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Psychophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098351/the-elicitation-of-steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials-during-sleep
#1
James J S Norton, Stephen Umunna, Timothy Bretl
This study confirmed the hypothesis that it is possible to elicit SSVEPs through closed eyelids during NREM sleep. To test this hypothesis, SSVEP amplitudes were measured in eight subjects across two conditions of stimulation (stimulation on and stimulation off) and three brain states (waking, light sleep, and deep sleep). Results showed a significant interaction between stimulation and brain state. In particular, EEG activity at the frequency of stimulation was higher during both light sleep and deep sleep in the stimulation on condition than in the stimulation off condition...
January 18, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072462/reliability-of-the-electrocortical-response-to-gains-and-losses-in-the-doors-task
#2
Amanda R Levinson, Brittany C Speed, Zachary P Infantolino, Greg Hajcak
The ability to differentiate between rewards and losses is critical for motivated action, and aberrant reward and loss processing has been associated with psychopathology. The reward positivity (RewP) and feedback negativity (FN) are ERPs elicited by monetary gains and losses, respectively, and are promising individual difference measures. However, few studies have reported on the psychometric properties of the RewP and FN-crucial characteristics necessary for valid individual difference measures. The current study examined the internal consistency and 1-week test-retest reliability of the RewP and FN as elicited by the doors task among 59 young adults...
January 10, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072452/what-our-eyes-tell-us-about-feelings-tracking-pupillary-responses-during-emotion-regulation-processes
#3
Valerie L Kinner, Lars Kuchinke, Angelika M Dierolf, Christian J Merz, Tobias Otto, Oliver T Wolf
Emotion regulation is essential for adaptive behavior and mental health. Strategies applied to alter emotions are known to differ in their impact on psychological and physiological aspects of the emotional response. However, emotion regulation outcome has primarily been assessed via self-report, and studies comparing regulation strategies with regard to their peripheral physiological mechanisms are limited in number. In the present study, we therefore aimed to investigate the effects of different emotion regulation strategies on pupil dilation, skin conductance responses, and subjective emotional responses...
January 10, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072451/the-impact-of-salience-and-visual-working-memory-on-the-monitoring-and-control-of-saccadic-behavior-an-eye-tracking-and-eeg-study
#4
Matthew D Weaver, Clayton Hickey, Wieske van Zoest
In a concurrent eye-tracking and EEG study, we investigated the impact of salience on the monitoring and control of eye movement behavior and the role of visual working memory (VWM) capacity in mediating this effect. Participants made eye movements to a unique line-segment target embedded in a search display also containing a unique distractor. Target and distractor salience was manipulated by varying degree of orientation offset from a homogenous background. VWM capacity was measured using a change-detection task...
January 10, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039922/the-p3-cognitive-erp-has-at-least-some-sensory-modality-specific-generators-evidence-from-high-resolution-eeg
#5
Jurij Dreo, Daniel Attia, Zvezdan Pirtošek, Grega Repovš
The P3 can arguably be named the most intensely studied ERP. In spite of more than 40 years of research, fundamental questions regarding the nature of its neural generators remain unresolved. While most studies conclude that the P3 is a true classical "endogenous" potential, and that its surface potential distribution remains constant across sensory modalities, these results are largely based on low-density EEG recordings, without the use of high-resolution methods such as the spherical spline Laplacian (SSL)...
December 31, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039869/effects-of-implicit-theories-of-ability-and-stereotype-inconsistent-information-on-handgrip-strength-in-older-adults-a-regulatory-fit-perspective
#6
Mélanie Emile, Aina Chalabaev, Serge S Colson, Jerome Vaulerin, Charlene Falzon, Fabienne D'Arripe-Longueville
This study examined whether stereotype-inconsistent information interacts with implicit theories of ability to affect handgrip strength in older adults. Eighty-two retired older adults (13 men and 69 women) from 61 to 89 years old (Mage = 75.8 years; SD = 6.9) performed maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) during a handgrip task in a design manipulating implicit theories of ability and stereotype-inconsistent information related to physical decline with aging. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: incremental condition, entity condition, or control group...
December 31, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039860/a-right-ear-bias-of-auditory-selective-attention-is-evident-in-alpha-oscillations
#7
Lisa Payne, Chad S Rogers, Arthur Wingfield, Robert Sekuler
Auditory selective attention makes it possible to pick out one speech stream that is embedded in a multispeaker environment. We adapted a cued dichotic listening task to examine suppression of a speech stream lateralized to the nonattended ear, and to evaluate the effects of attention on the right ear's well-known advantage in the perception of linguistic stimuli. After being cued to attend to input from either their left or right ear, participants heard two different four-word streams presented simultaneously to the separate ears...
