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Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420003/retrospective-analysis-of-the-risk-factors-for-grade-iv-neutropenia-in-oesophageal-cancer-patients-treated-with-a-docetaxel-cisplatin-and-5-fluorouracil-regimen
#1
Masahito Naito, Tomoya Yamamoto, Chikao Shimamoto, Yoshihiro Miwa
BACKGROUND: Previous Japanese trials of the docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil regimen for oesophageal cancer have demonstrated that a large proportion of patients also develop grade IV neutropenia. Our aim was to examine the risk factors for neutropenia in patients treated with this regimen. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the risk factors for developing grade IV neutropenia in 66 patients with oesophageal cancer using a multivariate analysis. RESULTS: After administering the docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil regimen, 49 patients (74...
April 19, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419998/dynamics-of-l-carnitine-in-plasma-and-urine-in-patients-undergoing-cisplatin-chemotherapy
#2
Daisuke Gomi, Aika Tanaka, Toshirou Fukushima, Takashi Kobayashi, Hirohide Matsushita, Nodoka Sekiguchi, Akiyuki Sakamoto, Shigeru Sasaki, Keiko Mamiya, Tomonobu Koizumi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several studies have indicated that cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II; CDDP) causes urinary excretion of L-carnitine (LC). However, the underlying cofactors affecting the increased urinary excretion remain unclear. The present study was performed to evaluate the dynamics of LC in plasma and urine after CDDP chemotherapy and to examine the relations with clinical parameters, such as gender, body mass index (BMI), and renal function. METHODS: Twenty-two patients treated with CDDP therapy were selected...
April 19, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384633/expanding-the-role-of-chloroquine-as-a-potent-antineoplastic-agent-in-different-gastrointestinal-malignancies
#3
Shailendra Kapoor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380484/post-progression-survival-associated-with-overall-survival-in-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-receiving-docetaxel-monotherapy-as-second-line-chemotherapy
#4
Mie Kotake, Yosuke Miura, Hisao Imai, Keita Mori, Reiko Sakurai, Kyoichi Kaira, Yoshio Tomizawa, Koichi Minato, Ryusei Saito, Takeshi Hisada
BACKGROUND: In patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the effects of second-line chemotherapy on overall survival (OS) might be confounded by subsequent therapies. Therefore, using individual-level data, we aimed to determine the relationships between progression-free survival (PFS) and post-progression survival (PPS) with OS in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with docetaxel monotherapy as second-line chemotherapy. METHODS: Between April 2002 and December 2014, data from 86 patients with advanced NSCLC who underwent second-line docetaxel monotherapy following first-line treatment with platinum combination chemotherapy were analyzed...
April 6, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351058/central-macular-thickness-monitoring-after-a-taxane-based-therapy-in-visually-asymptomatic-patients
#5
Elias Chelala, Nicolas Arej, Joelle Antoun, Hampig Raphael Kourie, Karen Zaarour, Fady Ghassan Haddad, Fadi Farhat, Fadi El Karak, Joseph Kattan
BACKGROUND: Taxanes are drugs used in various chemotherapeutical protocols to treat solid tumors. They have multiple systemic adverse effects, such as bone marrow suppression, alopecia, nausea, and vomiting, and may rarely cause ocular symptoms. In the past decade, a few reported cases have shown the occurrence of a cystoid macular edema with significant visual loss after the use of a taxane-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to compare the central macular thickness (CMT) before and after the initiation of a taxane-based therapy in visually asymptomatic patients and to elucidate the possible impact of these drugs on the vision of cancer patients...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351036/hypoxia-induces-multidrug-resistance-via-enhancement-of-epidermal-growth-factor-like-domain-7-expression-in-non-small-lung-cancer-cells
#6
Xiaochun Shen, Qiaoming Zhi, Yunliang Wang, Zhi Li, Jin Zhou, Jianan Huang
Chemotherapy is widely used in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment, yet multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major chemotherapeutic obstacle in both resectable and advanced NSCLC. Epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 (EGFL7), also known as vascular endothelial stain, is an endothelial cell-derived secreted factor that regulates vascular tube formulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential relationships between EGFL7 and MDR in NSCLC cells. We first obtained the CDDP-based MDR phenotype cell line A549/CDDP by repeated exposure to a proper concentration of CDDP (cisplatin) from original A549 cells...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334723/expression-of-activating-protein-4-and-its-relationships-with-prognosis-in-gastric-cancer
#7
Xiuwei Sun, Zhanjun Feng, Yao Qu, Jiayue Shao, Ning Wei
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to investigate the expression of transcription activating protein 4 (AP-4) in gastric cancer (GC) and its impacts on prognosis. METHODS: The cancer tissues and normal tissues of 54 GC patients were sampled for the expression detection of AP-4, and the patients were followed up. RESULTS: The positive expression rate of AP-4 in the cancer tissues (68.5%) was higher than the normal tissues (22.2%; p < 0...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334703/do-you-know-pixantrone
