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British Journal for the History of Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203735/from-corps-to-discipline-part-one-charles-d-almeida-pierre-bertin-and-french-experimental-physics-1840-1880
#1
Daniel Jon Mitchell
Academic careers in French science during the mid-nineteenth century were made within the Université de France, an integrated state system of secondary and higher education controlled by a centralized Parisian educational administration. Among the most respected members of the corps universitaire were Charles d'Almeida and Pierre Bertin, two historically obscure physiciens whose significance derives from their substantial contributions to the social organization, teaching and communication of French experimental physics...
September 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203734/lorenz-oken-1779-1851-naturphilosophie-and-the-reform-of-natural-history-erratum
#2
Andrea Gambarotto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203733/health-by-design-teaching-cleanliness-and-assembling-hygiene-at-the-nineteenth-century-sanitation-museum
#3
Hilary Buxton
In 1878, amid a rapidly proliferating social interest in public health and cleanliness, a group of sanitary scientists and reformers founded the Parkes Museum of Hygiene in central London. Dirt and contagion knew no social boundaries, and the Parkes's founders conceived of the museum as a dynamic space for all classes to better themselves and their environments. They promoted sanitary science through a variety of initiatives: exhibits of scientific, medical and architectural paraphernalia; product endorsements; and lectures and certificated courses in practical sanitation, food inspection and tropical hygiene...
September 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109829/illustrating-natural-history-images-periodicals-and-the-making-of-nineteenth-century-scientific-communities
#4
Geoffrey Belknap
This paper examines how communities of naturalists in mid-nineteenth-century Britain were formed and solidified around the shared practices of public meetings, the publication and reading of periodicals, and the making and printing of images. By focusing on communities of naturalists and the sites of their communication, this article undermines the distinction between amateur and professional scientific practice. Building on the notion of imagined communities, this paper also shows that in some cases the editors and illustrators utilized imagery to construct a specifically British naturalist community...
September 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101728/reading-and-writing-the-scientific-voyage-fitzroy-darwin-and-john-clunies-ross
#5
Katharine Anderson
An unpublished satirical work, written c.1848-1854, provides fresh insight into the most famous scientific voyage of the nineteenth century. John Clunies Ross, settler of Cocos-Keeling - which HMS Beagle visited in April 1836 - felt that Robert FitzRoy and Charles Darwin had 'depreciated' the atoll on which he and his family had settled a decade earlier. Producing a mock 'supplement' to a new edition of FitzRoy's Narrative, Ross criticized their science and their casual appropriation of local knowledge. Ross's virtually unknown work is intriguing not only for its glimpse of the Beagle voyage, but also as a self-portrait of an imperial scientific reader...
September 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952279/sex-in-the-laboratory-the-family-planning-association-and-contraceptive-science-in-britain-1929-1959
#6
Natasha Szuhan
Scientific and medical contraceptive standards are commonly believed to have begun with the advent of the oral contraceptive pill in the late 1950s. This article explains that in Britain contraceptive standards were imagined and implemented at least two decades earlier by the Family Planning Association, which sought to legitimize contraceptive methods, practice and provision through the foundation of the field of contraceptive science. This article charts the origins of the field, investigating the three methods the association devised and employed to achieve its goal of effecting contraceptive regulation...
September 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923466/a-visit-to-biotopia-genre-genetics-and-gardening-in-the-early-twentieth-century
#7
Jim Endersby
The early decades of the twentieth century were marked by widespread optimism about biology and its ability to improve the world. A major catalyst for this enthusiasm was new theories about inheritance and evolution (particularly Hugo de Vries's mutation theory and Mendel's newly rediscovered ideas). In Britain and the USA particularly, an astonishingly diverse variety of writers (from elite scientists to journalists and writers of fiction) took up the task of interpreting these new biological ideas, using a wide range of genres to help their fellow citizens make sense of biology's promise...
