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Environmental Research

Melannie Alexander, Lawrence S Engel, Nathan Olaiya, Li Wang, John Barrett, Laura Weems, Erica G Schwartz, Jennifer A Rusiecki
INTRODUCTION: Over 8500 United States Coast Guard (USCG) personnel were deployed in response to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill; however, human respiratory effects as a result of spill-related exposures are relatively unknown. METHODS: USCG personnel who responded to the DWH oil spill were queried via survey on exposures to crude oil and oil dispersant, and acute respiratory symptoms experienced during deployment. Adjusted log binomial regressions were used to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), investigating the associations between oil spill exposures and respiratory symptoms...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Research
Ehsan Nazarzadeh Zare, Ahmad Motahari, Mika Sillanpää
Water contamination by toxic heavy metal ions and dyes remains a serious public health problem for humans, so attention on specific methods and technologies to remove heavy metal ions and dyes from wastewaters/aqueous solutions are desired. Numerous adsorbents have been reported for the removal of heavy metal ions/dyes from wastewaters/aqueous solutions. Polyaniline (PANI) and its derivatives, as conducting polymers, are good adsorbents to remove various kinds of heavy metal ions and dyes from wastewaters/aqueous solutions...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Research
Rui-Wen He, Yun-Zi Li, Ping Xiang, Chao Li, Xin-Yi Cui, Lena Q Ma
The effect of dust particle size on the distribution and bioaccessibility of flame retardants (FRs) in indoor dust remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed 20 FRs (including 6 organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), 8 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 4 novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), and 2 dechlorane plus (DPs)) in composite dust samples from offices, public microenvironments (PME), and cars in Nanjing, China. Each composite sample (one per microenvironment) was separated into 6 size fractions (F1-F6: 200-2000µm, 150-200µm, 100-150µm, 63-100µm, 43-63µm, and <43µm)...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Research
Rosa Maria Vivanco-Hidalgo, Gregory Wellenius, Xavier Basagaña, Marta Cirach, Alejandra Gómez González, Pablo de Ceballos, Ana Zabalza, Jordi Jiménez-Conde, Carolina Soriano-Tarraga, Eva Giralt-Steinhauer, Andrés Alastuey, Xavier Querol, Jordi Sunyer, Jaume Roquer
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between short-term exposure to outdoor ambient air pollutants (fine particulate matter [PM2.5] and black carbon [BC]), ischemic stroke (IS) and its different subtypes, and the potential modifying effect of neighborhood greenspace and noise. METHODS: This time-stratified case-crossover study was based on IS and transient ischemic attacks (TIA) recorded in a hospital-based prospective stroke register (BASICMAR 2005-2014) in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain)...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Research
Boya Zhang, Guoxing Li, Yue Ma, Xiaochuan Pan
Human health faces unprecedented challenges caused by climate change. Thus, studies of the effect of temperature change on total mortality have been conducted in numerous countries. However, few of those studies focused on temperature-related mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) or considered future population changes and adaptation to climate change. We present herein a projection of temperature-related mortality due to CVD under different climate change, population, and adaptation scenarios in Beijing, a megacity in China...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Research
Hélène Martin-Yken, Camille Gironde, Sylvain Derick, Hélène Taiana Darius, Christophe Furger, Dominique Laurent, Mireille Chinain
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are lipid-soluble polyether compounds produced by dinoflagellates from the genus Gambierdiscus spp. typically found in tropical and subtropical zones. This endemic area is however rapidly expanding due to environmental perturbations, and both toxic Gambierdiscus spp. and ciguatoxic fishes have been recently identified in the North Atlantic Ocean (Madeira and Canary islands) and Mediterranean Sea. Ciguatoxins bind to Voltage Gated Sodium Channels on the membranes of sensory neurons, causing Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) in humans, a disease characterized by a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological, neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Research
Sandra Rainieri, Nadia Conlledo, Bodil K Larsen, Kit Granby, Alejandro Barranco
