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Psychophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714186/the-pinocchio-effect-and-the-cold-stress-test-lies-and-thermography
#1
A Moliné, G Gálvez-García, J Fernández-Gómez, J De la Fuente, O Iborra, F Tornay, J L Mata Martín, M Puertollano, E Gómez Milán
We applied the use of thermography to cognitive neuropsychology, particularly as an objective marker of subjective experiences, in the context of lying. We conducted three experiments: (a) An important lie was invented by the participants in 3 min, and it was recounted by phone to a significant person while they were recorded by the thermographic camera, obtaining a face and hands map of the lie. (b) A similar methodology was carried out, but adding the Cold Stress Test (CST) of the dominant hand during the phone call, obtaining a second physiologic marker (the percentage of thermal recovery) to detect the lie...
July 17, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714081/combining-two-model-systems-of-psychosis-the-effects-of-schizotypy-and-sleep-deprivation-on-oculomotor-control-and-psychotomimetic-states
#2
Inga Meyhöfer, Maria Steffens, Eliana Faiola, Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, Veena Kumari, Ulrich Ettinger
Model systems of psychosis, such as schizotypy or sleep deprivation, are valuable in informing our understanding of the etiology of the disorder and aiding the development of new treatments. Schizophrenia patients, high schizotypes, and sleep-deprived subjects are known to share deficits in oculomotor biomarkers. Here, we aimed to further validate the schizotypy and sleep deprivation models and investigated, for the first time, their interactive effects on smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), prosaccades, antisaccades, predictive saccades, and measures of psychotomimetic states, anxiety, depression, and stress...
July 17, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700084/neural-responses-to-social-and-monetary-reward-in-early-adolescence-and-emerging-adulthood
#3
Paige Ethridge, Autumn Kujawa, Melanie A Dirks, Kodi B Arfer, Ellen M Kessel, Daniel N Klein, Anna Weinberg
Reward processing is often considered to be a monolithic construct, with different incentive types eliciting equivalent neural and behavioral responses. The majority of the literature on reward processing has used monetary incentives to elicit reward-related activity, yet social incentives may be particularly important due to their powerful ability to shape behavior. Findings from studies comparing social and monetary rewards have identified both overlapping and distinct responses. In order to explore whether reward processing is domain general or category specific (i...
July 12, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696536/an-emergency-call-system-for-patients-in-locked-in-state-using-an-ssvep-based-brain-switch
#4
Jeong-Hwan Lim, Yong-Wook Kim, Jun-Hak Lee, Kwang-Ok An, Han-Jeong Hwang, Ho-Seung Cha, Chang-Hee Han, Chang-Hwan Im
Patients in a locked-in state (LIS) due to severe neurological disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) require seamless emergency care by their caregivers or guardians. However, it is a difficult job for the guardians to continuously monitor the patients' state, especially when direct communication is not possible. In the present study, we developed an emergency call system for such patients using a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain switch. Although there have been previous studies to implement SSVEP-based brain switch system, they have not been applied to patients in LIS, and thus their clinical value has not been validated...
July 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675507/frontal-cortical-effects-on-feedback-processing-and-reinforcement-learning-relation-of-eeg-asymmetry-with-the-feedback-related-negativity-and-behavior
#5
Petra C Schmid, Leor M Hackel, Lee Jasperse, David M Amodio
Reinforcement learning refers to the acquisition of approach or avoidance action tendencies through repeated reward/nonreward feedback. Although much research on reinforcement learning has focused on the striatum, the prefrontal cortex likely modulates this process. Given prior research demonstrating a consistent pattern of lateralized frontal cortical activity in affective responses and approach/avoidance tendencies in the EEG literature, we aimed to elucidate the role of frontal EEG asymmetry in reinforcement learning...
July 4, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675491/electrocortical-components-of-anticipation-and-consumption-in-a-monetary-incentive-delay-task
#6
Douglas J Angus, Andrew J Latham, Eddie Harmon-Jones, Matthias Deliano, Bernard Balleine, David Braddon-Mitchell
In order to improve our understanding of the components that reflect functionally important processes during reward anticipation and consumption, we used principle components analyses (PCA) to separate and quantify averaged ERP data obtained from each stage of a modified monetary incentive delay (MID) task. Although a small number of recent ERP studies have reported that reward and loss cues potentiate ERPs during anticipation, action preparation, and consummatory stages of reward processing, these findings are inconsistent due to temporal and spatial overlap between the relevant electrophysiological components...