#8
Giorgio Minotti, Pierantonio Menna, Emanuela Salvatorelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334702/in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-7-substituted-6-fluoroquinolone-and-7-substituted-6-8-difluoroquinolone-derivatives
#9
Socorro Leyva-Ramos, Denisse de Loera, Jaime Cardoso-Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are widely prescribed synthetic antimicrobial agents. Quinolones act by converting their targets, gyrase and topoisomerase IV, into toxic enzymes that fragment the bacterial chromosome; the irreversible DNA damage eventually causes the killing of bacteria. Thorough knowledge of the structure-activity relationship of quinolones is essential for the development of new drugs with improved activity against resistant strains. METHODS: The compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against 4 representing strains using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334700/single-agent-pixantrone-as-a-bridge-to-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-in-a-patient-with-refractory-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#10
Lorena Appio, Carlo Landoni, Maria La Targia, Vanda Bertolli, Martina Chiarucci, Giovanni Crovetti, Elisabetta Vassenna, Giovanni Serio, Marco Bregni
Aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma is associated with poor long-term survival after relapse or resistance to chemotherapy. We report a case of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma refractory to first-line R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) and second-line R-DHAP (rituximab, dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin) chemotherapy treatments. The patient achieved remission with single-agent pixantrone, and received a consolidation with high-dose BEAM (BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan) chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142134/coronary-spasm-after-an-injection-of-vincristine
#11
Rosine Gros, Vincent Hugon, Jean-Marc Thouret, Vincent Peigne
Cardiotoxicity, including heart failure, thromboembolic events, and myocardial ischemia, is a concern for cardiologists and oncologists. The most frequently involved drugs are anthracyclines. We report an episode of coronary spasm due to vincristine, a vinca alkaloid, in a 49-year-old man treated for a diffuse undifferentiated carcinoma. The patient suffered recurrent episodes of typical chest pain with ST-elevation in the inferior area. Coronary spasm was confirmed by an angiogram, which showed normal coronary arteries...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122377/primary-prevention-strategies-for-anthracycline-cardiotoxicity-a-brief-overview
#12
Pierantonio Menna, Emanuela Salvatorelli
The clinical use of doxorubicin and other antitumor anthracyclines is limited by a dose-related risk of cardiomyopathy and heart failure which may occur "on treatment" or any time, from months to years, after completing chemotherapy. Dose reductions diminish the incidence of cardiac events attributable to anthracyclines, but heart failure still occurs in some patients exposed to low or moderate anthracycline doses. Because anthracyclines improve the life expectancy of patients with, for example, breast cancer or lymphomas, preventing or diminishing the risk of early or delayed cardiotoxicity is of obvious clinical importance...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110331/distinct-benefit-of-overall-survival-between-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-harboring-egfr-exon-19-deletion-and-exon-21-l858r-substitution
#13
Nobuyuki Koyama, Yasutaka Watanabe, Yuki Iwai, Rumi Kawamura, Chihiro Miwa, Yoshiaki Nagai, Koichi Hagiwara, Shinichiro Koyama
BACKGROUND: Exon 19 deletion (Del19) and exon 21 L858R substitution (L858R), which account for 90% of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations as common mutations, are associated with favorable outcomes with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) compared with other uncommon EGFR mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, whether there are differences in overall survival (OS) between patients with these common EGFR mutations remains controversial. METHODS: The subjects studied were 74 NSCLC patients with common EGFR mutations treated with gefitinib or erlotinib...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030859/clinical-efficacy-of-afatinib-treatment-for-a-patient-with-leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis
#14
Yo Kawaguchi, Jun Hanaoka, Hideki Hayashi, Naoki Mizusaki, Hirotoshi Iihara, Yoshinori Itoh, Tadashi Sugiyama
Leptomeningeal metastases occur in 1% of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. There have been several reports on the treatment of leptomeningeal metastases with afatinib. Our patient was a 41-year-old woman who had never smoked and was diagnosed with stage IV adenocarcinoma of the lung with an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. She was treated with afatinib for the recurrence of leptomeningeal metastases. After the treatment with afatinib was initiated, the neurological symptoms dramatically regressed, and she achieved progression-free survival for 7 months...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997900/a-difference-in-the-incidences-of-hypersensitivity-reactions-to-original-and-generic-taxanes
#15
Tanchanok Ratanajarusiri, Virote Sriuranpong, Piyada Sitthideatphaiboon, Nattaya Poovoravan, Chanida Vinayanuwat, Napa Parinyanitikul, Pattama Angspatt, Wilai Thawinwisan, Suebpong Tanasanvimon
