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Heather D Lucas, Ryan J Hubbard, Kara D Federmeier
When meaningful stimuli such as words are encountered in groups or pairs (e.g., "elephant-ferry"), they can be processed either separately or as an integrated concept ("an elephant ferry"). Prior research suggests that memory for integrated associations is supported by different mechanisms than is memory for nonintegrated associations. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms that support the integration of novel stimulus pairs. We recorded ERPs while participants memorized sequentially presented, unrelated noun pairs using a strategy that either did or did not involve attempting to construct coherent definitions...
February 13, 2017: Psychophysiology
Matthew B Pontifex, Vladimir Miskovic, Sarah Laszlo
Independent component analysis (ICA) offers a powerful approach for the isolation and removal of eyeblink artifacts from EEG signals. Manual identification of the eyeblink ICA component by inspection of scalp map projections, however, is prone to error, particularly when nonartifactual components exhibit topographic distributions similar to the blink. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the extent to which automated approaches for selecting eyeblink-related ICA components could be utilized to replace manual selection...
February 13, 2017: Psychophysiology
Marta Andreatta, Sebastian Michelmann, Paul Pauli, Johannes Hewig
Successful avoidance of a threatening event may negatively reinforce the behavior due to activation of brain structures involved in reward processing. Here, we further investigated the learning-related properties of avoidance using feedback-related negativity (FRN). The FRN is modulated by violations of an intended outcome (prediction error, PE), that is, the bigger the difference between intended and actual outcome, the larger the FRN amplitude is. Twenty-eight participants underwent an operant conditioning paradigm, in which a behavior (button press) allowed them to avoid a painful electric shock...
February 8, 2017: Psychophysiology
Camilla C Luck, Ottmar V Lipp
Blink startle magnitude is linearly modulated by affect such that, relative to neutral stimuli, startle magnitude is inhibited during pleasant stimuli and potentiated during unpleasant stimuli. Andreatta, Mühlberger, Yarali, Gerber, and Pauli (2010), however, report a dissociation between startle modulation and explicit valence evaluations during backward conditioning, a procedure in which the unconditional stimulus precedes the conditional stimulus (CS). Relative to controls, startles elicited during the CS were inhibited, suggesting that the CS had acquired positive valence, but participants still evaluated the CS as unpleasant after the experiment...
February 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
Stephan Moratti, Tamara Giménez-Fernández, Constantino Méndez-Bértolo, Francisco de Vicente-Pérez
In unpredictable environments, stimuli that predict potential danger or its absence can change rapidly. Therefore, it is highly adaptive to prioritize incoming sensory information flexibly as a function of prior experience. Previously, these changes have only been conceptualized as excitatory gain increases in sensory cortices for acquired fear-relevant stimuli during associative learning. However, formal descriptions of associative processes by Rescorla and Wagner predict both conditioned excitatory and inhibitory processes in response systems for fear and safety cues, respectively...
February 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
J Peter Rosenfeld, Elena Labkovsky, Elena Davydova, Anne Ward, Lauren Rosenfeld
Previous research indicated that the skin conductance response of the autonomic nervous system in the Concealed Information Test (CIT) is typically increased in subjects who are financially and otherwise incentivized to defeat the CIT (the paradoxical "motivational impairment" effect). This is not the case for RT-based CITs, nor P300 tests based on the three-stimulus protocol for detection of cognitive malingering (although these are not the same as CITs). The present report is the first attempt to study the effect of financial motivation on the P300-based Complex Trial Protocol using both episodic and semantic memory probe and irrelevant stimuli...
February 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
Ke Zhao, Zhengyu Tang, Huiquan Wang, Yifei Guo, Weiwei Peng, Li Hu
It is well known that sensory perception can be attenuated when sensory stimuli are controlled by self-initiated actions. This phenomenon is explained by the consistency between forward models of anticipated action effects and actual sensory feedback. Specifically, the brain state related to the binding between motor processing and sensory perception would have inhibitory function by gating sensory information via top-down control. Since the brain state could casually influence the perception of subsequent stimuli of different sensory modalities, we hypothesize that pain evoked by nociceptive stimuli following the self-initiated tactile stimulation would be attenuated as compared to that following externally determined tactile stimulation...
February 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
Kostas A Fanti, Melina N Kyranides, Giorgos Georgiou, Maria Petridou, Olivier F Colins, Catherine Tuvblad, Henrik Andershed
The present study aimed to examine whether callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible dimensions of psychopathy are differentially related to various affective and physiological measures, assessed at baseline and in response to violent and erotic movie scenes. Data were collected from young adults (N = 101) at differential risk for psychopathic traits. Findings from regression analyses revealed a unique predictive contribution of grandiose-manipulative traits in particular to higher ratings of positive valence for violent scenes...
February 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
Hanna Kadel, Tobias Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Anna Schubö
Visual selective attention is known to be guided by stimulus-based (bottom-up) and goal-oriented (top-down) control mechanisms. Recent work has pointed out that selection history (i.e., the bias to prioritize items that have been previously attended) can result in a learning experience that also has a substantial impact on subsequent attention guidance. The present study examined to what extent goal-oriented top-down control mechanisms interact with an observer's individual selection history in guiding attention...
February 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
Daniel M R Silva, Danilo B Melges, Rui Rothe-Neves
According to the neural adaptation model of the mismatch negativity (MMN), the sensitivity of this event-related response to both acoustic and categorical information in speech sounds can be accounted for by assuming that (a) the degree of overlapping between neural representations of two sounds depends on both the acoustic difference between them and whether or not they belong to distinct phonetic categories, and (b) a release from stimulus-specific adaptation causes an enhanced N1 obligatory response to infrequent deviant stimuli...