July 4, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675471/assessment-of-skin-conductance-in-african-american-and-non-african-american-participants-in-studies-of-conditioned-fear
#7
M Alexandra Kredlow, Suzanne L Pineles, Sabra S Inslicht, Marie-France Marin, Mohammed R Milad, Michael W Otto, Scott P Orr
Skin conductance (SC) is a psychophysiological measure of sympathetic nervous system activity that is commonly used in research to assess conditioned fear responses. A portion of individuals evidence very low or unmeasurable SC levels (SCL) and/or response (SCR) during fear conditioning, which precludes the use of their SC data. The reason that some individuals do not produce measurable SCL and/or SCR is not clear; some early research suggested that race may be an influencing factor. In the current article, archival data from five fear conditioning samples collected from four different laboratories were examined to explore SCL and SCR magnitude in African American (AA) and non-African American (non-AA) participants...
July 4, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675440/regulatory-behavior-and-frontal-activity-considering-the-role-of-revised-bis-in-relative-right-frontal-asymmetry
#8
Philip A Gable, Lauren B Neal, A Hunter Threadgill
Essential to human behavior are three core personality systems: approach, avoidance, and a regulatory system governing the two motivational systems. Decades of research has linked approach motivation with greater relative left frontal-cortical asymmetry. Other research has linked avoidance motivation with greater relative right frontal-cortical asymmetry. However, past work linking withdrawal motivation with greater relative right frontal asymmetry has been mixed. The current article reviews evidence suggesting that activation of the regulatory system (revised Behavioral Inhibition System [r-BIS]) may be more strongly related to greater relative right frontal asymmetry than withdrawal motivation...
July 4, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667705/effects-of-prior-mental-effort-on-picture-processing-an-erp-investigation
#9
Katie E Garrison, Adrienne L Crowell, Anna J Finley, Brandon J Schmeichel
The current study examined the aftereffects of mental effort on the processing of picture stimuli using neural measures. Ninety-seven healthy young adults were randomly assigned to exercise more versus less mental effort on a writing task. Then participants viewed positive, negative, and neutral affective images while P1, N1, P2, N2, P3, and late positive potential (LPP) magnitudes to the images were assessed. We found that performing the more (versus less) effortful writing task caused more negative N2 amplitudes to all images...
July 1, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667677/resting-heart-rate-guilt-and-sympathy-a-developmental-psychophysiological-study-of-physical-aggression
#10
Tyler Colasante, Tina Malti
Although low resting heart rate has been linked to frequent aggressive conduct in childhood, little is known about the interaction of this biological risk with social emotions that protect against aggression across development. With a sample of 5-, 8-, and 12-year-olds (N = 110), we tested whether the negative link between resting heart rate and physical aggression was offset by high guilt and sympathy. Caregivers reported their children's physical aggression and sympathy. Children's electrocardiogram data were collected while they viewed a nondescript video, after which they reported their guilt-or lack thereof-in response to vignettes depicting social transgressions...
July 1, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667690/sympathetic-and-parasympathetic-cardiac-responses-to-phobia-relevant-and-disgust-specific-emotion-provocation-in-blood-injection-injury-phobia-with-and-without-fainting-history
#11
Erica Simon, Alicia E Meuret, Thomas Ritz
The autonomic regulation in blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia has received particular attention due to the unique link between fear and fainting in this anxiety disorder. However, systematic exploration of sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity during exposure to phobia-relevant emotional stimuli has remained rare and inconclusive, including with regard to disgust, a frequent response to BII stimuli. Existing studies using respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as a noninvasive index of parasympathetic cardiac activity also have not accounted sufficiently for effects of respiration...
June 30, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649710/tracking-the-effect-of-emotional-distraction-in-working-memory-brain-networks-evidence-from-an-meg-study
#12
Javier García-Pacios, Pilar Garcés, David Del Río, Fernando Maestú
The active maintenance of information in visual working memory (WM) is known to rely on the sustained activity over functional networks including frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal cortices. Previous studies have described interference-based disturbances in the functional coupling between prefrontal and posterior cortices, and that such disturbances can be restored for a successful WM performance after the presentation of the interfering stimulus. However, very few studies have applied functional connectivity measures to the analysis of the brain dynamics involved in overriding emotional distraction, and all of them have limited their analysis to the particular connections between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex...
June 25, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621460/older-adults-display-diminished-error-processing-and-response-in-a-continuous-tracking-task
#13
Francisco L Colino, Harvey Howse, Angela Norton, Robert Trska, Anthony Pluta, Stephen J C Luehr, Todd C Handy, Olave E Krigolson
Advancing age is often accompanied by a decline in motor control that results in a decreased ability to successfully perform motor tasks. While there are multiple factors that contribute to age-related deficits in motor control, one unexplored possibility is that age-related deficits in our ability to evaluate motor output result in an increase in motor errors. In line with this, previous work from our laboratory demonstrated that motor errors evoked an error-related negativity (ERN)-a component of the human ERP associated with error evaluation originating within the human medial-frontal cortex...
