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Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816975/biofilm-formation-restrained-by-subinhibitory-concentrations-of-tigecyclin-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-is-associated-with-downregulation-of-efflux-pumps
#1
Huale Chen, Jianming Cao, Cui Zhou, Haiyang Liu, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Tieli Zhou
BACKGROUND: Tigecycline, one of the few therapeutic options against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, reaches subinhibitory serum concentrations only with cautious clinical dosing and pharmacokinetics. Subinhibitory concentrations of tigecycline might induce an A. baumannii biofilm. METHODS: Biofilm formation was assessed via the crystal violet staining method. We further analyzed the main biofilm components with NaIO4, proteinase K, and DNase. Real-time RT-PCR was applied for quantitative detection of biofilm potential-associated genes...
November 5, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794569/adaptive-cross-resistance-to-aminoglycoside-antibiotics-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-induced-by-topical-dosage-of-neomycin
#2
Shuji Uemura, Shin-Ichi Yokota, Tsukasa Shiraishi, Manabu Kitagawa, Suguru Hirayama, Ryoko Kyan, Hirotoshi Mizuno, Keigo Sawamoto, Hiroyuki Inoue, Atsushi Miyamoto, Eichi Narimatsu
BACKGROUND: Topical antimicrobial formulations containing neomycin are commonly used to prevent and treat burn infections. However, Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows rapid acquisition of adaptive resistance to neomycin. This study aimed to evaluate the survival of P. aeruginosa during exposure to neomycin at high concentrations comparable to those used in topical formulations, and to investigate the effect of adaptive resistance to neomycin on the susceptibility to other aminoglycosides. METHODS: Strain IID1130 [neomycin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 4 µg/ml] was incubated on an agar medium containing neomycin at high concentrations (8-4,096 µg/ml), and growing colonies were macroscopically observed...
October 29, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794568/bevacizumab-in-ovarian-cancer-state-of-the-art-and-unanswered-questions
#3
Angela Musella, Laura Vertechy, Alessia Romito, Claudia Marchetti, Andrea Giannini, Valentina Sciuga, Carlotta Bracchi, Federica Tomao, Violante Di Donato, Francesca De Felice, Marco Monti, Ludovico Muzii, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici
Ovarian cancer is a most lethal gynecologic tumor. The mainstay treatment is cytoreductive surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy. However, a high percentage of patients recur, thus needing multiple treatments with a frequently poor prognosis. In the last two decades, research has focused on the potential of target therapies to improve the survival of patients affected by ovarian cancer. Bevacizumab is one of the most studied target therapies, and it is approved for first- and second-line treatment of advanced epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal tumors...
October 29, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788502/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-pharmacodynamics-of-colistin-and-aztreonam-alone-and-in-combination-against-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#4
Yuka Yamagishi, Mao Hagihara, Hideo Kato, Jun Hirai, Naoya Nishiyama, Yusuke Koizumi, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Hazuki Nakai, Hiroshige Mikamo
BACKGROUND: Reports of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with high antimicrobial resistance have steadily emerged, threatening the utility of a mainstay in antipseudomonal therapy. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activities of various combination therapies against P. aeruginosa with high antimicrobial resistance, including multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa (MDRP) using an in vitro and in vivo study. METHODS: We evaluated 24 combination therapies, including colistin, aztreonam, meropenem, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, rifampicin, arbekacin and piperacillin against 15 MDRP isolates detected at Aichi Medical University Hospital with the break-point checkerboard method...
October 28, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788499/assessment-of-fosfomycin-for-complicated-or-multidrug-resistant-urinary-tract-infections-patient-characteristics-and-outcomes
#5
Stephanie E Giancola, Monica V Mahoney, Michael D Hogan, Brian R Raux, Christopher McCoy, Elizabeth B Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Bacterial resistance among uropathogens is on the rise and has led to a decreased effectiveness of oral therapies. Fosfomycin tromethamine (fosfomycin) is indicated for uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) and displays in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates; however, clinical data assessing fosfomycin for the treatment of complicated or MDR UTIs are limited. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective evaluation of patients who received ≥1 dose of fosfomycin between January 2009 and September 2015 for treatment of a UTI...
