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Eoin G Brown, Stephen Gallagher, Ann-Marie Creaven
Physiological reactivity to acute stress has been proposed as a potential biological mechanism by which loneliness may lead to negative health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease. This review was conducted to investigate the association between loneliness and physiological responses to acute stress. A series of electronic databases were systematically searched (PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, Medline, CINAHL Plus, EBSCOhost, PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Science Direct) for relevant studies, published up to October 2016...
November 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
Guannan Shen, Nathan J Smyk, Andrew N Meltzoff, Peter J Marshall
Brain responses to tactile stimulation have often been studied through the examination of ERPs elicited to touch on the body surface. Here, we examined two factors potentially modulating the amplitude of the somatosensory mismatch negativity (sMMN) and P300 responses elicited by touch to pairs of body parts: (a) the distance between the representation of these body parts in somatosensory cortex, and (b) the physical distances between the stimulated points on the body surface. The sMMN and the P300 response were elicited by tactile stimulation in two oddball protocols...
November 15, 2017: Psychophysiology
Anderson Mora-Cortes, K Richard Ridderinkhof, Michael X Cohen
Improvements in perceptual performance can be obtained when events in the environment are temporally predictable-and temporal predictability improves attention and sensory processing. The amplitude of the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) has been shown to correlate with attention paid to a flickering stimulus even if the flickering stimulus is irrelevant for the task. However, to our knowledge, the validity of the SSVEP to study temporal attention has not been established. Therefore, we designed an SSVEP temporal attention task to evaluate whether the SSVEP and its temporal dynamics can be used to study temporal attention...
November 9, 2017: Psychophysiology
J Benjamin Hinnant, Lauren E Philbrook, Stephen A Erath, Mona El-Sheikh
Influential biopsychosocial theories have proposed that some developmental periods in the lifespan are potential pivot points or opportunities for recalibration of stress response systems. To date, however, there have been few longitudinal studies of physiological stress responsivity and no studies comparing change in physiological stress responsivity across developmental periods. Our goals were to (a) address conceptual and methodological issues in studying the development of physiological stress responsivity within and between individuals, and (b) provide an exemplar for evaluating development of responsivity to stress in the parasympathetic nervous system, comparing respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) responsivity from middle to late childhood with middle to late adolescence...
October 31, 2017: Psychophysiology
Yang Lu, J Peter Rosenfeld, Xiaohong Deng, Erhu Zhang, Huihui Zheng, Gejun Yan, Dan Ouyang, Saba Z Hayat
The present study used a P300-based Concealed Information Test (CIT) to detect individual and collaborative crimes and to explore whether or not the P300 index is effective in identifying collaborative crime members. Participants were divided into two groups to either steal a ring alone (individual group) or collaboratively with another companion participant (collaborative group) before taking the Complex Trial Protocol test that is regarded as an accurate version of the P300-based CIT. The ERP results revealed that both groups showed significantly larger P300s to probe (the ring) than to all irrelevant stimuli (other jewelery), but the P300 amplitude difference of probe stimulus versus irrelevant stimuli in the collaborative group was significantly less than that in the individual group...
October 30, 2017: Psychophysiology
Stephan Getzmann, Edmund Wascher, Daniel Schneider
Human working memory is the central unit for short-term storage of information. In addition to the selection and adequate storage of relevant information, the suppression of irrelevant stimuli from the environment seems to be of importance for working memory processes. To learn more about the interplay of information uptake and inhibition of irrelevant information, the present study used ERP measures and a short-term storage and retrieval task, in which pairs of either numbers or letters had to be compared...
October 30, 2017: Psychophysiology
Annmarie MacNamara
There are many advantages to human beings' ability to generate and sustain mental imagery in the absence of exteroceptive stimuli; however, this ability may also underlie emotional disorders characterized by worry, rumination, or excessive concern about the future. For instance, fear-based disorders may be characterized by heightened ERPs to negative imagery. On the other hand, distress disorders may be characterized by attempts to avoid engaging with negative mental imagery, and therefore reduced electrocortical response...
