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Gábor Csifcsák, Viktória Roxána Balla, Vera Daniella Dalos, Tünde Kilencz, Edit Magdolna Biró, Gábor Urbán, Szilvia Szalóki
This study investigated the influence of action-associated predictive processes on visual ERPs. In two experiments, we sought evidence for sensory attenuation (SA) indexed by ERP amplitude reductions for self-induced stimuli when compared to passive viewing of the same images. We assessed if SA is (a) present for both ecological and abstract stimuli (pictures depicting hands or checkerboards), (b) modulated by the degree of stimulus predictability (certain or uncertain action-effect contingencies), and (c) sensitive to laterality of hand movements (dominant or subdominant hand actions)...
September 19, 2018: Psychophysiology
Kristina Suchotzki, Matthias Gamer
In forensic contexts, lying is often motivated by the will to avoid negative consequences (e.g., an arrest). Previous research investigating the effect of motivation on deception has, however, nearly exclusively focused on the effect of positive motivation (e.g., via financial rewards). In the current study, we aimed to replicate previous studies on the behavioral and autonomic correlates of deception and to investigate the influence of negative motivation on those correlates. Participants committed a mock theft and underwent a questioning procedure in which they had to truthfully and deceptively answer questions about the committed mock crime and a control crime...
September 5, 2018: Psychophysiology
Kenneth Vilhelmsen, Seth B Agyei, F R Ruud van der Weel, Audrey L H van der Meer
A high-density EEG study was carried out to investigate cortical activity in response to forward and backward visual motion at two different driving speeds, simulated through optic flow. Participants were prelocomotor infants at the age of 4-5 months and infants with at least 3 weeks of crawling experience at the age of 8-11 months, and adults. Adults displayed shorter N2 latencies in response to forward as opposed to backward visual motion and differentiated significantly between low and high speeds, with shorter latencies for low speeds...
September 2, 2018: Psychophysiology
Dominik R Bach, Giuseppe Castegnetti, Christoph W Korn, Samuel Gerster, Filip Melinscak, Tobias Moser
Psychologists often use peripheral physiological measures to infer a psychological variable. It is desirable to make this inverse inference in the most precise way, ideally standardized across research laboratories. In recent years, psychophysiological modeling has emerged as a method that rests on statistical techniques to invert mathematically formulated forward models (psychophysiological models, PsPMs). These PsPMs are based on psychophysiological knowledge and optimized with respect to the precision of the inference...
September 2, 2018: Psychophysiology
Don C Fowles, Adrian Raine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2018: Psychophysiology
Gavin P Trotman, Peter J Gianaros, Jet J C S Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Sarah E Williams, Annie T Ginty
Exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to acute psychological stress is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The amygdala and hippocampus have been implicated in centrally mediating stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity. However, little is known about the associations of amygdala and hippocampus morphology with stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity. Forty (Mage = 19.05, SD = 0.22 years) healthy young women completed two separate testing sessions. Session 1 assessed multiple parameters of cardiovascular physiology at rest and during a validated psychological stress task (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test), using electrocardiography, Doppler echocardiography, and blood pressure monitoring...
August 22, 2018: Psychophysiology
Dana van Son, Angelos Angelidis, Muriel A Hagenaars, Willem van der Does, Peter Putman
Frontal EEG theta/beta ratio (TBR; negatively associated with attentional control, or AC) was previously reported to moderate threat-level dependent attentional bias in a pictorial dot-probe task, interacting with trait anxiety. Unexpectedly, this was independent from processing stage (using cue-target delays of 200 and 500 ms) and also not observed for self-reported trait AC. We therefore aimed to replicate these effects of TBR and trait anxiety and to test if effects of early versus late processing stages are evident for shorter cue-target delays...
August 22, 2018: Psychophysiology
Danielle S Dickson, Vanessa R Cerda, Rosemary N Beavers, Andres Ruiz, Ricardo Castañeda, Nicole Y Y Wicha
Arithmetic problems share many surface-level features with typical sentences. They assert information about the world, and readers can evaluate this information for sensibility by consulting their memories as the statement unfolds. When people encounter the solution to the problem 3 × 4, the brain elicits a robust ERP effect as a function of answer expectancy (12 being the expected completion; 15 being unexpected). Initially, this was labeled an N400 effect, implying that semantic memory had been accessed...
August 22, 2018: Psychophysiology
Nicholas D Thomson, Michel Aboutanos, Kent A Kiehl, Craig Neumann, Carla Galusha, Kostas A Fanti
Despite the longstanding discussion around the link between psychopathy and fearlessness, few studies have explicitly tested this association, and results have been mixed. This may be due, in part, to the lack of specificity in fear assessment. Further, the relation between psychopathy and fear may be better understood using the two-factor model because, in theory, fear has opposing associations with interpersonal-affective (Factor 1) and impulsive-antisocial (Factor 2) traits. The present study aimed to test if the two factors of psychopathy are deferentially related to fear reactivity...
August 21, 2018: Psychophysiology
Guanlan Kang, Wenshuo Chang, Lihui Wang, Ping Wei, Xiaolin Zhou
Cross-modal conflict arises when information from different sensory modalities are incompatible with each other. Such conflict may influence the processing of stimuli in the task-relevant modality and call for cognitive control to resolve this conflict. Here, we investigate how reward modulates cross-modal conflict control during object categorization. Participants categorized pictures as representing animate or inanimate objects while ignoring auditory stimuli. We manipulated the audiovisual congruency and performance-dependent reward (reward vs...
