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Yuyin Li, Yuejun Sun, Lifang Jing, Jianjun Wang, Yali Yan, Yajuan Feng, Yueying Zhang, Zhenxing Liu, Long Ma, Aipo Diao
The lysosome inhibitors bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine have both lysosomotropic properties and autophagy inhibition ability, and are promising clinical agents to be used in combination with anticancer drugs. In order to investigate this combination effect, HepG2 cells were treated with bafilomycin A1, chloroquine, or/and doxorubicin, and their proliferative ability, induction of apoptosis, and the changes of lysosomal membrane permeabilization and mitochondrial membrane potential were studied. The results demonstrate that treatment with bafilomycin A1 or chloroquine alone at a relatively low concentration promotes the inhibitory effect of doxorubicin on cell growth and apoptosis...
October 21, 2016: Chemotherapy
Keisuke Nakase, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Yuta Toda, Norihisa Noguchi
Determination of the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and the mutant selection window (MSW) of antimicrobial agents used to treat pathogenic bacteria is important in order to apply effective antimicrobial therapies. Here, we determined the MPCs of the major topical antimicrobial agents against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus which cause skin infections and compared their MSWs. Among the MPCs of nadifloxacin and clindamycin, the clindamycin MPC was determined to be the lowest against P...
October 21, 2016: Chemotherapy
Ching-Wen Huang, Yung-Sung Yeh, Cheng-Jen Ma, Hsiang-Lin Tsai, Chao-Wen Chen, Ming-Yii Huang, Chien-Yu Lu, Jeng-Yih Wu, Jaw Yuan Wang
Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) combined with hyperbilirubinemia is typically considered a contraindication to irinotecan-based therapy, a proven first-line treatment of mCRC. Herein, we present 6 consecutive patients with mCRC combined with hyperbilirubinemia who underwent UGT1A1 genotyping before receiving FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab. Dose escalation of irinotecan was performed according to the results of UGT1A1 genotyping in all patients. Improvement in the serum total bilirubin level to a normal range was noted in all 6 patients...
September 22, 2016: Chemotherapy
Ying Wang, Jieqiong Liu, Weijuan Jia, Shunrong Li, Nanyan Rao, Fengxi Su, Qiang Liu, Herui Yao
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of vinorelbine-based regimens as first-, second- and more-line therapies in advanced breast cancer (ABC) and to analyze the best timing of vinorelbine treatment. METHODS: A total of 71 ABC patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of these, 35 patients were treated with vinorelbine-based regimens as first-line chemotherapy, and 36 patients were treated with vinorelbine-based regimens as second-line or more-line therapy...
September 21, 2016: Chemotherapy
Rolf Mahlberg, Sylvie Lorenzen, Peter Thuss-Patience, Volker Heinemann, Per Pfeiffer, Markus Möhler
Oral fluoropyrimidines have been available for more than 10 years. Capecitabine is well established in treating solid tumors in Europe. S-1 (Teysuno®), an oral formulation containing the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) prodrug tegafur and the two enzyme modulators gimeracil and oteracil, has not been available in non-Asia countries until recently. In Japan, S-1 in combination with cisplatin is the recommended first-line treatment in patients with gastric cancer. In Europe, the first trials with S-1 were disappointing due to high unacceptable incidences of adverse events...
September 20, 2016: Chemotherapy
Daniela Renzi, Francesco Marchesi, Gottardo De Angelis, Loredana Elia, Emanuela Salvatorelli, Svitlana Gumenyuk, Francesca Palombi, Francesco Pisani, Atelda Romano, Antonio Spadea, Elena Papa, Marco Canfora, William Arcese, Andrea Mengarelli
We describe the case of a patient with a Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with dasatinib plus steroids as the first-line therapy who achieved a molecular complete remission and then underwent a matched, unrelated donor allogeneic transplant. Five months after the transplant, he experienced a disease relapse with an T315I mutation, which was resistant to salvage chemotherapy. Once the details of the T315I mutation were acquired, we initiated ponatinib treatment at a standard dosage and observed a rapid decrease of minimal residual disease (MRD) at molecular assessment...
