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TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30392081/genetic-and-transcriptional-variations-in-nramp-2-and-opaque1-genes-are-associated-with-salt-stress-response-in-wheat
#1
Benedict C Oyiga, Francis C Ogbonnaya, Ram C Sharma, Michael Baum, Jens Léon, Agim Ballvora
SNP alleles on chromosomes 4BL and 6AL are associated with sensitivity to salt tolerance in wheat and upon validation can be exploited in the development of salt-tolerant wheat varieties. The dissection of the genetic and molecular components of salt stress response offers strong opportunities toward understanding and improving salt tolerance in crops. In this study, GWAS was employed to identify a total of 106 SNP loci (R2  = 0.12-63.44%) linked to salt stress response in wheat using leaf chlorophyll fluorescence, grain quality and shoot ionic (Na+ and K+ ions) attributes...
November 3, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390131/organelle-dna-contents-and-starch-accumulation-in-potato-tubers
#2
Suyan Niu, Guodong Zhang, Xiubao Li, Muhammad Haroon, Huaijun Si, Guoqiang Fan, Xiu-Qing Li
Starch contents were found to be positively correlated with organelle/nuclear DNA ratios, suggesting that these ratios are involved in starch accumulation and may serve as a target trait in genetic engineering and a biomarker in breeding for improving the dry matter and starch production in potato. Starch is the main dry matter component of various staple food crops, including potato. Starch synthesis and accumulation is in plastids, uses sugar, consumes cellular energy, and requires active expression of starch synthesis genes...
November 3, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390130/pid3-i1-is-a-race-specific-partial-resistance-allele-at-the-pid3-blast-resistance-locus-in-rice
#3
Tsuyoshi Inukai, Saki Nagashima, Miyako Kato
The rice blast resistance QTL detected on chromosome 6 in MC276 is Pid3-I1, one of the multiple alleles at the Pid3 locus. Pid3-I1 shows race-specific partial resistance. Many of the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for rice blast resistance reported to date remain unidentified. In the present study, we focused on qBRM6.2, a known blast-resistance QTL in experimental resistant rice line MC276. A CO39 near-isogenic line (NIL) carrying qBRM6.2 from MC276 was developed here, and we showed that qBRM6.2 resistance was partial but race specific to Japanese blast isolates using the NIL...
November 2, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390129/small-ad-hoc-versus-large-general-training-populations-for-genomewide-selection-in-maize-biparental-crosses
#4
Sofía P Brandariz, Rex Bernardo
For genomewide selection in each biparental population, it is better to use a smaller ad hoc training population than a single, large training population. In genomewide selection, different types of training populations can be used for a biparental population made from homozygous parents (A and B). Our objective was to determine whether the response to selection (R) and predictive ability (rMP ) in an A/B population are higher with a large training population that is used for all biparental crosses, or with a smaller ad hoc training population highly related to the A/B population...
November 2, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30386915/correction-to-pm223899-a-new-recessive-powdery-mildew-resistance-gene-identified-in-afghanistan-landrace-pi-223899
#5
Genqiao Li, Brett F Carver, Christina Cowger, Guihua Bai, Xiangyang Xu
Unfortunately, the caption of Fig. 2 was incorrectly published in the original publication. The complete correct caption should read as follows.
November 1, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382313/mapping-of-the-male-sterile-mutant-gene-ftms-in-brassica-rapa-l-ssp-pekinensis-via-bsr-seq-combined-with-whole-genome-resequencing
#6
Chong Tan, Zhiyong Liu, Shengnan Huang, Hui Feng
A male sterile mutant was created by 60 Co γ-rays of microspores isolated from Chinese cabbage DH line 'FT'. A candidate gene for the male sterile trait was identified as Bra010198. Male sterility is used for hybrid seed production in Chinese cabbage. In this study, we derived a male sterile mutant (ftms) from Chinese cabbage DH line 'FT' by irradiating microspores with 60 Co γ-rays and realized the rapid trait transformation from male fertility to sterility for creating valuable breeding materials. Genetic analysis indicated that the male sterile trait is controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene, ftms...
