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Psychophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792624/a-sigh-of-relief-or-a-sigh-of-expected-relief-sigh-rate-in-response-to-dyspnea-relief
#1
Elke Vlemincx, Michel Meulders, Olivier Luminet
Research has suggested that sighs may serve a regulatory function during stress and emotions by facilitating relief. Evidence supports the hypotheses that sighs both express and induce relief from stress. To explore the potential role of sighs in the regulation of symptoms, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between sighs and relief of symptoms, and relief of dyspnea, specifically. Healthy volunteers participated in two studies (N = 44, N = 47) in which dyspnea was induced by mild (10 cmH2 O/l/s) or high (20 cmH2 0/l/s) inspiratory resistances...
August 9, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792621/resting-respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-in-suicide-attempters
#2
Aliona Tsypes, Kiera M James, Mary L Woody, Cope Feurer, Anastacia Y Kudinova, Brandon E Gibb
Although suicide attempts (SA) occur across a broad range of diagnoses as well as in the absence of a diagnosable disorder, most studies to date have focused on them within a single, specific disorder. Consistent with the NIMH RDoC initiative to identify biobehavioral vulnerabilities that cut across diagnoses, the goal of the present study was to examine potential differences in resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) levels in a large, diagnostically heterogeneous sample of women with and without a history of SA who were matched on a broad range of demographic and clinical variables...
August 9, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792615/emotion-processing-in-female-youth-testing-the-stability-of-the-late-positive-potential
#3
Erin Bondy, Jeremy G Stewart, Greg Hajcak, Anna Weinberg, Naomi Tarlow, Vijay A Mittal, Randy P Auerbach
The Emotional Interrupt Task (EIT) has been used to probe emotion processing in healthy and clinical samples; however, research exploring the stability and reliability of behavioral measures and ERPs elicited from this task is limited. Establishing the psychometric properties of the EIT is critical, particularly as phenotypes and biological indicators may represent traitlike characteristics that underlie psychiatric illness. To address this gap, test-retest stability and internal consistency of behavioral indices and ERPs resulting from the EIT in healthy, female youth (n = 28) were examined...
August 9, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792611/modulation-of-the-eyeblink-and-cardiac-startle-reflexes-by-genuine-eye-contact
#4
Tingji Chen, Mikko J Peltola, Richard Dunn, Sanna M Pajunen, Jari K Hietanen
Is another person's direct gaze an inherently positive or negative stimulus? The present study employed the startle reflex methodology to investigate individuals' automatic reactions to another person's direct and averted gaze. In the study, participants' eyeblink startle and cardiac reflexes elicited by a high-intensity acoustic noise stimulus were measured in the context of viewing a live model's direct and downward gaze. Both the eyeblink electromyographic and electrocardiographic data revealed that the startle reflex was modulated by gaze direction...
August 9, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792606/theta-and-alpha-power-enhancements-in-the-electroencephalogram-as-an-auditory-delayed-match-to-sample-task-becomes-impossibly-difficult
#5
Matthew G Wisniewski, Eric R Thompson, Nandini Iyer
Recent studies have related enhancements of theta- (∼4-8 Hz) and alpha-power (∼8-13 Hz) to listening effort based on parallels between enhancement and task difficulty. In contrast, nonauditory works demonstrate that, although increases in difficulty are initially accompanied by increases in effort, effort decreases when a task becomes so difficult as to exceed one's ability. Given the latter, we examined whether theta- and alpha-power enhancements thought to reflect effortful listening show a quadratic trend across levels of listening difficulty from impossible to easy...
August 9, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776710/frontal-asymmetry-as-a-mediator-and-moderator-of-emotion-an-updated-review
#6
Samantha J Reznik, John J B Allen
For over 35 years, research has examined frontal alpha EEG asymmetry, discussed in terms of relative left frontal activity (rLFA) in the present review, as a concurrent and prospective marker of affective processing and psychopathology. Because rLFA may index (a) neural correlates of frontal asymmetry, or (b) psychological constructs to which frontal asymmetry relates, rLFA can advance our understanding of both neural and psychological models of emotion and psychopathology. In order to improve such understanding, the specific role of rLFA in extending or challenging existing theory must be clear to researchers and readers alike...