Microplastics contamination of the aquatic environment is considered a growing problem. The ingestion of microplastics has been documented for a variety of aquatic animals. Studies have shown the potential of microplastics to affect the bioavailability and uptake route of sorbed co-contaminants of different nature in living organisms. Persistent organic pollutants and metals have been the co-contaminants majorly investigated in this field. The combined effect of microplastics and sorbed co-contaminants in aquatic organisms still needs to be properly understood...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Research
Dali Wang, Xiaodan Wu, Zhifen Lin, Yangyang Ding
Antibiotics have become common pollutants in the environment. In most cases, the antibiotics in the environment exist as mixtures, posing joint effects on the organisms. Therefore, the mixture toxicity of the antibiotics can better reflect their environmental risks. In this paper, three types of commonly used antibiotics, i.e., sulfonamides (SAs), SA potentiators (SAPs) and tetracyclines (TCs) were investigated for their binary and tertiary mixture toxicity on three bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Vibrio fischeri (V...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Research
Jacopo Mariani, Chiara Favero, Andrea Spinazzè, Domenico Maria Cavallo, Michele Carugno, Valeria Motta, Matteo Bonzini, Andrea Cattaneo, Angela Cecilia Pesatori, Valentina Bollati
BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollutants, such as particulate matter (PM), represents a growing health problem. The aim of our study was to investigate whether PM could induce a dysbiosis in the nasal microbiota in terms of α-diversity and taxonomic composition. METHODS: We investigated structure and characteristics of the microbiota of 40 healthy subjects through metabarcoding analysis of the V3-V4 regions of the 16s rRNA gene. Exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 was assessed with a personal sampler worn for 24h before sample collection (Day -1) and with measurements from monitoring stations (from Day -2 to Day -7)...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Research
Michelle E Ross, Ana M Vicedo-Cabrera, Robert E Kopp, Lihai Song, David S Goldfarb, Jose Pulido, Steven Warner, Susan L Furth, Gregory E Tasian
Temperature and relative humidity have opposing effects on evaporative water loss, the likely mediator of the temperature-dependence of nephrolithiasis. However, prior studies considered only dry-bulb temperatures when estimating the temperature-dependence of nephrolithiasis. We used distributed lag non-linear models and repeated 10-fold cross-validation to determine the daily temperature metric and corresponding adjustment for relative humidity that most accurately predicted kidney stone presentations during hot and cold periods in South Carolina from 1997 to 2015...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Research
Arno Thielens, Matthias Van den Bossche, Christopher Brzozek, Chhavi Raj Bhatt, Michael J Abramson, Geza Benke, Luc Martens, Wout Joseph
The aims of this study were to: i) investigate the repeatability and representativeness of personal radio frequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) exposure measurements, across different microenvironments, ii) perform simultaneous evaluations of personal RF-EMF exposures for the whole body and the head, iii) validate the data obtained with a head-worn personal distributed exposimeter (PDE) against those obtained with an on-body worn personal exposimeter (PEM). Data on personal and head RF-EMF exposures were collected by performing measurements across 15 microenvironments in Melbourne, Australia...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Research
Pokkate Wongsasuluk, Srilert Chotpantarat, Wattasit Siriwong, Mark Robson
In this study, the hair and fingernails of the local people in an intensively cultivated agricultural area in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand, were used as biomarkers of exposure to arsenic (As) and heavy metals. The study area has shallow acidic groundwater that is contaminated with As and heavy metals. The local people often consume this shallow groundwater; thus, they are exposed to As and heavy metals. Hair and fingernail samples were collected to characterize the differences between shallow groundwater drinking (SGWD) and tap water drinking (TWD) residents...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Research
Tobias Daugaard-Petersen, Rikke Langebæk, Frank F Rigét, Robert J Letcher, Lars Hyldstrup, Jens-Erik Bech Jensen, Thea Bechshoft, Øystein Wiig, Bjørn Munro Jenssen, Cino Pertoldi, Eline D Lorenzen, Rune Dietz, Christian Sonne
We investigated skull size (condylobasal length; CBL) and bone mineral density (BMD) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland (n = 307) and Svalbard (n = 173) sampled during the period 1892-2015 in East Greenland and 1964-2004 at Svalbard. Adult males from East Greenland showed a continuous decrease in BMD from 1892 to 2015 (linear regression: p < 0.01) indicating that adult male skulls collected in the early pre-pollution period had the highest BMD. A similar decrease in BMD over time was not found for the East Greenland adult females...
