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Kaylie A Carbine, Edward Christensen, James D LeCheminant, Bruce W Bailey, Larry A Tucker, Michael J Larson
Maintaining a healthy diet has important implications for physical and mental health. One factor that may influence diet and food consumption is inhibitory control-the ability to withhold a dominant response in order to correctly respond to environmental demands. We examined how N2 amplitude, an ERP that reflects inhibitory control processes, differed toward high- and low-calorie food stimuli and related to food intake. A total of 159 participants (81 female; M age = 23.5 years; SD = 7.6) completed two food-based go/no-go tasks (one with high-calorie and one with low-calorie food pictures as no-go stimuli) while N2 amplitude was recorded...
March 24, 2017: Psychophysiology
Jonathan P Stange, Jessica L Hamilton, David M Fresco, Lauren B Alloy
The ability of the parasympathetic nervous system to flexibly adapt to changes in environmental context is thought to serve as a physiological indicator of self-regulatory capacity, and deficits in parasympathetic flexibility appear to characterize affective disorders such as depression. However, whether parasympathetic flexibility (vagal withdrawal to emotional or environmental challenges such as sadness, and vagal augmentation during recovery from sadness) could facilitate the effectiveness of adaptive affect regulation strategies is not known...
March 23, 2017: Psychophysiology
Ya Zheng, Qi Li, Yuanyuan Zhang, Qi Li, Huijuan Shen, Qianhui Gao, Shiyu Zhou
Previous research has shown that consummatory ERP components are sensitive to contextual valence. The present study investigated the contextual valence effect across anticipatory and consummatory phases by requiring participants to play a simple gambling task during a gain context and a loss context. During the anticipatory phase, the cue-P3 was more positive in the gain context compared to the loss context, whereas the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) was comparable across the two contexts. With respect to the consummatory phase, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to the zero-value outcome was more negative in the gain versus loss context, whereas the feedback P3 (fb-P3) in response to the zero-value outcome was insensitive to contextual valence...
March 23, 2017: Psychophysiology
Johannes Hewig
The present article provides a theoretical viewpoint on several aspects in frontal asymmetry research. Based on a brief overview of evidence related to an approach-avoidance perspective and the relation to BIS-BAS models on frontal asymmetry I propose that intentionality is valuable to understanding frontal asymmetry. In particular, I argue that defining arguments and previous experimental research often focused on a phase of human action that may be denoted as a volitional phase, which is linked to intentions...
March 23, 2017: Psychophysiology
Pauline L Baniqued, Kathy A Low, Mark A Fletcher, Gabriele Gratton, Monica Fabiani
Control-demanding tasks rely on communication among regions of the frontoparietal network, areas that undergo significant age-related decline. Here, we integrate data from brain anatomy, electrophysiology (ERPs), and optical imaging (event-related optical signals, EROS) to characterize the spatial and temporal dynamics of preparatory control processes in middle to old age. Older adults participated in an experiment that required switching between a position and a meaning task (spatial Stroop), a paradigm that has been shown to primarily recruit prefrontal cortex in opposite hemispheres and is thought to involve the corpus callosum (CC)...
March 21, 2017: Psychophysiology
Stephen D Benning, Belel Ait Oumeziane
Multiple models of aberrant emotional processing in depression have been advanced. However, it is unclear which of these models best applies to emotional disturbances in subclinical depressive symptoms. The current study employed a battery of psychophysiological measures and emotional ratings in a picture-viewing paradigm to examine whether the underarousal, low positive emotion, heightened negative emotion, or emotion context insensitivity model of emotional dysfunction in subclinical depressive symptoms received greatest support...
March 21, 2017: Psychophysiology
Jan Wacker
The influence of positive emotions on the balance between cognitive stability and flexibility has been suggested to (a) differ among various positive emotional/motivational states (e.g., of varying approach motivation intensity), and (b) be mediated by brain dopamine (DA). Frontal EEG alpha asymmetry (ASY) is considered an indicator of approach motivational states and may be modulated by DA. The personality trait of extraversion is strongly linked to positive emotions and is now thought to reflect DA-based individual differences in incentive/approach motivation...
March 17, 2017: Psychophysiology
James R Coleman, Jason M Watson, David L Strayer
The present study investigated individual differences in information processing following errant behavior. Participants were initially classified as high or as low working memory capacity using the Operation Span Task. In a subsequent session, they then performed a high congruency version of the flanker task under both speed and accuracy stress. We recorded ERPs and behavioral measures of accuracy and response time in the flanker task with a primary focus on processing following an error. The error-related negativity was larger for the high working memory capacity group than for the low working memory capacity group...
March 15, 2017: Psychophysiology
Thomas Meyer, Conny W E M Quaedflieg, Kim Weijland, Koen Schruers, Harald Merckelbach, Tom Smeets
Studies suggest that frontal alpha asymmetry is closely linked to psychological adjustment following stressful experiences, such that more left-sided frontal activation during symptom provocation might predict lower levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we tested whether frontal asymmetry at rest and during exposure to neutral, positive, negative, and trauma-related images would be associated with PTSD, and particularly with characteristic reexperiencing symptoms. Symptoms were assessed in trauma victims with (n = 24) and without PTSD (n = 15), using both retrospective measures and 1-week ambulatory assessments with a diary and a smartphone...
March 15, 2017: Psychophysiology
Megan A Boudewyn, Cameron S Carter
The goal of this study was to investigate the neural dynamics of error processing and post-error adjustments in cognitive control and attention to a cognitive task in schizophrenia. We adopted a time-frequency approach in order to examine activity in the theta and alpha frequency bands as indices of cognitive control and attentional engagement. The results showed that error processing was characterized by increases in theta-band activity, accompanied by decreases in alpha-band activity, in both healthy control participants and participants with schizophrenia...