August 4, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776708/the-effect-of-category-learning-on-visual-attention-and-visual-representation
#7
Jonathan R Folstein, Shamsi S Monfared, Trevor Maravel
Subordinate-level category learning recruits neural resources associated with perceptual expertise, including the N250 component of the ERP, a posterolateral negative wave maximal between 230 and 330 ms. The N250 is a relatively late visual ERP and could plausibly be driven by attention to the features of categorized objects. Indeed, it has a latency and scalp distribution similar to the selection negativity (SN), an ERP component long known to be sensitive to attentional selection of target features. To clarify sensitivity of the N250 to attention and to more generally investigate the effect of category learning on attentional modulation of learned features, we independently manipulated subordinate-level category learning and target detection in a speeded paradigm designed to optimally elicit the SN and accompanying frontal selection positivity (FSP)...
August 4, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776698/intertrial-rt-variability-affects-level-of-target-related-interference-in-cued-task-switching
#8
Alexander Provost, Sharna Jamadar, Andrew Heathcote, Scott D Brown, Frini Karayanidis
In cued task switching, performance relies on proactive and reactive control processes. Proactive control is evident in the reduction in switch cost under conditions that promote advance preparation. However, the residual switch cost that remains under conditions of optimal proactive control indicates that, on switch trials, the target continues to elicit interference that is resolved using reactive control. We examined whether posttarget interference varies as a function of trial-by-trial variability in preparation...
August 4, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771747/functional-indexes-of-reactive-cognitive-control-erps-in-cued-go-no-go-tasks
#9
Juri D Kropotov, Valery A Ponomarev, Marina Pronina, Lutz Jäncke
We aimed to determine the functional meaning of latent (hidden) components decomposed from ERPs, in the context of a go/no-go paradigm. To accomplish this, we used a new group blind source separation method, based on joint diagonalization of covariance matrices of ERPs. Four variants of a frequently used go/no-go paradigm were designed, in which operations of reactive cognitive control, such as conflict detection and action inhibition, were independently manipulated. The results showed that a latent component, generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, induced N2/P3 fluctuation only in conditions in which the prepotent model was violated, and thus can be associated with conflict detection operations...
August 3, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762501/award-for-distinguished-contributions-to-psychophysiology-j-richard-jennings
#10
Maurits W van der Molen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755458/tonic-noradrenergic-activity-modulates-explorative-behavior-and-attentional-set-shifting-evidence-from-pupillometry-and-gaze-pattern-analysis
#11
Péter Pajkossy, Ágnes Szőllősi, Gyula Demeter, Mihály Racsmány
A constant task for every living organism is to decide whether to exploit rewards associated with current behavior or to explore the environment for more rewarding options. Current empirical evidence indicates that exploitation is related to phasic whereas exploration is related to tonic firing mode of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. In humans, this exploration-exploitation trade-off is subserved by the ability to flexibly switch attention between task-related and task-irrelevant information. Here, we investigated whether this function, called attentional set shifting, is related to exploration and tonic noradrenergic discharge...
July 29, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755454/comorbid-anxiety-moderates-the-relationship-between-depression-history-and-prefrontal-eeg-asymmetry
#12
Robin Nusslock, Alexander J Shackman, Brenton W McMenamin, Lawrence L Greischar, Richard J Davidson, Maria Kovacs
The internalizing spectrum of psychiatric disorders-depression and anxiety-are common, highly comorbid, and challenging to treat. Individuals with childhood onset depression have a particularly poor prognosis. There is compelling evidence that individuals with depression display reduced resting-state EEG activity at sensors overlying the left prefrontal cortex, even during periods of remission, but it remains unknown whether this asymmetry is evident among individuals with a comorbid anxiety disorder. Here, we demonstrate that women with a history of childhood onset depression and no anxiety disorder (n = 37) show reduced left lateral frontal activity compared to psychiatrically healthy controls (n = 69)...
July 29, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752665/salient-but-irrelevant-stimuli-cause-attentional-capture-in-difficult-but-attentional-suppression-in-easy-visual-search
#13
Caroline Barras, Dirk Kerzel
Search for a shape target is difficult when its shape is similar to the shape of the surrounding nontargets and easy when it is dissimilar. We asked whether interference from a salient but irrelevant color singleton depended on search difficulty as manipulated by target-nontarget similarity. We found that interference was strong in difficult searches, and the occurrence of an electrophysiological index of attentional selectivity (the N2pc component) confirmed that attention was captured by the distractor. In contrast, interference from the distractor was weak with easy searches, and the occurrence of the PD component confirmed that saliency signals from the distractor were suppressed...
