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Psychophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914174/mathematical-detection-of-aortic-valve-opening-b-point-in-impedance-cardiography-a-comparison-of-three-popular-algorithms
#1
Javier Rodríguez Árbol, Pandelis Perakakis, Alba Garrido, José Luis Mata, M Carmen Fernández-Santaella, Jaime Vila
The preejection period (PEP) is an index of left ventricle contractility widely used in psychophysiological research. Its computation requires detecting the moment when the aortic valve opens, which coincides with the B point in the first derivative of impedance cardiogram (ICG). Although this operation has been traditionally made via visual inspection, several algorithms based on derivative calculations have been developed to enable an automatic performance of the task. However, despite their popularity, data about their empirical validation are not always available...
December 3, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914171/clinical-feasibility-of-brain-computer-interface-based-on-steady-state-visual-evoked-potential-in-patients-with-locked-in-syndrome-case-studies
#2
Han-Jeong Hwang, Chang-Hee Han, Jeong-Hwan Lim, Yong-Wook Kim, Soo-In Choi, Kwang-Ok An, Jun-Hak Lee, Ho-Seung Cha, Seung Hyun Kim, Chang-Hwan Im
Although the feasibility of brain-computer interface (BCI) systems based on steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) has been extensively investigated, only a few studies have evaluated its clinical feasibility in patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS), who are the main targets of BCI technology. The main objective of this case report was to share our experiences of SSVEP-based BCI experiments involving five patients with LIS, thereby providing researchers with useful information that can potentially help them to design BCI experiments for patients with LIS...
December 3, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914168/short-term-trained-lexical-categories-affect-preattentive-shape-perception-evidence-from-vmm
#3
Mengxia Yu, Ce Mo, Tianyu Zeng, Sasa Zhao, Lei Mo
Perceptual processing of colors and shapes in the right visual field is modulated by the lexical category information of the stimuli, a phenomenon known as the lateralized Whorfian effect. For color stimuli, lateralized Whorfian effect is characterized by preattentive occurrence and dependency on acquired lexical information, but it remains unknown whether these key features are generalizable to other domains of perceptual processing. Here, we investigated whether lateralized Whorfian effect in the shape perception domain also depends on acquired lexical category and occurs preattentively using ERPs...
December 3, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914167/statistical-considerations-for-reporting-and-planning-heart-rate-variability-case-control-studies
#4
Daniel S Quintana
The calculation of heart rate variability (HRV) is a popular tool used to investigate differences in cardiac autonomic control between population samples. When interpreting effect sizes to quantify the magnitude of group differences, researchers typically use Cohen's guidelines of small (0.2), medium (0.5), and large (0.8) effects. However, these guidelines were originally proposed as a fallback for when the effect size distribution (ESD) was unknown. Despite the availability of effect sizes from hundreds of HRV studies, researchers still largely rely on Cohen's guidelines to interpret effect sizes and to perform power analyses to calculate required sample sizes for future research...
December 3, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914166/trauma-related-dissociation-psychological-features-and-psychophysiological-responses-to-script-driven-imagery-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#5
Dana Bichescu-Burian, Jürgen Steyer, Tilman Steinert, Benjamin Grieb, Stefan Tschöke
Defense reactions to threatening situations are vital adaptations to stress that protect organisms from injury and ensure survival. We retrospectively investigated the role of peritraumatic dissociation (PD) in the occurrence of severe psychopathology and dissociative patterns of reactions in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We recruited 28 patients with a clinical diagnosis of BPD and 15 healthy controls. The BPD group was divided according to the level of PD (low vs. high): BPD and PD (n = 15) and BPD only (n = 13)...
December 3, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861961/acute-exercise-has-a-general-facilitative-effect-on-cognitive-function-a-combined-erp-temporal-dynamics-and-bdnf-study
#6
Yu-Kai Chang, Brandon L Alderman, Chien-Heng Chu, Chun-Chih Wang, Tai-Fen Song, Feng-Tzu Chen
This study examined whether acute moderate intensity exercise results in a general or selective improvement in cognitive function. In addition, multiple stimulus-locked ERP components and serum BDNF levels were assessed to investigate potential neurobiological mechanisms underlying acute exercise effects on select aspects of cognitive performance. Thirty young adults were recruited and participated in exercise and reading control sessions in a counterbalanced order. Following treatments, the Stroop task was administrated, and N1, N2, P3, and N450 components of the ERP waveform were recorded and analyzed...
