in the environmental governance literature...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149678/housing-conditions-and-birth-outcomes-the-national-child-development-study
#11
Emily W Harville, Felicia A Rabito
BACKGROUND: Despite their importance to respiratory and other health outcomes, housing conditions have been little-studied with respect to perinatal outcomes. METHODS: 1927 participants in the British National Child Development Study reported on housing conditions and pregnancy outcomes, including presence/severity of mold/dampness; type of heating; and whether remodeling of various sorts had been conducted. Crowding, based on the number of people in the residence and the number of rooms, was also considered...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145006/a-cross-disciplinary-evaluation-of-evidence-for-multipollutant-effects-on-cardiovascular-disease
#12
REVIEW
Thomas J Luben, Barbara J Buckley, Molini M Patel, Tina Stevens, Evan Coffman, Kristen M Rappazzo, Elizabeth O Owens, Erin P Hines, Danielle Moore, Kyle Painter, Ryan Jones, Laura Datko-Williams, Adrien A Wilkie, Meagan Madden, Jennifer Richmond-Bryant
BACKGROUND: The current single-pollutant approach to regulating ambient air pollutants is effective at protecting public health, but efficiencies may be gained by addressing issues in a multipollutant context since multiple pollutants often have common sources and individuals are exposed to more than one pollutant at a time. OBJECTIVE: We performed a cross-disciplinary review of the effects of multipollutant exposures on cardiovascular effects. METHODS: A broad literature search for references including at least two criteria air pollutants (particulate matter [PM], ozone [O3], oxides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide) was conducted...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145005/assessment-of-long-term-spatio-temporal-radiofrequency-electromagnetic-field-exposure
#13
Sam Aerts, Joe Wiart, Luc Martens, Wout Joseph
As both the environment and telecommunications networks are inherently dynamic, our exposure to environmental radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) at an arbitrary location is not at all constant in time. In this study, more than a year's worth of measurement data collected in a fixed low-cost exposimeter network distributed over an urban environment was analysed and used to build, for the first time, a full spatio-temporal surrogate model of outdoor exposure to downlink Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) signals...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136521/toward-dynamic-urban-environmental-exposure-assessments-in-mental-health-research
#14
Marco Helbich
It is increasingly recognized that mental disorders are affected by both personal characteristics and environmental exposures. The built, natural, and social environments can either contribute to or buffer against metal disorders. Environmental exposure assessments related to mental health typically rely on neighborhoods within which people currently live. In this article, I call into question such neighborhood-based exposure assessments at one point in time, because human life unfolds over space and across time...
November 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121489/health-impacts-quantification-of-ambient-air-pollutants-using-airq-model-approach-in-hamadan-iran
#15
Farshad Bahrami Asl, Mostafa Leili, Yaser Vaziri, Soheila Salahshour Arian, Antonio Cristaldi, Gea Oliveri Conti, Margherita Ferrante
Iranian western cities, including Hamadan, have been experiencing Middle East Dust Storms (MEDS) phenomenon problems in recent years, so the air quality is getting worse every year in these cities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human health impacts of criteria air pollutants including PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO and O3 on the citizens of Hamadan using AirQ model software 2.2.3. Considering the determined baseline incidence (BI) and relative risk (RR) rate, the attributable proportion (AP) of deaths due to cardiovascular and respiratory mortality attributed to PM2...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107891/elevated-blood-pressure-and-household-solid-fuel-use-in-premenopausal-women-analysis-of-12-demographic-and-health-surveys-dhs-from-10-countries
#16
Raphael E Arku, Majid Ezzati, Jill Baumgartner, Günther Fink, Bin Zhou, Perry Hystad, Michael Brauer
BACKGROUND: Approximately three billion people are exposed to household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel cookstoves. Studies from single settings have linked HAP with elevated blood pressure (BP), but no evidence exists from multi-country analyses. OBJECTIVES: Using nationally representative and internationally comparable data, we examined the association between solid fuel use and BP in 77,605 largely premenopausal women (aged 15-49) from ten resource-poor countries...
November 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107785/an-information-diffusion-technique-to-assess-integrated-hazard-risks
#17
Chongfu Huang, Yundong Huang
An integrated risk is a scene in the future associated with some adverse incident caused by multiple hazards. An integrated probability risk is the expected value of disaster. Due to the difficulty of assessing an integrated probability risk with a small sample, weighting methods and copulas are employed to avoid this obstacle. To resolve the problem, in this paper, we develop the information diffusion technique to construct a joint probability distribution and a vulnerability surface. Then, an integrated risk can be directly assessed by using a small sample...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073572/a-critical-review-of-ferrate-vi-based-remediation-of-soil-and-groundwater
#18
REVIEW
Prabhat Kumar Rai, Jechan Lee, Suresh Kumar Kailasa, Eilhann E Kwon, Yiu Fai Tsang, Yong Sik Ok, Ki-Hyun Kim
Over the past few decades, diverse chemicals and materials such as mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles, metal oxides, and zeolites have been used for soil and groundwater remediation. Ferrate (Fe(VI)O4(2-)) has been widely employed due to its high-valent iron (VI) oxo compound with high oxidation/reduction potentials. Ferrate has received attention for wide environmental applications including water purification and sewage sludge treatment. Ferrate provides great potential for diverse environmental applications without any environmental problems...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103585/first-evidences-of-amazonian-wildlife-feeding-on-petroleum-contaminated-soils-a-new-exposure-route-to-petrogenic-compounds
#19
Martí Orta-Martínez, Antoni Rosell-Melé, Mar Cartró-Sabaté, Cristina O'Callaghan-Gordo, Núria Moraleda-Cibrián, Pedro Mayor
Videos recorded with infrared camera traps placed in petroleum contaminated areas of the Peruvian Amazon have shown that four wildlife species, the most important for indigenous peoples' diet (lowland tapir, paca, red-brocket deer and collared peccary), consume oil-contaminated soils and water. Further research is needed to clarify whether Amazonian wildlife's geophagy can be a route of exposure to petrogenic contamination for populations living in the vicinity of oil extraction areas and relying on subsistence hunting...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102669/acute-particulate-matter-affects-cardiovascular-autonomic-modulation-and-ifn-%C3%AE-methylation-in-healthy-volunteers
#20
Eleonora Tobaldini, Valentina Bollati, Marta Prado, Elisa M Fiorelli, Marica Pecis, Giorgio Bissolotti, Benedetta Albetti, Laura Cantone, Chiara Favero, Chiara Cogliati, Paolo Carrer, Andrea Baccarelli, Pier Alberto Bertazzi, Nicola Montano
AIMS: Air particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Altered autonomic functions play a key role in PM-induced cardiovascular disease. However, previous studies have not address the impact of PM on sympathetic and parasympathetic control of heart function, independently, and using controlled conditions, i.e., increasing titration of PM of known composition, in absence of other potential confounding factors. To fill this gap, here we used symbolic analysis that is capable of detecting non-mutual changes of the two autonomic branches, thus considering them as independent, and concentrations of PM as they could be measured at peak levels in Milan during a polluted winter day...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Research
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