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Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614820/fluoropyrimidine-associated-toxicity-in-two-gastrointestinal-cancer-patients-potential-role-of-common-dpyd-polymorphisms
#1
Felicia Stefania Falvella, Marco Luoni, Stefania Cheli, Sergio Fava, Massimiliano Cergnul
While the majority of patients can be treated safely with fluoropyrimidine, some experience severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity. The frequency and severity of these adverse events vary from patient to patient and are partially explained by genetic polymorphism into the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) gene. Carriers of the rare allelic variants DPYD*2A, DPYD*13, and DPYD D949V are more likely to experience severe adverse reactions during fluoropyrimidine-based therapy. However, these 3 genetic variants explain only a small percentage of the overall drug toxicity, and more frequent ones such as homozygous or compound heterozygous DPYD V732I can play a key role...
June 15, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605733/the-association-between-fever-and-prognosis-in-lung-cancer-patients-with-bone-metastases-receiving-zoledronic-acid
#2
Tomiko Sunaga, Kazushi Shimamoto, Shoko Nakamura, Noriko Takahashi, Mayumi Higashino, Tomomi Hozumi, Mitsuki Matsui, Akiko Nagatani, Fumio Kokubu, Mari Kogo, Tadanori Sasaki
Zoledronic acid is an established agent used in the management of metastatic bone disease. The administration of zoledronic acid improves overall survival (OS) of lung cancer patients with bone metastases receiving chemotherapy. However, it is currently unknown whether zoledronic acid-induced fever is associated with OS. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between zoledronic acid-induced fever and prognosis in lung cancer patients with bone metastases. We retrospectively analyzed 98 lung cancer patients with bone metastases who had received zoledronic acid...
June 13, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605730/gemcitabine-and-vinorelbine-combination-chemotherapy-in-taxane-pretreated-patients-with-metastatic-breast-cancer-a-phase-ii-study-of-the-kinki-multidisciplinary-breast-oncology-group-kmbog-1015
#3
Jun Yamamura, Norikazu Masuda, Daigo Yamamoto, Shigeru Tsuyuki, Masahide Yamaguchi, Satoru Tanaka, Junji Tsurutani, Shinya Tokunaga, Katsuhide Yoshidome, Makiko Mizutani, Toyokazu Aono, Asako Ooe, Hirokazu Tanino, Nobuki Matsunami, Hiroyuki Yasojima, Takahiro Nakayama, Yukihiro Nishida
BACKGROUND: This phase II study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the chemotherapy combination of gemcitabine and vinorelbine in taxane-pretreated Japanese metastatic breast cancer patients. METHODS: In this multicenter, phase II, single-arm study, patients with recurrent or metastatic HER2-negative breast cancer were administered gemcitabine (1,200 mg/m2) and vinorelbine (25 mg/m2) intravenously on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate, and other endpoints included progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety...
June 13, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595169/the-addition-of-target-therapy-to-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-a-review
#4
Ilaria Benevento, Francesca De Felice, Daniela Musio, Vincenzo Tombolini
Currently, neoadjuvant fluoropyrimidine-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is standard practice in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). In the last decade there has been a lively interest in the improvement of clinical outcomes by modifying this standard regimen by the addition of further agents. We review combinations of targeted therapies and conventional CRT currently under investigation in LARC patients.
June 9, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578323/oxytetracycline-inhibits-mucus-secretion-and-inflammation-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#5
Said Ahmad Shah, Hajime Ishinaga, Kazuhiko Takeuchi
Oxytetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, but its nonantibacterial effects in the human respiratory tract are unknown. In this study, the effects of oxytetracycline on mucus secretion and inflammation were examined by PCR and ELISA in the human airway epithelial cell line NCI-H292. Oxytetracycline (10 μg/mL) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced MUC5AC gene expression and MUC5AC protein levels in NCI-H292 cells. It also downregulated IL-8 and IL-1β gene expression and IL-1β protein levels. Our findings demonstrated that oxytetracycline suppressed mucus production and inflammation in human respiratory epithelial cells, providing further evidence for the usefulness of oxytetracycline for human airway inflammatory diseases...
