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Environmental Research

Eric Garshick, Stephanie T Grady, Jaime E Hart, Brent A Coull, Joel D Schwartz, Francine Laden, Marilyn L Moy, Petros Koutrakis
RATIONALE: Evidence linking traffic-related particle exposure to systemic effects in chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) patients is limited. OBJECTIVES: Assess relationships between indoor black carbon (BC), a tracer of traffic-related particles, and plasma biomarkers of systemic inflammation and endothelial activation. METHODS: BC was measured by reflectance in fine particle samples over a mean of 7.6 days in homes of 85 COPD patients up to 4 times seasonally over a year...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Research
Snježana Herceg Romanić, Gordana Vuković, Darija Klinčić, Marijana Matek Sarić, Ivan Župan, Davor Antanasijević, Aleksandar Popović
To tackle the ever-present global concern regarding human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) via food products, this study strived to indicate associations between organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in lake-fish tissue depending on the species and sampling season. Apart from the monitoring initiatives recommended in the Global Monitoring Plan for POPs, the study discussed 7 OCPs and 18 PCB congeners determined in three Cyprinidae species (rudd, carp, and Prussian carp) from Vransko Lake (Croatia), which are widely domesticated and reared as food fish across Europe and Asia...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Research
Alina Svechkina, Jonathan Dubnov, Boris A Portnov
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) is known to be associated with infant mortality and postnatal health complications. Previous studies revealed strong relationships between LBW rate and several socio-demographic factors, including ethnicity, maternal age, and family income. However, studies of association between LBW rate and environmental risk factors remain infrequent. STUDY METHODS: We retrieved a geo-referenced data set, containing 7216 individual records of children born in 2015 in the Haifa Bay Area in Israel...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Research
Chris C Lim, Richard B Hayes, Jiyoung Ahn, Yongzhao Shao, Debra T Silverman, Rena R Jones, Cynthia Garcia, George D Thurston
OBJECTIVE: Recent mechanistic and epidemiological evidence implicates air pollution as a potential risk factor for diabetes; however, mortality risks have not been evaluated in a large US cohort assessing exposures to multiple pollutants with detailed consideration of personal risk factors for diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed the effects of long-term ambient air pollution exposures on diabetes mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, a cohort of approximately a half million subjects across the contiguous U...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Research
Fabio Fuentes-Gandara, Claudia Herrera-Herrera, José Pinedo-Hernández, José Marrugo-Negrete, Sergi Díez
The decline in marine and freshwaters catches in recent years in Colombia has led to a change in dietary habits, with an increase in the purchase and consumption of imported fish. This is of particular concern as fish are sometimes caught in mercury-contaminated waters, and are subsequently sold canned or uncanned. In addition, canned tuna has received little attention as it is widely assumed that concentrations are low. In this study, total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were evaluated in three imported fish species marketed in Colombia, Prochilodus lineatus, Prochilodus reticulatus, and Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, plus four brands of canned tuna and one of sardines...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Research
Jack Ρ Guccione, Sharon E Jacob
Metal hypersensitivity reactions (MHR) are not associated with metal containing orthodontic implants unless there is a positive history of dermatitis from a high nickel-release item (piercing post, earring, watch). We wish to present this letter to highlight evidence surrounding orthodontic-related nickel hypersensitivity and to bring to the readers attention current American Contact Dermatitis Society (ACDS) guidelines that endorse the importance of addressing metal hypersensitivity reactions in the setting of implantable dental devices...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Research
Kyle Steenland, Subra Kugathasan, Dana Boyd Barr
INTRODUCTION: PFOA (perfluoroctanoic acid) is a perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS). Although use in the US has been phased out, PFOA persists indefinitely in the environment, and is present in the serum of virtually all people in industrialized countries. Approximately 6 million Americans drink water comtaminated with PFOA above EPA-recommended levels. In a previous cohort study (n = 32,000), we found a strong positive exposure-response relation between PFOA serum levels and subsequent ulcerative colitis (UC) in a high-exposed population from the mid-Ohio valley, but no association with Crohn's disease...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Research