August 21, 2018: Psychophysiology
Stijn A A Massar, Karen Sasmita, Julian Lim, Michael W L Chee
Temporal expectations aid performance by allowing the optimization of attentional readiness at moment of highest target probability. Reward enhances cognitive performance through its action on preparatory and reactive attentional processes. To elucidate how motivation interacts with mechanisms of implicit temporal attention, we studied healthy young adult participants (N = 73) performing a sustained attention task with simultaneous pupillometric recording, under different reward conditions (baseline: 0 c; reward: 10 c/fast response)...
August 17, 2018: Psychophysiology
Valeria Bekhtereva, Ricarda Pritschmann, Andreas Keil, Matthias M Müller
The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), a neural signature of attentional resource allocation, is enhanced for affective compared to neutral visual scenes. Recently, it has been demonstrated that modulation of early visual cortex associated with viewing of unpleasant scenes presented in a rapid succession relies on emotional content extraction from each individual image shown in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) at 6 Hz (~167 ms per image). Against expectations, the SSVEP was reduced when viewing visual streams of unpleasant compared to neutral scenes...
August 15, 2018: Psychophysiology
Manja Bernsdorf, Lars Schwabe
Within the first 30-45 min after awakening, there is a characteristic rise in cortisol that is referred to as cortisol awakening response (CAR). Over the past decades, the CAR has become an important biomarker, mainly because of its reported association with health and disease. Previous research showed that the CAR can already be reliably assessed in infants and children. Yet, earlier findings on the influence of age have been inconsistent, and limited attention has been devoted to prepubertal children. Here, we aimed to contrast the magnitude and stability of the CAR in prepubertal children and adults...
August 13, 2018: Psychophysiology
Christelle Gansonre, Andreas Højlund, Alina Leminen, Christopher Bailey, Yury Shtyrov
While previous studies on language processing highlighted several ERP components in relation to specific stages of sound and speech processing, no study has yet combined them to obtain a comprehensive picture of language abilities in a single session. Here, we propose a novel task-free paradigm aimed at assessing multiple levels of speech processing by combining various speech and nonspeech sounds in an adaptation of a multifeature passive oddball design. We recorded EEG in healthy adult participants, who were presented with these sounds in the absence of sound-directed attention while being engaged in a primary visual task...
August 13, 2018: Psychophysiology
Mohammed Shaheen, Lena Schindler, Rotem Saar-Ashkenazy, Kifah Bani Odeh, Hermona Soreq, Alon Friedman, Clemens Kirschbaum
Violent conflicts are severe traumatic stressors with detrimental effects on physical and mental health, with children and adolescents being particularly at risk. For the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, characteristic patterns of dysregulation in trauma-exposed individuals have been shown. This study set out to investigate self-reported mental well-being in Palestinian adolescents growing up during the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) as a psychoendocrine marker for long-term HPA axis aberrations along with the potential protective factor sense of coherence (SoC; i...
August 13, 2018: Psychophysiology
S Benavides-Varela, S Basso Moro, S Brigadoi, F Meconi, M Doro, F Simion, P Sessa, S Cutini, R Dell'Acqua
Humans share with a variety of animal species the spontaneous ability to detect the numerical correspondence between limited quantities of visual objects and discrete auditory events. Here, we explored how such mental representation is generated in the visual modality by monitoring a parieto-occipital ERP component, N2pc, whose amplitude covaries with the number of visual targets in explicit enumeration. Participants listened to an auditory sequence of one to three tones followed by a visual search display containing one to three targets...
August 10, 2018: Psychophysiology
Noam Tal, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
Saccades constitute a major source of artifacts and confounds in brain imaging studies. Whereas some artifacts can be removed by omitting segments of data, saccadic artifacts cannot be typically eliminated by this method because of their high occurrence rate even during fixation (1-3 per second). Some saccadic artifacts can be alleviated by offline-correction algorithms, but these methods leave nonnegligible residuals and cannot mitigate the saccade-related visual activity. Here, we propose a novel yet simple approach for diminishing saccadic artifacts and confounds through experimental design...
August 10, 2018: Psychophysiology
Alexandra R Tabachnick, Emilio A Valadez, Erin N Palmwood, Lindsay Zajac, Robert F Simons, Mary Dozier
Early adversity such as maltreatment is associated with increased risk for psychopathology and atypical neurological development in children. The present study examined associations between depressive symptoms and error-related brain activity (the error-related negativity, or ERN) among children involved with Child Protective Services (CPS) and among comparison children. Results indicate that the relation between depressive symptoms and ERN amplitude depends on CPS involvement, such that depressive symptoms were associated with blunted ERNs only for CPS-referred children...
August 10, 2018: Psychophysiology
Qi Li, Jing Xu, Weiran Chen, Zhen Mu, Tong An, Ya Zheng
The stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) is a reliable index of incentive anticipation. However, it remains controversial whether the anticipatory process indexed by the SPN is modulated by incentive valence. The present study investigated the effect of valence on the SPN in a gambling task that required participants to make a binary (gain vs. loss) prediction after their choice on trials with different reward probabilities. Behaviorally, the participants exhibited a positive bias in their prediction. Electrophysiologically, a valence asymmetry was observed for the SPN...
August 2, 2018: Psychophysiology
Alfons O Hamm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2018: Psychophysiology
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