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Psychophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621460/older-adults-display-diminished-error-processing-and-response-in-a-continuous-tracking-task
#1
Francisco L Colino, Harvey Howse, Angela Norton, Robert Trska, Anthony Pluta, Stephen J C Luehr, Todd C Handy, Olave E Krigolson
Advancing age is often accompanied by a decline in motor control that results in a decreased ability to successfully perform motor tasks. While there are multiple factors that contribute to age-related deficits in motor control, one unexplored possibility is that age-related deficits in our ability to evaluate motor output result in an increase in motor errors. In line with this, previous work from our laboratory demonstrated that motor errors evoked an error-related negativity (ERN)-a component of the human ERP associated with error evaluation originating within the human medial-frontal cortex...
June 16, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621433/stability-and-reliability-of-error-related-electromyography-over-the-corrugator-supercilii-with-increasing-trials
#2
Nathaniel Elkins-Brown, Blair Saunders, Frank He, Michael Inzlicht
Electromyographic activity over the corrugator supercilii (cEMG), the primary facial muscle involved in negative emotions, is increased during the commission of errors on speeded reaction-time tasks. In the present paper, data from two previously published studies were reanalyzed to investigate the reliability and stability of error-related, correct-related, and difference cEMG across increasing numbers of trials. For a modified go/no-go and a flanker task, we found that error-related cEMG was highly stable and reliable in 14 trials, and correct-related cEMG between 56 and 82 trials, respectively...
June 16, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617954/mind-the-movement-frontal-asymmetry-stands-for-behavioral-motivation-bilateral-frontal-activation-for-behavior
#3
Johannes Rodrigues, Mathias Müller, Andreas Mühlberger, Johannes Hewig
Frontal asymmetry has been investigated over the past 30 years, and several theories have been developed about its meaning. The original theory of Davidson and its diversification by Harmon-Jones & Allen allocated approach motivation to relative left frontal brain activity and withdrawal motivation to relative right frontal brain activity. Hewig and colleagues extended this theory by adding bilateral frontal activation representing a biological correlate of the behavioral activation system if actual behavior is shown...
June 15, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593652/pupil-size-as-a-measure-of-within-task-learning
#4
Cyrus K Foroughi, Ciara Sibley, Joseph T Coyne
Pupillometry is commonly used in research to determine how much mental effort an individual is exerting while completing tasks. Traditionally, larger pupils are associated with increased mental effort when completing more difficult tasks. However, little research has investigated how pupils change as individuals learn a new task. In theory, as one repeatedly completes a task, the task demands should reduce, reliance on working memory should decrease, and the task should become more automatic. This should translate to faster completion times and smaller peak pupil dilations...
June 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580702/evidence-for-an-attentional-component-of-inhibition-of-return-in-visual-search
#5
Allison M Pierce, Monique D Crouse, Jessica J Green
Inhibition of return (IOR) is typically described as an inhibitory bias against returning attention to a recently attended location as a means of promoting efficient visual search. Most studies examining IOR, however, either do not use visual search paradigms or do not effectively isolate attentional processes, making it difficult to conclusively link IOR to a bias in attention. Here, we recorded ERPs during a simple visual search task designed to isolate the attentional component of IOR to examine whether an inhibitory bias of attention is observed and, if so, how it influences visual search behavior...
June 5, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580687/theta-and-delta-band-eeg-network-dynamics-during-a-novelty-oddball-task
#6
Jeremy Harper, Stephen M Malone, William G Iacono
While the P3 component during target detection and novelty processing has been widely studied, less is known about its underlying network dynamics. A recent cognitive model suggests that frontal-parietal and frontal-temporal interregional connectivity are related to attention/action selection and target-related memory updating during the P3, respectively, but empirical work testing this model is lacking. Other work suggests the importance of theta- and delta-band connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and distributed cortical regions during attention, stimulus detection, and response selection processes, and similar dynamics may underlie P3-related network connectivity...
June 5, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580638/emotional-reactivity-and-regulation-in-individuals-with-psychopathic-traits-evidence-for-a-disconnect-between-neurophysiology-and-self-report
#7
Jennifer D Ellis, Hans S Schroder, Christopher J Patrick, Jason S Moser
Individuals with psychopathic traits often demonstrate blunted reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. However, it is not yet clear whether these individuals also have difficulty regulating their emotional responses to negative stimuli. To address this question, participants with varying levels of psychopathic traits (indexed by the Triarchic Measure of Psychopathy; Patrick, 2010) completed a task in which they passively viewed, increased, or decreased their emotions to negative picture stimuli while electrocortical activity was recorded...