September 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30152303/rothschild-reversed-explaining-the-exceptionalism-of-biomedical-research-1971-1981
#8
Stephen M Davies
The 'Rothschild reforms' of the early 1970s established a new framework for the management of government-funded science. The subsequent dismantling of the Rothschild system for biomedical research and the return of funds to the Medical Research Council (MRC) in 1981 were a notable departure from this framework and ran contrary to the direction of national science policy. The exceptionalism of these measures was justified at the time with reference to the 'particular circumstances' of biomedical research. Conventional explanations for the reversal in biomedical research include the alleged greater competence and higher authority of the MRC, together with its claimed practical difficulties...
August 28, 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730996/relocating-anti-racist-science-the-1950-unesco-statement-on-race-and-economic-development-in-the-global-south
#9
Sebastián Gil-Riaño
This essay revisits the drafting of the first UNESCO Statement on Race (1950) in order to reorient historical understandings of mid-twentieth-century anti-racism and science. Historians of science have primarily interpreted the UNESCO statements as an oppositional project led by anti-racist scientists from the North Atlantic and concerned with dismantling racial typologies, replacing them with population-based conceptions of human variation. Instead of focusing on what anti-racist scientists opposed, this article highlights the futures they imagined and the applied social-science projects that anti-racist science drew from and facilitated...
June 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665887/a-cabinet-of-the-ordinary-domesticating-veterinary-education-1766-1799
#10
Kit Heintzman
In the late eighteenth century, the Ecole vétérinaire d'Alfort was renowned for its innovative veterinary education and for having one of the largest natural history and anatomy collections in France. Yet aside from a recent interest in the works of one particular anatomist, the school's history has been mostly ignored. I examine here the fame of the school in eighteenth-century travel literature, the historic connection between veterinary science and natural history, and the relationship between the school's hospital and its esteemed cabinet...
June 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655387/specimens-slips-and-systems-daniel-solander-and-the-classification-of-nature-at-the-world-s-first-public-museum-1753-1768
#11
Edwin D Rose
The British Museum, based in Montague House, Bloomsbury, opened its doors on 15 January 1759, as the world's first state-owned public museum. The Museum's collection mostly originated from Sir Hans Sloane (1660-1753), whose vast holdings were purchased by Parliament shortly after his death. The largest component of this collection was objects of natural history, including a herbarium made up of 265 bound volumes, many of which were classified according to the late seventeenth-century system of John Ray (1627-1705)...
June 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576034/science-and-self-assessment-phrenological-charts-1840-1940
#12
Fenneke Sysling
This paper looks at phrenological charts as mediators of (pseudo-)scientific knowledge to individual clients who used them as a means of self-assessment. Phrenologists propagated the idea that the human mind could be categorized into different mental faculties, with each particular faculty represented in a different area of the brain and by bumps on the head. In the US and the UK popular phrenologists examined individual clients for a fee. Drawing on a collection of phrenological charts completed for individual clients, this paper shows how charts aspired to convey new ideals of selfhood by using the authority of science in tailor-made certificates, and by teaching clients some of the basic practices of that science...
June 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650057/blood-money-harvey-s-de-motu-cordis-1628-as-an-exercise-in-accounting
#13
Michael J Neuss
William Harvey's famous quantitative argument from De motu cordis (1628) about the circulation of blood explained how a small amount of blood could recirculate and nourish the entire body, upending the Galenic conception of the blood's motion. This paper argues that the quantitative argument drew on the calculative and rhetorical skills of merchants, including Harvey's own brothers. Modern translations of De motu cordis obscure the language of accountancy that Harvey himself used. Like a merchant accounting for credits and debits, intake and output, goods and moneys, Harvey treated venous and arterial blood as essentially commensurate, quantifiable and fungible...
