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British Journal for the History of Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890041/introduction-plurality-in-patenting-medical-technology-and-cultures-of-protection
#1
James F Stark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884216/honour-and-subsistence-invention-credit-and-surgery-in-the-nineteenth-century
#2
Sally Frampton
The origins of contemporary exclusion of surgical methods from patenting lie in the complexities of managing credit claims in operative surgery, recognized in the nineteenth century. While surgical methods were not deemed patentable, surgeons were nevertheless embedded within patent culture. In an atmosphere of heightened awareness about the importance of 'inventors', how surgeons should be recognized and rewarded for their inventions was an important question. I examine an episode during the 1840s which seemed to concretize the inapplicability of patents to surgical practice, before looking at alternatives to patenting, used by surgeons to gain social and financial credit for inventions...
November 25, 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881194/authority-and-ownership-the-growth-and-wilting-of-medicine-patenting-in-georgian-england
#3
Alan Mackintosh
Secret, owned, Georgian medicines were normally known as patent medicines, though few had a current patent. Up to 1830, just 117 medicines had been patented, whilst over 1,300 were listed for taxation as 'patent medicines'. What were the benefits of patenting? Did medicine patenting affect consumer perception, and how was this used as a marketing tool? What were the boundaries of medical patenting? Patents for therapeutic preparations provided an apparent government guarantee on the source and composition of widely available products, while the patenting of medical devices seems to have been used to grant a temporary monopoly for the inventor's benefit...
November 24, 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881189/pharmaceutical-patenting-and-the-transformation-of-american-medical-ethics
#4
Joseph M Gabriel
The attitudes of physicians and drug manufacturers in the US toward patenting pharmaceuticals changed dramatically from the mid-nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth. Formerly, physicians and reputable manufacturers argued that pharmaceutical patents prioritized profit over the advancement of medical science. Reputable manufactures refused to patent their goods and most physicians shunned patented products. However, moving into the early twentieth century, physicians and drug manufacturers grew increasingly comfortable with the idea of pharmaceutical patents...
November 24, 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881188/a-barrier-to-medical-treatment-british-medical-practitioners-medical-appliances-and-the-patent-controversy-1870-1920
#5
Claire L Jones
From the late nineteenth century onwards there emerged an increasingly diverse response to escalating patenting activity. Inventors were generally supportive of legislation that made patenting more accessible, while others, especially manufacturers, saw patenting culture as an impediment. The medical profession claimed that patenting represented 'a barrier to medical treatment' and was thus detrimental to the nation's health, yet, as I argue, the profession's development of strict codes of conduct forbidding practitioners from patenting resulted in rebellion from some members, who increasingly sought protection for their inventions...
November 24, 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871338/mathematical-subtleties-and-scientific-knowledge-francis-bacon-and-mathematics-at-the-crossing-of-two-traditions
#6
Giuliano Mori
This article engages the much-debated role of mathematics in Bacon's philosophy and inductive method at large. The many references to mathematics in Bacon's works are considered in the context of the humanist reform of the curriculum studiorum and, in particular, through a comparison with the kinds of natural and intellectual subtlety as they are defined by many sixteenth-century authors, including Cardano, Scaliger and Montaigne. Additionally, this article gives a nuanced background to the 'subtlety' commonly thought to have been eschewed by Bacon and by Bacon's self-proclaimed followers in the Royal Society of London...
November 22, 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719698/spain-s-magic-mountain-narrating-prehistory-at-atapuerca
#7
Oliver Hochadel
The Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain is ranked among the most important excavation sites in human origins research worldwide. The project boasts not only spectacular hominid fossils, among them the 'oldest European', but also a fully fledged 'popularization industry'. This article interprets this multimedia industry as a generator of different narratives about the researchers as well as about the prehistoric hominids of Atapuerca. It focuses on the popular works of the three co-directors of the project...
September 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719697/introduction
#8
Amanda Rees
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719696/stories-of-stones-and-bones-disciplinarity-narrative-and-practice-in-british-popular-prehistory-1911-1935
#9
Amanda Rees
This paper explores how three central figures in the field of British prehistory - Sir Arthur Keith, Sir Grafton Elliot Smith and Louis Leakey - deployed different disciplinary practices and narrative devices in the popular accounts of human bio-cultural evolution that they produced during the early decades of the twentieth century. It shows how they used a variety of strategies, ranging from virtual witness through personal testimony to tactile demonstration, to ground their authority to interpret the increasingly wide range of fossil material available and to answer the bewildering variety of questions that could be asked about them...
September 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719695/a-translation-of-the-linnaean-dissertation-the-invisible-world
#10
Janis Antonovics, Jacobus Kritzinger
This study presents the first translation from Latin to English of the Linnaean dissertation Mundus invisibilis or The Invisible World, submitted by Johannes Roos in 1769. The dissertation highlights Linnaeus's conviction that infectious diseases could be transmitted by living organisms, too small to be seen. Biographies of Linnaeus often fail to mention that Linnaeus was correct in ascribing the cause of diseases such as measles, smallpox and syphilis to living organisms. The dissertation itself reviews the work of many microscopists, especially on zoophytes and insects, marvelling at the many unexpected discoveries...
September 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719694/the-beginnings-of-human-palaeontology-prehistory-craniometry-and-the-fossil-human-races
#11
Matthew R Goodrum
Since the nineteenth century, hominid palaeontology has offered critical information about prehistoric humans and evidence for human evolution. Human fossils discovered at a time when there was growing agreement that humans existed during the Ice Age became especially significant but also controversial. This paper argues that the techniques used to study human fossils from the 1850s to the 1870s and the way that these specimens were interpreted owed much to the anthropological examination of Stone, Bronze, and Iron Age skeletons retrieved by archaeologists from prehistoric tombs throughout Europe...
