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British Journal for the History of Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103389/robert-boyle-and-the-representation-of-imperceptible-entities
#1
Alexander Wragge-Morley
In this essay, I examine Robert Boyle's strategies for making imperceptible entities accessible to the senses. It is well known that, in his natural philosophy, Boyle confronted the challenge of making imperceptible particles of matter into objects of sensory experience. It has never been noted, however, that Boyle confronted a strikingly similar challenge in his natural theology - he needed to make an equally imperceptible God accessible to the senses. Taking this symmetrical difficulty as my starting point, I propose a new approach to thinking about the interconnections between Boyle's natural philosophy and natural theology...
November 6, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065936/john-dalton-and-the-origin-of-the-atomic-theory-reassessing-the-influence-of-bryan-higgins
#2
Mark I Grossman
During the years 1814-1819, William Higgins, an Irish chemist who worked at the Dublin Society, claimed he had anticipated John Dalton in developing the atomic theory and insinuated that Dalton was a plagiarist. This essay focuses not on William Higgins, but on his uncle Bryan Higgins, a well-known chemist of his day, who had developed his own theories of caloric and chemical combination, similar in many respects to that of Dalton. New evidence is first introduced addressing Bryan's disappearance from the scientific community after 1803...
October 25, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025437/pieter-van-musschenbroek-on-laws-of-nature
#3
Steffen Ducheyne, Pieter Present
In this article, we discuss the development of the concept of a 'law' (of nature) in the work of the Dutch natural philosopher and experimenter Petrus van Musschenbroek (1692-1761). Since Van Musschenbroek is commonly described as one of the first 'Newtonians' on the Continent in the secondary literature, we focus more specifically on its relation to Newton's views on this issue. Although he was certainly indebted to Newton for his thinking on laws (of nature), Van Musschenbroek's views can be seen to diverge from Newton's on crucial points...
October 13, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019300/the-politics-of-cognition-liberalism-and-the-evolutionary-origins-of-victorian-education
#4
Matthew Daniel Eddy
In recent years the historical relationship between scientific experts and the state has received increasing scrutiny. Such experts played important roles in the creation and regulation of environmental organizations and functioned as agents dispatched by politicians or bureaucrats to assess health-related problems and concerns raised by the public or the judiciary. But when it came to making public policy, scientists played another role that has received less attention. In addition to acting as advisers and assessors, some scientists were democratically elected members of local and national legislatures...
October 11, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019298/a-learned-artisan-debates-the-system-of-the-world-le-clerc-versus-mallemant-de-messange
#5
Oded Rabinovitch
Sébastien Le Clerc (1637-1714) was the most renowned engraver of Louis XIV's France. For the history of scientific publishing, however, Le Clerc represents a telling paradox. Even though he followed a traditional route based on classic artisanal training, he also published extensively on scientific topics such as cosmology and mathematics. While contemporary scholarship usually stresses the importance of artisanal writing as a direct expression of artisanal experience and know-how, Le Clerc's publications, and specifically the work on cosmology in his Système du monde (1706-1708), go far beyond this...
October 11, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978363/taking-newton-on-tour-the-scientific-travels-of-martin-folkes-1733-1735
#6
Anna Marie Roos
Martin Folkes (1690-1754) was Newton's protégé, an English antiquary, mathematician, numismatist and astronomer who would in the latter part of his career become simultaneously president of the Royal Society and of the Society of Antiquaries. Folkes took a Grand Tour from March 1733 to September 1735, recording the Italian leg of his journey from Padua to Rome in his journal. This paper examines Folkes's travel diary to analyse his Freemasonry, his intellectual development as a Newtonian and his scientific peregrination...
October 5, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148357/cuts-and-the-cutting-edge-british-science-funding-and-the-making-of-animal-biotechnology-in-1980s-edinburgh
#7
Dmitriy Myelnikov
The Animal Breeding Research Organisation in Edinburgh (ABRO, founded in 1945) was a direct ancestor of the Roslin Institute, celebrated for the cloning of Dolly the sheep. After a period of sustained growth as an institute of the Agricultural Research Council (ARC), ABRO was to lose most of its funding in 1981. This decision has been absorbed into the narrative of the Thatcherite attack on science, but in this article I show that the choice to restructure ABRO pre-dated major government cuts to agricultural research, and stemmed from the ARC's wish to prioritize biotechnology in its portfolio...
December 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923130/regulating-cinematic-stories-about-reproduction-pregnancy-childbirth-abortion-and-movie-censorship-in-the-us-1930-1958
#8
David A Kirby
In the mid-twentieth century film studios sent their screenplays to Hollywood's official censorship body, the Production Code Administration (PCA), and to the Catholic Church's Legion of Decency for approval and recommendations for revision. This article examines the negotiations between filmmakers and censorship groups in order to show the stories that censors did, and did not, want told about pregnancy, childbirth and abortion, as well as how studios fought to tell their own stories about human reproduction...
September 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923129/a-cinema-for-the-unborn-moving-pictures-mental-pictures-and-electra-sparks-s-new-thought-film-theory
#9
Patrick Ellis
In the 1910s, New York suffragette Electra Sparks wrote a series of essays in the Moving Picture News that advocated for cine-therapy treatments for pregnant women. Film was, in her view, the great democratizer of beautiful images, providing high-cultural access to the city's poor. These positive 'mental pictures' were important for her because, she claimed, in order to produce an attractive, healthy child, the mother must be exposed to quality cultural material. Sparks's championing of cinema during its 'second birth' was founded upon the premise of New Thought...