December 26, 2017: Environmental Research
Miranda M Chen, Lianna Lopez, Satyendra P Bhavsar, Sapna Sharma
Mercury (Hg) levels in Ontario top predator fishes have been increasing in recent decades. These increases may be a result of many additive factors, including global climate change. Only recently has research been conducted on how climate change may impact Hg levels in freshwater fishes at large-scales. We examined the relationship between Hg trends and (1) local weather, (2) large-scale climate drivers, and (3) anthropogenic Hg emissions, in native cool water (walleye and northern pike) and warm water (smallmouth bass and largemouth bass) predatory fishes in Ontario, Canada, for historical (1970-1992) and recent (1993-2014) time periods...
December 26, 2017: Environmental Research
Jennifer Ames, Marcella Warner, Paolo Brambilla, Paolo Mocarelli, William A Satariano, Brenda Eskenazi
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is neurotoxic in animals but few studies have investigated its effects on the human brain. Related dioxin-like compounds have been linked to poorer cognitive and motor function in older adults, with effects more pronounced in women, perhaps due to the loss of neuro-protective estrogen in menopause. On 10 July 1976, a chemical explosion in Seveso, Italy, resulted in one of the highest known residential exposures to TCDD. In 1996, we initiated the Seveso Women's Health Study, a retrospective cohort study of the health of the women who were newborn to 40 years old in 1976...
December 26, 2017: Environmental Research
Jennifer Murray, Brenda Eskenazi, Riana Bornman, Fraser W Gaspar, Madelein Crause, Muvhulawa Obida, Jonathan Chevrier
Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), the use of insecticides inside residences for malaria control, may cause elevated exposure to insecticides such as dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT). Evidence suggests that DDT exposure may increase blood pressure but no study has investigated associations with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) in an IRS area. We measured the serum concentration of DDT and its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethylene (DDE) at the time of delivery among 733 rural South African women participating in the Venda Health Examination of Mothers, Babies and their Environment (VHEMBE)...
December 26, 2017: Environmental Research
Genny Carrillo, Maria J Perez Patron, Natalie Johnson, Yan Zhong, Rose Lucio, Xiaohui Xu
BACKGROUND: Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children and has been linked to high levels of ambient air pollution and certain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Outdoor pollutants such as benzene, released by car emissions, and organic chemicals found in diesel exhaust, as well as particles and irritant gases, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3), contribute to an increased prevalence of respiratory diseases such as asthma. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to: 1) conduct a screening survey to identify high risk for asthma among school-age children in Hidalgo County, and, 2) study the potential health impact of school-related exposure to HAPs pertaining to asthma risk...
December 23, 2017: Environmental Research
Jingchuan Xue, Pranav Kannan, Taha A Kumosani, Abdulrahman L Al-Malki, Kurunthachalam Kannan
Although studies have examined leaching of bisphenol A (BPA) from dental sealants into saliva, occurrence of BPA, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), and their derivatives in dental sealants themselves has not been investigated. In this study, concentrations of eight bisphenol analogues (BPs), BADGE and its derivatives (BADGEs), including BADGE‧H2O, BADGE‧HCl, BADGE‧2H2O, BADGE‧2HCl, and BADGE‧H2O‧HCl, were determined in 70 dental sealants collected from the U.S. market. Of the 70 dental sealants analyzed, 65 contained at least one of the target chemicals measured...
December 22, 2017: Environmental Research
Kajal Kumari, Hennariikka Koivisto, Capstick Myles, Naarala Jonne, Viluksela Matti, Tanila Heikki, Juutilainen Jukka
Electromagnetic fields are ubiquitous in the environment. Human exposure to intermediate frequency (IF) fields is increasing due to applications like electronic article surveillance systems, wireless power transfer, and induction heating cooking hobs. However, there are limited data on possible health effects of exposure to IF magnetic fields (MF). In the present study, we set out to assess cognitive and behavioural effects of IF MF in mice exposed during prenatal and early postnatal periods. Pregnant female mice were exposed continuously to 7...
December 22, 2017: Environmental Research
Cheng-Kuang Wu
The current early-warning system and tsunami protection measures tend to fall short because they always underestimate the level of destruction, and it is difficult to predict the level of damage by a devastating tsunami on uncertain targets. As we know, the key to minimizing the total number of fatalities after a disaster is the deployment of search and rescue efforts in the first few hours. However, the resources available to the affected districts for emergency response may be limited. This study proposes two game theoretic models that are designed for search-and-rescue resource allocation...
December 21, 2017: Environmental Research
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