Rasmus Dyrmose Nørregaard, Mai Dang, Lis Bach, Ole Geertz-Hansen, Kim Gustavson, Peter Aastrup, Pall S Leifsson, Jens Søndergaard, Barbara Nowak, Christian Sonne
The former lead-zinc mine at Mestersvig, Greenland, continues to contaminate the surrounding environment despite its operations ceasing over 50 years ago. Elevated concentrations of heavy metals are found in water, sediment and biota in the terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. To shed light on the present contamination and its potential effects on local fish we investigated gill and liver histology of sculpins (Myoxocephalus spp.) around the former mining area. Two species of sculpins were caught; shorthorn sculpins (M...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Research
Natalia Szczepańska, Błażej Kudłak, Stefan Tsakovski, Galina Yotova, Miroslava Nedyalkova, Vasil Simeonov, Anna Dołęga, Jacek Namieśnik
The stability of the linings of packaging that is in contact with the goods stored has been of major concern during decades of the development of packaging materials. In this work, an attempt was undertaken to assess the applicability of using two bioassays (Microtox® and XenoScreen YES/YAS) in estimating the stability of packaging (cans, caps, multilayer material) and the impact of their degradation on the toxicity of some simulated media. The assessment of the impact of packaging storage conditions (temperature, disinfection, preservation, extracting and washing solvents) was planned and performed with i) regression modeling of the experimental effects on the ecotoxicity readings, ii) ANOVA and MANOVA estimation of the experimental conditions as significant factors affecting the toxicity results and iii) FTIR analysis of the packages...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Research
Hugo Pfister, Laurent Madec, Pierre Le Cann, Nathalie Costet, Martine Chouvet, Stéphane Jouneau, Laurent Vernhet
Bronchial respiratory diseases are more common in dairy farmers than in the general population, perhaps because the repeated inhalation of organic dust contributes to the development of these disorders. However, the factors determining the exposure of farmers to particles that can enter the lower bronchial tract and interact with it, i.e. the thoracic fraction of the inhalable dust, remain to be identified. We therefore measured the exposure of dairy farmers to thoracic organic dust and identified the farm features and tasks that increased exposure...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Research
Nicole S Ngo, Xiaojia Bao, Nan Zhong
China is among the greatest emitters of air pollution in the world and one concern is the effects of intercontinental air pollution traveling across the Pacific Ocean from China to the U.S. We exploit a natural experiment by observing the effects of changes in intercontinental air pollution associated with Chinese New Year, a 7-day national holiday, and sandstorms from China on air quality and morbidity in California. The timing of these events are unlikely correlated to other factors affecting air quality and health in California...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Research
Cristina Fernández, José A Vega
Severe fire greatly increases soil erosion rates and overland-flow in forest land. Soil erosion prediction models are essential for estimating fire impacts and planning post-fire emergency responses. We evaluated the performance of a) the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), modified by inclusion of an alternative equation for the soil erodibility factor, and b) the Disturbed WEPP model, by comparing the soil loss predicted by the models and the soil loss measured in the first year after wildfire in 44 experimental field plots in NW Spain...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Research
Evgenios Agathokleous, Mitsutoshi Kitao, Edward J Calabrese
It has long been debated whether a little stress may be "good" for you. Extensive evidence has now sufficiently accumulated demonstrating that low doses of a vast range of chemical and physical agents induce protective/beneficial effects while the opposite occurs at higher doses, a phenomenon known as hormesis. Low doses of environmental agents have recently induced autophagy, a critical adaptive response that protects essentially all cell types, as well as being transgenerational via epigenetic mechanisms...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Research
Jae-Won Shin, Sang-Hee Jo, Ki-Hyun Kim, Hee-Nam Song, Chang-Hee Kang, Nanthi Bolan, Jongki Hong