October 28, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764836/lysosome-inhibitors-enhance-the-chemotherapeutic-activity-of-doxorubicin-in-hepg2-cells
#6
Yuyin Li, Yuejun Sun, Lifang Jing, Jianjun Wang, Yali Yan, Yajuan Feng, Yueying Zhang, Zhenxing Liu, Long Ma, Aipo Diao
The lysosome inhibitors bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine have both lysosomotropic properties and autophagy inhibition ability, and are promising clinical agents to be used in combination with anticancer drugs. In order to investigate this combination effect, HepG2 cells were treated with bafilomycin A1, chloroquine, or/and doxorubicin, and their proliferative ability, induction of apoptosis, and the changes of lysosomal membrane permeabilization and mitochondrial membrane potential were studied. The results demonstrate that treatment with bafilomycin A1 or chloroquine alone at a relatively low concentration promotes the inhibitory effect of doxorubicin on cell growth and apoptosis...
October 21, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764829/determination-of-the-mutant-prevention-concentration-and-the-mutant-selection-window-of-topical-antimicrobial-agents-against-propionibacterium-acnes
#7
Keisuke Nakase, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Yuta Toda, Norihisa Noguchi
Determination of the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and the mutant selection window (MSW) of antimicrobial agents used to treat pathogenic bacteria is important in order to apply effective antimicrobial therapies. Here, we determined the MPCs of the major topical antimicrobial agents against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus which cause skin infections and compared their MSWs. Among the MPCs of nadifloxacin and clindamycin, the clindamycin MPC was determined to be the lowest against P...
October 21, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654129/patients-with-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-and-hyperbilirubinemia-treated-with-folfiri-plus-bevacizumab-as-first-line-treatment
#8
Ching-Wen Huang, Yung-Sung Yeh, Cheng-Jen Ma, Hsiang-Lin Tsai, Chao-Wen Chen, Ming-Yii Huang, Chien-Yu Lu, Jeng-Yih Wu, Jaw Yuan Wang
Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) combined with hyperbilirubinemia is typically considered a contraindication to irinotecan-based therapy, a proven first-line treatment of mCRC. Herein, we present 6 consecutive patients with mCRC combined with hyperbilirubinemia who underwent UGT1A1 genotyping before receiving FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab. Dose escalation of irinotecan was performed according to the results of UGT1A1 genotyping in all patients. Improvement in the serum total bilirubin level to a normal range was noted in all 6 patients...
September 22, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648841/comparison-of-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-the-early-and-the-delayed-use-of-vinorelbine-based-regimens-for-patients-with-advanced-breast-cancer
#9
Ying Wang, Jieqiong Liu, Weijuan Jia, Shunrong Li, Nanyan Rao, Fengxi Su, Qiang Liu, Herui Yao
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of vinorelbine-based regimens as first-, second- and more-line therapies in advanced breast cancer (ABC) and to analyze the best timing of vinorelbine treatment. METHODS: A total of 71 ABC patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of these, 35 patients were treated with vinorelbine-based regimens as first-line chemotherapy, and 36 patients were treated with vinorelbine-based regimens as second-line or more-line therapy...
September 21, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643822/new-perspectives-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-gastric-cancer-s-1-as-a-novel-oral-5-fu-therapy-in-combination-with-cisplatin
#10
Rolf Mahlberg, Sylvie Lorenzen, Peter Thuss-Patience, Volker Heinemann, Per Pfeiffer, Markus Möhler
Oral fluoropyrimidines have been available for more than 10 years. Capecitabine is well established in treating solid tumors in Europe. S-1 (Teysuno®), an oral formulation containing the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) prodrug tegafur and the two enzyme modulators gimeracil and oteracil, has not been available in non-Asia countries until recently. In Japan, S-1 in combination with cisplatin is the recommended first-line treatment in patients with gastric cancer. In Europe, the first trials with S-1 were disappointing due to high unacceptable incidences of adverse events...
