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Moon Wilton, Andrej Stancak, Timo Giesbrecht, Anna Thomas, Tim Kirkham
Expectations can affect subjective sensory and hedonic ratings of tastes, but it is unclear whether they also shape sensory experience at a perceptual level. The neural correlates of the taste-expectancy relationship were explored through EEG analysis. Using a trial-by-trial cueing paradigm, lingual delivery of 0.05 M or 0.3 M sucrose solutions was preceded by congruent or incongruent visual cues designed to promote anticipation of either a low-sweet or high-sweet solution. When participants were cued to expect low-sweet, but received high-sweet (incongruent cue), intensity ratings for high-sweet decreased...
November 15, 2018: Psychophysiology
James E Glazer, Nicholas J Kelley, Narun Pornpattananangkul, Robin Nusslock
Bipolar spectrum and unipolar depressive disorders have been associated with distinct and opposite profiles of reward-related neural activity. These opposite profiles may reflect a differential preexisting vulnerability for both types of disorders. In support, recent ERP studies find that, following reward feedback, a larger reward positivity (RewP) is associated with greater vulnerability for bipolar spectrum disorders, whereas a smaller RewP is associated with greater vulnerability for depression. However, prior studies have investigated only immediate rewards and have not examined dimensions of both bipolar disorder and unipolar depression within the same sample...
November 15, 2018: Psychophysiology
Lulu Wu, Hermann J Müller, Xiaolin Zhou, Ping Wei
Implicit emotional processing refers to the preferential processing of emotional content even if it is task irrelevant. Given that motivation enhances executive control by biasing attentional resources toward target stimuli, here we investigated the effects of reward expectation on implicit facial emotional processing in two experiments using ERPs. A precue signaling additional monetary reward for fast and accurate response for the upcoming trial (incentive condition; relative to a cue indicating no such additional reward, i...
November 15, 2018: Psychophysiology
Federico Quinzi, Marika Berchicci, Valentina Bianco, Rinaldo Livio Perri, Francesco Di Russo
The Bereitschaftspotential (BP) and the P3 are well-known ERPs usually observed during self-paced and externally triggered tasks. Recently, the BP was also detected in externally triggered tasks before stimulus onset. However, doubts have been raised about the authenticity of the BP in these tasks due to possible overlaps with the previous trial P3 (hereinafter s-1 P3). Here, we aim to test the authenticity of the BP in externally triggered tasks by comparing ERPs obtained during two visuomotor response tasks with different interstimulus intervals (ISIs) allowing (short-ISI; 1,000-2,000 ms) or not (long-ISI; 2,000-4,000 ms) P3-BP overlaps...
October 29, 2018: Psychophysiology
Tim A Pruitt, Andrea R Halpern, Peter Q Pfordresher
To date, several fMRI studies reveal activation in motor planning areas during musical auditory imagery. We addressed whether such activations may give rise to peripheral motor activity, termed subvocalization or covert singing, using surface electromyography. Sensors placed on extrinsic laryngeal muscles, facial muscles, and a control site on the bicep measured muscle activity during auditory imagery that preceded singing, as well as during the completion of a visual imagery task. Greater activation was found in laryngeal and lip muscles for auditory than for visual imagery tasks, whereas no differences across tasks were found for other sensors...
October 25, 2018: Psychophysiology
María I Cobos, Pedro M Guerra, Jaime Vila, Ana B Chica
Our environment is constantly overloaded with information, although we cannot consciously process all the stimulation reaching our senses. Current theoretical models are focused on the cognitive and neural processes underlying conscious perception. However, cognitive processes do not occur in an isolated brain but in a complex interaction between the environment, the brain, and the organism. The brain-body interaction has largely been neglected in the study of conscious perception. The aim of the present study was to explore if heart rate and skin conductance (SC) are modulated by the interaction between phasic alertness and conscious perception...