This study investigated the emission characteristics of glass particles resulting from smoking electronic cigarettes (ECs). First, the most suitable filter for the collection of glass particles was explored by examining the performance (reliability) of various types of filters. A polycarbonate filter was determined as the optimum choice to collect glass particles in EC aerosol. A cartomizer was filled with EC refill solution composed of an equal volume of propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycol (VG). To simulate the potential conditions for glass particle emission, EC vaped aerosols were collected at three distinctive puffing intervals: (1) 0-10 puffs, (2) 101-110 puffs, and (3) 201-210 puffs (flow rate of 1 L min-1 , 2 s per puff, and 10 puffs per sample)...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Research
Anwar Hossain, Shihori Nakamichi, Md Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Keiichiro Tani, Shigeki Masunaga, Hiroyuki Matsuda
Pharmaceutical contamination in the aquatic environment is a global issue that affects aquatic animals, micro-organisms and human health. The occurrence and preliminary ecological risk of 12 (11 antibiotics and 1 antiepileptic drug) pharmaceuticals were investigated for the first time in the surface water of the old Brahmaputra River, where open-water-fed aquaculture activities are being practiced in Bangladesh. The pharmaceuticals were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), operated with positive electrospray ionization (ESI+ ) and a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Research
Samantha L Kingsley, Melissa N Eliot, Karl T Kelsey, Antonia M Calafat, Shelley Ehrlich, Bruce P Lanphear, Aimin Chen, Joseph M Braun
Exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants, could be associated with adverse health outcomes, but there are limited longitudinal data assessing patterns and predictors of exposure during childhood. We quantified concentrations of eight different PFAS in sera collected from women during pregnancy and children at delivery and ages 3 and 8 years in 367 mother-child pairs enrolled in a prospective cohort from 2003 to 2006. In general, median childhood PFAS concentrations increased from birth to age 3 and then decreased by age 8...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Research
Joanna Burger, Lawrence Niles, Christian Jeitner, Michael Gochfeld
Shorebirds usually forage on intertidal flats that are exposed during low tide, and roost on higher areas when the tidal flats are covered with water. During spring migration on Delaware Bay (New Jersey) shorebirds mainly forage on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs that are concentrated at the high tide line. However, they also use other habitats for foraging. We examined habitat use of 4 species of shorebirds (with declining populations) at five Delaware Bay beaches to determine their use of the intertidal habitat (2015, 2016)...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Research
Alison Connolly, Michelle Leahy, Kate Jones, Laura Kenny, Marie A Coggins
OBJECTIVES: Glyphosate is the highest volume herbicide used globally and has recently been classified as a 2 A 'probably carcinogenic to humans' by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). There is limited data to evaluate the public health impacts from glyphosate exposure. The objective of this study is to conduct an exploratory glyphosate exposure assessment study among Irish adults, who were non-occupational users of glyphosate. STUDY DESIGN: A convenient sampling method was used, collecting one first morning void spot urine sample from each participant...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Research
Tianyu Zhao, Iana Markevych, Marcel Romanos, Dennis Nowak, Joachim Heinrich
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies have suggested adverse effects of air pollution on mental health. Given the potentially negative impacts of ozone exposure on the immune and nervous system driven from animal experiments, ozone might also affect mental health. However, no systematic synthesis of the relevant literature has been conducted yet. This paper reviews the studies that assessed the link between ozone exposure and mental health thus far. METHODS: We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA)...
May 1, 2018: Environmental Research
Sophia Rodopoulou, Klea Katsouyanni, Pagona Lagiou, Evangelia Samoli
BACKGROUND: Assessment of the cumulative effect of correlated exposures is an open methodological issue in environmental epidemiology. Most previous studies have applied regression models with interaction terms or dimension reduction methods. The combined effect of pollutants has been also evaluated through the use of exposure scores that incorporate weights based on the strength of the component-specific associations with health outcomes. METHODS: We compared three approaches addressing multi-pollutant exposures in epidemiological models: main effects models, the adaptive least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and a weighted exposure score...
May 1, 2018: Environmental Research
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