June 3, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505615/acute-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-after-oxaliplatin-infusion
#6
Mark Waddle, Myra Irvin, Eva Gupta, Martin Gibbs, Tanya S Kakar, Nicole A Gannon, Jennifer R Arthurs, Deborah L Fischer, Sikander Ailawadhi
Oxaliplatin is one of the most commonly used drugs for patients with colorectal cancer. It has rarely been associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with only 3 previously reported cases. In all those instances, the patients had started receiving oxaliplatin, developed evidence of DIC during the course of planned treatment, and recovered with supportive care. We report a case of a 71-year-old man with colorectal cancer treated successfully with an oxaliplatin-based regimen who had disease relapse after 3 years...
May 16, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490012/is-the-prophylactic-use-of-hepatoprotectants-necessary-in-anti-tuberculosis-treatment
#7
Li Xu, Fei Zhang, Chen Xu, Kai-Ge Liu, Wei Wu, Ying-Xuan Tian
BACKGROUND: Liver injury is one of the serious side effects of anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs. It is controversial whether hepatoprotectant prophylaxis is efficient and safe in anti-TB treatment, so we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of hepatoprotectant prophylaxis in patients who had received anti-TB treatment. METHODS: PubMed, the Cochrane library, Embase, Ovid, Springer link, Wiley, Elsevier, Web of Science, and the Karger Online Journal were systematically searched prior to April 2016 for articles related to hepatoprotectant prophylaxis in the treatment of TB...
May 11, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490010/a-novel-approach-of-synthesizing-and-evaluating-the-anticancer-potential-of-silver-oxide-nanoparticles-in-vitro
#8
Kaushik Banerjee, Satyajit Das, Pritha Choudhury, Sarbari Ghosh, Rathindranath Baral, Soumitra Kumar Choudhuri
BACKGROUND: Development of novel strategies to kill cancer by sparing normal cells is of utmost importance. Apart from their known antimicrobial activity, only limited information has been recorded regarding the antitumor potential of biocompatible silver oxide nanoparticles (AgONPs). There is a need to evaluate the anticancer potential of biocompatible AgONPs in vitro. METHODS: A new approach of utilizing the leaf extract of Excoecaria agallocha was used to synthesize AgONPs...
May 11, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490007/duodenal-bulb-adenocarcinoma-benefitted-from-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-a-case-report
#9
Geng-Yuan Zhang, Jie Mao, Bin Zhao, Bo Long, Hao Zhan, Jun-Qiang Zhang, Hui-Nian Zhou, Ling-Yun Guo, Zuo-Yi Jiao
Duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy in the alimentary tract which has a low incidence rate and nonspecific symptoms. It is difficult to diagnose early, and the misdiagnosis rate is high. CT, MRI, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and other advanced imaging modalities should be combined to make a comprehensive evaluation. The diagnostic confirmation of this tumor type mainly depends on the pathological examination. The combination of surgery with other treatment modalities is effective...
