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Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106888/acquired-vascular-tumors-of-the-head-and-neck
#1
REVIEW
Mark Persky, Theresa Tran
Vascular neoplasms of the head and neck present with a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and is usually made after tumors are large enough to be visually apparent or cause symptoms. This article discusses the most common acquired benign and malignant vascular tumors, with an emphasis on their evaluation and treatment.
October 26, 2017: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217073/congenital-vascular-lesions-of-the-head-and-neck
#2
EDITORIAL
Teresa M O, Milton Waner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217072/multidisciplinary-approach-to-vascular-anomalies-maximizes-outcomes
#3
EDITORIAL
Sujana S Chandrasekhar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217071/psychosocial-impact-of-vascular-anomalies-on-children-and-their-families
#4
REVIEW
Alexandra G Espinel, Nancy M Bauman
Vascular anomalies are divided into tumors and malformations based on their clinical and cytologic attributes. Vascular malformations are further subcategorized as low-flow lymphatic, venous, capillary, or mixed lesions and as high-flow arteriovenous malformations. Treatment is reserved for vascular anomalies that are symptomatic or cosmetically disfiguring, and surgical and nonsurgical treatment options are widely varied with variable outcomes.
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217070/congenital-vascular-tumors
#5
REVIEW
Jeremy A Goss, Arin K Greene
Vascular tumors are benign neoplasms, which result from proliferating endothelial cells. These lesions present during infancy or childhood, may affect any location, and exhibit postnatal growth. Local complications include bleeding, tissue destruction, and pain whereas systemic sequelae include thrombocytopenia, congestive heart failure, and death. Vascular tumors should be differentiated from vascular malformations, which present at birth, have a quiescent endothelium, and grow in proportion to the child. Together, vascular tumors and malformations comprise the field of vascular anomalies...
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217069/infantile-hemangiomas-in-the-head-and-neck-region
#6
REVIEW
Denise M Adams, Kiersten W Ricci
Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are benign vascular tumors of infancy most common in the region of the head and neck. Infantile hemangiomas are common; but they are extremely heterogeneous and cause a range of complications depending on their morphology, size, or location. Medical interventions for high-risk patients include topical and systemic therapies, including oral propranolol, which has revolutionized the management of IHs over the past recent years. In the following article, the authors aim to provide a review of the natural history, pathology, complications, syndromes, and medical management of infantile hemangioma...
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217068/imaging-of-vascular-lesions-of-the-head-and-neck
#7
REVIEW
Jared M Steinklein, Deborah R Shatzkes
This article provides an overview of imaging findings of common and uncommon vascular lesions in the head and neck and showcases images highlighting imaging findings. Both hemangiomas and vascular malformations are covered.
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217067/etiology-and-genetics-of-congenital-vascular-lesions
#8
REVIEW
Angela Queisser, Laurence M Boon, Miikka Vikkula
The detection of somatic, activating genetic mutations to underlie development of vascular tumors and malformations led to a better understanding of their pathophysiology. Proteins encoded by the detected mutated genes activate the two major signaling pathways, also involved in cancer: the RAS/MAPK/ERK pathway and/or the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. This gives a strong basis for studies to repurpose cancer therapeutics to patients with vascular tumors and malformations.
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217066/hereditary-hemorrhagic-telangiectasia
#9
REVIEW
Thomas K├╝hnel, Kornelia Wirsching, Walter Wohlgemuth, Ajay Chavan, Katja Evert, Veronika Vielsmeier
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) describes the presenting manifestations of a disorder that is characterized by pathologic blood vessels. HHT is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with variable penetrance. The abnormal vascular structures (dysplasias) can affect all the organs in the human body. The link between a physical stimulus and new lesion development has been established for mucosal trauma owing to nasal airflow turbulence, for ultraviolet exposure to the fingers, and for mechanical trauma to the dominant hand...
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217065/orthognathic-considerations-of-vascular-malformations
#10
REVIEW
Luis Delgado, Avanti Verma, Teresa M O, Stuart Super
Vascular malformations affect the craniofacial skeleton in many ways, depending on the type of the lesion and its location. The lesions may exert a mass effect and cause thinning or thickening of the bone or cause expansion from direct bony infiltration. Orthognathic surgery can be used to correct any malocclusion or open bite deformities after the soft tissues are addressed.
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217064/the-management-of-vascular-malformations-of-the-airway-natural-history-investigations-medical-surgical-and-radiological-management
#11
REVIEW
Tristan Klosterman, Teresa M O
Vascular malformations may affect nearly all aspects of the upper airway. Each type of malformation has a characteristic pattern of disease. These lesions may be focal or diffuse, and require directed management strategies. Physicians treating these entities should have a high level of suspicion to consider airway evaluation even in the absence of overt symptoms. However, cutaneous head and neck venous malformations or other lesions affecting the lips, oral cavity, or tongue can herald the presence of coexisting airway lesions...
