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Environmental Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918984/hypertension-among-adults-exposed-to-drinking-water-arsenic-in-northern-chile
#1
Emily M Hall, Johanna Acevedo, Francisca González López, Sandra Cortés, Catterina Ferreccio, Allan H Smith, Craig M Steinmaus
BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies have identified an association between exposure to inorganic arsenic and hypertension. However, results have not been consistent across studies. Additional studies are warranted, given the global prevalence of both arsenic exposure and morbidity attributable to hypertension. METHODS: We analyzed data collected from October 2007-December 2010 for a population-based cancer case-control study in northern Chile. Data included lifetime individual arsenic exposure estimates and information on potential confounders for a total of 1266 subjects...
December 2, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918983/exposure-to-lead-in-south-african-shooting-ranges
#2
Angela Mathee, Pieter de Jager, Shan Naidoo, Nisha Naicker
INTRODUCTION: Lead exposure in shooting ranges has been under scrutiny for decades, but no information in this regard is available in respect of African settings, and in South Africa specifically. The aim of this study was to determine the blood lead levels in the users of randomly selected private shooting ranges in South Africa's Gauteng province. METHODS: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted, with participants recruited from four randomly selected shooting ranges and three archery ranges as a comparator group...
December 2, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918982/traffic-derived-particulate-matter-exposure-and-histone-h3-modification-a-repeated-measures-study
#3
Yinan Zheng, Marco Sanchez-Guerra, Zhou Zhang, Brian T Joyce, Jia Zhong, Jacob K Kresovich, Lei Liu, Wei Zhang, Tao Gao, Dou Chang, Citlalli Osorio-Yanez, Juan Jose Carmona, Sheng Wang, John P McCracken, Xiao Zhang, Yana Chervona, Anaite Díaz, Pier A Bertazzi, Petros Koutrakis, Choong-Min Kang, Joel Schwartz, Andrea A Baccarelli, Lifang Hou
BACKGROUND: Airborne particulate matter (PM) may induce epigenetic changes that potentially lead to chronic diseases. Histone modifications regulate gene expression by influencing chromatin structure that can change gene expression status. We evaluated whether traffic-derived PM exposure is associated with four types of environmentally inducible global histone H3 modifications. METHODS: The Beijing Truck Driver Air Pollution Study included 60 truck drivers and 60 office workers examined twice, 1-2 weeks apart, for ambient PM10 (both day-of and 14-day average exposures), personal PM2...
December 2, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918981/modulation-of-blood-pressure-in-response-to-low-ambient-temperature-the-role-of-dna-methylation-of-zinc-finger-genes
#4
Youn-Hee Lim, Changwoo Han, Sanghyuk Bae, Yun-Chul Hong
BACKGROUND: Blood pressure rises with a drop in external temperature, but the role of DNA methylation in such blood pressure modulation has not been studied in detail. We evaluated blood pressure and DNA methylation of vascular disease-related genes in association with low temperature. METHODS: To examine changes in blood pressure and DNA methylation associated with low temperature, we conducted repeated measures analysis among 50 participants over 3 repeated visits, and validated the association among another 52 participants...