February 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
Angelika Margarete Dierolf, Julia Fechtner, Robina Böhnke, Oliver T Wolf, Ewald Naumann
The current study investigated the influence of acute stress and the resulting cortisol increase on response inhibition and its underlying cortical processes, using EEG. Before and after an acute stressor or a control condition, 39 healthy men performed a go/no-go task while ERPs (N2, P3), reaction times, errors, and salivary cortisol were measured. Acute stress impaired neither accuracy nor reaction times, but differentially affected the neural correlates of response inhibition; namely, stress led to enhanced amplitudes of the N2 difference waves (N2d, no-go minus go), indicating enhanced response inhibition and conflict monitoring...
February 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
Steven A Hackley, Xi Ren, Amy Underwood, Fernando Valle-Inclán
If the postauricular reflex (PAR) is to be used effectively in studies of emotion and attention, its sensitivity to basic modulatory effects such as prepulse inhibition and facilitation must be determined. Two experiments were carried out with healthy young adults to assess the effects of transient and sustained visual prestimuli on the pinna-flexion response to trains of startle probes. In the first experiment, participants passively viewed a small white square. It was displayed from 1,000 ms prior to onset of a train of noise bursts until the end of that train...
February 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
Stephanie M Gorka, Lynne Lieberman, Stewart A Shankman, K Luan Phan
Prior studies indicate that anxiety disorders are associated with heightened sensitivity to uncertain threat (U threat). Individual differences in reactivity to U threat have been measured in the laboratory with two methodologies-startle eyeblink potentiation and fMRI. While startle and fMRI are purported to relate to each other, very little research exists on whether individual differences in one measure are associated with individual differences in another and, thus, whether startle and fMRI capture shared mechanisms...
February 2, 2017: Psychophysiology
Kathryne van Hedger, Elizabeth A Necka, Anam K Barakzai, Greg J Norman
Time perception is a fundamental component of everyday life. Although time can be measured using standard units, the relationship between an individual's experience of perceived time and a standard unit is highly sensitive to context. Stressful and threatening stimuli have been previously shown to produce time distortion effects, such that individuals perceive the stimuli as lasting for different amounts of time as compared to a standard unit. As a highly social species, humans are acutely sensitive to social stressors; however, time distortion effects have not been studied in the context of social stress...
January 31, 2017: Psychophysiology
J Peter Rosenfeld, Ilayda Ozsan, Anne C Ward
Based on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) study by klein Selle, Verschuere, Kindt, Meijer, & Ben Shakhar (2016), 15 participants pretended to perform a crime shown on a video, which 16 other participants pretended to witness. Both groups then experienced a P300-based Concealed Information Test (CIT) protocol called the complex trial protocol. Both groups showed CIT effects, with a larger probe than irrelevant P300s at Pz. However, this effect was significantly larger in the suspect group. In contrast, only the suspect group showed delayed N200/N300 responses at F3-putative inhibitory signs...
January 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
Martina Starc, Alan Anticevic, Grega Repovš
Pupillometry provides an accessible option to track working memory processes with high temporal resolution. Several studies showed that pupil size increases with the number of items held in working memory; however, no study has explored whether pupil size also reflects the quality of working memory representations. To address this question, we used a spatial working memory task to investigate the relationship of pupil size with spatial precision of responses and indicators of reliance on generalized spatial categories...
January 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
Marcos DelPozo-Baños, Christoph T Weidemann
Blind source separation (BSS) based artifact rejection systems have been extensively studied in the electroencephalogram (EEG) literature. Although there have been advances in the development of techniques capable of dissociating neural and artifactual activity, these are still not perfect. As a result, a compromise between reduction of noise and leakage of neural activity has to be found. Here, we propose a new methodology to enhance the performance of existing BSS systems: Localized component filtering (LCF)...
January 23, 2017: Psychophysiology
Claire L Kelly, Trevor J Crawford, Emma Gowen, Kelly Richardson, Sandra I Sünram-Lea
Self-control is important for everyday life and involves behavioral regulation. Self-control requires effort, and when completing two successive self-control tasks, there is typically a temporary drop in performance in the second task. High self-reported motivation and being made self-aware somewhat counteract this effect-with the result that performance in the second task is enhanced. The current study explored the relationship between self-awareness and motivation on sequential self-control task performance...
January 23, 2017: Psychophysiology
Mario Reutter, Johannes Hewig, Matthias J Wieser, Roman Osinsky
We systematically compared different measures of attentional bias (i.e., reaction times, the N2pc component in the EEG, and explicit stimulus ratings) on their ability to reveal attentional engagement to threatening versus neutral facial stimuli in a Dot Probe Task and tested their relation to trait measures of general and social anxiety. We found that the N2pc component reflects a bias toward angry faces with excellent internal consistency. Similar results were obtained for explicit ratings. Reaction time (RT) differences, however, were not indicative of attentional biases and showed zero odd-even reliability...
January 22, 2017: Psychophysiology
James J S Norton, Stephen Umunna, Timothy Bretl
This study confirmed the hypothesis that it is possible to elicit SSVEPs through closed eyelids during NREM sleep. To test this hypothesis, SSVEP amplitudes were measured in eight subjects across two conditions of stimulation (stimulation on and stimulation off) and three brain states (waking, light sleep, and deep sleep). Results showed a significant interaction between stimulation and brain state. In particular, EEG activity at the frequency of stimulation was higher during both light sleep and deep sleep in the stimulation on condition than in the stimulation off condition...
January 18, 2017: Psychophysiology
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