June 5, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580599/the-two-faces-of-avoidance-time-frequency-correlates-of-motivational-disposition-in-blood-phobia
#8
Rocco Mennella, Michela Sarlo, Simone Messerotti Benvenuti, Giulia Buodo, Giovanni Mento, Daniela Palomba
Contrary to other phobias, individuals with blood phobia do not show a clear-cut withdrawal disposition from the feared stimulus. The study of response inhibition provides insights into reduced action disposition in blood phobia. Twenty individuals with and 20 without blood phobia completed an emotional go/no-go task including phobia-related pictures, as well as phobia-unrelated unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant stimuli. Behavioral results did not indicate a phobia-specific reduced action disposition in the phobic group...
June 5, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560781/attending-to-the-heart-is-associated-with-posterior-alpha-band-increase-and-a-reduction-in-sensitivity-to-concurrent-visual-stimuli
#9
Mario Villena-González, Cristóbal Moënne-Loccoz, Rodrigo A Lagos, Luz M Alliende, Pablo Billeke, Francisco Aboitiz, Vladimir López, Diego Cosmelli
Attentional mechanisms have been studied mostly in specific sensory domains, such as auditory, visuospatial, or tactile modalities. In contrast, attention to internal interoceptive visceral targets has only recently begun to be studied, despite its potential importance in emotion, empathy, and self-awareness. Here, we studied the effects of shifting attention to the heart using a cue-target detection paradigm during continuous EEG recordings. Subjects were instructed to count either a series of visual stimuli (visual condition) or their own heartbeats (heart condition)...
May 31, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560724/the-time-course-of-pupil-dilation-evoked-by-visual-sexual-stimuli-exploring-the-underlying-ans-mechanisms
#10
Johannes B Finke, Christian E Deuter, Xenia Hengesch, Hartmut Schächinger
The early processing of visual sexual stimuli shows signs of automaticity. Moreover, there is evidence for sex-specific patterns in cognitive and physiological responding to erotica. However, little is known about the time course of rapid pupillary responses to sexual stimuli and their correspondence with other measures of autonomic activity in women and men. To study pupil dilation as an implicit measure of sexual arousal at various stages of picture processing, we presented 35 heterosexual participants with pictures showing either erotic couples or single (male/female) erotic nudes, contrasted with people involved in everyday situations...
May 31, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560713/time-domain-measurement-of-the-vascular-and-myocardial-branches-of-the-baroreflex-a-study-in-physically-active-versus-sedentary-individuals
#11
Gustavo A Reyes Del Paso, Pablo de la Coba, María Martín-Vázquez, Julian F Thayer
This study tests the spontaneous sequence method for the evaluation of the cardiac, vasomotor, and myocardial branches of the baroreflex. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), interbeat interval (IBI), stroke volume (SV), preejection period (PEP), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were continuously recorded in 33 physically active and 25 sedentary participants at rest and during a mental arithmetic task. Sequences of spontaneous covariation between SBP and IBI (for the cardiac branch), SV and PEP (for the myocardial branch), and TPR (for the vasomotor branch) were located...
May 31, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556905/working-memory-load-impairs-the-evaluation-of-behavioral-errors-in-the-medial-frontal-cortex
#12
Martin E Maier, Marco Steinhauser
Early error monitoring in the medial frontal cortex enables error detection and the evaluation of error significance, which helps prioritize adaptive control. This ability has been assumed to be independent from central capacity, a limited pool of resources assumed to be involved in cognitive control. The present study investigated whether error evaluation depends on central capacity by measuring the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) in a flanker paradigm while working memory load was varied on two levels. We used a four-choice flanker paradigm in which participants had to classify targets while ignoring flankers...
May 30, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555883/depression-symptom-dimensions-and-asymmetrical-frontal-cortical-activity-while-anticipating-reward
#13
Brady D Nelson, Ellen M Kessel, Daniel N Klein, Stewart A Shankman
Unipolar depression has been characterized as involving diminished approach motivation and reward sensitivity. A psychophysiological indicator of approach motivation involves an asymmetry in frontal EEG activity, such that greater left relative to right frontal cortical activity indicates increased approach motivation. Consistent with the perspective of reduced approach motivation tendencies, depression has been associated with decreased relative left frontal cortical activity. To date, supporting research has primarily relied on categorical diagnoses or composite symptom counts...
May 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555873/does-size-matter-an-examination-of-problem-gamblers-skin-conductance-responses-to-large-and-small-magnitude-rewards
#14
Lisa Lole, Craig J Gonsalvez
Previous research has shown that individuals with substance use disorder equally value small and large magnitude rewards. This has led some researchers to conceptualize the problematic behaviors associated with this disorder as being, at least in part, caused by a deficiency in processing reward stimuli. Considering the documented similarities between substance use disorder and disordered gambling, the current study sought to investigate whether problem gamblers also display such an aberrant pattern of incentive processing...