October 26, 2017: Psychophysiology
Luciane R Piccolo, Kimberly G Noble
Perceived stress has been associated with decreased hippocampal, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex volume, as well as decreased memory and executive functioning performance in adulthood. Parents' perceived stress has been linked to decreased hippocampal volume in young children. However, no studies have investigated the links between self-perceived stress and brain structure or function in adolescents. Additionally, findings from previous research with younger or older samples are inconsistent, likely in part due to inconsistencies in participants' age range...
October 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
Páraic S Ó Súilleabháin, Siobhán Howard, Brian M Hughes
Underlying psychophysiological mechanisms of effect linking openness to experience to health outcomes, and particularly cardiovascular well-being, are unknown. This study examined the role of openness in the context of cardiovascular responsivity to acute psychological stress. Continuous cardiovascular response data were collected for 74 healthy young female adults across an experimental protocol, including differing counterbalanced acute stressors. Openness was measured via self-report questionnaire. Analysis of covariance revealed openness was associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP; p = ...
October 17, 2017: Psychophysiology
Gabriele Gratton, Patrick Cooper, Monica Fabiani, Cameron S Carter, Frini Karayanidis
Cognitive control (with the closely related concepts of attention control and executive function) encompasses the collection of processes that are involved in generating and maintaining appropriate task goals and suppressing task goals that are no longer relevant, as well as the way in which current goal representations are used to modify attentional biases to improve task performance. Here, we provide a comprehensive but nonexhaustive review of this complex literature, with an emphasis on the contributions made by techniques for studying human brain function...
October 17, 2017: Psychophysiology
Gemma E Barnacle, Dimitris Tsivilis, Alexandre Schaefer, Deborah Talmi
Emotional enhancement of free recall can be context dependent. It is readily observed when emotional and neutral scenes are encoded and recalled together in a "mixed" list, but diminishes when these scenes are encoded separately in "pure" lists. We examined the hypothesis that this effect is due to differences in allocation of attention to neutral stimuli according to whether they are presented in mixed or pure lists, especially when encoding is intentional. Using picture stimuli that were controlled for semantic relatedness, our results contradicted this hypothesis...
October 12, 2017: Psychophysiology
Stephan Koenig, Metin Uengoer, Harald Lachnit
The attentional learning theory of Pearce and Hall () predicts more attention to uncertain cues that have caused a high prediction error in the past. We examined how the cue-elicited pupil dilation during associative learning was linked to such error-driven attentional processes. In three experiments, participants were trained to acquire associations between different cues and their appetitive (Experiment 1), motor (Experiment 2), or aversive (Experiment 3) outcomes. All experiments were designed to examine differences in the processing of continuously reinforced cues (consistently followed by the outcome) versus partially reinforced, uncertain cues (randomly followed by the outcome)...
October 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
Rebecca J Compton, Elizabeth C Heaton, Averi Gaines
The present study tested whether people adaptively sharpen attentional focus following performance mistakes, as predicted by current theories of cognitive control. Participants completed a reverse Stroop task in which target stimuli were preceded by an informative spatial cue. Cue validity and Stroop interference effects on performance were robust, but neither effect was altered by commission of an error on the prior trial, as predicted by the adaptive control model. Likewise, a prior error did not enhance cue-evoked spatial asymmetries in EEG, nor did it enhance validity effects on neural responses evoked by targets...
October 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
Ezra E Smith, James F Cavanagh, John J B Allen
Frontal EEG alpha asymmetry provides a promising index of depression risk, yet very little is known about the neural sources of alpha asymmetry. To identify these sources, this study examined alpha asymmetry using a distributed inverse solution: exact low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA). Findings implicated a generator in lateral midfrontal regions that contributed to both surface asymmetry and depression risk. Participants with any lifetime history of depressive episodes were characterized by less left than right activity in the precentral gyrus and midfrontal gyrus...