October 25, 2018: Psychophysiology
Germano Gallicchio, Christopher Ring
Prior to and during movement, oscillatory alpha activity gates cognitive resources toward motor areas of the cortex by inhibiting neuronal excitability in nonmotor areas. The present study examined the effect of manipulating target variability on this alpha gating phenomenon. Using a baseline-test-retention design, we measured EEG alpha power, performance accuracy, and task difficulty in 32 recreational golfers as they putted golf balls (20 per target) to one central target (baseline, retention) and four targets of different directions and extents (manipulation)...
October 25, 2018: Psychophysiology
Eco J C de Geus, Peter J Gianaros, Ryan C Brindle, J Richard Jennings, Gary G Berntson
Metrics of heart period variability are widely used in the behavioral and biomedical sciences, although somewhat confusingly labeled as heart rate variability (HRV). Despite their wide use, HRV metrics are usually analyzed and interpreted without reference to prevailing levels of cardiac chronotropic state (i.e., mean heart rate or mean heart period). This isolated treatment of HRV metrics is nontrivial. All HRV metrics routinely used in the literature exhibit a known and positive relationship with the mean duration of the interval between two beats (heart period): as the heart period increases, so does its variability...
October 25, 2018: Psychophysiology
Daniela Conrad, Sarah Wilker, Anna Schneider, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Anett Pfeiffer, Stephan Kolassa, Virginie Freytag, Vanja Vukojevic, Christian Vogler, Annette Milnik, Andreas Papassotiropoulos, Dominique J-F de Quervain, Thomas Elbert, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa
The risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases with the number of traumatic event types experienced (trauma load) in interaction with other psychobiological risk factors. The NOTCH (neurogenic locus notch homolog proteins) signaling pathway, consisting of four different trans-membrane receptor proteins (NOTCH1-4), constitutes an evolutionarily well-conserved intercellular communication pathway (involved, e.g., in cell-cell interaction, inflammatory signaling, and learning processes). Its association with fear memory consolidation makes it an interesting candidate for PTSD research...
October 17, 2018: Psychophysiology
Min Pu, Rongjun Yu
An individual's sense of personal responsibility is crucial for adaptive functioning in ever-changing social situations. This study investigated how the sense of personal responsibility affected the neural dynamics of anticipating one's own pain and another person's pain, using EEG. Participants played a cooperation game in which either the participant (self-context) or the confederate (other-context) received a mild electric shock whenever one of them erred. At the anticipatory stage of pain, feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 were sensitive to the degree of responsibility in both contexts...
October 13, 2018: Psychophysiology
Abdulmajeed Alsufyani, Omid Hajilou, Alexia Zoumpoulaki, Marco Filetti, Hamed Alsufyani, Christopher J Solomon, Stuart J Gibson, Roobaea Alroobaea, Howard Bowman
Recently, we showed that presenting salient names (i.e., a participant's first name) on the fringe of awareness (in rapid serial visual presentation, RSVP) breaks through into awareness, resulting in the generation of a P3, which (if concealed information is presented) could be used to differentiate between deceivers and nondeceivers. The aim of the present study was to explore whether face stimuli can be used in an ERP-based RSVP paradigm to infer recognition of broadly familiar faces. To do this, we explored whether famous faces differentially break into awareness when presented in RSVP and, importantly, whether ERPs can be used to detect these breakthrough events on an individual basis...
October 4, 2018: Psychophysiology
Amit Shah, Chuqing Chen, Carolina Campanella, Nicole Kasher, Sarah Evans, Collin Reiff, Sanskriti Mishra, Muhammad Hammadah, Bruno B Lima, Kobina Wilmot, Ibhar Al Mheid, Ayman Alkhoder, Nino Isakadze, Oleksiy Levantsevych, Pratik M Pimple, Ernest V Garcia, Matthew Wittbrodt, Jonathon Nye, Laura Ward, Tené T Lewis, Michael Kutner, Paolo Raggi, Arshed Quyyumi, Viola Vaccarino, J Douglas Bremner
The influence of acute psychological stress on cardiovascular disease is an emerging public health concern. Identification of brain mechanisms underlying this may aid in the discovery of possible treatments. Acute psychological stress may induce arteriolar vasoconstriction and reduce blood flow to vital organs. We hypothesized that functional changes in brain regions involved with memory and autonomic/emotional regulation are implicated in the vasoconstrictive stress response, including the medial prefrontal cortex (anterior cingulate), insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
October 1, 2018: Psychophysiology
Zümrüt Duygu Sen, Cagri Mesut Temucin, Koray Başar, Berna Diclenur Ulug, Onur Gökcen, Suzan Özer
Whereas the amplitude of the startle reflex varies with stimulus valence in the normal population, a lack of this affective modulation has been reported in patients with major depressive disorder. The present study sought to clarify blunted startle modulation as a feature of depression by comparing 16 patients diagnosed with major depression prior to and after 2 weeks of SSRI treatment, and 16 healthy controls. The affect-modulated startle reflex paradigm and the Self-Assessment Manikin were used to probe affective reactivity...
