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Psychophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337347/a-latent-state-trait-analysis-of-interoceptive-accuracy
#1
Martin F Wittkamp, Katja Bertsch, Claus Vögele, André Schulz
Interoceptive accuracy (IAc), that is, the ability to accurately perceive one's own bodily signals, is widely assumed to be a trait, although experimental manipulations such as stress may affect IAc. We used structural equation modeling to estimate the reliability of IAc, and the proportions of individual differences in IAc, explained by a trait and occasion-specific effects of situation and person-situation interactions. We assessed IAc in 59 healthy participants (40 women, MAge  = 23.4 years) on three consecutive measurement occasions, approximately 1 week apart, in a rest and poststress condition, using a heartbeat counting and a heartbeat discrimination task...
January 16, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315630/my-mistake-enhanced-error-processing-for-commanded-compared-to-passively-observed-actions
#2
Lisa Weller, Katharina A Schwarz, Wilfried Kunde, Roland Pfister
We often ask other people to carry out actions for us in order to reach our goals. However, these commanded actions may sometimes go awry, and goal attainment is hindered by errors of the following person. Here, we investigated how the commanding person processes these errors of their follower. Because such errors indicate that the original goal of the command is not met, error processing for these actions should be enhanced compared to passively observing another person's actions. Participants thus either commanded another agent to perform one of four key press responses or they passively observed the agent responding...
January 8, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315628/manipulating-the-focus-of-attention-in-working-memory-evidence-for-a-protection-of-multiple-items-against-perceptual-interference
#3
Anna Barth, Daniel Schneider
Visual working memory representations can be shielded from interference by selective attentional focusing using retroactive cues (retro-cues). However, it is not clear how many representations can be effectively cued and which neural mechanisms provide the protection from distractors. To address these questions, we manipulated the number of attended items by means of a retro-cue (one, two, or three items) and presented a distractor display during the retention of information in working memory. Analyses of the raw error and a mixture model revealed that a general performance benefit was only present when one item was retro-cued...
January 8, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315621/directly-assessing-interpersonal-rsa-influences-in-the-frequency-domain-an-illustration-with-generalized-partial-directed-coherence
#4
Siwei Liu, Kathleen M Gates, Alysia Y Blandon
Despite recent research indicating that interpersonal linkage in physiology is a common phenomenon during social interactions, and the well-established role of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in socially facilitative physiological regulation, little research has directly examined interpersonal influences in RSA, perhaps due to methodological challenges in analyzing multivariate RSA data. In this article, we aim to bridge this methodological gap by introducing a new method for quantifying interpersonal RSA influences...
January 8, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315615/preparing-for-saliencies-emotional-expectations-under-probabilistically-and-aversively-salient-situations
#5
Mio Kamei, Yasunori Kotani, Haruo Sakuma
In humans, the expectation process in decision making has not been as thoroughly investigated as the evaluation process. The present study focused on the interaction between probabilistic saliency and motivational saliency during expectation and evaluation periods using stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) and reward positivity (RewP). Twenty healthy participants performed a modified monetary-incentive delay task under reward-approach and punishment-avoidance conditions. Each condition was characterized by the likely outcome (reward only, punishment only) to manipulate motivational saliency...
January 8, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314050/what-does-the-dot-probe-task-measure-a-reverse-correlation-analysis-of-electrocortical-activity
#6
Nina N Thigpen, L Forest Gruss, Steven Garcia, David R Herring, Andreas Keil
The dot-probe task is considered a gold standard for assessing the intrinsic attentive selection of one of two lateralized visual cues, measured by the response time to a subsequent, lateralized response probe. However, this task has recently been associated with poor reliability and conflicting results. To resolve these discrepancies, we tested the underlying assumption of the dot-probe task-that fast probe responses index heightened cue selection-using an electrophysiological measure of selective attention...
January 3, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29292837/reference-values-for-short-term-resting-state-heart-rate-variability-in-healthy-adults-results-from-the-brazilian-longitudinal-study-of-adult-health-elsa-brasil-study
#7
Eduardo Miranda Dantas, Andrew Haddon Kemp, Rodrigo Varejão Andreão, Valdo José Dias da Silva, André Russowsky Brunoni, Rosangela Akemi Hoshi, Isabela Martins Bensenor, Paulo Andrade Lotufo, Antonio Luiz Pinho Ribeiro, José Geraldo Mill
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a psychophysiological phenomenon with broad implications, providing an accessible index of vagal function, underpinning psychological constructs, including the capacity for social engagement and emotion regulation, and may predict future morbidity and mortality. However, the lack of reference values for short-term HRV indices for participants of both sexes across the age spectrum is a limiting factor. This was the objective of the present study. Resting electrocardiographic records were obtained from 13,214 participants (both sexes, 35-74 years), and HRV indices in time and frequency domains (mean ± SD) were determined from 5-min records...