July 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752584/age-related-shifts-in-hemispheric-dominance-for-syntactic-processing
#14
Michelle Leckey, Kara D Federmeier
Recent ERP data from young adults have revealed that simple syntactic anomalies elicit different patterns of lateralization in right-handed participants depending upon their familial sinistrality profile (whether or not they have left-handed biological relatives). Right-handed participants who do not have left-handed relatives showed a strongly lateralized response pattern, with P600 responses following left-hemisphere-biased presentations and N400 responses following right-hemisphere-biased presentations. Given that the literature on aging has documented a tendency to change across adulthood from asymmetry of function to a more bilateral pattern, we tested the stability of this asymmetric response to syntactic violations by recording ERPs as 24 older adults (age 60+) with no history of familial sinistrality made grammaticality judgments on simple two-word phrases...
July 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752567/auditory-visual-integration-modulates-location-specific-repetition-suppression-of-auditory-responses
#15
Talia Shrem, Micah M Murray, Leon Y Deouell
Space is a dimension shared by different modalities, but at what stage spatial encoding is affected by multisensory processes is unclear. Early studies observed attenuation of N1/P2 auditory evoked responses following repetition of sounds from the same location. Here, we asked whether this effect is modulated by audiovisual interactions. In two experiments, using a repetition-suppression paradigm, we presented pairs of tones in free field, where the test stimulus was a tone presented at a fixed lateral location...
July 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752549/choice-predicts-the-feedback-negativity
#16
Stuart McGill, Jude Buckley, Douglas Elliffe, Paul M Corballis
Choosing the appropriate response given the circumstance is integral to all aspects of human behavior. One way of elucidating the mechanisms of choice is to relate behavior to neural correlates. Electrophysiological evidence implicates the ERP feedback-negativity (FN) and the P300 as promising neural correlates of reward processing, an integral component of learning. However, prior research has not adequately addressed how the development of a preference to select one option over another (choice preference) relates to the FN and the P300...
July 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737245/exteroceptive-stimuli-override-interoceptive-state-in-reaction-time-control
#17
Xiao Yang, J Richard Jennings, Bruce H Friedman
The processing of reaction time (RT) stimulus is modulated by its timing relative to the cardiac cycle. RT stimulus processing is also influenced by task-irrelevant stimuli: a sensory stimulus speeds RT when it accompanies a cue to react in another sensory modality. Different theories have been proposed to explain this accessory stimulus effect (ASE). However, it is unclear whether the ASE interacts with the cardiac timing effect. In the present study, the relationship of the ASE, cardiac timing, and stimulus valence was examined...
July 24, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726333/the-auditory-oddball-paradigm-revised-to-improve-bedside-detection-of-consciousness-in-behaviorally-unresponsive-patients
#18
Dominique Morlet, Perrine Ruby, Nathalie André-Obadia, Catherine Fischer
Active paradigms requiring subjects to engage in a mental task on request have been developed to detect consciousness in behaviorally unresponsive patients. Using auditory ERPs, the active condition consists in orienting patient's attention toward oddball stimuli. In comparison with passive listening, larger P300 in the active condition identifies voluntary processes. However, contrast between these two conditions is usually too weak to be detected at the individual level. To improve test sensitivity, we propose as a control condition to actively divert the subject's attention from the auditory stimuli with a mental imagery task that has been demonstrated to be within the grasp of the targeted patients: navigate in one's home...
July 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726287/the-sound-and-the-fury-late-positive-potential-is-sensitive-to-sound-affect
#19
Darin R Brown, James F Cavanagh
Emotion is an emergent construct of multiple distinct neural processes. EEG is uniquely sensitive to real-time neural computations, and thus is a promising tool to study the construction of emotion. This series of studies aimed to probe the mechanistic contribution of the late positive potential (LPP) to multimodal emotion perception. Experiment 1 revealed that LPP amplitudes for visual images, sounds, and visual images paired with sounds were larger for negatively rated stimuli than for neutrally rated stimuli...
July 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714186/the-pinocchio-effect-and-the-cold-stress-test-lies-and-thermography
#20
A Moliné, G Gálvez-García, J Fernández-Gómez, J De la Fuente, O Iborra, F Tornay, J L Mata Martín, M Puertollano, E Gómez Milán
We applied the use of thermography to cognitive neuropsychology, particularly as an objective marker of subjective experiences, in the context of lying. We conducted three experiments: (a) An important lie was invented by the participants in 3 min, and it was recounted by phone to a significant person while they were recorded by the thermographic camera, obtaining a face and hands map of the lie. (b) A similar methodology was carried out, but adding the Cold Stress Test (CST) of the dominant hand during the phone call, obtaining a second physiologic marker (the percentage of thermal recovery) to detect the lie...
July 17, 2017: Psychophysiology
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