December 2, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915227/prenatal-and-postnatal-polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-exposure-and-visual-spatial-abilities-in-children
#5
Ann M Vuong, Joseph M Braun, Kimberly Yolton, Changchun Xie, Glenys M Webster, Andreas Sjödin, Kim N Dietrich, Bruce P Lanphear, Aimin Chen
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are associated with impaired visual spatial abilities in toxicological studies, but no epidemiologic study has investigated PBDEs and visual spatial abilities in children. The Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003-2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine prenatal and childhood PBDEs and visual spatial abilities in 199 children. PBDEs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation and at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years using gas chromatography/isotope dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914298/effects-of-environmental-noise-exposure-on-dna-methylation-in-the-brain-and-metabolic-health
#6
Liqiong Guo, Peng-Hui Li, Hua Li, Elena Colicino, Silvia Colicino, Yi Wen, Ruiping Zhang, Xiaotian Feng, Timothy M Barrow, Akin Cayir, Andrea A Baccarelli, Hyang-Min Byun
Environmental noise exposure is associated with adverse effects on human health including hearing loss, heart disease, and changes in stress-related hormone levels. Alteration in DNA methylation in response to environmental exposures is a well-known phenomenon and it is implicated in many human diseases. Understanding how environmental noise exposures affect DNA methylation patterns may help to elucidate the link between noise and adverse effects on health. In this pilot study we examined the effects of environmental noise exposure on DNA methylation of genes related to brain function and investigated whether these changes are related with metabolic health...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907809/does-exposure-to-phthalates-influence-thyroid-function-and-growth-hormone-homeostasis-the-taiwan-environmental-survey-for-toxicants-test-2013
#7
Han-Bin Huang, Wen-Harn Pan, Jung-Wei Chang, Hung-Che Chiang, Yue Leon Guo, Jouni J K Jaakkola, Po-Chin Huang
BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiologic and toxicological studies provide some inconsistent evidence that exposure to phthalates may affect thyroid function and growth hormone homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relations between exposure to phthalates and indicators of thyroid function and growth hormone homeostasis disturbances both among adults and minors. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 279 Taiwanese adults (≥18 years old) and 79 minors (<18 years old) in 2013...
November 28, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898310/potential-human-exposure-to-halogenated-flame-retardants-in-elevated-surface-dust-and-floor-dust-in-an-academic-environment
#8
Jaime M Allgood, Tamara Jimah, Carolyn M McClaskey, Mark J La Guardia, Stephanie C Hammel, Maryam M Zeineddine, Ian W Tang, Miryha G Runnerstrom, Oladele A Ogunseitan
Most households and workplaces all over the world possess furnishings and electronics, all of which contain potentially toxic flame retardant chemicals to prevent fire hazards. Indoor dust is a recognized repository of these types of chemicals including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and non-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (non-PBDEs). However, no previous U.S. studies have differentiated concentrations from elevated surface dust (ESD) and floor dust (FD) within and across microenvironments. We address this information gap by measuring twenty-two flame-retardant chemicals in dust on elevated surfaces (ESD; n=10) and floors (FD; n=10) from rooms on a California campus that contain various concentrations of electronic products...
November 26, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898309/diverging-temporal-trends-of-human-exposure-to-bisphenols-and-plastizisers-such-as-phthalates-caused-by-substitution-of-legacy-edcs
#9
Irina Gyllenhammar, Anders Glynn, Bo A G Jönsson, Christian H Lindh, Per Ola Darnerud, Kettil Svensson, Sanna Lignell
Phthalates and phenolic substances were investigated in urine samples from first-time mothers in Uppsala, Sweden, collected between 2009 and 2014. These substances have a comparably fast metabolism and urinary metabolites are predominantly analysed. The main aim was to investigate if measures to decrease production and use of certain phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) have resulted in decreased human exposure, and to determine if exposures to replacement chemicals have increased. Temporal trends were evaluated for metabolites (n=13) of seven phthalates, a phthalate replacer, four different bisphenols, triclosan, one organophosphate-based flame retardant, and for two pesticides...
November 26, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889676/towards-a-threshold-climate-for-emergency-lower-respiratory-hospital-admissions
#10
Muhammad Saiful Islam, Thierry J Chaussalet, Naoru Koizumi
Identification of 'cut-points' or thresholds of climate factors would play a crucial role in alerting risks of climate change and providing guidance to policymakers. This study investigated a 'Climate Threshold' for emergency hospital admissions of chronic lower respiratory diseases by using a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM). We analysed a unique longitudinal dataset (10 years, 2000-2009) on emergency hospital admissions, climate, and pollution factors for the Greater London. Our study extends existing work on this topic by considering non-linearity, lag effects between climate factors and disease exposure within the DLNM model considering B-spline as smoothing technique...