September 20, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618144/ponatinib-induces-a-persistent-molecular-response-and-graft-versus-host-disease-graft-versus-leukemia-effect-in-a-patient-with-philadelphia-positive-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-with-a-t315i-mutation-following-early-relapse-after-allogeneic-transplant
#11
Daniela Renzi, Francesco Marchesi, Gottardo De Angelis, Loredana Elia, Emanuela Salvatorelli, Svitlana Gumenyuk, Francesca Palombi, Francesco Pisani, Atelda Romano, Antonio Spadea, Elena Papa, Marco Canfora, William Arcese, Andrea Mengarelli
We describe the case of a patient with a Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with dasatinib plus steroids as the first-line therapy who achieved a molecular complete remission and then underwent a matched, unrelated donor allogeneic transplant. Five months after the transplant, he experienced a disease relapse with an T315I mutation, which was resistant to salvage chemotherapy. Once the details of the T315I mutation were acquired, we initiated ponatinib treatment at a standard dosage and observed a rapid decrease of minimal residual disease (MRD) at molecular assessment...
September 10, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351795/germ-cell-tumor-targeting-chemotherapy-in-gastric-adenocarcinoma-with-an-endodermal-sinus-tumor-component-a-case-report
#12
Jung Eun Choi, A Reum Choe, Sang Eun Yoon, Eun Mi Nam, Heejung Park, Kyoung Eun Lee
The most common sites for extragonadal germ cell tumors are the midline mediastinum, retroperitoneum and, much less frequently, the stomach. The stomach-originated primary germ cell tumor carries a poor prognosis, especially when metastasis occurs to the liver, with a mean survival time of 1 month. We describe the case of a 77-year-old male who presented with usual symptoms of gastric malignancy. Gastrectomy was performed. Histopathology of surgically resected tissue revealed a mixture of adenocarcinoma and endodermal sinus tumor components with α-fetoprotein production...
June 29, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27322648/mutant-p53-gain-of-function-and-chemoresistance-the-role-of-mutant-p53-in-response-to-clinical-chemotherapy
#13
Chao He, Lun Li, Xuan Guan, Li Xiong, Xiongying Miao
PURPOSE: To review mechanisms underlying mutant p53 (mutp53) gain of function (GOF) and mutp53-induced chemoresistance, and to investigate the role of mutp53 in response to clinical chemotherapy. METHODS: We searched the PubMed database for clinical studies from the past decade, including data evaluating the impact of mutp53 in clinical chemotherapy response. RESULTS: Interactions between mutp53 and transcriptional factors, proteins or DNA structures, as well as epigenetic regulation, contribute to mutp53 GOF...
June 21, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27322615/characterization-of-integrons-and-sulfonamide-resistance-genes-among-bacteria-from-drinking-water-distribution-systems-in-southwestern-nigeria
#14
Ayodele T Adesoji, Adeniyi A Ogunjobi, Isaac O Olatoye
BACKGROUND: The emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria in clinical and environmental settings is a global problem. Many antibiotic resistance genes are located on mobile genetic elements such as plasmids and integrons, enabling their transfer among a variety of bacterial species. Water distribution systems may be reservoirs for the spread of antibiotic resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bacteria isolated from raw, treated, and municipal tap water samples from selected water distribution systems in south-western Nigeria were investigated using the point inoculation method with seeded antibiotics, PCR amplification, and sequencing for the determination of bacterial resistance profiles and class 1/2 integrase genes and gene cassettes, respectively...