May 11, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490008/an-uncommon-st1224-ndm-1-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-the-bloodstream-of-a-leukemia-patient-in-china
#10
Xiaoxiao Zhang, Jia Du, Cui Zhou, Jianming Cao, Hong Lu, Haiyang Liu, Wenzi Bi, Tieli Zhou
AIMS: This study aimed to analyze the clinical data and characteristics of an NDM-1 (New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from the bloodstream of a leukemia patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was used for the clinical data of the patient. The modified Hodge test (MHT) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-disk synergy test were used for detecting metallo-β-lactamase. Antibiotic resistance was determined using the agar dilution method...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472798/significance-of-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-and-the-expression-of-topoisomerase-ii%C3%AE-in-the-prediction-of-the-clinical-outcome-of-patients-with-triple-negative-breast-cancer-after-taxane-anthracycline-based-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#11
Nanyan Rao, Jiayin Qiu, Jiannan Wu, Hong Zeng, Fengxi Su, Kaifeng Qiu, Junyan Wu, Herui Yao
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine factors able to predict chemotherapeutic responses and clinical outcomes in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). METHODS: Fifty-two TNBC patients on taxane-anthracycline-based NAC were included. The expression of Ki67, topoisomerase IIα (TOPOIIα), and p53, as well as the presence of CD4+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and CD8+ TILs were evaluated in biopsy specimens by immunohistochemistry...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472788/ten-year-trends-and-clinical-relevance-of-the-antimicrobial-resistance-genotype-in-respiratory-isolates-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#12
Eri Hagiwara, Tomohisa Baba, Takeshi Shinohara, Hideya Kitamura, Akimasa Sekine, Shigeru Komatsu, Takashi Ogura
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae, especially against β-lactam antibiotics, is a global concern. We aimed to analyze a 10-year trend in the antimicrobial resistance genotype of respiratory isolates of S. pneumoniae and to clarify whether resistance genotypes were correlated with phenotypic drug susceptibility, pathogenicity, and host clinical background. METHODS: Respiratory isolates of S. pneumoniae from 2003 to 2012 were analyzed with polymerase chain reaction for the presence of β-lactam resistance gene mutations on pbp1a, pbp2x, and pbp2b...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472787/prognostic-index-for-survival-in-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-treated-with-third-generation-agents
#13
Mari Kogo, Tomiko Sunaga, Shoko Nakamura, Takahiro Akita, Tatsuya Kurihara, Yusuke Shikama, Hiroaki Nakajima, Takashi Tobe, Keiichiro Yoneyama, Yuji Kiuchi
We retrospectively evaluated clinical data from patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with third-generation chemotherapy agents prior to treatment, to determine a reliable method for predicting prognosis in such patients. We analyzed 100 patients who received third-generation agents (paclitaxel, docetaxel, gemcitabine, irinotecan, and vinorelbine) for the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Factors significantly related to prognosis were evaluated using the Cox regression model, and the prognostic index (PI) was determined by combining these factors...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448988/anaemia-following-artemisinin-based-combination-treatments-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-children-temporal-patterns-of-haematocrit-and-the-use-of-uncomplicated-hyperparasitaemia-as-a-model-for-evaluating-late-appearing-anaemia
#14
Akin Sowunmi, Kazeem Akano, Godwin Ntadom, Adejumoke Ayede, Stephen Oguche, Chimere Agomo, Henrietta Okafor, Ismaila Watila, Martin Meremikwu, William Ogala, Philip Agomo, Elsie Adowoye, Bayo Fatunmbi, Temitope Aderoyeje, Christian Happi, Grace Gbotosho, Onikepe Folarin
BACKGROUND: In severe malaria, intravenous artesunate may cause delayed haemolytic anaemia but there has been little evaluation of the propensity of oral artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs) to cause late-appearing anaemia. METHODS: The frequency of anaemia (haematocrit <30%), and temporal changes in haematocrit were evaluated in 1,191 malarious children following ACTs. "Haematocrit conservation" was evaluated by using the fall in haematocrit/1,000 asexual parasites cleared from the peripheral blood (FIH/1,000 asexual parasites cpb), and the ratio of the average haematocrit (on the first 3 days of starting treatment):total parasitaemia cleared...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420003/retrospective-analysis-of-the-risk-factors-for-grade-iv-neutropenia-in-oesophageal-cancer-patients-treated-with-a-docetaxel-cisplatin-and-5-fluorouracil-regimen