April 13, 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513200/utopian-biologies
#14
Jim Endersby
In 1924, the British biologist J.B.S. Haldane acknowledged that anyone who tried to predict where science was taking us was obliged to mention H.G. Wells, since '[t]he very mention of the future suggests him'. Nevertheless, Haldane complained that Wells was 'a generation behind the time', having been raised when flying and radiotelegraphy were genuinely scientific questions, but they were now mere 'commercial problems', Haldane asserted, and 'I believe that the centre of scientific interest lies in biology'...
March 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513199/apes-skulls-and-drums-using-images-to-make-ethnographic-knowledge-in-imperial-germany
#15
Marissa H Petrou
In this paper, I discuss the development and use of images employed by the Dresden Royal Museum for Zoology, Anthropology and Ethnography to resolve debates about how to use visual representation as a means of making ethnographic knowledge. Through experimentation with techniques of visual representation, the founding director, A.B. Meyer (1840-1911), proposed a historical, non-essentialist approach to understanding racial and cultural difference. Director Meyer's approach was inspired by the new knowledge he had gained through field research in Asia-Pacific as well as new forms of imaging that made highly detailed representations of objects possible...
March 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433592/ethnic-cartography-and-politics-in-vienna-1918-1945
#16
Petra Svatek
In Vienna, the close of the First World War and the period of the peace negotiations in Paris saw an enormous boom of ethnic-geographic research approaches and ethnic map-making. This process continued with the appointment of the Viennese geographer Hugo Hassinger (1877-1952) to the chair of human geography at the University of Vienna in 1931 and intensified with the establishment of the South East German Research Association and the National Socialist takeover in March 1938. But did the initiatives to create ethnic maps originate with politicians and authorities, or did they come from the scientists themselves? This article argues that scientists embarked upon ethnic geographies on their own initiative...
March 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415778/the-history-of-transdisciplinary-race-classification-methods-politics-and-institutions-1840s-1940s
#17
Richard McMahon
A recently blossoming historiographical literature recognizes that physical anthropologists allied with scholars of diverse aspects of society and history to racially classify European peoples over a period of about a hundred years. They created three successive race classification coalitions - ethnology, from around 1840; anthropology, from the 1850s; and interwar raciology - each of which successively disintegrated. The present genealogical study argues that representing these coalitions as 'transdisciplinary' can enrich our understanding of challenges to disciplinary specialization...
March 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258626/the-past-as-a-work-in-progress
#18
Patricia Fara
Originating as a presidential address during the seventieth birthday celebrations of the British Society for the History of Science, this essay reiterates the society's long-standing commitment to academic autonomy and international cooperation. Drawing examples from my own research into female scientists and doctors during the First World War, I explore how narratives written by historians are related to their own lives, both past and present. In particular, I consider the influences on me of my childhood reading, my experiences as a physics graduate who deliberately left the world of science, and my involvement in programmes to improve the position of women in science...
March 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233232/phyllis-m-tookey-kerridge-and-the-science-of-audiometric-standardization-in-britain
#19
Jaipreet Virdi, Coreen McGuire
The provision of standardized hearing aids is now considered to be a crucial part of the UK National Health Service. Yet this is only explicable through reference to the career of a woman who has, until now, been entirely forgotten. Dr Phyllis Margaret Tookey Kerridge (1901-1940) was an authoritative figure in a variety of fields: medicine, physiology, otology and the construction of scientific apparatus. The astounding breadth of her professional qualifications allowed her to combine features of these fields and, later in her career, to position herself as a specialist to shape the discipline of audiometry...
March 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103389/robert-boyle-and-the-representation-of-imperceptible-entities
#20
Alexander Wragge-Morley
In this essay, I examine Robert Boyle's strategies for making imperceptible entities accessible to the senses. It is well known that, in his natural philosophy, Boyle confronted the challenge of making imperceptible particles of matter into objects of sensory experience. It has never been noted, however, that Boyle confronted a strikingly similar challenge in his natural theology - he needed to make an equally imperceptible God accessible to the senses. Taking this symmetrical difficulty as my starting point, I propose a new approach to thinking about the interconnections between Boyle's natural philosophy and natural theology...
March 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
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