June 16, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621433/stability-and-reliability-of-error-related-electromyography-over-the-corrugator-supercilii-with-increasing-trials
#14
Nathaniel Elkins-Brown, Blair Saunders, Frank He, Michael Inzlicht
Electromyographic activity over the corrugator supercilii (cEMG), the primary facial muscle involved in negative emotions, is increased during the commission of errors on speeded reaction-time tasks. In the present paper, data from two previously published studies were reanalyzed to investigate the reliability and stability of error-related, correct-related, and difference cEMG across increasing numbers of trials. For a modified go/no-go and a flanker task, we found that error-related cEMG was highly stable and reliable in 14 trials, and correct-related cEMG between 56 and 82 trials, respectively...
June 16, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617954/mind-the-movement-frontal-asymmetry-stands-for-behavioral-motivation-bilateral-frontal-activation-for-behavior
#15
Johannes Rodrigues, Mathias Müller, Andreas Mühlberger, Johannes Hewig
Frontal asymmetry has been investigated over the past 30 years, and several theories have been developed about its meaning. The original theory of Davidson and its diversification by Harmon-Jones & Allen allocated approach motivation to relative left frontal brain activity and withdrawal motivation to relative right frontal brain activity. Hewig and colleagues extended this theory by adding bilateral frontal activation representing a biological correlate of the behavioral activation system if actual behavior is shown...
June 15, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593652/pupil-size-as-a-measure-of-within-task-learning
#16
Cyrus K Foroughi, Ciara Sibley, Joseph T Coyne
Pupillometry is commonly used in research to determine how much mental effort an individual is exerting while completing tasks. Traditionally, larger pupils are associated with increased mental effort when completing more difficult tasks. However, little research has investigated how pupils change as individuals learn a new task. In theory, as one repeatedly completes a task, the task demands should reduce, reliance on working memory should decrease, and the task should become more automatic. This should translate to faster completion times and smaller peak pupil dilations...
June 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580702/evidence-for-an-attentional-component-of-inhibition-of-return-in-visual-search
#17
Allison M Pierce, Monique D Crouse, Jessica J Green
Inhibition of return (IOR) is typically described as an inhibitory bias against returning attention to a recently attended location as a means of promoting efficient visual search. Most studies examining IOR, however, either do not use visual search paradigms or do not effectively isolate attentional processes, making it difficult to conclusively link IOR to a bias in attention. Here, we recorded ERPs during a simple visual search task designed to isolate the attentional component of IOR to examine whether an inhibitory bias of attention is observed and, if so, how it influences visual search behavior...
June 5, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580687/theta-and-delta-band-eeg-network-dynamics-during-a-novelty-oddball-task
#18
Jeremy Harper, Stephen M Malone, William G Iacono
While the P3 component during target detection and novelty processing has been widely studied, less is known about its underlying network dynamics. A recent cognitive model suggests that frontal-parietal and frontal-temporal interregional connectivity are related to attention/action selection and target-related memory updating during the P3, respectively, but empirical work testing this model is lacking. Other work suggests the importance of theta- and delta-band connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and distributed cortical regions during attention, stimulus detection, and response selection processes, and similar dynamics may underlie P3-related network connectivity...
June 5, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580638/emotional-reactivity-and-regulation-in-individuals-with-psychopathic-traits-evidence-for-a-disconnect-between-neurophysiology-and-self-report
#19
Jennifer D Ellis, Hans S Schroder, Christopher J Patrick, Jason S Moser
Individuals with psychopathic traits often demonstrate blunted reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. However, it is not yet clear whether these individuals also have difficulty regulating their emotional responses to negative stimuli. To address this question, participants with varying levels of psychopathic traits (indexed by the Triarchic Measure of Psychopathy; Patrick, 2010) completed a task in which they passively viewed, increased, or decreased their emotions to negative picture stimuli while electrocortical activity was recorded...
June 5, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580599/the-two-faces-of-avoidance-time-frequency-correlates-of-motivational-disposition-in-blood-phobia
#20
Rocco Mennella, Michela Sarlo, Simone Messerotti Benvenuti, Giulia Buodo, Giovanni Mento, Daniela Palomba
Contrary to other phobias, individuals with blood phobia do not show a clear-cut withdrawal disposition from the feared stimulus. The study of response inhibition provides insights into reduced action disposition in blood phobia. Twenty individuals with and 20 without blood phobia completed an emotional go/no-go task including phobia-related pictures, as well as phobia-unrelated unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant stimuli. Behavioral results did not indicate a phobia-specific reduced action disposition in the phobic group...
June 5, 2017: Psychophysiology
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