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Janine Wirkner, Mathias Weymar, Andreas Löw, Carmen Hamm, Anne-Marie Struck, Clemens Kirschbaum, Alfons O Hamm
Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer is a very emotionally aversive and stressful life event, which can lead to impaired cognitive functioning and mental health. Breast cancer survivors responding with repressive emotion regulation strategies often show less adaptive coping and adverse outcomes. We investigated cognitive functioning and neural correlates of emotion processing using ERPs. Self-report measures of depression, anxiety, and fatigue, as well as hair cortisol as an index of chronic stress, were assessed...
April 22, 2017: Psychophysiology
Hong-Hsiang Liu, Yin-Dir Hwang, Ming H Hsieh, Yung-Fong Hsu, Wen-Sung Lai
Fairness perception and equality during social interactions frequently elicit affective arousal and affect decision making. By integrating the dictator game and a probabilistic gambling task, this study aimed to investigate the effects of a negative experience induced by perceived unfairness on decision making using behavioral, model fitting, and electrophysiological approaches. Participants were randomly assigned to the neutral, harsh, or kind groups, which consisted of various asset allocation scenarios to induce different levels of perceived unfairness...
April 19, 2017: Psychophysiology
J Christopher Edgar, Charles L Fisk Iv, Yu-Han Chen, Breannan Stone-Howell, Michael A Hunter, Mingxiong Huang, Juan R Bustillo, José M Cañive, Gregory A Miller
Although the 40 Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR) is of clinical interest, the construct validity of EEG and MEG measures of 40 Hz ASSR cortical microcircuits is unclear. This study evaluated several MEG and EEG metrics by leveraging findings of (a) an association between the 40 Hz ASSR and age in the left but not right hemisphere, and (b) right- > left-hemisphere differences in the strength of the 40 Hz ASSR. The contention is that, if an analysis method does not demonstrate a left 40 Hz ASSR and age relationship or hemisphere differences, then the obtained measures likely have low validity...
April 19, 2017: Psychophysiology
Rebecca J Compton, Elizabeth Heaton, Emily Ozer
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of varying intertrial interval (ITI) durations on neural signals of error monitoring, given the importance of the ITI as a time window for engaging in self-evaluation and cognitive control. In a between-subjects design, 35 participants were assigned to one of three ITI durations (short: 768 ms; medium: 1,280 ms; long: 1,792 ms) in a standard Stroop task while EEG was recorded. Participants in the short-ITI group demonstrated lower performance accuracy, a reduced error-related negativity (even when correcting for frequency of errors), lower error-related alpha suppression during the ITI, and increased post-error slowing...
April 17, 2017: Psychophysiology
Matthew E Hudgens-Haney, Lauren E Ethridge, Justin B Knight, Jennifer E McDowell, Sarah K Keedy, Godfrey D Pearlson, Carol A Tamminga, Matcheri S Keshavan, John A Sweeney, Brett A Clementz
Individuals with psychosis have been reported to show either reduced or augmented brain responses under seemingly similar conditions. It is likely that inconsistent baseline-adjustment methods are partly responsible for this discrepancy. Using steady-state stimuli during a pro/antisaccade task, this study addressed the relationship between nonspecific and stimulus-related neural activity, and how these activities are modulated as a function of cognitive demands. In 98 psychosis probands (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder with psychosis), neural activity was assessed during baseline and during a 5-s period in preparation for the pro/antisaccade task...
April 17, 2017: Psychophysiology
Jan R Wessel
Inhibitory control enables humans to stop prepotent motor activity, and is commonly studied using go/no-go or stop-signal tasks. In stop-signal tasks, prepotent motor activity is elicited by delaying stop signals relative to go signals. In go/no-go tasks, however, trials include only one signal-go or no-go. Hence, prepotent motor activity has to be ensured differently-for example, by using rare no-go trials and short trial durations. However, a literature survey shows that ∼40% of studies use equiprobable go/no-go trials and ∼20% use long stimulus-stimulus intervals (> 4 s)...