December 31, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039856/an-automatic-classifier-of-emotions-built-from-entropy-of-noise
#8
Jacqueline Ferreira, Susana Brás, Carlos F Silva, Sandra C Soares
The electrocardiogram (ECG) signal has been widely used to study the physiological substrates of emotion. However, searching for better filtering techniques in order to obtain a signal with better quality and with the maximum relevant information remains an important issue for researchers in this field. Signal processing is largely performed for ECG analysis and interpretation, but this process can be susceptible to error in the delineation phase. In addition, it can lead to the loss of important information that is usually considered as noise and, consequently, discarded from the analysis...
December 31, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026876/variability-of-ica-decomposition-may-impact-eeg-signals-when-used-to-remove-eyeblink-artifacts
#9
Matthew B Pontifex, Kathryn L Gwizdala, Andrew C Parks, Martin Billinger, Clemens Brunner
Despite the growing use of independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms for isolating and removing eyeblink-related activity from EEG data, we have limited understanding of how variability associated with ICA uncertainty may be influencing the reconstructed EEG signal after removing the eyeblink artifact components. To characterize the magnitude of this ICA uncertainty and to understand the extent to which it may influence findings within ERP and EEG investigations, ICA decompositions of EEG data from 32 college-aged young adults were repeated 30 times for three popular ICA algorithms...
December 27, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026867/heart-rate-health-and-hurtful-behavior
#10
J Richard Jennings, Dustin A Pardini, Karen A Matthews
Hostility is a risk factor for cardiovascular events. When challenged, individuals high on hostility exhibit a hyperreactive psychophysiological response to stressors, thereby increasing risk for developing cardiovascular disease. However, low resting heart rate (HR) is associated with physical aggression and hostility in children, adolescents, and adults. Based on a community sample of 296 men (mean age = 32.0), we (a) address whether aggression/hostility relates to physical health through relationships with cardiovascular levels at rest and in response to stressors, and (b) determine how relations between aggression and health are altered by including psychophysiological indices in statistical models...
December 27, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026863/early-and-late-brain-signatures-of-emotional-prosody-among-individuals-with-high-versus-low-power
#11
Silke Paulmann, Ayse K Uskul
Using ERPs, we explored the relationship between social power and emotional prosody processing. In particular, we investigated differences at early and late processing stages between individuals primed with high or low power. Comparable to previously published findings from nonprimed participants, individuals primed with low power displayed differentially modulated P2 amplitudes in response to different emotional prosodies, whereas participants primed with high power failed to do so. Similarly, participants primed with low power showed differentially modulated amplitudes in response to different emotional prosodies at a later processing stage (late ERP component), whereas participants primed with high power did not...
December 27, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000290/comparison-between-the-ac-and-dc-measurement-of-electrodermal-activity
#12
Oliver Pabst, Christian Tronstad, Sverre Grimnes, Don Fowles, Ørjan G Martinsen
Recording electrodermal activity is a well-accepted physiological measurement for clinical approaches and research. Historically, applying a DC (direct current) signal to the skin to measure the conductance is the most common practice for exogenous recordings. However, this method can be subject to error due to electrode polarization even with "nonpolarizing" electrodes-a problem that can be eliminated with alternating current (AC) methodology. For that reason, Boucsein et al. () called for research demonstrating an AC method that is validated by comparison to standard DC methodology...
December 21, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000236/optimism-moderates-psychophysiological-responses-to-stress-in-older-people-with-type-2-diabetes
#13
S Puig-Perez, R A Hackett, A Salvador, A Steptoe
Optimism is thought to be beneficial for health, and these effects may be mediated through modifications in psychophysiological stress reactivity. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with reduced cardiovascular responses to stress and heightened cortisol over the day. This study assessed the relationships between optimism, stress responsivity, and daily cortisol output in people with T2D. A total of 140 participants with T2D were exposed to laboratory stress. Heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and cortisol were measured throughout the session...
December 21, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990660/competition-for-attentional-resources-between-low-spatial-frequency-content-of-emotional-images-and-a-foreground-task-in-early-visual-cortex
#14
Matthias M Müller, Christopher Gundlach
Low spatial frequency (LSF) image content has been proposed to play a superior functional role in emotional content extraction via the magnocellular pathway biasing attentional resources toward emotional content in visual cortex. We investigated whether emotionally unpleasant complex images that were presented either unfiltered or with LSF content only in the background while subjects performed a foreground task will withdraw more attentional resources from the task compared to unemotional, neutral images (distraction paradigm)...
