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Environmental Research

Xinhua Ji, Xia Meng, Cong Liu, Renjie Chen, Yihui Ge, Lena Kan, Qingyan Fu, Weihua Li, Lap Ah Tse, Haidong Kan
BACKGROUND: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) is a typical indicator of traffic-related air pollution, and few studies with exposure assessment of high resolution have been conducted to explore its association with preterm birth in China. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between NO2 exposure based on a land use regression (LUR) model and preterm birth in Shanghai, China. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed among 25,493 singleton pregnancies in a major maternity hospital in Shanghai, China, from 2014 to 2015...
November 3, 2018: Environmental Research
Hui Zhi, Jiang-Ping Wu, Lin-Ming Lu, Xue-Mei Zhang, Xiao-Yun Chen, Si-Kang Wu, Jun Tao, Bi-Xian Mai
There is growing evidence that exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is statistically associated with incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or its risk factors. Decarbromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) is a new POP which exists extensively in human tissues, but its potential effects on CVD have so far received less focus. The adhesion of circulating monocytes to endothelial cells is one of the critical underlying steps in the initiation and development of CVD. In the present study, we investigated the effect of BDE-209 on the adhesion of THP-1 monocytes to human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and identified the molecular mechanisms involved...
November 1, 2018: Environmental Research
Amira M Aker, Kelly K Ferguson, Zaira Y Rosario, Bhramar Mukherjee, Akram N Alshawabkeh, José F Cordero, John D Meeker
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to certain xenobiotics has been associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the associations of triclocarban, phenols and parabens in a cohort of 922 pregnant women in Puerto Rico, the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats Program (PROTECT). METHODS: Urinary triclocarban, phenols and parabens were measured at three time points in pregnancy (visit 1: 16-20 weeks, visit 2: 20-24 weeks, visit 3: 24-28 weeks gestation)...
October 31, 2018: Environmental Research
Brett T Doherty, Kate Hoffman, Alexander P Keil, Stephanie M Engel, Heather M Stapleton, Barbara D Goldman, Andrew F Olshan, Julie L Daniels
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are a class of chemicals commonly used as flame retardants and plasticizers. OPEs are applied to a wide variety of consumer products and have a propensity to leach from these products. Consequently, OPEs are ubiquitous contaminants in many human environments and human exposure is pervasive. Accumulating evidence suggests that OPEs are capable of interfering with childhood cognitive development through both neurologic- and endocrine-mediated mechanisms. However, observational evidence of cognitive effects is limited...
October 30, 2018: Environmental Research
Ji-Young Son, Jong-Tae Lee, Kevin J Lane, Michelle L Bell
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined temperature's effect on adverse birth outcomes and relevant effect modifiers. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between heat and adverse birth outcomes and how individual and community characteristics affect these associations for Seoul, Korea, 2004-2012. METHODS: We applied logistic regression to estimate associations between heat index during pregnancy, 4 weeks before delivery, and 1 week before delivery and risk of preterm birth and term low birth weight...
October 29, 2018: Environmental Research
M Van Ginneken, R Blust, L Bervoets
Chemical and natural factors have been demonstrated to interact and potentially change the toxicity of the individual stressors. Yet, while there exists a multitude of papers studying the temperature-dependent toxicity of single chemicals, little research exists on the impact of temperature on chemical mixtures. This paper investigates the effect of temperature on environmentally-relevant mixtures of Cd, Cu and Pb. We linked the effects on respiration, growth, feeding rate and activity of Asellus aquaticus to the free ion activities, as a measure for the bioavailability of the metals, and the body concentrations...
October 27, 2018: Environmental Research
Stéphane Jouneau, Solenne Marette, Ange-Marie Robert, Thomas Gouyet, Stéphanie Guillot, Anthony Chapron, Carole Mailloux, Benoît Desrues, Jean-François Viel
BACKGROUND: The AIRBAg study was designed to assess the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in dairy farmers and to define its associated risk factors. METHODS: Between March 2012 and February 2017 randomly selected dairy farmers in the French region of Brittany were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire and undergo an occupational health check-up with electronic mini-spirometry and standard spirometry. Those having one or more of the following features: chronic cough, chronic bronchitis, wheezing, dyspnea and/or a ratio FEV1 /FEV6 < 80% were then referred to a pulmonologist for further check-up including spirometry with a reversibility test...
