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David Schubring, Tzvetan Popov, Gregory A Miller, Brigitte Rockstroh
The auditory P50/M50 ERP/event-related field is subject to sensory gating, with partial suppression of the amplitude of the second of two (S1 and S2) clicks presented 500 ms apart. Schizophrenia patients have less gating, although quantification methods and associated effect sizes vary across studies using first-admission and/or using chronic patients. The present study evaluated the impact of several methods of quantifying gating in first-admission (FA) and chronic (CHR) schizophrenia patients and in healthy controls (HC)...
September 21, 2017: Psychophysiology
Julia F Christensen, Sebastian B Gaigg, Beatriz Calvo-Merino
Interoception is the process of perceiving afferent signals arising from within the body including heart rate (HR), gastric signals, etc., and has been described as a mechanism crucially involved in the creation of self-awareness and selfhood. The heartbeat perception task is a tool to measure individuals' interoceptive accuracy (IAcc). IAcc correlates positively with measures of self-awareness and with attributes including emotional sensitivity, empathy, prosocial behavior, and efficient decision making. IAcc is only moderate in the general population, and attempts to identify groups of people who might have higher IAcc due to their specific training (e...
September 21, 2017: Psychophysiology
Christopher R Madan, Tyler Harrison, Kyle E Mathewson
Heart rate, measured in beats per minute, can be used as an index of an individual's physiological state. Each time the heart beats, blood is expelled and travels through the body. This blood flow can be detected in the face using a standard webcam that is able to pick up subtle changes in color that cannot be seen by the naked eye. Due to the light absorption spectrum of blood, we are able to detect differences in the amount of light absorbed by the blood traveling just below the skin (i.e., photoplethysmography)...
September 21, 2017: Psychophysiology
Henning Gibbons, Laura-Effi Seib-Pfeifer, Judith Koppehele-Gossel, Robert Schnuerch
Prior research suggests that the affective priming effect denoting prime-congruent evaluative judgments about neutral targets preceded by affective primes increases when the primes are processed less deeply. This has been taken as evidence for greater affect misattribution. However, no study so far has combined an experimental manipulation of the depth of prime processing with the benefits of ERPs. Forty-seven participants made like/dislike responses about Korean ideographs following 800-ms affective prime words while 64-channel EEG was recorded...
September 21, 2017: Psychophysiology
A Dilene van Campen, Richard Kunert, Wery P M van den Wildenberg, K Richard Ridderinkhof
In the recent literature, the effects of noninvasive neurostimulation on cognitive functioning appear to lack consistency and replicability. We propose that such effects may be concealed unless dedicated, sensitive, and process-specific dependent measures are used. The expression and subsequent suppression of response capture are often studied using conflict tasks. Response-time distribution analyses have been argued to provide specific measures of the susceptibility to make fast impulsive response errors, as well as the proficiency of the selective suppression of these impulses...
September 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
Clio Janssens, Esther De Loof, C Nico Boehler, Gilles Pourtois, Tom Verguts
Recent associative models of cognitive control hypothesize that cognitive control can be learned (optimized) for task-specific settings via associations between perceptual, motor, and control representations, and, once learned, control can be implemented rapidly. Midfrontal brain areas signal the need for control, and control is subsequently implemented by biasing sensory representations, boosting or suppressing activity in brain areas processing task-relevant or task-irrelevant information. To assess the timescale of this process, we employed EEG...
September 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
M Cornelia Stoeckel, Roland W Esser, Matthias Gamer, Christian Büchel, Andreas von Leupoldt
Dyspnea is an aversive symptom in various diseases. High levels of negative affectivity are typically associated with increased dyspnea and changes in its neural processing. Recently, more dyspnea-specific forms of negative affectivity such as dyspnea catastrophizing were suggested to contribute to increased perception of dyspnea beyond effects of rather unspecific negative affectivity such as general anxiety levels. The involved neural mechanisms have not yet been explored. Therefore, the present retrospective analysis examined the associations of dyspnea catastrophizing with neural activations during the anticipation and perception of dyspnea...
September 13, 2017: Psychophysiology
Gesche N Winther, Michael Niedeggen
In a rapid serial visual presentation task, inhibition processes cumulatively impair processing of a target possessing distractor properties. This phenomenon-known as distractor-induced blindness-has thus far only been elicited using dynamic visual features, such as motion and orientation changes. In three ERP experiments, we used a visual object feature-color-to test for the adaptability and specificity of the effect. In Experiment I, participants responded to a color change (target) in the periphery whose onset was signaled by a central cue...
September 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
Hans S Schroder, Tim P Moran, Jason S Moser
The error-related negativity (ERN), an ERP elicited immediately after errors, is enlarged among individuals with anxiety. The relationship between anxiety and enlarged ERN has spurred interest in understanding potential therapeutic benefits of decreasing its amplitude within anxious individuals. The current study used a tailored intervention-expressive writing-in an attempt to reduce the ERN among a sample of individuals with chronic worry. Consistent with hypotheses, the ERN was reduced in the expressive writing group compared to an unrelated writing control group...
September 8, 2017: Psychophysiology
Margaret M Bradley, Zvinka Z Zlatar, Peter J Lang
During threat of shock, the startle reflex is potentiated, suggesting modulation by defensive mobilization. To determine whether startle potentiation is specific to aversive anticipation, startle reflexes were measured in the context of either aversive or appetitive anticipation in a between-subject study. Participants wore a device on the wrist that could deliver electrical shock (n = 49), or vibrotactile stimulation indicating monetary reward (n = 48). Cues signaling "threat" or "safe" periods were presented alone, or accompanied by presentation of affective and neutral pictures on half of the trials...