November 24, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888746/maternal-exposure-to-ozone-and-pm2-5-and-the-prevalence-of-orofacial-clefts-in-four-u-s-states
#11
Ying Zhou, Suzanne M Gilboa, Michele L Herdt, Philip J Lupo, W Dana Flanders, Yang Liu, Mikyong Shin, Mark A Canfield, Russell S Kirby
BACKGROUND: While there is some evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with orofacial clefts in offspring, the epidemiologic studies have been largely equivocal. We evaluated whether maternal exposure to elevated county-level ambient fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) and ozone during early gestation was associated with a higher prevalence of orofacial clefts. METHODS: Birth data consisting of 4.7 million births from 2001 to 2007 were obtained from National Birth Defects Prevention Network for four states - Arizona, Florida, New York (excluding New York City), and Texas...
November 23, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883970/association-between-dengue-fever-incidence-and-meteorological-factors-in-guangzhou-china-2005-2014
#12
Jianjun Xiang, Alana Hansen, Qiyong Liu, Xiaobo Liu, Michael Xiaoliang Tong, Yehuan Sun, Scott Cameron, Scott Hanson-Easey, Gil-Soo Han, Craig Williams, Philip Weinstein, Peng Bi
This study aims to (1) investigate the associations between climatic factors and dengue; and (2) identify the susceptible subgroups. De-identified daily dengue cases in Guangzhou for 2005-2014 were obtained from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Weather data were downloaded from the China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System. Distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM) were used to graphically demonstrate the three-dimensional temperature-dengue association. Generalised estimating equation models (GEE) with piecewise linear spline functions were used to quantify the temperature-dengue associations...
November 22, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883971/2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-and-the-viral-infection
#13
REVIEW
Filomena Fiorito, Rita Santamaria, Carlo Irace, Luisa De Martino, Giuseppe Iovane
Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a widespread highly toxic environmental contaminant, suppresses immune response and leads to an increased susceptibility to infectious agents. In particular, several studies have provided evidence that TCDD decreases resistance to numerous viruses. Indeed, in vivo and in vitro investigations showed that the presence of TCDD is able to interfere with the replication of both human and animal viruses, such as influenza A viruses, coxsackie virus B3, immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex II, and bovine herpesvirus 1...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880879/arsenic-levels-among-pregnant-women-and-newborns-in-canada-results-from-the-maternal-infant-research-on-environmental-chemicals-mirec-cohort
#14
Adrienne S Ettinger, Tye E Arbuckle, Mandy Fisher, Chun Lei Liang, Karelyn Davis, Ciprian-Mihai Cirtiu, Patrick Bélanger, Alain LeBlanc, William D Fraser
Arsenic is a common environmental contaminant from both naturally-occurring and anthropomorphic sources and human exposure can be detected in various tissues. Its toxicity depends on many factors including the chemical form, valence state, bioavailability, metabolism and detoxification within the human body. Of paramount concern, particularly with respect to health effects in children, is the timing of exposure as the prenatal and early life periods are more susceptible to toxic effects. The Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) cohort was established to obtain national-level biomonitoring data for approximately 2,000 pregnant women and their infants between 2008 and 2011 from 10 Canadian cities...
November 20, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875712/urinary-phthalate-and-phthalate-alternative-metabolites-and-isoprostane-among-couples-undergoing-fertility-treatment
#15
Haotian Wu, Alexandra Olmsted, David E Cantonwine, Shahin Shahsavari, Tayyab Rahil, Cynthia Sites, J Richard Pilsner
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data suggest associations between phthalate exposures to a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes including reduced sperm quality and reproductive success. While mechanisms of these associations are not fully elucidated, oxidative stress has been implicated as a potential mediator. We examined associations of urinary metabolites of phthalates and phthalate alternative plasticizers with oxidative stress among couples seeking fertility treatment. METHODS: Seventeen urinary plasticizer metabolites and 15-F2t isoprostane, a biomarker of oxidative stress, were quantified in spot samples from 50 couples seeking fertility treatment who enrolled in the Sperm Environmental Epigenetics and Development Study during 2014-2015...