January 2, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266253/emotional-imagery-and-pupil-diameter
#8
Robert R Henderson, Margaret M Bradley, Peter J Lang
Pupil diameter is enhanced in a variety of emotional contexts, including viewing pictures, listening to sounds, and during threat of shock. In this study, we investigated pupil diameter changes during emotional imagery. Participants imagined scenes describing pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral events while pupil diameter was continuously recorded. Second by second changes in pupil diameter were analyzed to determine whether, and when, modulation of the pupil as a function of hedonic content is found. Results indicated a significant effect of hedonic content beginning shortly after script onset, with enhanced pupil diameter when imagining emotional (pleasant or unpleasant), compared to neutral, scenes...
December 21, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266532/event-related-potentials-of-attentional-bias-toward-faces-in-the-dot-probe-task-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Robert D Torrence, Lucy J Troup
The dot-probe task is a common task to assess attentional bias toward different stimuli and how groups differ (e.g., attentional bias in anxiety disorders). However, measuring reaction time has been suggested to be unreliable. Neuroimaging methods such as fMRI were shown to be more reliable in assessing attentional bias, but fMRI has poor temporal resolution and therefore cannot assess timing of attention. ERPs have been used to examine the time course of attentional bias. Although ERP research may be more reliable than reaction time, there have been inconsistencies in the literature...
December 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266338/erp-correlates-of-processing-the-auditory-consequences-of-own-versus-observed-actions
#10
Marta Ghio, Katrin Scharmach, Christian Bellebaum
Research has so far focused on neural mechanisms that allow us to predict the sensory consequences of our own actions, thus also contributing to ascribing them to ourselves as agents. Less attention has been devoted to processing the sensory consequences of observed actions ascribed to another human agent. Focusing on audition, there is consistent evidence of a reduction of the auditory N1 ERP for self- versus externally generated sounds, while ERP correlates of processing sensory consequences of observed actions are mainly unexplored...
December 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266241/how-many-trials-does-it-take-to-get-a-significant-erp-effect-it-depends
#11
Megan A Boudewyn, Steven J Luck, Jaclyn L Farrens, Emily S Kappenman
In designing an ERP study, researchers must choose how many trials to include, balancing the desire to maximize statistical power and the need to minimize the length of the recording session. Recent studies have attempted to quantify the minimum number of trials needed to obtain reliable measures for a variety of ERP components. However, these studies have largely ignored other variables that affect statistical power in ERP studies, including sample size and effect magnitude. The goal of the present study was to determine whether and how the number of trials, number of participants, and effect magnitude interact to influence statistical power, thus providing a better guide for selecting an appropriate number of trials...
December 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239478/the-effect-of-emotionally-valenced-eye-region-images-on-visuocortical-processing-of-surprised-faces
#12
Shuaixia Li, Ping Li, Wei Wang, Xiangru Zhu, Wenbo Luo
In this study, we presented pictorial representations of happy, neutral, and fearful expressions projected in the eye regions to determine whether the eye region alone is sufficient to produce a context effect. Participants were asked to judge the valence of surprised faces that had been preceded by a picture of an eye region. Behavioral results showed that affective ratings of surprised faces were context dependent. Prime-related ERPs with presentation of happy eyes elicited a larger P1 than those for neutral and fearful eyes, likely due to the recognition advantage provided by a happy expression...
December 14, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238990/associations-between-developmental-changes-in-error-related-brain-activity-and-executive-functions-in-early-childhood
#13
Jennie K Grammer, William J Gehring, Frederick J Morrison
Behavioral evidence indicates that skills associated with children's cognitive control (e.g., response inhibition and attentional control) undergo rapid development during early childhood. A particularly important time is the transition to elementary school. Yet, at present, relatively little is known about developmental changes in the brain processes linked to cognitive control during this period, including those associated with error monitoring, including the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error positivity (Pe)...