October 31, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382312/lessons-from-natural-variations-artificially-induced-heading-date-variations-for-improvement-of-regional-adaptation-in-rice
#7
Yong Hu, Shuangle Li, Yongzhong Xing
New strategy of breeding by modulating key heading date gene Ehd1 to enhance the variations of heading date regardless of genetic background for better adaptation to local environment in rice. Flowering time (or heading date) is an important quantitative trait in rice (Oryza sativa) that determines its adaptation to specific cultivation areas and growing seasons. However, breeding of flowering time is currently relying on laborious selections and combinations of different alleles of various genes. Here, we cloned a cis-variant allele of Ehd1 that regulated not only heading date but also yield potential...
October 31, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382311/modeling-copy-number-variation-in-the-genomic-prediction-of-maize-hybrids
#8
Danilo Hottis Lyra, Giovanni Galli, Filipe Couto Alves, Ítalo Stefanine Correia Granato, Miriam Suzane Vidotti, Massaine Bandeira E Sousa, Júlia Silva Morosini, José Crossa, Roberto Fritsche-Neto
Our study indicates that copy variants may play an essential role in the phenotypic variation of complex traits in maize hybrids. Moreover, predicting hybrid phenotypes by combining additive-dominance effects with copy variants has the potential to be a viable predictive model. Non-additive effects resulting from the actions of multiple loci may influence trait variation in single-cross hybrids. In addition, complementation of allelic variation could be a valuable contributor to hybrid genetic variation, especially when crossing inbred lines with higher contents of copy gains...
October 31, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382310/identification-and-mapping-of-two-independent-recessive-loci-for-the-root-hairless-mutant-phenotype-in-soybean
#9
Yongqing Yang, Huiyong Lv, Hong Liao
Two functional complementation QTLs were identified for root hairless formation in soybean. Root hairs play critical roles not only in nutrient/water uptake from soils, but also in plant-microorganism interactions. However, genetic information about root hair development remains fragmented. We previously identified a soybean natural mutant (RBC-HL) with the root hairless (HL) phenotype. In order to reveal the genetic basis for this phenotype, a polymorphic population was constructed using RBC-HL and a genotype (RBC-NH) with normal root hairs (NH)...
October 31, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377705/transfer-of-stem-rust-resistance-gene-srb-from-thinopyrum-ponticum-into-wheat-and-development-of-a-closely-linked-pcr-based-marker
#10
Rohit Mago, Peng Zhang, Xiaodi Xia, Jianping Zhang, Sami Hoxha, Evans Lagudah, Andreas Graner, Ian Dundas
We report transfer of a rust resistance gene named SrB, on the 6Ae#3 chromosome, to wheat by recombination with the 6Ae#1 segment carrying Sr26 and development of a linked marker. A stem rust resistance gene from a South African wheat W3757, temporarily named SrB, has been transferred onto chromosome 6A. Line W3757 is a 6Ae#3 (6D) substitution line in which the Thinopyrum ponticum chromosomes carry SrB. Crosses were made between W3757 and a T6AS·6AL-6Ae#1 recombinant line named WA-5 carrying the stem rust resistance gene Sr26 on a chromosome segment from another accession of Th...
October 30, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377704/targeted-recombination-to-increase-genetic-gain-in-self-pollinated-species
#11
Sushan Ru, Rex Bernardo
If we can induce or select for recombination at targeted marker intervals, genetic gains for quantitative traits in self-pollinated species may be doubled. Targeted recombination refers to inducing or selecting for a recombination event at genomic positions that maximize genetic gain in a cross. A previous study indicated that targeted recombination could double the rate of genetic gains in maize (Zea mays L.), a cross-pollinated crop for which historical genetic gains have been large. Our objectives were to determine whether targeted recombination can sufficiently increase predicted gains in self-pollinated species, and whether prospective gains from targeted recombination vary across crops, populations, traits, and chromosomes...