November 12, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859316/i-can-t-wait-neural-reward-signals-in-impulsive-individuals-exaggerate-the-difference-between-immediate-and-future-rewards
#7
Barbara Schmidt, Clay B Holroyd, Stefan Debener, Johannes Hewig
Waiting for rewards is difficult, and highly impulsive individuals with low self-control have an especially hard time with it. Here, we investigated whether neural responses to rewards in a delayed gratification task predict impulsivity and self-control. The EEG was recorded from participants engaged in a guessing game in which on each trial they could win either a large or small reward, paid either now or after 6 months. Ratings confirmed that participants preferred immediate, large rewards over small, delayed rewards...
November 12, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859315/dissociating-retrieval-interference-and-reanalysis-in-the-p600-during-sentence-comprehension
#8
Darren Tanner, Sarah Grey, Janet G van Hell
We investigated the relative independence of two key processes in language comprehension, as reflected in the P600 ERP component. Numerous studies have linked the P600 to sentence- or message-level reanalysis; however, much research has shown that skilled, cue-based memory retrieval operations are also important to successful language processing. Our goal was to identify whether these cue-based retrieval operations are part of the reanalysis processes indexed by the P600. To this end, participants read sentences that were either grammatical or ungrammatical via subject-verb agreement violations, and in which there was either no possibility for retrieval interference or there was an attractor noun interfering with the computation of subject-verb agreement (e...
November 12, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801943/auditory-n1-reveals-planning-and-monitoring-processes-during-music-performance
#9
Brian Mathias, William J Gehring, Caroline Palmer
The current study investigated the relationship between planning processes and feedback monitoring during music performance, a complex task in which performers prepare upcoming events while monitoring their sensory outcomes. Theories of action planning in auditory-motor production tasks propose that the planning of future events co-occurs with the perception of auditory feedback. This study investigated the neural correlates of planning and feedback monitoring by manipulating the contents of auditory feedback during music performance...
November 1, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781281/feedback-negativity-and-decision-making-behavior-in-the-balloon-analogue-risk-task-bart-in-adolescents-is-modulated-by-peer-presence
#10
Luisa Kessler, Johannes Hewig, Karina Weichold, Rainer K Silbereisen, Wolfgang H R Miltner
Adolescent risk taking is strongly influenced by peer presence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of peer presence on the ERP after negative and positive feedback in the time range of the feedback-related negativity (FRN). Eighteen male adolescents completed a version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) under two conditions: playing alone and while observed by a peer. We recorded the ERPs after success or failure feedback and analyzed risk-taking behavior under both conditions...
October 26, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766643/neural-responses-to-affective-pictures-while-anticipating-and-perceiving-respiratory-threat
#11
Georgiana Juravle, Phillipp Reicherts, Mirjam Riechmann-Weinstein, Matthias J Wieser, Andreas von Leupoldt
Emotional processes have an impact on the anticipation and perception of bodily threat sensations, such as breathlessness. However, little is known about the reverse influence of breathlessness on emotional processes, as well as its modulation by anxiety sensitivity (AS). Here, we investigated by means of visually evoked potentials how the perception versus anticipation of resistive-load-induced breathlessness (RLIB) influences emotional processing. High (HA) and low anxious (LA) participants viewed pictures of positive, neutral, or negative content under conditions of perceived RLIB, anticipated RLIB, or an unloaded baseline...
October 21, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766641/physiological-and-neural-correlates-of-worry-and-rumination-support-for-the-contrast-avoidance-model-of-worry
#12
Elisa C K Steinfurth, Manuela G Alius, Julia Wendt, Alfons O Hamm
The current experiments tested neural and physiological correlates of worry and rumination in comparison to thinking about neutral events. According to the avoidance model-stating that worry is a strategy to reduce intense emotions-physiological and neurobiological activity during worried thinking should not differ from activation during neutral thinking. According to the contrast avoidance model-stating that worry is a strategy to reduce abrupt shifts of emotions-activity should be increased. To test these competing models, we induced worry and neutral thinking in healthy participants using personal topics...
October 21, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754548/using-erps-to-investigate-valence-processing-in-the-affect-misattribution-procedure
#13
Curtis D von Gunten, Bruce D Bartholow, Laura D Scherer
The construct validity of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) has been challenged by theories proposing that the task does not actually measure affect misattribution. The current study tested the validity of the AMP as a measure of affect misattribution by examining three components of the ERP known to be associated with the allocation of motivated attention. Results revealed that ERP amplitudes varied in response to affectively ambiguous targets as a function of the valence of preceding primes. Furthermore, differences in ERP responses to the targets were largely similar to differences in ERPs elicited by the primes...