#15
Masahito Naito, Tomoya Yamamoto, Chikao Shimamoto, Yoshihiro Miwa
BACKGROUND: Previous Japanese trials of the docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil regimen for oesophageal cancer have demonstrated that a large proportion of patients also develop grade IV neutropenia. Our aim was to examine the risk factors for neutropenia in patients treated with this regimen. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the risk factors for developing grade IV neutropenia in 66 patients with oesophageal cancer using a multivariate analysis. RESULTS: After administering the docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil regimen, 49 patients (74...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419998/dynamics-of-l-carnitine-in-plasma-and-urine-in-patients-undergoing-cisplatin-chemotherapy
#16
Daisuke Gomi, Aika Tanaka, Toshirou Fukushima, Takashi Kobayashi, Hirohide Matsushita, Nodoka Sekiguchi, Akiyuki Sakamoto, Shigeru Sasaki, Keiko Mamiya, Tomonobu Koizumi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several studies have indicated that cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II; CDDP) causes urinary excretion of L-carnitine (LC). However, the underlying cofactors affecting the increased urinary excretion remain unclear. The present study was performed to evaluate the dynamics of LC in plasma and urine after CDDP chemotherapy and to examine the relations with clinical parameters, such as gender, body mass index (BMI), and renal function. METHODS: Twenty-two patients treated with CDDP therapy were selected...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384633/expanding-the-role-of-chloroquine-as-a-potent-antineoplastic-agent-in-different-gastrointestinal-malignancies
#17
Shailendra Kapoor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380484/post-progression-survival-associated-with-overall-survival-in-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-receiving-docetaxel-monotherapy-as-second-line-chemotherapy
#18
Mie Kotake, Yosuke Miura, Hisao Imai, Keita Mori, Reiko Sakurai, Kyoichi Kaira, Yoshio Tomizawa, Koichi Minato, Ryusei Saito, Takeshi Hisada
BACKGROUND: In patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the effects of second-line chemotherapy on overall survival (OS) might be confounded by subsequent therapies. Therefore, using individual-level data, we aimed to determine the relationships between progression-free survival (PFS) and post-progression survival (PPS) with OS in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with docetaxel monotherapy as second-line chemotherapy. METHODS: Between April 2002 and December 2014, data from 86 patients with advanced NSCLC who underwent second-line docetaxel monotherapy following first-line treatment with platinum combination chemotherapy were analyzed...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351058/central-macular-thickness-monitoring-after-a-taxane-based-therapy-in-visually-asymptomatic-patients
#19
Elias Chelala, Nicolas Arej, Joelle Antoun, Hampig Raphael Kourie, Karen Zaarour, Fady Ghassan Haddad, Fadi Farhat, Fadi El Karak, Joseph Kattan
BACKGROUND: Taxanes are drugs used in various chemotherapeutical protocols to treat solid tumors. They have multiple systemic adverse effects, such as bone marrow suppression, alopecia, nausea, and vomiting, and may rarely cause ocular symptoms. In the past decade, a few reported cases have shown the occurrence of a cystoid macular edema with significant visual loss after the use of a taxane-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to compare the central macular thickness (CMT) before and after the initiation of a taxane-based therapy in visually asymptomatic patients and to elucidate the possible impact of these drugs on the vision of cancer patients...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351036/hypoxia-induces-multidrug-resistance-via-enhancement-of-epidermal-growth-factor-like-domain-7-expression-in-non-small-lung-cancer-cells
#20
Xiaochun Shen, Qiaoming Zhi, Yunliang Wang, Zhi Li, Jin Zhou, Jianan Huang
Chemotherapy is widely used in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment, yet multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major chemotherapeutic obstacle in both resectable and advanced NSCLC. Epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 (EGFL7), also known as vascular endothelial stain, is an endothelial cell-derived secreted factor that regulates vascular tube formulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential relationships between EGFL7 and MDR in NSCLC cells. We first obtained the CDDP-based MDR phenotype cell line A549/CDDP by repeated exposure to a proper concentration of CDDP (cisplatin) from original A549 cells...
2017: Chemotherapy
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