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Environmental Research

Marianne E McMaster, Christi Ashley-Sing, Adriana A Dos Santos Tavares, Carlos Alcaide Corral, Katie McGill, Duncan McNeil, Maurits A Jansen, A H R W Simpson
INTRODUCTION: It has been postulated that swimming in heated indoor swimming pools in the first year of life is associated with the development of spinal deformity in children. We explored in pup mice whether exposure to certain disinfection by-products resulting from chlorination of heated pools would affect the future development of the spinal column. METHODS: Mice, from birth and for 28 consecutive days, were exposed to chemicals known to be created by disinfection by-products of indoor heated swimming pools...
July 12, 2018: Environmental Research
Ther W Aung, Jill Baumgartner, Grishma Jain, Karthik Sethuraman, Conor Reynolds, Julian D Marshall, Michael Brauer
BACKGROUND: Air pollution from cooking with solid fuels is a potentially modifiable risk factor for increased blood pressure and may lead to eye irritation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a climate motivated cookstove intervention reduced blood pressure and eye irritation symptoms in Indian women. METHODS: Households using traditional stoves were randomized to receive a rocket stove or continue using traditional stoves. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and self-reported eye symptoms were measured twice, pre-intervention and at least 124 days post-intervention in women > 25 years old in control (N = 111) and intervention (N = 111) groups in rural Karnataka, India...
July 12, 2018: Environmental Research
Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi, Fariba Zare Sakhvidi, Amir Houshang Mehrparvar, Maria Foraster, Payam Dadvand
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes is on rise worldwide and environmental factors are being increasingly recognized to be involved in this rise. An emerging body of evidence has evaluated the impact of long-term exposure to noise on diabetes mellitus, highlighting the need to synthesize this evidence. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review and conduct meta-analysis of the available evidence on the association between long-term exposure to transport and occupational noise exposure and diabetes mellitus...
July 10, 2018: Environmental Research
Anne-Claire Vergnaud, Maria Aresu, Håvard Wahl Kongsgård, Dennis McRobie, Deepa Singh, Jeanette Spear, Andy Heard, He Gao, James R Carpenter, Paul Elliott
BACKGROUND: The Airwave Health Monitoring Study aims to investigate the possible long-term health effects of Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) use among the police forces in Great Britain. Here, we investigate whether objective data from the network operator could be used to correct for misreporting in self-reported data and expand the radio usage availability in our cohort. METHODS: We estimated average monthly usage of personal radio in the 12 months prior to enrolment from a missing value imputation model and evaluated its performance against objective and self-reported data...
July 9, 2018: Environmental Research
Akbayan Markabayeva, Susanne Bauer, Lyudmila Pivina, Geir Bjørklund, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Aiman Kerimkulova, Yulia Semenova, Tatyana Belikhina
This study examines the association between environmental radiation exposure and essential hypertension in a series of investigated geographical districts adjacent to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan. The sample consists of 2000 volunteers participants in screening examinations in three administrative districts close to the nuclear test site, which was carried out as part of the Government Programs on Environmental Health Hazard. The cross-sectional study compares prevalence ratios in a population sample with long-term exposure in the low and intermediate dose range...
July 9, 2018: Environmental Research
Artem V Gusarov, Valentin N Golosov, Aidar G Sharifullin
The eastern part of the Russian Plain is an important agricultural region of European Russia with high proportion of cultivated lands in the steppe, forest-steppe and forest (southern part) landscape zones. Soil erosion is the main process of land degradation and surface water contamination there. Climate and land cover changes have been observed in this region during the last 30 years. However, field quantitative assessments of soil erosion rates are not available for the eastern part of European Russia due to the lack of monitoring data as well as the evaluation of erosion/deposition processes in cultivated catchments using other field methods...
July 9, 2018: Environmental Research
Agustina I Tesone, Romina M Lasagni Vitar, Julia Tau, Guillermo A Maglione, Susana Llesuy, Deborah R Tasat, Alejandro Berra
Volcanic ash could pose a hazard to the ocular surface as it is constantly exposed to environmental particles. We exposed conjunctival cells to Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex (PCCVC) or Calbuco ash particles and evaluated proliferation, viability, apoptosis, MUC1 expression, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress markers. Ash particles from these volcanoes vary in size, composition, and morphology. Our results demonstrate that PCCVC but not Calbuco ash particles induce cytotoxicity on human conjunctival epithelial cells viewed as a decrease in cell proliferation and the transmembrane mucin MUC1 expression; a pro-inflammatory response mediated by IL-6 and IL-8; and an imbalance of the redox environment leading to protein oxidative damage...