October 18, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753123/modeling-startle-eyeblink-electromyogram-to-assess-fear-learning
#14
Saurabh Khemka, Athina Tzovara, Samuel Gerster, Boris B Quednow, Dominik R Bach
Pavlovian fear conditioning is widely used as a laboratory model of associative learning in human and nonhuman species. In this model, an organism is trained to predict an aversive unconditioned stimulus from initially neutral events (conditioned stimuli, CS). In humans, fear memory is typically measured via conditioned autonomic responses or fear-potentiated startle. For the latter, various analysis approaches have been developed, but a systematic comparison of competing methodologies is lacking. Here, we investigate the suitability of a model-based approach to startle eyeblink analysis for assessment of fear memory, and compare this to extant analysis strategies...
October 18, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753104/physiological-adaptation-to-recurrent-social-stress-of-extraversion
#15
Wei Lu, Zhenhong Wang
The present studies examined the influence of extraversion on physiological reactivity, recovery, and physiological habituation-sensitization to repeated social stressors. In Study 1, subjective and physiological data were collected from 97 college students who were categorized as high (n = 51) and low (n = 46) on extraversion (NEO-FFI) across five laboratory stages: baseline, stress 1, poststress 1, stress 2, and poststress 2. Results indicated high extraversion (HE) participants exhibited relative lesser heart rate (HR) reactivity and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) withdrawals to, and more complete HR and RSA recovery after the first social stress, and also exhibited relative lesser HR reactivity to the second social stress...
October 18, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731503/pupillometry-reveals-changes-in-physiological-arousal-during-a-sustained-listening-task
#16
Ronan McGarrigle, Piers Dawes, Andrew J Stewart, Stefanie E Kuchinsky, Kevin J Munro
Hearing loss is associated with anecdotal reports of fatigue during periods of sustained listening. However, few studies have attempted to measure changes in arousal, as a potential marker of fatigue, over the course of a sustained listening task. The present study aimed to examine subjective, behavioral, and physiological indices of listening-related fatigue. Twenty-four normal-hearing young adults performed a speech-picture verification task in different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) while their pupil size was monitored and response times recorded...
October 12, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717054/alpha-power-modulation-reflects-the-balancing-of-task-requirements-in-a-selective-attention-task
#17
Katharina Limbach, Paul M Corballis
Recent research has related the orienting of selective attention to the lateralization of posterior EEG alpha power (∼8 to 12 Hz). Typically, alpha power decreases over the side of the head contralateral to the cued side of space. However, it is not clear how this lateralization affects behavior. We recorded EEG from 20 participants while they performed a cued visual discrimination task under three different response-deadline conditions to investigate the effect of alpha-power modulation on behavioral performance in more detail...
October 7, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716966/the-electrophysiological-signature-of-deliberate-rule-violations
#18
Roland Pfister, Robert Wirth, Katharina A Schwarz, Anna Foerster, Marco Steinhauser, Wilfried Kunde
Humans follow rules by default, and violating even simple rules induces cognitive conflict for the rule breaker. Previous studies revealed this conflict in various behavioral measures, including response times and movement trajectories. Based on these experiments, we investigated the electrophysiological signature of deliberately violating a simple stimulus-response mapping rule. Such rule violations were characterized by a delayed and attenuated P300 component when evaluating a rule-relevant stimulus, most likely reflecting increased response complexity...
December 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706828/pupil-old-new-effects-reflect-stimulus-encoding-and-decoding-in-short-term-memory
#19
Andreas Brocher, Tim Graf
We conducted five pupil old/new experiments to examine whether pupil old/new effects can be linked to familiarity and/or recollection processes of recognition memory. In Experiments 1-3, we elicited robust pupil old/new effects for legal words and pseudowords (Experiment 1), positive and negative words (Experiment 2), and low-frequency and high-frequency words (Experiment 3). Importantly, unlike for old/new effects in ERPs, we failed to find any effects of long-term memory representations on pupil old/new effects...
December 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699796/electrophysiological-revelations-of-trial-history-effects-in-a-color-oddball-search-task
#20
Eunsam Shin, Sang Chul Chong
In visual oddball search tasks, viewing a no-target scene (i.e., no-target selection trial) leads to the facilitation or delay of the search time for a target in a subsequent trial. Presumably, this selection failure leads to biasing attentional set and prioritizing stimulus features unseen in the no-target scene. We observed attention-related ERP components and tracked the course of attentional biasing as a function of trial history. Participants were instructed to identify color oddballs (i.e., targets) shown in varied trial sequences...
December 2016: Psychophysiology
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