November 19, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702441/effects-of-microcystin-lr-and-cylindrospermopsin-on-plant-soil-systems-a-review-of-their-relevance-for-agricultural-plant-quality-and-public-health
#16
REVIEW
J Machado, A Campos, V Vasconcelos, M Freitas
Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are recognized as an emerging environmental threat worldwide. Although microcystin-LR is the most frequently documented cyanotoxin, studies on cylindrospermopsin have been increasing due to the invasive nature of cylindrospermopsin-producing cyanobacteria. The number of studies regarding the effects of cyanotoxins on agricultural plants has increased in recent years, and it has been suggested that the presence of microcystin-LR and cylindrospermopsin in irrigation water may cause toxic effects in edible plants...
October 1, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692900/fine-particulate-matter-exposure-and-olfactory-dysfunction-among-urban-dwelling-older-us-adults
#17
Gaurav S Ajmani, Helen H Suh, Kristen E Wroblewski, David W Kern, L Philip Schumm, Martha K McClintock, Jeff D Yanosky, Jayant M Pinto
OBJECTIVES: The olfactory nerve is anatomically susceptible to injury from pollution in inspired air, but there are no large-scale epidemiologic studies investigating this relationship. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a representative sample of home-dwelling US adults age 57-85 years. Olfactory function was tested using a validated 5-item odor identification test (Sniffin' Sticks). Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689542/safe-routes-to-play-pedestrian-and-bicyclist-crashes-near-parks-in-los-angeles
#18
Michael Jerrett, Jason G Su, Kara E MacLeod, Cooper Hanning, Douglas Houston, Jennifer Wolch
BACKGROUND: Areas near parks may present active travelers with higher risks than in other areas due to the confluence of more pedestrians and bicyclists, younger travelers, and the potential for increased traffic volumes. These risks may be amplified in low-income and minority neighborhoods due to generally higher rates of active travel or lack of safety infrastructure. This paper examines active travel crashes near parks and builds on existing research around disparities in park access and extends research from the Safe Routes to School and Safe Routes to Transit movements to parks...
September 27, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687723/residential-road-traffic-noise-exposure-and-survival-after-breast-cancer-a-cohort-study
#19
Nina Roswall, Pernille Envold Bidstrup, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Steen Solvang Jensen, Anja Olsen, Mette Sørensen
BACKGROUND: It is generally acknowledged that patients with already existing clinical conditions are especially vulnerable to the effects of traffic noise exposure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between residential road traffic noise and breast cancer survival. METHODS: Road traffic noise was calculated for all residential addresses from 1987 to February 2012 for incident breast cancer cases (n=1,759) in a cohort of 57,053 Danes...
September 26, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670152/hazard-identification-of-exhausts-from-gasoline-ethanol-fuel-blends-using-a-multi-cellular-human-lung-model
#20
Christoph Bisig, Michèle Roth, Loretta Müller, Pierre Comte, Norbert Heeb, Andreas Mayer, Jan Czerwinski, Alke Petri-Fink, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser
Ethanol can be produced from biomass and as such is renewable, unlike petroleum-based fuel. Almost all gasoline cars can drive with fuel containing 10% ethanol (E10), flex-fuel cars can even use 85% ethanol (E85). Brazil and the USA already include 10-27% ethanol in their standard fuel by law. Most health effect studies on car emissions are however performed with diesel exhausts, and only few data exists for other fuels. In this work we investigated possible toxic effects of exhaust aerosols from ethanol-gasoline blends using a multi-cellular model of the human lung...
September 23, 2016: Environmental Research
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