December 19, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933608/assessing-fear-learning-via-conditioned-respiratory-amplitude-responses
#15
Giuseppe Castegnetti, Athina Tzovara, Matthias Staib, Samuel Gerster, Dominik R Bach
Respiratory physiology is influenced by cognitive processes. It has been suggested that some cognitive states may be inferred from respiration amplitude responses (RAR) after external events. Here, we investigate whether RAR allow assessment of fear memory in cued fear conditioning, an experimental model of aversive learning. To this end, we built on a previously developed psychophysiological model (PsPM) of RAR, which regards interpolated RAR time series as the output of a linear time invariant system. We first establish that average RAR after CS+ and CS- are different...
December 8, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925664/bootstrapping-the-p300-in-diagnostic-psychophysiology-how-many-iterations-are-needed
#16
J Peter Rosenfeld, Anne Ward, Ewout H Meijer, Denis Yukhnenko
In psychophysiological research, bootstrapping procedures are often used to classify individual participants. How many iterations are required for a reliable bootstrap test is not universally agreed upon. To investigate the number of iterations needed for a stable bootstrap estimate, we reanalyzed P300 data collected in concealed information test paradigms. We also distinguished between the bootstrap and permutations approaches. We compared results in several studies using 100 versus 1,000 versus 10,000 iterations in the bootstrap, and we concluded that 100 iterations were adequate as results from all three iteration numbers correlated highly...
December 7, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925652/inclusion-of-a-rest-period-in-diaphragmatic-breathing-increases-high-frequency-heart-rate-variability-implications-for-behavioral-therapy
#17
Matthew E B Russell, April B Scott, Ian A Boggero, Charles R Carlson
Heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with positive physiological and psychological effects. HRV is affected by breathing parameters, yet debate remains regarding the best breathing interventions for strengthening HRV. The objective of the current study was to test whether the inclusion of a postexhalation rest period was effective at increasing HRV, while controlling for breathing rate. A within-subject crossover design was used with 40 participants who were assigned randomly to a breathing pattern including a postexhalation rest period or a breathing pattern that omitted the postexhalation rest period...
December 7, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925650/a-pupil-size-response-model-to-assess-fear-learning
#18
Christoph W Korn, Matthias Staib, Athina Tzovara, Giuseppe Castegnetti, Dominik R Bach
During fear conditioning, pupil size responses dissociate between conditioned stimuli that are contingently paired (CS+) with an aversive unconditioned stimulus, and those that are unpaired (CS-). Current approaches to assess fear learning from pupil responses rely on ad hoc specifications. Here, we sought to develop a psychophysiological model (PsPM) in which pupil responses are characterized by response functions within the framework of a linear time-invariant system. This PsPM can be written as a general linear model, which is inverted to yield amplitude estimates of the eliciting process in the central nervous system...
December 7, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925645/taking-time-to-feel-our-body-steady-increases-in-heartbeat-perception-accuracy-and-decreases-in-alexithymia-over-9-months-of-contemplative-mental-training
#19
Boris Bornemann, Tania Singer
The ability to accurately perceive signals from the body has been shown to be important for physical and psychological health as well as understanding one's emotions. Despite the importance of this skill, often indexed by heartbeat perception accuracy (HBPa), little is known about its malleability. Here, we investigated whether contemplative mental practice can increase HBPa. In the context of a 9-month mental training study, the ReSource Project, two matched cohorts (n = 77 and n = 79) underwent three training modules of 3 months' duration that targeted attentional and interoceptive abilities (Presence module), socio-affective (Affect module), and socio-cognitive (Perspective module) abilities...
December 7, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914174/mathematical-detection-of-aortic-valve-opening-b-point-in-impedance-cardiography-a-comparison-of-three-popular-algorithms
#20
Javier Rodríguez Árbol, Pandelis Perakakis, Alba Garrido, José Luis Mata, M Carmen Fernández-Santaella, Jaime Vila
The preejection period (PEP) is an index of left ventricle contractility widely used in psychophysiological research. Its computation requires detecting the moment when the aortic valve opens, which coincides with the B point in the first derivative of impedance cardiogram (ICG). Although this operation has been traditionally made via visual inspection, several algorithms based on derivative calculations have been developed to enable an automatic performance of the task. However, despite their popularity, data about their empirical validation are not always available...
December 3, 2016: Psychophysiology
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