May 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555773/sex-differences-in-empathy-for-pain-what-is-the-role-of-autonomic-regulation
#15
Lincoln M Tracy, Melita J Giummarra
Empathy involves both affective and cognitive components whereby we understand, and express concerns for, the experiences of others. Women typically have superior trait empathy compared with men, which seems to have a neurological basis with sex differences in the structure and function of neural networks involved in empathy. This study investigated sex differences in empathy for pain using the Empathy for Pain Scale, and examined whether these trait differences were associated with disruptions in autonomic regulation, specifically via the parasympathetic nervous system (measured through the square root of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals; RMSSD) both at rest and during a socioevaluative stress task (i...
May 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543218/the-time-course-of-indirect-moral-judgment-in-gossip-processing-modulated-by-different-agents
#16
Xiaozhe Peng, Can Jiao, Fang Cui, Qingfei Chen, Peng Li, Hong Li
Previous studies have investigated personal moral violations with different references (i.e., the protagonists in moral scenarios are the participants themselves or unknown other individuals). However, the roles of various agents in moral judgments have remained unclear. In the present study, ERPs were used to investigate moral judgments when the participants viewed gossip that described (im)moral behaviors committed by different agents (self, friend, celebrity). The results demonstrate that the P2 and late positive component (LPC) correspond to two successive processes of indirect moral judgment when individuals process gossip...
May 24, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497557/acquiring-research-grade-erps-on-a-shoestring-budget-a-comparison-of-a-modified-emotiv-and-commercial-synamps-eeg-system
#17
Michael P Barham, Gillian M Clark, Melissa J Hayden, Peter G Enticott, Russell Conduit, Jarrad A G Lum
This study compared the performance of a low-cost wireless EEG system to a research-grade EEG system on an auditory oddball task designed to elicit N200 and P300 ERP components. Participants were 15 healthy adults (6 female) aged between 19 and 40 (M = 28.56; SD = 6.38). An auditory oddball task was presented comprising 1,200 presentations of a standard tone interspersed by 300 trials comprising a deviant tone. EEG was simultaneously recorded from a modified Emotiv EPOC and a NeuroScan SynAmps RT EEG system...
May 12, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497544/inducing-unconscious-stress-cardiovascular-activity-in-response-to-subliminal-presentation-of-threatening-and-neutral-words
#18
Melanie M van der Ploeg, Jos F Brosschot, Bart Verkuil, Brandon L Gillie, DeWayne P Williams, Julian Koenig, Michael W Vasey, Julian F Thayer
Stress-related cognitive processes may occur outside of awareness, here referred to as unconscious stress, and affect one's physiological state. Evidence supporting this idea would provide necessary clarification of the relationship between psychological stress and cardiovascular (CV) health problems. We tested the hypothesis that increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) and decreases in heart rate variability (HRV) would be larger when threatening stimuli are presented outside of awareness, or subliminally, compared with neutral stimuli...
May 12, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481033/sympathetic-ans-modulation-of-pupil-diameter-in-emotional-scene-perception-effects-of-hedonic-content-brightness-and-contrast
#19
Margaret M Bradley, Rosemarie G Sapigao, Peter J Lang
A series of studies investigated the effects of hedonic content, brightness, and contrast on pupil diameter during free viewing of natural scenes, assessing the amplitude of the initial light reflex and subsequent sustained pupil diameter change. Hedonic picture content varied from highly arousing scenes of erotica and violence to scenes depicting nature, babies, loss, contamination, food, and more. Despite equivalent overall picture brightness and contrast, pupil diameter still varied as a function of the local brightness of central vision at fixation...
May 8, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481032/volitional-saccade-performance-in-a-large-sample-of-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-unaffected-first-degree-relatives
#20
Katharina Bey, Lisa Kloft, Leonhard Lennertz, Rosa Grützmann, Stephan Heinzel, Christian Kaufmann, Julia Klawohn, Anja Riesel, Inga Meyhöfer, Norbert Kathmann, Michael Wagner
Recent evidence indicates that patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as well as their unaffected first-degree relatives show deficits in the volitional control of saccades, suggesting that volitional saccade performance may constitute an endophenotype of OCD. Here, we aimed to replicate and extend these findings in a large, independent sample. One hundred and fifteen patients with OCD, 103 healthy comparison subjects without a family history of OCD, and 31 unaffected first-degree relatives of OCD patients were examined using structured clinical interviews and performed a volitional saccade task as well as a prosaccade task...
May 8, 2017: Psychophysiology
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