October 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
Eric S Drollette, Matthew B Pontifex, Lauren B Raine, Mark R Scudder, R Davis Moore, Shih-Chun Kao, Daniel R Westfall, Chien-Ting Wu, Keita Kamijo, Darla M Castelli, Naiman A Khan, Arthur F Kramer, Charles H Hillman
The present study investigated the effect of a 9-month physical activity (PA) intervention on children's cardiorespiratory fitness levels and neuroelectric indices of conflict monitoring (i.e., error-related negativity, ERN). Four hundred twenty-eight preadolescent children (8-9 years old) were randomized into a PA intervention or wait-list control group, and completed a fitness and cognitive control assessment (i.e., modified flanker task) at pre- and posttest. Following exclusion criterion, 308 children were included in the analyses (PA intervention: n = 139; wait-list control: n = 169)...
October 4, 2017: Psychophysiology
Matthew Cieslak, William S Ryan, Viktoriya Babenko, Hannah Erro, Zoe M Rathbun, Wendy Meiring, Robert M Kelsey, Jim Blascovich, Scott T Grafton
MEAP, the moving ensemble analysis pipeline, is a new open-source tool designed to perform multisubject preprocessing and analysis of cardiovascular data, including electrocardiogram (ECG), impedance cardiogram (ICG), and continuous blood pressure (BP). In addition to traditional ensemble averaging, MEAP implements a moving ensemble averaging method that allows for the continuous estimation of indices related to cardiovascular state, including cardiac output, preejection period, heart rate variability, and total peripheral resistance, among others...
October 3, 2017: Psychophysiology
Kaitlin Fitzgerald, Alexander Provost, Juanita Todd
Internal models of regularities in the world serve to facilitate perception as redundant input can be predicted and neural resources conserved for that which is new or unexpected. In the auditory system, this is reflected in an evoked potential component known as mismatch negativity (MMN). MMN is elicited by the violation of an established regularity to signal the inaccuracy of the current model and direct resources to the unexpected event. Prevailing accounts suggest that MMN amplitude will increase with stability in regularity; however, observations of first-impression bias contradict stability effects...
October 3, 2017: Psychophysiology
Curtis D Von Gunten, Hannah I Volpert-Esmond, Bruce D Bartholow
Reactive cognitive control refers to a complementary set of cognitive operations by which individuals monitor for and detect the presence of goal-interfering conflict (i.e., conflict monitoring/evaluation) and, subsequently, initiate attention-focusing and response selection processes to bolster goal-directed action in the face of such conflict (regulative control). The purpose of the current study was to characterize the nature of conflict adaptation in both components of this dynamic process across sequences of trials and, more broadly, across time as participants complete a cognitive control task...
September 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
Emilio A Valadez, Robert F Simons
Past studies utilizing cognitive control tasks have noted that trials following errors are characterized by slowed reaction time. Despite the assumption long held by researchers that this slowing is compensatory (in the service of post-error performance recovery), studies consistently show that post-error trials are no more accurate than post-correct trials. As a result, it has recently been proposed that post-error slowing (PES) is merely part of an orienting response that serves no task-relevant cognitive control purpose...
September 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
Felix Bacigalupo, Steven J Luck
For more than 60 years, the gold standard for assessing aversive conditioning in humans has been the skin conductance response (SCR), which arises from the activation of the peripheral nervous system. Although the SCR has been proven useful, it has some properties that impact the kinds of questions it can be used to answer. In particular, the SCR is slow, reaching a peak 4-5 s after stimulus onset, and it decreases in amplitude after a few trials (habituation). The present study asked whether the late positive potential (LPP) of the ERP waveform could be a useful complementary method for assessing aversive conditioning in humans...
September 26, 2017: Psychophysiology
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