October 27, 2018: Environmental Research
Brian Gulson, Karen Mizon, Alan Taylor, Michael Wu
The potential mitigation of elevated blood lead (PbB) levels with nutrient intake remains debatable. A comprehensive review by Kordas (2017) concluded that careful examination of the links between nutrition (nutritional status, nutrients, diet) and lead (Pb) exposure revealed limited and tenuous evidence. We have measured 20 elements including calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and Pb from 6-day duplicate diets of 108 young children over a 5-year period and expressed these as intakes per body weight...
October 27, 2018: Environmental Research
Ana Luísa Maulvault, Carolina Camacho, Vera Barbosa, Ricardo Alves, Patrícia Anacleto, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, Rui Rosa, António Marques, Mário Sousa Diniz
Pharmaceuticals, such as the antidepressant venlafaxine (VFX), have been frequently detected in coastal waters and marine biota, and there is a growing body of evidence that these pollutants can be toxic to non-target marine biota, even at low concentrations. Alongside, climate change effects (e.g. warming and acidification) can also affect marine species' physiological fitness and, consequently, compromising their ability to cope with the presence of pollutants. Yet, information regarding interactive effects between pollutants and climate change-related stressors is still scarce...
October 26, 2018: Environmental Research
Catherine M Bulka, Victoria W Persky, Martha L Daviglus, Ramon A Durazo-Arvizu, Maria Argos
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest toxic metals are linked with diabetes and cardiovascular disease, while experimental studies indicate nutritionally essential metals are involved in the metabolism of macronutrients and defense against oxidative stress. OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate how essential and toxic metals are cross-sectionally related to metabolic syndrome, a clustering of cardiometabolic conditions. METHODS: Using data from the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 1088), we characterized metal concentrations as measured in spot urine (arsenic, cadmium, and inorganic/elemental mercury), whole blood (manganese, lead, methylmercury, and selenium), and serum (copper and zinc) samples...
October 24, 2018: Environmental Research
Yu Zang, Brecht Devleesschauwer, P Michael Bolger, Emily Goodman, Herman J Gibb
Chronic exposures to cadmium (Cd) are associated with reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR), increasing the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In support of the World Health Organization (WHO)'s initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases, a risk assessment was performed to estimate the Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) due to late-stage CKD associated with dietary exposures to cadmium. Using the distribution of population GFRs, the prevalence of CKD was calculated as the proportion of humans whose GFR fall in the ranges corresponding to Stage 4 or Stage 5 CKD...
October 22, 2018: Environmental Research
Cheng-Yang Hu, Yuan Fang, Feng-Li Li, Bao Dong, Xiao-Guo Hua, Wen Jiang, Heng Zhang, Yong Lyu, Xiu-Jun Zhang
Air pollution has been evaluated as a possible risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), but, the present results are inconsistent and have not been combined. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and PD, given the nature of disease etiology. A total of 10 studies were identified by searching Web of Science, Science Direct, and PubMed before October 2017. We found a significantly increased risk of PD with 10 parts per billion (ppb) increase in nitrogen oxides (NOx ) exposure (relative risk (RR) = 1...
October 22, 2018: Environmental Research
Kenneth R Foster, John E Moulder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 22, 2018: Environmental Research
Zhiwei Xu, Gerard FitzGerald, Yuming Guo, Bin Jalaludin, Shilu Tong
BACKGROUND: Heatwave impact on morbidity of people in rural areas has rarely been assessed in prior studies, and recently published literature has documented heatwave impact on a wide spectrum of diseases, for example, ear and eye diseases. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between heatwaves and cause-specific emergency department visits (EDVs) across eight communities in both urban and rural regions throughout Queensland, Australia. METHODS: Daily data on EDVs, air pollution and climatic conditions during the 1st January 2013 to the 31st December 2015 were obtained from relevant government agencies...