October 30, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374528/identification-of-a-gene-responsible-for-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-in-onions-allium-cepa-l-using-comparative-analysis-of-mitochondrial-genome-sequences-of-two-recently-diverged-cytoplasms
#12
Bongju Kim, Tae-Jin Yang, Sunggil Kim
Almost identical mitochondrial genome sequences of two recently diverged male-fertile normal and male-sterile CMS-T-like cytoplasms were obtained in onions. A chimeric gene, orf725 , was found to be a CMS-inducing gene. In onions (Allium cepa L.), cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS) has been widely used in hybrid seed production. Two types of CMS (CMS-S and CMS-T) have been reported in onions. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the CMS-S cytoplasm has been reported in our previous study. Draft mitochondrial genome sequences of male-fertile normal and CMS-T-like cytoplasms are reported in this study...
October 29, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374527/development-and-molecular-cytogenetic-identification-of-a-new-wheat-rye-4r-chromosome-disomic-addition-line-with-resistances-to-powdery-mildew-stripe-rust-and-sharp-eyespot
#13
Diaoguo An, Pengtao Ma, Qi Zheng, Shulan Fu, Lihui Li, Fangpu Han, Guohao Han, Jing Wang, Yunfeng Xu, Yuli Jin, Qiaoling Luo, Xiaotian Zhang
A wheat-rye 4R chromosome disomic addition line with resistances to powdery mildew, stripe rust, sharp eyespot and high kernel number per spike was developed and characterized by molecular cytogenetic method as novel resistant germplasm. Rye (Secale cereale L.), a close relative of common wheat, is an important and valuable gene donor with multiple disease resistance for wheat improvement. However, resistance genes derived from rye have successively lost resistance to pathogens due to the coevolution of pathogen virulence and host resistance...
October 29, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374526/crop-resistant-starch-and-genetic-improvement-a-review-of-recent-advances
#14
REVIEW
Jian Xia, Dong Zhu, Ruomei Wang, Yue Cui, Yueming Yan
Resistant starch (RS), as a healthy dietary fiber, meets with great human favor along with the rapid development and improvement of global living standards. RS shows direct effects in reducing postprandial blood glucose levels, serum cholesterol levels and glycemic index. Therefore, RS plays an important role in preventing and improving non-communicable diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, colon cancer, cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. In addition, RS leads to its potential applied value in the development of high-quality foodstuffs, such as bread, noodles and dumplings...
October 29, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30343386/the-sorghum-qtl-atlas-a-powerful-tool-for-trait-dissection-comparative-genomics-and-crop-improvement
#15
Emma Mace, David Innes, Colleen Hunt, Xuemin Wang, Yongfu Tao, Jared Baxter, Michael Hassall, Adrian Hathorn, David Jordan
We describe the development and application of the Sorghum QTL Atlas, a high-resolution, open-access research platform to facilitate candidate gene identification across three cereal species, sorghum, maize and rice. The mechanisms governing the genetic control of many quantitative traits are only poorly understood and have yet to be fully exploited. Over the last two decades, over a thousand QTL and GWAS studies have been published in the major cereal crops including sorghum, maize and rice. A large body of information has been generated on the genetic basis of quantitative traits, their genomic location, allelic effects and epistatic interactions...