September 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
Annmarie MacNamara, Christine A Rabinak, Amy E Kennedy, K Luan Phan
The late positive potential (LPP) and fMRI blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activity can provide complementary measures of the processing of affective and social stimuli. Separate lines of research using these measures have often employed the same stimuli, paradigms, and samples; however, there remains relatively little understanding of the way in which individual differences in one of these measures relates to the other, and all prior research has been conducted in psychiatrically healthy samples and using emotional scenes (not faces)...
September 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
Allan J Heritage, Laura J Long, Geoffrey F Woodman, David H Zald
Individuals differ greatly in their sensitivity to rewards and punishments. In the extreme, these differences are implicated in a range of psychiatric disorders from addiction to depression. However, it is unclear how these differences influence the recruitment of attention, working memory, and long-term memory when responding to potential rewards. Here, we used a rewarded memory-guided visual search task and ERPs to examine the influence of individual differences in self-reported reward/punishment sensitivity, as measured by the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)/Behavioral Activation System (BAS) scales, on the recruitment of cognitive mechanisms in conditions of potential reward...
September 6, 2017: Psychophysiology
Samuel Gerster, Barbara Namer, Mikael Elam, Dominik R Bach
Skin conductance responses (SCR) are increasingly analyzed with model-based approaches that assume a linear and time-invariant (LTI) mapping from sudomotor nerve (SN) activity to observed SCR. These LTI assumptions have previously been validated indirectly, by quantifying how much variance in SCR elicited by sensory stimulation is explained under an LTI model. This approach, however, collapses sources of variability in the nervous and effector organ systems. Here, we directly focus on the SN/SCR mapping by harnessing two invasive methods...
September 1, 2017: Psychophysiology
Raphaël Fargier, Audrey Bürki, Svetlana Pinet, F-Xavier Alario, Marina Laganaro
Electrophysiological research using verbal response paradigms faces the problem of muscle artifacts that occur during speech production or in the period preceding articulation. In this context, this paper has two related aims. The first is to show how the nature of the first phoneme influences the alignment of the ERPs. The second is to further characterize the EEG signal around the onset of articulation, both in temporal and frequency domains. Participants were asked to name aloud pictures of common objects...
August 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
Erika Lunkenheimer, Stacey S Tiberio, Amanda M Skoranski, Kristin A Buss, Pamela M Cole
The parasympathetic nervous system supports social interaction and varies in relation to psychopathology. However, we know little about parasympathetic processes from a dyadic framework, nor in early childhood when parent-child social interactions become more complex and child psychopathology first emerges. We hypothesized that higher risk for psychopathology (maternal psychopathology symptoms and child problem behavior) would be related to weaker concordance of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) between mothers and children (M = 3½ years old; N = 47) and that these relations could vary by social contextual demands, comparing unstructured free play, semistructured cleanup, and structured teaching tasks...
August 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
Patrycja Kałamała, Jakub Szewczyk, Magdalena Senderecka, Zofia Wodniecka
In many published studies, various modifications of the flanker task have been used. Regardless of the flanker task version, the conflict N2 component has been consistently reported and interpreted as evidence for the resolution of conflict introduced by incongruent flankers. However, ERP studies that used the most basic flanker task (i.e., a version with equiprobable congruent and incongruent conditions in which only congruency between the target and flankers is manipulated) have not provided compelling evidence for the conflict N2 component...
August 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
Nicolò F Bernardi, Marco Bordino, Lucio Bianchi, Luciano Bernardi
The effects of meditation on arterial and tissue oxygenation are unknown and difficult to assess because respiration is often altered, directly or indirectly, during meditation practice. Thus, changes in respiration may affect cardiovascular responses independently from meditation. In this study, we aim to isolate the specific effect of meditation on arterial and tissue oxygenation and other cardiorespiratory indexes while systematically controlling for the role of respiration. Furthermore, we aim to clarify to what extent prior expertise in meditation practice is needed to observe reliable changes...
August 25, 2017: Psychophysiology
David J Schaeffer, Amanda L Rodrigue, Courtney R Burton, Jordan E Pierce, Megan N Murphy, Brett A Clementz, Jennifer E McDowell
Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies suggest that altered white matter fiber integrity is a pathophysiological feature of schizophrenia. Lower white matter integrity is associated with poor cognitive control, a characteristic of schizophrenia that can be measured using antisaccade tasks. Although the functional neural correlates of poor antisaccade performance have been well documented, fewer studies have investigated the extent to which white matter fibers connecting the functional nodes of this network contribute to antisaccade performance...
August 23, 2017: Psychophysiology
T Tolgou, S Rohrmann, C Stockhausen, D Krampen, I Warnecke, N Reiss
Previous research has shown that intrusions are part of the psychopathology of mental disorders. Imagery techniques seem to be an effective treatment of negative intrusions. Since negative mental imagery is part of health anxiety, the present study investigated the impact of imagery techniques on health anxiety. A total of 159 students with elevated scores in a health anxiety questionnaire watched an aversive film concerning a cancer patient and were randomly allocated to one of three interventions (positive imagery, imagery reexperiencing, imagery rescripting) or the control group...
August 23, 2017: Psychophysiology
Lijun Sun, Fang Liu, Linshu Zhou, Cunmei Jiang
Syntactic processing is essential for musical understanding. Although the processing of harmonic syntax has been well studied, very little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying rhythmic syntactic processing. The present study investigated the neural processing of rhythmic syntax and whether and to what extent long-term musical training impacts such processing. Fourteen musicians and 14 nonmusicians listened to syntactic-regular or syntactic-irregular rhythmic sequences and judged the completeness of these sequences...
August 23, 2017: Psychophysiology
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