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217063/capillary-malformations-portwine-stains-of-the-head-and-neck-natural-history-investigations-laser-and-surgical-management
#12
REVIEW
Jeong Woo Lee, Ho Yun Chung
Capillary malformations (CMs), also known as port-wine stains, are the most common type of congenital vascular malformations. Facial CM often occurs with a quasidermatomal distribution according to the sensory trigeminal nerve distribution. With time, these lesions darken progressively, and soft tissue hypertrophy, bony hypertrophy, and/or nodule formation can develop. Multiple treatments for CM have been reported. However, the mainstay and gold standard therapy for facial or aesthetically sensitive CM is still the pulsed dye laser treatment...
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217062/arteriovenous-malformations-of-the-head-and-neck
#13
REVIEW
Tara L Rosenberg, James Y Suen, Gresham T Richter
Extracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are complex vascular malformations to diagnose and treat. They are comprised of congenitally derived arteriovenous shunts with chronic vascular expansion, collateralization, and infiltration of local tissue. Their cause remains unclear, but new genetic and molecular clues are emerging. They may present at any age following an early quiescent period. Diagnosis is based on vascular staining, soft tissue expansion, progressive growth, warmth, and pulsations. Focal lesions can be cured, whereas diffuse AVMs demonstrate highly recidivistic disease...
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217061/venous-malformations-of-the-head-and-neck
#14
REVIEW
Emmanuel Seront, Miikka Vikkula, Laurence M Boon
Venous malformations (VMs) of the head and neck arise from deficits in the development of venous network. Clinically, VMs are highly variable, from small and asymptomatic varicosities to massive cervicofacial lesions. Therapeutic approaches include surgery; laser photocoagulation; sclerotherapy; and, more recently, systemic targeted drugs. This article discusses the natural history, diagnosis, and management of VMs.
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217060/multidisciplinary-approach-to-the-management-of-lymphatic-malformations-of-the-head-and-neck
#15
REVIEW
Milton Waner, Teresa M O
Lymphatic malformations (LMs) occur in 2.8 to 5 per 100,000 live births. Most involve the head and neck and they are equally common in men and women. They are developmental anomalies of unknown cause, although recent evidence suggests that an upregulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway may be a causal factor leading to the overproduction of abnormal lymph vessels. These vessels are likely dilated lymphatic sacs sequestered from the lymphatic and venous systems. This overproduction results in the accumulation of lymph in dilated cystic spaces, which in turn results in the clinical features of an LM...
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217059/new-frontiers-in-our-understanding-of-lymphatic-malformations-of-the-head-and-neck-natural-history-and-basic-research
#16
REVIEW
Jonathan A Perkins
The future of head and neck lymphatic malformation (HNLM) evaluation and treatment is changing because of 2 decades of clinical research and recent basic science investigation. Basic science investigation using cellular biology and molecular genetics has revealed the genetic cause of some HNLMs, which has created the possibility of medical treatment specific to HNLM. This article summarizes the clinical and basic science research that will likely influence the future of HNLM assessment and treatment.
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217058/management-of-infantile-hemangiomas-of-the-airway
#17
REVIEW
David H Darrow
Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) of the airway are far less common than their cutaneous counterparts, and their symptoms mimic those of viral croup. As a result, by the time these lesions are diagnosed, they are often advanced and causing airway compromise. Fortunately, the evolution of propranolol as an effective and safe pharmacotherapy has simplified management of IH and reduced the likelihood of complications previously seen with steroid therapy and surgery. Nevertheless, the otolaryngologist must be prepared with an alternate plan to manage lesions refractory to pharmacotherapy...
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217057/the-surgical-management-of-infantile-hemangiomas
#18
REVIEW
Milton Waner
The surgical management of facial infantile hemangiomas presents a unique challenge. The aim of the surgeon should be to remove the hemangioma and to restore normal facial features. Each of the facial zones has its own special features and challenges. The surgeon should remember that the child started out with normal anatomy and that as the hemangioma proliferated, it displaced and thinned these normal structures and in many cases, expanded adjacent tissue. Hemangiomas do not as a rule, invade adjacent tissues as they proliferate...
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217056/the-role-of-surgery-in-the-management-of-infantile-hemangiomas-what-is-the-best-timing
#19
REVIEW
Marcelo Hochman
Surgery for the management of infantile hemangiomas has become commonplace. Surgical technique articles are plentiful; however, little has been written about the timing of surgery. Knowledge of the biology of the tumors, data from developmental psychology, and the utility of facial reconstruction provide guidelines for timing of surgical intervention.
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217055/outcome-measurement-for-vascular-malformations-of-the-head-and-neck
#20
REVIEW
Sophie E R Horbach, Amber P M Rongen, Teresa M O, Milton Waner, Chantal M A M van der Horst
Vascular malformations are congenital anomalies of the vascular and/or lymphatic system that affect the head and neck region. The most common treatment options are sclerotherapy, laser therapy, surgery, and embolization. Because vascular malformations are variable in type, size, extent, and location, it is a challenge to select methods for evaluation of treatment outcome. Without standardized outcome reporting, it is difficult to compare and combine scientific evidence to support therapeutic decision making...
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
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