October 20, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30343385/delimitation-of-wheat-ph1b-deletion-and-development-of-ph1b-specific-dna-markers
#16
Yadav Gyawali, Wei Zhang, Shiaoman Chao, Steven Xu, Xiwen Cai
We detected the deletion breakpoints of wheat ph1b mutant and the actual size of the deletion. Also, we developed ph1b deletion-specific markers useful for ph1b-mediated gene introgression and genome studies. The Ph1 (pairing homoeologous) locus has been considered a major genetic system for the diploidized meiotic behavior of the allopolyploid genome in wheat. It functions as a defense system against meiotic homoeologous pairing and recombination in polyploid wheat. A large deletion of the genomic region harboring Ph1 on the long arm of chromosome 5B (5BL) led to the ph1b mutant in hexaploid wheat 'Chinese Spring,' which has been widely used to induce meiotic homoeologous recombination for gene introgression from wild grasses into wheat...
October 20, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341495/rapid-gene-cloning-in-cereals
#17
REVIEW
Jan Bettgenhaeuser, Simon G Krattinger
The large and complex genomes of many cereals hindered cloning efforts in the past. Advances in genomics now allow the rapid cloning of genes from humanity's most valuable crops. The past two decades were characterized by a genomics revolution that entailed profound changes to crop research, plant breeding, and agriculture. Today, high-quality reference sequences are available for all major cereal crop species. Large resequencing and pan-genome projects start to reveal a more comprehensive picture of the genetic makeup and the diversity among domesticated cereals and their wild relatives...
October 19, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341494/development-and-characterization-of-wheat-sea-wheatgrass-thinopyrum-junceiforme-amphiploids-for-biotic-stress-resistance-and-abiotic-stress-tolerance
#18
Wanlong Li, Qijun Zhang, Shuwen Wang, Marie A Langham, Dilkaran Singh, Robert L Bowden, Steven S Xu
Development of a complete wheat-Thinopyrum junceiforme amphiploid facilitated identification of resistance to multiple pests and abiotic stress derived from the wild species and shed new light on its genome composition. Wheat production is facing numerous challenges from biotic and abiotic stresses. Alien gene transfer has been an effective approach for wheat germplasm enhancement. Thinopyrum junceiforme, also known as sea wheatgrass (SWG), is a distant relative of wheat and a relatively untapped source for wheat improvement...
October 19, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341493/integrating-genomic-enabled-prediction-and-high-throughput-phenotyping-in-breeding-for-climate-resilient-bread-wheat
#19
Philomin Juliana, Osval A Montesinos-López, José Crossa, Suchismita Mondal, Lorena González Pérez, Jesse Poland, Julio Huerta-Espino, Leonardo Crespo-Herrera, Velu Govindan, Susanne Dreisigacker, Sandesh Shrestha, Paulino Pérez-Rodríguez, Francisco Pinto Espinosa, Ravi P Singh
Genomic selection and high-throughput phenotyping (HTP) are promising tools to accelerate breeding gains for high-yielding and climate-resilient wheat varieties. Hence, our objective was to evaluate them for predicting grain yield (GY) in drought-stressed (DS) and late-sown heat-stressed (HS) environments of the International maize and wheat improvement center's elite yield trial nurseries. We observed that the average genomic prediction accuracies using fivefold cross-validations were 0.50 and 0.51 in the DS and HS environments, respectively...
October 19, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341492/identification-and-characterization-of-a-semi-dominant-restorer-of-fertility-1-allele-in-sugar-beet-beta-vulgaris
#20
Takumi Arakawa, Sachiyo Ue, Chihiro Sano, Muneyuki Matsunaga, Hiroyo Kagami, Yu Yoshida, Yosuke Kuroda, Kazunori Taguchi, Kazuyoshi Kitazaki, Tomohiko Kubo
The sugar beet Rf1 locus has a number of molecular variants. We found that one of the molecular variants is a weak allele of a previously identified allele. Male sterility (MS) caused by nuclear-mitochondrial interaction is called cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in which MS-inducing mitochondria are suppressed by a nuclear gene, restorer-of-fertility. Rf and rf are the suppressing and non-suppressing alleles, respectively. This dichotomic view, however, seems somewhat unsatisfactory to explain the recently discovered molecular diversity of Rf loci...
October 19, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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