April 8, 2017: Psychophysiology
James Faulkner, Lee Stoner, Rebecca Grigg, Simon Fryer, Keeron Stone, Danielle Lambrick
In patients with stroke or transient ischemic attacks (TIA), a decline in executive function may limit an individual's ability to process motor tasks and relearn motor skills. The purpose of this study was to assess the acute effect of exercise posture (seated vs. supine cycle ergometry) on executive function and prefrontal cortex perfusion in patients with TIA. Eleven TIA patients (65 ± 10 years) and 15 age-matched, healthy controls (HC; 62 ± 7 years) completed two exercise tests to maximal capacity (one seated, one supine) and two 30-min submaximal exercise tests (one seated, one supine)...
April 8, 2017: Psychophysiology
Rebecca J Brooker, Mara J Canen, Richard J Davidson, H Hill Goldsmith
Asymmetry in cortical activity was tested for short- and long-term stability during the first year of life. Infants (N = 129) completed a total of four laboratory visits: two visits occurred about 1 week apart when infants were 6 months old, and two visits occurred about 1 week apart when infants were 12 months of age. At each laboratory visit, EEG readings were taken during five 1-min, neutral baselines as well as during a negative and a positive emotion-eliciting task. The stability of hemispheric asymmetry was assessed at midfrontal (F3/4, F7/8) and parietal (P3/4) electrode sites...
April 6, 2017: Psychophysiology
Xi Ren, Fernando Valle-Inclán, Sergii Tukaiev, Steven A Hackley
According to reinforcement learning theory, dopamine-dependent anticipatory processes play a critical role in learning from action outcomes such as feedback or reward. To better understand outcome anticipation, we examined variation in slow cortical potentials and assessed their changes over the course of motor-skill acquisition. Healthy young adults learned a series of precisely timed, key press sequences. Feedback was delivered at a delay of either 2.5 or 8 s, to encourage use of either the striatally mediated, habit learning system or the hippocampus-dependent, episodic memory system, respectively...
April 6, 2017: Psychophysiology
Chengteng Ip, Hailing Wang, Shimin Fu
It remains unclear whether the N170 of ERPs reflects domain-specific or domain-general visual object processing. In this study, we used superimposed images of a face and a Chinese character such that participants' relative expertise for the two object types was either similar (Experiment 1 and 2) or different (Experiment 3). Experiment 1 showed that N170 amplitude was larger when participants attended to the character instead of the face of a face-character combination. This result was unchanged in Experiment 2, in which task difficulty was selectively increased for the face component of the combined stimuli...
April 6, 2017: Psychophysiology
Adrian G Fischer, Tilmann A Klein, Markus Ullsperger
The error-related negativity (ERN or Ne) is increasingly being investigated as a marker discriminating interindividual factors and moves toward a surrogate marker for disorders or interventions. Although reproducibility and validity of neuroscientific and psychological research has been criticized, clear data on how different quantification methods of the ERN and their relation to available trial numbers affect within- and across-participant studies is sparse. Within a large sample of 863 healthy human participants, we demonstrate that, across participants, the number of errors correlates with the amplitude of the ERN independently of the number of errors included in ERN quantification per participant, constituting a possible confound when such variance is unaccounted for...
April 3, 2017: Psychophysiology
Brady D Nelson, Greg Hajcak
Predictability is an important characteristic of threat that impacts defensive motivation and attentional engagement. Supporting research has primarily focused on actual threat (e.g., shocks), and it is unclear whether the predictability of less intense threat (e.g., unpleasant pictures) similarly affects motivation and attention. The present study utilized a within-subject design and examined defensive motivation (startle reflex and self-reported anxiety) and attention (probe N100 and P300) in anticipation of shocks and unpleasant pictures during a no, predictable, and unpredictable threat task...
April 1, 2017: Psychophysiology
Hang Yang, Jing Zhao, Carl M Gaspar, Wei Chen, Yufei Tan, Xuchu Weng
Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have identified the involvement of the right posterior region in the processing of visual words. Interestingly, in contrast, ERP studies of the N170 typically demonstrate selectivity for words more strikingly over the left hemisphere. Why is right hemisphere selectivity for words during the N170 epoch typically not observed, despite the clear involvement of this region in word processing? One possibility is that amplitude differences measured on averaged ERPs in previous studies may have been obscured by variation in peak latency across trials...