September 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923128/-items-for-criticism-not-in-sequence-joseph-delee-pare-lorentz-and-the-fight-for-life-1940
#10
Caitjan Gainty
In the late 1920s, the American obstetrician Joseph DeLee brought the motion-picture camera into the birth room. Following that era's trend of adapting industrial efficiency practices for medical environments, DeLee's films give spectacular and unexpected expression to the engineering concept of 'streamlining'. Accomplishing what more tangible obstetric streamlining practices had failed to, DeLee's cameras, and his post-production manipulation, shifted birth from messy and dangerous to rationalized, efficient, death-defying...
September 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923127/thin-blue-lines-product-placement-and-the-drama-of-pregnancy-testing-in-british-cinema-and-television
#11
Jesse Olszynko-Gryn
This article uses the case of pregnancy testing in Britain to investigate the process whereby new and often controversial reproductive technologies are made visible and normalized in mainstream entertainment media. It shows how in the 1980s and 1990s the then nascent product placement industry was instrumental in embedding pregnancy testing in British cinema and television's dramatic productions. In this period, the pregnancy-test close-up became a conventional trope and the thin blue lines associated with Unilever's Clearblue rose to prominence in mainstream consumer culture...
September 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923126/-drawing-aside-the-curtain-natural-childbirth-on-screen-in-1950s-britain
#12
Salim Al-Gailani
This article recovers the importance of film, and its relations to other media, in communicating the philosophies and methods of 'natural childbirth' in the post-war period. It focuses on an educational film made in South Africa around 1950 by controversial British physician Grantly Dick-Read, who had achieved international fame with bestselling books arguing that relaxation and education, not drugs, were the keys to freeing women from pain in childbirth. But he soon came to regard the 'vivid' medium of film as a more effective means of disseminating the 'truth of [his] mission' to audiences who might never have read his books...
September 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923125/why-we-write-nuclear-history
#13
David K Hecht
Nuclear history always compels. Scholars (and readers) can immerse themselves in the existential threat posed by the atomic bomb and its successor weapons, the tantalizing prospect of carbon-free energy, or the study of a natural phenomenon deeply at odds with our everyday experience of the world. There is thus always something profound at stake when we write nuclear history - be it physical, economic or intellectual. And while it may seem that the end of the Cold War should have diminished the academic attention accorded to the subject, it actually just allowed the historiography to evolve...
September 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923124/animating-embryos-the-in-toto-representation-of-life
#14
Janina Wellmann
With the recent advent of systems biology, developmental biology is taking a new turn. Attempts to create a 'digital embryo' are prominent among systems approaches. At the heart of these systems-based endeavours, variously described as 'in vivo imaging', 'live imaging' or 'in toto representation', are visualization techniques that allow researchers to image whole, live embryos at cellular resolution over time. Ultimately, the aim of the visualizations is to build a computer model of embryogenesis. This article examines the role of such visualization techniques in the building of a computational model, focusing, in particular, on the cinematographic character of these representations...
September 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923123/-a-machine-for-recreating-life-an-introduction-to-reproduction-on-film
#15
Jesse Olszynko-Gryn, Patrick Ellis
Reproduction is one of the most persistently generative themes in the history of science and cinema. Cabbage fairies, clones and monstrous creations have fascinated filmmakers and audiences for more than a century. Today we have grown accustomed not only to the once controversial portrayals of sperm, eggs and embryos in biology and medicine, but also to the artificial wombs and dystopian futures of science fiction and fantasy. Yet, while scholars have examined key films and genres, especially in response to the recent cycle of Hollywood 'mom coms', the analytic potential of reproduction on film as a larger theme remains largely untapped...
September 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532522/how-lives-became-lists-and-scientific-papers-became-data-cataloguing-authorship-during-the-nineteenth-century-corrigendum
#16
Alex Csiszar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514986/lorenz-oken-1779-1851-naturphilosophie-and-the-reform-of-natural-history
#17
Andrea Gambarotto
The paper focuses on the work of Lorenz Oken (1779-1851) in an attempt to make sense of the role played by Romantic Naturphilosophie in the development of natural history in Germany at the turn of the nineteenth century. It first focuses on the role played by Schelling and his Würzburg circle in the development of Oken's early views on natural history, then reconstructs Oken's mature programme for a reform of animal classification.
May 18, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502257/physics-moves-to-the-provinces-the-siberian-physics-community-and-soviet-power-1917-1940
#18
Paul Josephson, Aleksandr Sorokin
The rich tradition of Siberian science and higher education is little known outside Russian academic circles. Using institutional history, this article focuses on the founding and pre-war period of the Siberian Physical Technical Institute, the establishment of its research focus and its first difficult steps to become a leading centre of R & D in Siberia. Based on archival materials, the article describes how local and national physicists justified the institute's creation by demonstrating ties with industry and building on the presence of a cohort of locally trained physicists, whose numbers were augmented by Leningrad specialists...
May 15, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438228/past-editors-favourite-papers-published-during-their-time-in-office
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434421/galileo-s-legacy-a-critical-edition-and-translation-of-the-manuscript-of-vincenzo-viviani-s-grati-animi-monumenta
#20
Stefano Gattei
Having been found 'vehemently suspected of heresy' by the Holy Office in 1633, at the time of his death (1642) Galileo's remains were laid to rest in the tiny vestry of a lateral chapel of the Santa Croce Basilica, Florence. Throughout his life, Vincenzo Viviani, Galileo's last disciple, struggled to have his master's name rehabilitated and his banned works reprinted, as well as a proper funeral monument erected. He did not live to see all this come true, but his efforts triggered a mechanism that eventually led to the fulfilment of his wishes...
April 24, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
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