PURPOSE: To compare incidences of hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) between original and generic taxanes including paclitaxel and docetaxel. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study enrolling all patients receiving taxanes at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Taxanes were infused accordingly to the step-wise rate escalation protocol at this hospital. Active surveillance for HSRs was performed. During the study period, there was only 1 generic brand used for each taxane...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960150/bendamustine-and-rituximab-complete-response-in-a-62-year-old-female-with-an-aggressive-lymphoma-and-an-ejection-fraction-of-20
#16
REVIEW
Taha Alrifai, Kelly Grant Szymanski, Parameswaran Venugopal, Brett Mahon, Tochukwu Okwuosa, Reem Karmali
The treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the presence of cardiac comorbidities can be challenging considering that the standard treatment regimen used for this aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) consists of a combination of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride, Oncovin (vincristine), and prednisone (R-CHOP). The use of the anthracycline doxorubicin has been associated with arrhythmias and cardiomyopathy, making patients with cardiac dysfunction poor candidates for R-CHOP...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816975/biofilm-formation-restrained-by-subinhibitory-concentrations-of-tigecyclin-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-is-associated-with-downregulation-of-efflux-pumps
#17
Huale Chen, Jianming Cao, Cui Zhou, Haiyang Liu, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Tieli Zhou
BACKGROUND: Tigecycline, one of the few therapeutic options against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, reaches subinhibitory serum concentrations only with cautious clinical dosing and pharmacokinetics. Subinhibitory concentrations of tigecycline might induce an A. baumannii biofilm. METHODS: Biofilm formation was assessed via the crystal violet staining method. We further analyzed the main biofilm components with NaIO4, proteinase K, and DNase. Real-time RT-PCR was applied for quantitative detection of biofilm potential-associated genes...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794569/adaptive-cross-resistance-to-aminoglycoside-antibiotics-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-induced-by-topical-dosage-of-neomycin
#18
Shuji Uemura, Shin-Ichi Yokota, Tsukasa Shiraishi, Manabu Kitagawa, Suguru Hirayama, Ryoko Kyan, Hirotoshi Mizuno, Keigo Sawamoto, Hiroyuki Inoue, Atsushi Miyamoto, Eichi Narimatsu
BACKGROUND: Topical antimicrobial formulations containing neomycin are commonly used to prevent and treat burn infections. However, Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows rapid acquisition of adaptive resistance to neomycin. This study aimed to evaluate the survival of P. aeruginosa during exposure to neomycin at high concentrations comparable to those used in topical formulations, and to investigate the effect of adaptive resistance to neomycin on the susceptibility to other aminoglycosides. METHODS: Strain IID1130 [neomycin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 4 µg/ml] was incubated on an agar medium containing neomycin at high concentrations (8-4,096 µg/ml), and growing colonies were macroscopically observed...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794568/bevacizumab-in-ovarian-cancer-state-of-the-art-and-unanswered-questions
#19
REVIEW
Angela Musella, Laura Vertechy, Alessia Romito, Claudia Marchetti, Andrea Giannini, Valentina Sciuga, Carlotta Bracchi, Federica Tomao, Violante Di Donato, Francesca De Felice, Marco Monti, Ludovico Muzii, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici
Ovarian cancer is a most lethal gynecologic tumor. The mainstay treatment is cytoreductive surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy. However, a high percentage of patients recur, thus needing multiple treatments with a frequently poor prognosis. In the last two decades, research has focused on the potential of target therapies to improve the survival of patients affected by ovarian cancer. Bevacizumab is one of the most studied target therapies, and it is approved for first- and second-line treatment of advanced epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal tumors...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788502/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-pharmacodynamics-of-colistin-and-aztreonam-alone-and-in-combination-against-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#20
Yuka Yamagishi, Mao Hagihara, Hideo Kato, Jun Hirai, Naoya Nishiyama, Yusuke Koizumi, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Hazuki Nakai, Hiroshige Mikamo
BACKGROUND: Reports of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with high antimicrobial resistance have steadily emerged, threatening the utility of a mainstay in antipseudomonal therapy. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activities of various combination therapies against P. aeruginosa with high antimicrobial resistance, including multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa (MDRP) using an in vitro and in vivo study. METHODS: We evaluated 24 combination therapies, including colistin, aztreonam, meropenem, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, rifampicin, arbekacin and piperacillin against 15 MDRP isolates detected at Aichi Medical University Hospital with the break-point checkerboard method...
2017: Chemotherapy
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