July 7, 2018: Environmental Research
Amelia K Wesselink, Elizabeth E Hatch, Lauren A Wise, Kenneth J Rothman, Veronica M Vieira, Ann Aschengrau
BACKGROUND: The synthetic solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE), commonly used in dry cleaning operations, is a human neurotoxicant and carcinogen. However, its effect on reproduction is poorly understood, as prior studies have been limited to small occupational cohorts. We examined the association between PCE exposure from contamination of the public drinking water supply and time-to-pregnancy (TTP) in a cohort of mothers from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. METHODS: The Cape Cod Family Health Study is a retrospective cohort study designed to examine the reproductive and developmental health effects of exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water...
July 7, 2018: Environmental Research
Ferdinando Salata, Iacopo Golasi, Nicolò Treiani, Riccardo Plos, Andrea de Lieto Vollaro
The climatic conditions characterizing the troposphere affect the outdoor activities of the population which, in turn, characterize the anthroposphere. Over the past years recent studies examined a possible analytical definition of the outdoor thermal comfort for different types of population acclimatized to their specific residency area. Thanks to the use of the MOCI (Mediterranean Outdoor Comfort Index: an index used to predict the thermal perception of the Mediterranean population in an outdoor environment), the present study aimed at analyzing the psychophysiological response of a Mediterranean subject with respect to climatic conditions different from the original ones after having experienced a quick change...
July 6, 2018: Environmental Research
C Suo, Y P Li, J Sun, S Yin
In this study, a multistage type-2-fuzzy interval-stochastic programming (MTIP) method is developed, which extends upon the existing multistage stochastic programming (MSP) by allowing uncertainties expressed as probabilistic distributions, interval values and type-2 fuzzy sets to be effectively incorporated within the optimization framework. Through coupling air quality index (AQI) with MTIP, an AQI-MTIP model is formulated for energy and environmental systems (EES) management of Tianjin. A number of scenarios based on changed AQIs are examined to analyze the impacts of environmental requirements on the city's energy system...
July 5, 2018: Environmental Research
Yuanfang He, Lin Peng, Wancong Zhang, Caixia Liu, Qingtao Yang, Shukai Zheng, Mian Bao, Yuanni Huang, Kusheng Wu
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are suspected to be associated with breast cancer risk because of their estrogenic potencies. Epidemiological studies of PBDEs and breast cancer are scarce. Our study aimed to estimate the association between adipose-tissue PBDE concentrations and breast cancer risk. A total of 209 breast cancer cases and 165 controls were recruited from hospitals between January 2014 and May 2016 in Shantou, Chaoshan area, China. Concentrations of 14 PBDE congeners were measured in adipose tissues obtained from the breast for cases and the abdomen/breast for controls during surgery...
July 5, 2018: Environmental Research
Petra Klepac, Igor Locatelli, Sara Korošec, Nino Künzli, Andreja Kukec
There is a growing number of studies on the association between ambient air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes, but their results have been inconsistent. Consequently, a comprehensive review of this research area is needed. There was a wide variability in studied pregnancy outcomes, observed gestational windows of exposure, observed ambient air pollutants, applied exposure assessment methods and statistical analysis methods Gestational duration, preterm birth, (low) birth weight, and small for gestational age/intrauterine growth restriction were most commonly investigated pregnancy outcomes...
July 5, 2018: Environmental Research
Juliana L G Rodrigues, Cecília F S Araújo, Nathália R Dos Santos, Matheus J Bandeira, Ana Laura S Anjos, Chrissie F Carvalho, Cassio S Lima, José Neander S Abreu, Donna Mergler, José A Menezes-Filho
Excessive exposure to Mn can lead to its accumulation in the brain with neurotoxic consequences. In children, elevated Mn has been associated with deficits in certain neuropsychological domains such as cognition, motor function, memory and attention, and in some instances, hyperactivity and behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate behavioral effects in school-aged children living near a ferro-manganese alloy plant and examine their association with Mn exposure. Occipital hair, toenails and blood samples were collected from 225 children (7-12 years old) enrolled in four elementary schools with different levels of exposure to Mn, based on dust Mn deposition rates...