September 10, 2016: Chemotherapy
Jung Eun Choi, A Reum Choe, Sang Eun Yoon, Eun Mi Nam, Heejung Park, Kyoung Eun Lee
The most common sites for extragonadal germ cell tumors are the midline mediastinum, retroperitoneum and, much less frequently, the stomach. The stomach-originated primary germ cell tumor carries a poor prognosis, especially when metastasis occurs to the liver, with a mean survival time of 1 month. We describe the case of a 77-year-old male who presented with usual symptoms of gastric malignancy. Gastrectomy was performed. Histopathology of surgically resected tissue revealed a mixture of adenocarcinoma and endodermal sinus tumor components with α-fetoprotein production...
June 29, 2016: Chemotherapy
Chao He, Lun Li, Xuan Guan, Li Xiong, Xiongying Miao
PURPOSE: To review mechanisms underlying mutant p53 (mutp53) gain of function (GOF) and mutp53-induced chemoresistance, and to investigate the role of mutp53 in response to clinical chemotherapy. METHODS: We searched the PubMed database for clinical studies from the past decade, including data evaluating the impact of mutp53 in clinical chemotherapy response. RESULTS: Interactions between mutp53 and transcriptional factors, proteins or DNA structures, as well as epigenetic regulation, contribute to mutp53 GOF...
June 21, 2016: Chemotherapy
Ayodele T Adesoji, Adeniyi A Ogunjobi, Isaac O Olatoye
BACKGROUND: The emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria in clinical and environmental settings is a global problem. Many antibiotic resistance genes are located on mobile genetic elements such as plasmids and integrons, enabling their transfer among a variety of bacterial species. Water distribution systems may be reservoirs for the spread of antibiotic resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bacteria isolated from raw, treated, and municipal tap water samples from selected water distribution systems in south-western Nigeria were investigated using the point inoculation method with seeded antibiotics, PCR amplification, and sequencing for the determination of bacterial resistance profiles and class 1/2 integrase genes and gene cassettes, respectively...
June 21, 2016: Chemotherapy
Anna Rizzi, Francesca Aroldi, Paola Bertocchi, Tiziana Prochilo, Stefano Mutti, Giordano Savelli, Anna Paola Fraccon, Alberto Zaniboni
BACKGROUND: Pretreated metastatic breast cancer (MBC) remains a formidable challenge with unmet needs both in terms of prolonged survival and quality-of-life-related issues. METHODS: We collected data from 27 MBC patients treated with gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX) at our institution between June 2009 and April 2015. The patients were heavily pretreated, and all had previously been exposed to anthracyclines and taxanes. RESULTS: We achieved a complete response in 1 patient (4%), a partial response in 7 patients (26%) and stable disease in 12 patients (44%), while 6 patients (22%) experienced progressive disease...
June 10, 2016: Chemotherapy
Masahito Naito, Tomoya Yamamoto, Shinsuke Hara, Chikao Shimamoto, Yoshihiro Miwa
BACKGROUND: Hand-foot syndrome (HFS) is a common side effect that has a high occurrence rate with capecitabine (Cape) chemotherapy. However, little is known about the risk factors of developing HFS under the Cape regimen. Our aim was to examine these risk factors. METHODS: A univariate analysis was used to determine the risk factors associated with developing HFS, and we calculated the effect sizes between the patients who developed HFS compared to those who did not...
May 28, 2016: Chemotherapy
Harumi Kato, Kazuhito Yamamoto, Yusuke Higuchi, Hideyuki Yamamoto, Toko Saito, Hirofumi Taji, Yasushi Yatabe, Shigeo Nakamura, Tomohiro Kinoshita
There are few effective options for salvage therapy in elderly patients with relapsed or refractory angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL). The anti-CCR4 antibody mogamulizumab works via antibody-dependent cytotoxic activity, reduces regulatory T cells, and evokes antitumor immunity in cancer patients. We report a 78-year-old patient with refractory AITL receiving a new immunochemotherapy consisting of sequential mogamulizumab administration followed by the GDP (gemcitabine, dexamethasone and cisplatin) regimen...
May 27, 2016: Chemotherapy
Jianming Cao, Meimei Li, Chunquan Xu, Tieli Zhou, Jia Du, Yao Sun, Ling Qin, Jiru Xu
BACKGROUND: Proteeae isolates displaying multidrug-resistance (MDR) are the second most common causes of hospital-associated infections. The aim of this study was to screen class 1-3 integrons and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in Proteeae isolates from the First Affiliated Hospital of the Wenzhou Medical University. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 176 Proteeae isolates were collected from clinical specimens of inpatients between January 2011 and December 2013...