April 1, 2017: Psychophysiology
Gavin D Tempest, Gaynor Parfitt
The interplay between the prefrontal cortex and amygdala is proposed to explain the regulation of affective responses (pleasure/displeasure) during exercise as outlined in the dual-mode model. However, due to methodological limitations the dual-mode model has not been fully tested. In this study, prefrontal oxygenation (using near-infrared spectroscopy) and amygdala activity (reflected by eyeblink amplitude using acoustic startle methodology) were recorded during exercise standardized to metabolic processes: 80% of ventilatory threshold (below VT), at the VT, and at the respiratory compensation point (RCP)...
March 30, 2017: Psychophysiology
Jairo Perez-Osorio, Hermann J Müller, Agnieszka Wykowska
Predictive mechanisms of the brain are important for social cognition, as they enable inferences about others' goals and intentions, thereby allowing for generation of expectations regarding what will happen next in the social environment. Therefore, attentional selection is modulated by expectations regarding behavior of others (Perez-Osorio, Müller, Wiese, & Wykowska, 2015). In this article, we examined-using the ERPs of the EEG signal-which stages of processing are influenced by expectations about others' action steps...
March 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
Peter S Whitehead, Gene A Brewer, Chris Blais
The proportion congruency effect refers to the observation that the magnitude of the Stroop effect increases as the proportion of congruent trials in a block increases. Contemporary work shows that proportion effects can be driven by both context and individual items, and are referred to as context-specific proportion congruency (CSPC) and item-specific proportion congruency (ISPC) effects, respectively. The conflict-modulated Hebbian learning account posits that these effects manifest from the same mechanism, while the parallel episodic processing model posits that the ISPC can occur by simple associative learning...
March 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
Kurtis A Young, Simon C Gandevia, Melita J Giummarra
Up to a third of the population experiences pain when seeing another in pain. The mechanisms underlying such vicarious sensory experiences are thought to reflect hyperactive mirror systems (threshold theory) or dysfunctional processing and representation of oneself versus others (self/other theory). This study investigated whether the tendency to experience vicarious pain corresponds to disinhibited physiological reactivity toward other's emotions, and/or greater empathic mimicry of other's physiological state (respiratory behavior) during fear, pain, and positive emotion...
March 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
Kaylie A Carbine, Edward Christensen, James D LeCheminant, Bruce W Bailey, Larry A Tucker, Michael J Larson
Maintaining a healthy diet has important implications for physical and mental health. One factor that may influence diet and food consumption is inhibitory control-the ability to withhold a dominant response in order to correctly respond to environmental demands. We examined how N2 amplitude, an ERP that reflects inhibitory control processes, differed toward high- and low-calorie food stimuli and related to food intake. A total of 159 participants (81 female; M age = 23.5 years; SD = 7.6) completed two food-based go/no-go tasks (one with high-calorie and one with low-calorie food pictures as no-go stimuli) while N2 amplitude was recorded...
March 24, 2017: Psychophysiology
Jonathan P Stange, Jessica L Hamilton, David M Fresco, Lauren B Alloy
The ability of the parasympathetic nervous system to flexibly adapt to changes in environmental context is thought to serve as a physiological indicator of self-regulatory capacity, and deficits in parasympathetic flexibility appear to characterize affective disorders such as depression. However, whether parasympathetic flexibility (vagal withdrawal to emotional or environmental challenges such as sadness, and vagal augmentation during recovery from sadness) could facilitate the effectiveness of adaptive affect regulation strategies is not known...
March 23, 2017: Psychophysiology
Ya Zheng, Qi Li, Yuanyuan Zhang, Qi Li, Huijuan Shen, Qianhui Gao, Shiyu Zhou
Previous research has shown that consummatory ERP components are sensitive to contextual valence. The present study investigated the contextual valence effect across anticipatory and consummatory phases by requiring participants to play a simple gambling task during a gain context and a loss context. During the anticipatory phase, the cue-P3 was more positive in the gain context compared to the loss context, whereas the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) was comparable across the two contexts. With respect to the consummatory phase, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to the zero-value outcome was more negative in the gain versus loss context, whereas the feedback P3 (fb-P3) in response to the zero-value outcome was insensitive to contextual valence...
March 23, 2017: Psychophysiology
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