December 14, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226966/using-trial-level-data-and-multilevel-modeling-to-investigate-within-task-change-in-event-related-potentials
#14
Hannah I Volpert-Esmond, Edgar C Merkle, Meredith P Levsen, Tiffany A Ito, Bruce D Bartholow
EEG data, and specifically the ERP, provide psychologists with the power to examine quickly occurring cognitive processes at the native temporal resolution at which they occur. Despite the advantages conferred by ERPs to examine processes at different points in time, ERP researchers commonly ignore the trial-to-trial temporal dimension by collapsing across trials of similar types (i.e., the signal averaging approach) because of constraints imposed by repeated measures ANOVA. Here, we present the advantages of using multilevel modeling (MLM) to examine trial-level data to investigate change in neurocognitive processes across the course of an experiment...
December 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226965/brain-reflections-a-circuit-based-framework-for-understanding-information-processing-and-cognitive-control
#15
Gabriele Gratton
Here, I propose a view of the architecture of the human information processing system, and of how it can be adapted to changing task demands (which is the hallmark of cognitive control). This view is informed by an interpretation of brain activity as reflecting the excitability level of neural representations, encoding not only stimuli and temporal contexts, but also action plans and task goals. The proposed cognitive architecture includes three types of circuits: open circuits, involved in feed-forward processing such as that connecting stimuli with responses and characterized by brief, transient brain activity; and two types of closed circuits, positive feedback circuits (characterized by sustained, high-frequency oscillatory activity), which help select and maintain representations, and negative feedback circuits (characterized by brief, low-frequency oscillatory bursts), which are instead associated with changes in representations...
December 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226962/eeg-frequency-pca-in-eeg-erp-dynamics
#16
Robert J Barry, Frances M De Blasio
Principal components analysis (PCA) has long been used to decompose the ERP into components, and these mathematical entities are increasingly accepted as meaningful and useful representatives of the electrophysiological components constituting the ERP. A similar expansion appears to be beginning in regard to decomposition of the EEG amplitude spectrum into frequency components via frequency PCA. However, to date, there has been no exploration of the brain's dynamic EEG-ERP linkages using PCA decomposition to assess components in each measure...
December 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226961/detection-of-deception-event-related-potential-markers-of-attention-and-cognitive-control-during-intentional-false-responses
#17
Henning Gibbons, Robert Schnuerch, Christina Wittinghofer, Anne-Simone Armbrecht, Jutta Stahl
Successful deception requires the coordination of multiple mental processes, such as attention, conflict monitoring, and the regulation of emotion. We employed a simple classification task, assessing ERPs to further investigate the attentional and cognitive control components of (instructed) deception. In Experiment 1, 20 participants repeatedly categorized visually presented names of five animals and five plants. Prior to the experiment, however, each participant covertly selected one animal and one plant for deliberate misclassification...
December 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226960/an-adaptive-orienting-theory-of-error-processing
#18
Jan R Wessel
The ability to detect and correct action errors is paramount to safe and efficient goal-directed behaviors. Existing work on the neural underpinnings of error processing and post-error behavioral adaptations has led to the development of several mechanistic theories of error processing. These theories can be roughly grouped into adaptive and maladaptive theories. While adaptive theories propose that errors trigger a cascade of processes that will result in improved behavior after error commission, maladaptive theories hold that error commission momentarily impairs behavior...
December 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226958/masking-exposure-to-phobic-stimuli-reduces-fear-without-inducing-electrodermal-activity
#19
Paul Siegel, Richard Warren, Gabriella Jacobson, Edward Merritt
A series of experiments has shown that limiting awareness of exposure to feared stimuli through visual masking-or very brief exposure (VBE)-reduces avoidance of a live tarantula by spider-phobic participants. We investigated this process of fear reduction by directly relating the effects of VBE on electrodermal activity to its ensuing effects on phobic behavior. Sixty spider-phobic participants, identified by approaching a live tarantula and a questionnaire, were administered either VBE to masked spiders or control exposure to masked flowers...
December 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215144/physiological-coherence-in-healthy-volunteers-during-laboratory-induced-stress-and-controlled-breathing
#20
Elisa Mejía-Mejía, Robinson Torres, Diana Restrepo
Physiological coherence has been related with a general sense of well-being and improvements in health and physical, social, and cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between acute stress, controlled breathing, and physiological coherence, and the degree of body systems synchronization during a coherence-generation exercise. Thirty-four university employees were evaluated during a 20-min test consisting of four stages of 5-min duration each, during which basal measurements were obtained (Stage 1), acute stress was induced using validated mental stressors (Stroop test and mental arithmetic task, during Stage 2 and 3, respectively), and coherence states were generated using a controlled breathing technique (Stage 4)...
December 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
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