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Magdalena Senderecka, Jakub Szewczyk, Szymon Wichary, Małgorzata Kossowska
The aim of the current study was to examine whether and how self-reported decisiveness is associated with response inhibition and performance monitoring. We hypothesized that these two cognitive control mechanisms, both of which are often associated with decision making, would differ in individuals varying in decisiveness. We focused on ERP correlates and behavioral measures of inhibition and error processing in the stop-signal task. We expected a negative relationship between decisiveness and behavioral measures of inhibitory control...
May 20, 2018: Psychophysiology
Gaetano Valenza, Alberto Greco, Matteo Bianchi, Mimma Nardelli, Simone Rossi, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo
Noninvasive, objective quantitative techniques to gauge emotional states are fundamental for clinical psychology as they overcome subjective bias of currently used questionnaires. To this end, we investigated brain oscillatory EEG activity during caresslike, affective haptic elicitation conveyed on the forearm at two force (strength of the caress) and three velocity (velocity of the caress) levels. Thirty-two healthy subjects (16 female) were asked to assess each haptic stimulus in terms of arousal (i.e., intensity of emotional perception) and valence (i...
May 20, 2018: Psychophysiology
Adreanna T M Watts, Edward M Bernat
The role of reward context has been investigated as an important factor in feedback processing. Previous work has demonstrated that the amplitude of the feedback negativity (FN) depends on the value of the outcome relative to the range of possible outcomes in a given context, not the objective value of the outcome. However, some research has shown that the FN does not scale with loss magnitude in loss-only contexts, suggesting that some contexts do not show a pattern of context dependence. Methodologically, time-frequency decomposition techniques have proven useful for isolating time-domain ERP activity as separable processes indexed in delta (< 3 Hz) and theta (3-7 Hz)...
May 11, 2018: Psychophysiology
Mathias Weymar, Margaret M Bradley, Christopher T Sege, Peter J Lang
Stimulus repetition elicits either enhancement or suppression in neural activity, and a recent fMRI meta-analysis of repetition effects for visual stimuli (Kim, 2017) reported cross-stimulus repetition enhancement in medial and lateral parietal cortex, as well as regions of prefrontal, temporal, and posterior cingulate cortex. Repetition enhancement was assessed here for repeated and novel scenes presented in the context of either an explicit episodic recognition task or an implicit judgment task, in order to study the role of spontaneous retrieval of episodic memories...
May 6, 2018: Psychophysiology
Francesco Giannelli, Nicola Molinaro
We investigated how native language experience shapes anticipatory language processing. Two groups of bilinguals (either Spanish or Basque natives) performed a word matching task (WordMT) and a picture matching task (PictureMT). They indicated whether the stimuli they visually perceived matched with the noun they heard. Spanish noun endings were either diagnostic of the gender (transparent) or ambiguous (opaque). ERPs were time-locked to an intervening gender-marked determiner preceding the predicted noun. The determiner always gender agreed with the following noun but could also introduce a mismatching noun, so that it was not fully task diagnostic...
May 6, 2018: Psychophysiology
Patrick Mussel, Johannes Hewig, Martin Weiß
Altruistic punishment is the attempt to penalize deviant behavior of another person even though it is accompanied by personal costs. Here, we investigated the influence of the reaction on the socioemotional level of the other person following altruistic punishment behavior on future decision making and neural responses. We used a modified ultimatum game, which included an emotional facial feedback of the proposer following the decision of the participant. We found higher acceptance rates for proposers showing a smile upon acceptance or a sad face upon rejection of an offer, compared to proposers showing a neutral facial expression...
April 27, 2018: Psychophysiology
Scott Tillem, Josanne van Dongen, Inti A Brazil, Arielle Baskin-Sommers
Recent advances in the application of graph theory made it possible to quantify the efficiency of communication within a neural network, going beyond traditional connectivity methods that only identify the degree to which neural regions are connected. Psychopathic traits, namely, interpersonal-affective and impulsive-antisocial traits, have been linked to widespread and distinct disruptions in neural connectivity. The efficiency of neural communication for individuals high on these psychopathic traits, though, is unknown...