June 21, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27287263/gemox-an-active-regimen-for-the-treatment-of-luminal-and-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-positive-metastatic-breast-cancer
#15
Anna Rizzi, Francesca Aroldi, Paola Bertocchi, Tiziana Prochilo, Stefano Mutti, Giordano Savelli, Anna Paola Fraccon, Alberto Zaniboni
BACKGROUND: Pretreated metastatic breast cancer (MBC) remains a formidable challenge with unmet needs both in terms of prolonged survival and quality-of-life-related issues. METHODS: We collected data from 27 MBC patients treated with gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX) at our institution between June 2009 and April 2015. The patients were heavily pretreated, and all had previously been exposed to anthracyclines and taxanes. RESULTS: We achieved a complete response in 1 patient (4%), a partial response in 7 patients (26%) and stable disease in 12 patients (44%), while 6 patients (22%) experienced progressive disease...
June 10, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27229894/hemoglobin-value-is-the-most-important-factor-in-the-development-of-hand-foot-syndrome-under-the-capecitabine-regimen
#16
Masahito Naito, Tomoya Yamamoto, Shinsuke Hara, Chikao Shimamoto, Yoshihiro Miwa
BACKGROUND: Hand-foot syndrome (HFS) is a common side effect that has a high occurrence rate with capecitabine (Cape) chemotherapy. However, little is known about the risk factors of developing HFS under the Cape regimen. Our aim was to examine these risk factors. METHODS: A univariate analysis was used to determine the risk factors associated with developing HFS, and we calculated the effect sizes between the patients who developed HFS compared to those who did not...
May 28, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226129/anti-ccr4-monoclonal-antibody-mogamulizumab-followed-by-the-gdp-gemcitabine-dexamethasone-and-cisplatin-regimen-in-primary-refractory-angioimmunoblastic-t-cell-lymphoma
#17
Harumi Kato, Kazuhito Yamamoto, Yusuke Higuchi, Hideyuki Yamamoto, Toko Saito, Hirofumi Taji, Yasushi Yatabe, Shigeo Nakamura, Tomohiro Kinoshita
There are few effective options for salvage therapy in elderly patients with relapsed or refractory angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL). The anti-CCR4 antibody mogamulizumab works via antibody-dependent cytotoxic activity, reduces regulatory T cells, and evokes antitumor immunity in cancer patients. We report a 78-year-old patient with refractory AITL receiving a new immunochemotherapy consisting of sequential mogamulizumab administration followed by the GDP (gemcitabine, dexamethasone and cisplatin) regimen...
May 27, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27220322/characterization-of-integrons-and-qnr-genes-in-proteeae-from-a-teaching-hospital-in-china
#18
Jianming Cao, Meimei Li, Chunquan Xu, Tieli Zhou, Jia Du, Yao Sun, Ling Qin, Jiru Xu
BACKGROUND: Proteeae isolates displaying multidrug-resistance (MDR) are the second most common causes of hospital-associated infections. The aim of this study was to screen class 1-3 integrons and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in Proteeae isolates from the First Affiliated Hospital of the Wenzhou Medical University. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 176 Proteeae isolates were collected from clinical specimens of inpatients between January 2011 and December 2013...
May 25, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216271/antimicrobial-susceptibility-among-european-gram-negative-and-gram-positive-isolates-collected-as-part-of-the-tigecycline-evaluation-and-surveillance-trial-2004-2014
#19
Arne C Rodloff, Michael J Dowzicky
BACKGROUND: European centers (n = 226) involved in the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (TEST, 2004-2014) submitted data and bacterial isolates. METHODS: Minimal inhibitory concentrations and susceptibility were determined using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing breakpoints. RESULTS: The rates of the following resistant pathogens increased from 2004 to 2014: extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Escherichia coli (from 8...
May 24, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27144279/efficacy-and-safety-of-tigecycline-for-patients-with-hospital-acquired-pneumonia
#20
Li Xu, Ya-Li Wang, Shuai Du, Lin Chen, Li-Hui Long, Yan Wu
BACKGROUND: Tigecycline is an antibiotic agent with a broad spectrum, which has an antibacterial effect against many multidrug-resistant organisms. However, its clinical efficacy in the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is disputed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this report, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tigecycline for the treatment of HAP. The primary outcome was the rate of clinical cure, and the secondary outcomes were mortality and adverse events (AEs)...
2016: Chemotherapy
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