July 5, 2018: Environmental Research
Axel Muttray, Jan Gosepath, Florian Schmall, Jürgen Brieger, Otfried Mayer-Popken, Michael Melia, Stephan Letzel
INTRODUCTION: Ozone is a ubiquitous and irritant gas. We questioned whether an acute exposure to 0.2 ppm ozone impaired olfactory functioning. METHODS: Healthy, normosmic subjects were exposed according to a parallel group design either to 0.2 ppm ozone (n = 15) or to sham (n = 13) in an exposure chamber for two hours. Possible irritating effects were assessed by questionnaire (range 0-5). The detection threshold of n-butanol was measured with the Sniffin' Sticks test before and after exposure...
July 5, 2018: Environmental Research
Mineshi Sakamoto, Nozomi Tatsuta, Hing Man Chan, José L Domingo, Katsuyuki Murata, Kunihiko Nakai
Fetuses and neonates are known to be highly susceptible to methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity, but little is known about the relative uptake of MeHg from blood to the developing brain. We measured time-course changes in mercury (Hg) concentrations in the brain of fetal, neonate, weanling, and adult rats after an injection of 0.08 μg (0.4 nmol) Hg/g MeHg. In the prenatal experiment, MeHg was subcutaneously injected to pregnant dams on embryonic days 17, 18, 18.5, 19, 19.5, or 20, and Hg concentrations in tissues were measured in both mothers and fetuses on embryonic day 21 (1 day before parturition)...
July 5, 2018: Environmental Research
Tiscar Graells, Marta Hernández-García, Josefa Pérez-Jové, Lionel Guy, Emma Padilla
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to monitor the spread, persistence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Legionella spp. strains found in a hospital water distribution system. These environmental studies are intended to help detect the presence of antibiotic resistant strains before they infect patients. METHODS: Antimicrobial surveillance tests were performed at 27 different sampling points of the water network of a large Spanish hospital over two years. Water samples were screened for Legionella according to ISO 11731:2007...
July 5, 2018: Environmental Research
Caoimhe Twohig-Bennett, Andy Jones
BACKGROUND: The health benefits of greenspaces have demanded the attention of policymakers since the 1800s. Although much evidence suggests greenspace exposure is beneficial for health, there exists no systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesise and quantify the impact of greenspace on a wide range of health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To quantify evidence of the impact of greenspace on a wide range of health outcomes. METHODS: We searched five online databases and reference lists up to January 2017...
July 5, 2018: Environmental Research
Melissa M Smarr, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Liping Sun, Masato Honda, Wei Wang, Rajendiran Karthikraj, Zhen Chen, Jennifer Weck, Germaine M Buck Louis
BACKGROUND: Some non-persistent endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are adversely associated with semen quality and few studies have measured those EDCs in seminal plasma. OBJECTIVE: To find an association between EDCs in seminal plasma and semen quality parameters. METHODS: Five chemical classes of non-persistent EDCs were quantified in seminal plasma from 339 male partners who participated in a prospective pregnancy study. Bisphenols, benzophenone UV-filters, antimicrobials and phthalate diesters and their monoester metabolites were measured using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
July 4, 2018: Environmental Research
Mauro Masiol, Naděžda Zíková, David C Chalupa, David Q Rich, Andrea R Ferro, Philip K Hopke
Land-use regression (LUR) models provide location and time specific estimates of exposure to air pollution and thereby improve the sensitivity of health effects models. However, they require pollutant concentrations at multiple locations along with land-use variables. Often, monitoring is performed over short durations using mobile monitoring with research-grade instruments. Low-cost PM monitors provide an alternative approach that increases the spatial and temporal resolution of the air quality data. LUR models were developed to predict hourly PM concentrations across a metropolitan area using PM concentrations measured simultaneously at multiple locations with low-cost monitors...
July 4, 2018: Environmental Research
Guoxiang You, Peifang Wang, Jun Hou, Chao Wang, Lingzhan Miao, Yi Xu, Tao Feng
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) affected the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), and thus might bring challenges for sludge pumping and mixing. In the present study, we investigated the rheological behavior of sludge before and after extraction of different EPSs fractions under various CeO2 NPs concentrations. It was found that the removal of loosely bound EPSs (LB-EPSs) could affect the shear stress (τ) and apparent viscosity (η), and the changes were dependent on CeO2 NPs concentrations...
July 4, 2018: Environmental Research
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