September 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719693/the-most-brutal-of-human-skulls-measuring-and-knowing-the-first-neanderthal
#12
Paige Madison
A fossilized skeleton discovered in 1856 presented naturalists with a unique challenge. The strange, human-looking bones of the first recognized Neanderthal confronted naturalists with a new type of object for which they had no readily available interpretive framework. This paper explores the techniques and approaches used to understand these bones in the years immediately following the discovery, in particular 1856-1864. Historians have previously suggested that interpretations and debates about Neanderthals hinged primarily on social, political and cultural ideologies...
September 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324812/travancore-s-magnetic-crusade-geomagnetism-and-the-geography-of-scientific-production-in-a-princely-state
#13
Jessica Ratcliff
In 1840 the raja of Travancore, Swathi Thirunal, would offer his government's assistance to the British Association for the Advancement of Science and its plan for a global system of magnetic observations. Over the next thirty years, the two directors of this princely state's observatory, John Caldecott and John Allan Broun, would pursue fundamental terrestrial magnetic research. Their efforts would culminate in the Trivandrum [Trevandrum] Magnetical Observations (1874). In what follows, the history of this publication is used to shed light on how and why a semi-autonomous princely state such as Travancore would engage the scientific community in Europe at this time...
June 21, 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353946/film-lessons-early-cinema-for-historians-of-science
#14
Jesse Olszynko-Gryn
Despite much excellent work over the years, the vast history of scientific filmmaking is still largely unknown. Historians of science have long been concerned with visual culture, communication and the public sphere on the one hand, and with expertise, knowledge production and experimental practice on the other. Scientists, we know, drew pictures, took photographs and made three-dimensional models. Rather like models, films could not be printed in journals until the digital era, and this limited their usefulness as evidence...
June 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353945/presidential-address-experimenting-with-the-scientific-past
#15
Gregory Radick
When it comes to knowledge about the scientific pasts that might have been - the so-called 'counterfactual' history of science - historians can either debate its possibility or get on with the job. Taking the latter course means re-engaging with some of the most general questions about science. It can also lead to fresh insights into why particular episodes unfolded as they did and not otherwise. Drawing on recent research into the controversy over Mendelism in the early twentieth century, this address reports and reflects on a novel teaching experiment conducted in order to find out what biology and its students might be like now had the controversy gone differently...
June 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27278279/a-capital-scot-microscopes-and-museums-in-robert-e-grant-s-zoology-1815-1840
#16
Tom Quick
Early nineteenth-century zoology in Britain has been characterized as determined by the ideological concerns of its proponents. Taking the zoologist Robert E. Grant as an exemplary figure in this regard, this article offers a differently nuanced account of the conditions under which natural-philosophical knowledge concerning animal life was established in post-Napoleonic Britain. Whilst acknowledging the ideological import of concepts such as force and law, it points to an additional set of concerns amongst natural philosophers - that of appropriate tool use in investigation...
June 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27278105/deceived-by-orchids-sex-science-fiction-and-darwin
#17
Jim Endersby
Between 1916 and 1927, botanists in several countries independently resolved three problems that had mystified earlier naturalists - including Charles Darwin: how did the many species of orchid that did not produce nectar persuade insects to pollinate them? Why did some orchid flowers seem to mimic insects? And why should a native British orchid suffer 'attacks' from a bee? Half a century after Darwin's death, these three mysteries were shown to be aspects of a phenomenon now known as pseudocopulation, whereby male insects are deceived into attempting to mate with the orchid's flowers, which mimic female insects; the males then carry the flower's pollen with them when they move on to try the next deceptive orchid...
June 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27264494/parasites-politics-and-public-science-the-promotion-of-biological-control-in-western-australia-1900-1910
#18
Edward Deveson
Biological control of arthropods emerged as a scientific enterprise in the late nineteenth century and the orchard industry of California was an early centre of expertise. In 1900, as the Australian colonies prepared for federation, each had a government entomologist attached to its agriculture department. The hiring of George Compere from California by the Western Australian Department of Agriculture began a controversial chapter in the early history of biological control that was linked to a late, local popularization of acclimatization...
June 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27076038/j-g-crowther-s-war-institutional-strife-at-the-bbc-and-british-council
#19
Allan Jones
Science writer, historian and administrator J.G. Crowther (1899-1983) had an uneasy relationship with the BBC during the 1920s and 1930s, and was regarded with suspicion by the British security services because of his left politics. Nevertheless the Second World War saw him working for 'establishment' institutions. He was closely associated with the BBC's Overseas Service and employed by the British Council's Science Committee. Both organizations found Crowther useful because of his wide, international knowledge of science and scientists...
June 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26979817/heredity-evolution-and-development-in-their-epistemic-environment-at-the-turn-of-the-nineteenth-century
#20
Federica Turriziani Colonna
During the early 1870s a young zoologist who worked as a Privatdozent delivering lectures at different Prussian universities invested much of his family wealth and solicited his fellows' contributions to establish a research facility by the sea. The young zoologist happened to be called Anton Dohrn. From the time it opened its doors, the Anton Dohrn Zoological Station - or Naples Zoological Station, as it was originally called - played a crucial role in shaping life sciences as it facilitated research aimed at explaining the mechanics of inheritance...
March 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
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