April 26, 2018: Psychophysiology
Mingli Liang, Michael J Starrett, Arne D Ekstrom
Numerous reports have demonstrated low-frequency oscillations during navigation using invasive recordings in the hippocampus of both rats and human patients. Given evidence, in some cases, of low-frequency synchronization between midline cortex and hippocampus, it is also possible that low-frequency movement-related oscillations manifest in healthy human neocortex. However, this possibility remains largely unexplored, in part due to the difficulties of coupling free ambulation and effective scalp EEG recordings...
April 22, 2018: Psychophysiology
Heidi Mauersberger, Annekatrin Hoppe, Gudrun Brockmann, Ursula Hess
Conflicts are an undesirable yet common aspect of daily interactions with wide-ranging negative consequences. The present research aimed to examine the buffering effect of experimentally instructed reappraisal on self-reported, physiological and behavioral stress indices during interpersonal conflicts, taking into account habitual emotion regulation strategies. For this, 145 participants experienced a standardized laboratory conflict with the instruction to either reappraise (n = 48), to suppress (n = 50), or with no instruction (n = 47) while cardiovascular and neuroendocrine measures were taken...
April 22, 2018: Psychophysiology
Michael Christopher Melnychuk, Paul M Dockree, Redmond G O'Connell, Peter R Murphy, Joshua H Balsters, Ian H Robertson
The locus coeruleus (LC) has established functions in both attention and respiration. Good attentional performance requires optimal levels of tonic LC activity, and must be matched to task consistently. LC neurons are chemosensitive, causing respiratory phrenic nerve firing to increase frequency with higher CO2 levels, and as CO2 level varies with the phase of respiration, tonic LC activity should exhibit fluctuations at respiratory frequency. Top-down modulation of tonic LC activity from brain areas involved in attentional regulation, intended to optimize LC firing to suit task requirements, may have respiratory consequences as well, as increases in LC activity influence phrenic nerve firing...
April 22, 2018: Psychophysiology
Tyson V Barker, Sonya V Troller-Renfree, Lindsay C Bowman, Daniel S Pine, Nathan A Fox
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by increased social motivation and a heightened concern of peer evaluation. However, little research has examined social influences on neural functioning in adolescence. One psychophysiological measure of motivation, the error-related negativity (ERN), is an ERP following an error. In adults, the ERN is enhanced by contextual factors that influence motivation, such as social observation and evaluation. The current study examined relations among age and neural responses in social contexts in adolescence...
April 22, 2018: Psychophysiology
Thomas Kustermann, Tzvetan Popov, Gregory A Miller, Brigitte Rockstroh
Impaired working memory (WM) in schizophrenia is associated with reduced hemodynamic and electromagnetic activity and altered network connectivity within and between memory-associated neural networks. The present study sought to determine whether schizophrenia involves disruption of a frontal-parietal network normally supporting WM and/or involvement of another brain network. Nineteen schizophrenia patients (SZ) and 19 healthy comparison subjects (HC) participated in a cued visual-verbal Sternberg task while dense-array EEG was recorded...
April 19, 2018: Psychophysiology
M Cornelia Stoeckel, Roland W Esser, Matthias Gamer, Andreas von Leupoldt
Breathlessness is an aversive symptom in many prevalent somatic and psychiatric diseases and is usually experienced as highly threatening. It is strongly associated with negative affect, but the underlying neural processes remain poorly understood. Therefore, using fMRI, the present study examined the effects of breathlessness on the neural processing of affective visual stimuli within candidate brain areas including the amygdala, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). During scanning, 42 healthy volunteers, mean (SD) age: 29...
April 17, 2018: Psychophysiology
Christian Valt, Mona Katharina Sprengeler, Birgit Stürmer
The present study explored the relevance of internal signals for the dynamics of personal and nonpersonal feedback processing. To this end, pairs of participants performed concurrently a choice-response task and received external signals in four feedback contexts. In two contexts, feedback was informative about the personal performance (personal/private and personal/public); in the other two contexts, instructions suggested that feedback was informative about the other participant's performance (nonpersonal/other) or that it was random (nonpersonal/random)...