October 22, 2018: Environmental Research
Yanelli Rodríguez-Carmona, Alejandra Cantoral, Belem Trejo-Valdivia, Martha M Téllez-Rojo, Katherine Svensson, Karen E Peterson, John D Meeker, Lourdes Schnaas, Maritsa Solano, Deborah J Watkins
BACKGROUND: Phthalates are known endocrine disruptors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activators, potentially capable of promoting an obesogenic effect. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to phthalate exposure due to physiological and metabolic changes during pregnancy, including those related to the metabolism of xenobiotics. Phthalate exposure during pregnancy has been associated with early gestational weight gain, however, its effect on long-term weight gain remains unclear...
October 19, 2018: Environmental Research
Che-Jung Hsu, Hsin-Jin Chiou, Yun-Hsin Chen, Kuen-Song Lin, Mark J Rood, Hsing-Cheng Hsi
A series of batch experiments were conducted to obtain the optimal adsorption condition for removing aqueous Hg from actual lime-based wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) wastewater with sulfur-containing activated carbon (SAC). The experimental results showed that SAC1 had an average 0.32 μg mg-1 larger aqueous Hg adsorption capacity and 21% larger Hg removal than the CS2 -treated SAC1 (i.e., SAC2) in all tested pH values, confirming that greater sulfur content associated with effective sulfur functional group (i...
October 19, 2018: Environmental Research
Marios Stylianou, Maria K Björnsdotter, Per-Erik Olsson, Ingrid Ericson Jogsten, Jana Jass
Although people are exposed daily to per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs), the biological consequences are poorly explored. The health risks associated with PFAS exposure are currently based on chemical analysis with a weak correlation to potential harmful effects in man and animals. In this study, we show that perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), often the most enriched PFAS in the environment, can be transferred via bacteria to higher organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans nematodes were exposed to PFOS directly in buffer or by feeding on bacteria pretreated with PFOS, and this led to distinct gene expression profiles...
October 18, 2018: Environmental Research
Frank de Vocht
This study assesses whether temporal trends in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in different brain regions, and of different malignant and benign (including acoustic neuroma and meningioma) subtypes in the temporal lobe, could be associated with mobile phone use. Annual 1985-2005 incidence of brain cancer subtypes for England were linked to population-level covariates. Bayesian structural timeseries were used to create 2006-2014 counterfactual trends, and differences with measured newly diagnosed cases were interpreted as causal effects...
October 17, 2018: Environmental Research
Vahid Nourani, Nima Farboudfam
In mountainous regions, rainfall can be extremely variable in space and time. The need to simulate rainfall time series at different scales on one hand and the lack of recording such parameters in small scales because of administrative and economic problems, on the other hand, disaggregation of rainfall time series to the desired scale is an essential topic for hydro-environmental studies of such mountainous regions. Hybrid models development by combining data-driven methods of least square support vector machine (LSSVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and wavelet decomposition for disaggregation of rainfall time series are the purpose of this paper...
October 15, 2018: Environmental Research
Andrea Bellavia, Yu-Han Chiu, Florence M Brown, Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Jennifer B Ford, Myra Keller, John Petrozza, Paige L Williams, Xiaoyun Ye, Antonia M Calafat, Russ Hauser, Tamarra James-Todd
BACKGROUND: A number of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) have been associated with gestational diabetes (GDM) risk factors. However, no human study has investigated the association between pregnancy exposure to parabens, a class of EDCs, and pregnancy glucose levels, a risk factor for GDM. Furthermore, little is known about this association in subfertile women-a group at high risk of GDM. METHODS: A total of 241 women from the Environment and Reproductive Health Study had data available on 1st and/or 2nd trimester urinary methylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben concentrations, and blood glucose levels after the glucose loading test (GLT), a non-fasting 50 g glucose loading test taken at late 2nd trimester...
October 14, 2018: Environmental Research
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