March 15, 2017: Psychophysiology
Francisco Barceló, Patrick S Cooper
ERP research on task switching has revealed distinct transient and sustained positive waveforms (latency circa 300-900 ms) while shifting task rules or stimulus-response (S-R) mappings. However, it remains unclear whether such switch-related positivities show similar scalp topography and index context-updating mechanisms akin to those posed for domain-general (i.e., classic P300) positivities in many task domains. To examine this question, ERPs were recorded from 31 young adults (18-30 years) while they were intermittently cued to switch or repeat their perceptual categorization of Gabor gratings varying in color and thickness (switch task), or else they performed two visually identical control tasks (go/no-go and oddball)...
March 15, 2017: Psychophysiology
Diana Karamacoska, Robert J Barry, Genevieve Z Steiner
Neuropsychological research and practice rely on cognitive task performance measures as indicators of brain functioning. The neural activity underlying stimulus-response processes can be assessed with ERPs, but the relations between these cognitive processes and the brain's intrinsic resting state EEG activity are less understood. This study focused on the neurocognitive functioning of 20 healthy young adults in an equiprobable go/no-go task to map the ERP correlates of behavioral responses and examine contributions of the resting state intrinsic EEG to task-related outcomes...
March 4, 2017: Psychophysiology
Sheila E Crowell, Cynthia J Price, Megan E Puzia, Mona Yaptangco, Sunny Chieh Cheng
Substance use is a complex clinical problem characterized by emotion dysregulation and daily challenges that can interfere with laboratory research. Thus, few psychophysiological studies examine autonomic and self-report measures of emotion dysregulation with multidiagnostic, chemically dependent samples or extend this work into naturalistic settings. In this study, we used a within-subject design to examine changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), electrodermal activity (EDA), and self-reported affect across three tasks designed to elicit distinct psychophysiological and emotional response patterns...
March 2, 2017: Psychophysiology
Joanna E M Scanlon, Alex J Sieben, Kevin R Holyk, Kyle E Mathewson
Increasingly, there is a trend to measure brain activity in more ecologically realistic scenarios. Normally, the confines of the laboratory and sedentary tasks mitigate sources of electrical noise on EEG measurement. Moving EEG outside of the lab requires understanding of the impact of complex movements and activities on traditional EEG and ERP measures. Here, we recorded EEG with active electrodes while participants were either riding or sitting on a stationary bike in an electrical and sound-attenuated chamber in the lab...
March 1, 2017: Psychophysiology
Benthe Kornrumpf, Olaf Dimigen, Werner Sommer
Visuospatial attention is an important mechanism in reading that governs the uptake of information from foveal and parafoveal regions of the visual field. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of how attention is allocated during eye fixations are not completely understood. The current study explored the use of EEG alpha-band oscillations to investigate the spatial distribution of attention during reading. We reanalyzed two data sets, focusing on the lateralization of alpha activity at posterior scalp sites...
February 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
Dominik Freunberger, Dietmar Roehm
Prediction in sentence comprehension is often investigated by measuring the amplitude of the N400 ERP component to words that are more or less predictable from their preceding context. The N400-linked to the activation of word-associated semantic information-is reduced for words that are predictable, indicating that preactivation can lead to facilitated processing. We addressed the question whether there is measurable neural activity related to the preactivation of linguistic information before input confirms or disconfirms this prediction...
February 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
Bence Neszmélyi, János Horváth
Experimental paradigms investigating the processing of self-induced stimuli are often based on the implicit assumption that motor processes are invariable regardless of their consequences: It is presumed that actions with different sets of predictable sensory consequences do not differ in their physical characteristics or in their brain signal reflections. The present experiment explored this assumption in the context of action-related auditory attenuation by comparing actions (pinches) with and without auditory consequences...
February 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
Mallory C Stites, Sarah Laszlo
ERPs are a powerful tool for the study of reading, as they are both temporally precise and functionally specific. These are essential characteristics for studying a process that unfolds rapidly and consists of multiple, interactive subprocesses. In work with adults, clear, specific models exist linking components of the ERP with individual subprocesses of reading including orthographic decoding, phonological processing, and semantic access (e.g., Grainger & Holcomb, 2009). The relationships between ERP components and reading subprocesses are less clear in development; here, we address two questions regarding these relationships...
February 23, 2017: Psychophysiology
Alberto J González-Villar, Maria T Carrillo-de-la-Peña
The Multisource Interference Task (MSIT) was developed to test cognitive control in normal and pathological conditions and has become a reliable tool for exploring the integrity of cingulo-frontal-parietal cognitive/attentional networks in fMRI studies. Analysis of EEG recordings made during performance of the MSIT may provide additional information about the temporal dynamics of cognitive control. However, this has not yet been investigated in depth. In this study, we analyzed the ERPs and carried out time-frequency decomposition of EEG recorded during control and interference conditions of the MSIT...
February 21, 2017: Psychophysiology
Aiace Rusciano, Giuliano Corradini, Ivilin Stoianov
Performance and injury prevention in elite soccer players are typically investigated from physical-tactical, biomechanical, and metabolic perspectives. However, executive functions, visuospatial abilities, and psychophysiological adaptability or resilience are also fundamental for efficiency and well-being in sports. Based on previous research associating autonomic flexibility with prefrontal cortical control, we designed a novel integrated autonomic biofeedback training method called Neuroplus to improve resilience, visual attention, and injury prevention...
February 21, 2017: Psychophysiology
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