May 25, 2016: Chemotherapy
Arne C Rodloff, Michael J Dowzicky
BACKGROUND: European centers (n = 226) involved in the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (TEST, 2004-2014) submitted data and bacterial isolates. METHODS: Minimal inhibitory concentrations and susceptibility were determined using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing breakpoints. RESULTS: The rates of the following resistant pathogens increased from 2004 to 2014: extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Escherichia coli (from 8...
May 24, 2016: Chemotherapy
Li Xu, Ya-Li Wang, Shuai Du, Lin Chen, Li-Hui Long, Yan Wu
BACKGROUND: Tigecycline is an antibiotic agent with a broad spectrum, which has an antibacterial effect against many multidrug-resistant organisms. However, its clinical efficacy in the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is disputed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this report, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tigecycline for the treatment of HAP. The primary outcome was the rate of clinical cure, and the secondary outcomes were mortality and adverse events (AEs)...
2016: Chemotherapy
Helena Taina Diniz-Silva, Isis Caroline da Silva Cirino, Vivyanne Dos Santos Falcão-Silva, Marciane Magnani, Evandro Leite de Souza, José P Siqueira-Júnior
BACKGROUND: Tannins have shown inhibitory effects against pathogenic bacteria, and these properties make tannins potential modifying agents in bacterial resistance. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tannic acid (TA), gallic acid (GA) and norfloxacin (Nor) against Staphylococcus aureus SA-1119 (NorA-effluxing strain) was determined using broth microdilution tests. To assess the modulation of antibiotic resistance, the MIC of Nor was determined in growth media with or without TA or GA at a subinhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC)...
2016: Chemotherapy
Myrna Candelaria, Carmen Corrales-Alfaro, Olga Gutiérrez-Hernández, José Díaz-Chavez, Juan Labardini-Méndez, Silvia Vidal-Millán, Luis A Herrera
BACKGROUND: Cytarabine (Ara-C) is the primary drug in different treatment schemas for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and requires the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT1) to enter cells. The deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) enzyme limits its activation rate. Therefore, decreased expression levels of these genes may influence the response rate to this drug. METHODS: AML patients without previous treatment were enrolled. The expression of hENT1 and dCK genes was analyzed using RT-PCR...
2016: Chemotherapy
Seung-Hee Chang, Ah Young Lee, Kyeong-Nam Yu, Jongsun Park, Kwang Pyo Kim, Myung-Haing Cho
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria have emerged as a major target for anticancer therapy because of their critical role in cancer cell survival. Our preliminary works have suggested that dihydroergotamine tartrate (DHE), an antimigraine agent, may have effects on mitochondria. METHODS: We examined the effect of DHE on the survival of several lung cancer cells and confirmed that DHE suppressed diverse lung cancer cell growth effectively. To confirm whether such effects of DHE would be associated with mitochondria, A549 cells were employed for the evaluation of several important parameters, such as membrane potential, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptosis, ATP production and autophagy...
2016: Chemotherapy
Itsuro Kazama, Kazutomo Saito, Asuka Baba, Tomohiro Mori, Nozomu Abe, Yasuhiro Endo, Hiroaki Toyama, Yutaka Ejima, Mitsunobu Matsubara, Masanori Yamauchi
BACKGROUND: Macrolides, such as clarithromycin, have antiallergic properties. Since exocytosis in mast cells is detected electrophysiologically via changes in membrane capacitance (Cm), the absence of such changes due to the drug indicates its mast cell-stabilizing effect. METHODS: Employing the whole-cell patch clamp technique in rat peritoneal mast cells, we examined the effects of clarithromycin on Cm during exocytosis. Using a water-soluble fluorescent dye, we also examined its effect on deformation of the plasma membrane...
2016: Chemotherapy
Lindy M J Frielink, Brenda M Pijlman, Nicole P M Ezendam, Johanna M A Pijnenborg
BACKGROUND: Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy improves survival in women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Yet, there is a wide variety in clinical practice. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with FIGO I and IIa EOC (2006-2010) in the south of the Netherlands were analyzed. The percentage of patients that received adjuvant chemotherapy was determined as well as the comprehensiveness of staging and outcome. RESULTS: Forty percent (54/135) of the patients with early-stage EOC received adjuvant chemotherapy...
2016: Chemotherapy
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