April 16, 2018: Psychophysiology
Rachel Wu, Brianna McGee, Madelyn Rubenstein, Zoe Pruitt, Olivia S Cheung, Richard N Aslin
The present study investigated how grouping related items leads to the emergence of benefits (facilitation when related items are search targets) and costs (interference when related items are distractors) in visual search. Participants integrated different views (related items) of a novel Lego object via (a) assembling the object, (b) disassembling the object, or (c) sitting quietly without explicit instructions. An omnibus ANOVA revealed that neural responses (N2pc ERP) for attentional selection increased between pretest to posttest regardless of the training condition when a specific target view appeared (benefit) and when a nontarget view from the same object as the target view appeared (cost)...
April 16, 2018: Psychophysiology
Christopher Ring, Jasper Brener
Recent research has identified individual differences in interoceptive sensitivity as a key source of variation in action, cognition, and emotion. This research has relied heavily on a single method for assessing interoceptive sensitivity: the accuracy of counting heartbeats while at rest. The validity of this method was assessed here by comparing the heartbeat counting (HBC) performance of 48 individuals with their heartbeat detection (HBD) performance. The HBC task required participants to report the numbers of heartbeats counted during brief signaled periods and indexed cardioceptive accuracy by the difference between the numbers of reported and actual heartbeats...
April 6, 2018: Psychophysiology
Petia Popova, Brigitte Rockstroh, Gregory A Miller, Christian Wienbruch, Almut M Carolus, Tzvetan Popov
Schizophrenia patients exhibit less gamma-frequency EEG/MEG activity (>30 Hz), a finding interpreted as evidence of poor temporal neural organization and functional network communication. Research has shown that neuroplasticity-oriented training can improve task-related oscillatory dynamics, indicating some reorganization capacity in schizophrenia. Demonstrating a generalization of such task training effects to spontaneous oscillations at rest would not only enrich understanding of this neuroplastic potential but inform the interpretation of spontaneous gamma oscillations in the service of normal cognitive function...
April 6, 2018: Psychophysiology
Ryan J Giuliano, Christina M Karns, Theodore A Bell, Seth Petersen, Elizabeth A Skowron, Helen J Neville, Eric Pakulak
Multiple theoretical frameworks posit that interactions between the autonomic nervous system and higher-order neural networks are crucial for cognitive and emotion regulation. However, few studies have directly examined the relationship between measures of autonomic physiology and brain activity during cognitive tasks, and fewer studies have examined both the parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic branches when doing so. Here, 93 adults completed an ERP auditory selective attention task concurrently with measures of parasympathetic activity (high-frequency heart rate variability; HF-HRV) and sympathetic activity (preejection period; PEP)...
April 6, 2018: Psychophysiology
Cristina Ottaviani
The move from the concept of homeostasis to that of allostasis has led reactivity stress research to widen the object of its investigation: from the brief physiological response that occurs when one is facing a stressor to what happens when one is anticipating or recovering from a stressor. A paradigmatic example is represented by perseverative cognition, during which human beings react "as if" they were constantly facing a concrete stressor. The core idea behind this review is that the cognitive inflexibility that characterizes perseverative cognition is reflected in both our body (by increased autonomic nervous system rigidity assessed by heart rate variability; HRV) and our brain (by reduced prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity)...
April 1, 2018: Psychophysiology
Rachel Wu, Brianna McGee, Chelsea Echiverri, Benjamin D Zinszer
Prior research has shown that category search can be similar to one-item search (as measured by the N2pc ERP marker of attentional selection) for highly familiar, smaller categories (e.g., letters and numbers) because the finite set of items in a category can be grouped into one unit to guide search. Other studies have shown that larger, more broadly defined categories (e.g., healthy food) also can elicit N2pc components during category search, but the amplitude of these components is typically attenuated. Two experiments investigated whether the perceived size of a familiar category impacts category and exemplar search...
March 30, 2018: Psychophysiology
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