September 27, 2018: Psychophysiology
Laura Leuchs, Max Schneider, Victor I Spoormaker
In human fear conditioning studies, different physiological readouts can be used to track conditioned responding during fear learning. Commonly employed readouts such as skin conductance responses (SCR) or startle responses have in recent years been complemented by pupillary readouts, but to date it is unknown how pupillary readouts relate to other measures of the conditioned response. To examine differences and communalities among pupil responses, SCR, and startle responses, we simultaneously recorded pupil diameter, skin conductance, and startle electromyography in 47 healthy subjects during fear acquisition, extinction, and a recall test on 2 consecutive days...
September 27, 2018: Psychophysiology
Jennifer G Pearlstein, Sheri L Johnson, Kiana Modavi, Andrew D Peckham, Charles S Carver
Prior research suggests that a traitlike tendency to experience impulsivity during states of high emotion is robustly associated with many forms of psychopathology. Several studies tie emotion-related impulsivity to response inhibition deficits, but these studies have not focused on the role of emotion or arousal within subjects. The present study tested whether arousal, measured by pupil dilation, amplifies deficits in response inhibition for those high in emotion-related impulsivity. Participants (N = 85) completed a measure of emotion-related impulsivity, underwent a positive mood induction procedure that reduced heterogeneity in mood states, and completed a response inhibition task...
September 27, 2018: Psychophysiology
Jason Rajsic, Jane A Burton, Geoffrey F Woodman
Electrophysiological studies have demonstrated that the maintenance of items in visual working memory (VWM) is indexed by the contralateral delay activity (CDA), which increases in amplitude as the number of objects to remember increases, plateauing at VWM capacity. Previous work has primarily utilized simple visual items, such as colored squares or picture stimuli. Despite the frequent use of verbal stimuli in seminal investigations of visual attention and memory, it is unknown whether temporary storage of letters and words also elicit a typical load-sensitive CDA...
September 24, 2018: Psychophysiology
Stefan Wiens, Malina Szychowska, Rasmus Eklund, Erik van Berlekom
The mismatch negativity (MMN) has been widely studied with oddball tasks to index processing of unexpected auditory change. The MMN is computed as the difference of deviant minus standard and is used to capture the pattern violation by the deviant. However, this oddball MMN is confounded because the deviant differs physically from the standard and is presented less often. To improve measurement, the same tone as the deviant is presented in a separate condition. This control tone is equiprobable with other tones and is used to compute a corrected MMN (deviant minus control)...
September 24, 2018: Psychophysiology
Jarrad A G Lum, Imme Lammertink, Gillian M Clark, Ian Fuelscher, Christian Hyde, Peter G Enticott, Michael T Ullman
This study examined whether the P1, N1, and P3 ERP components would be sensitive to sequence learning effects on the serial reaction time task. On this task, participants implicitly learn a visuospatial sequence. Participants in this study were 35 healthy adults. Reaction time (RT) data revealed that, at the group level, participants learned the sequence. Specifically, RT became faster following repeated exposure to the visuospatial sequence and then slowed down in a control condition. Analyses of ERP data revealed no evidence for sequence learning effects for the N1 or P3 component...
September 23, 2018: Psychophysiology
Douglas Jozef Angus, Eddie Harmon-Jones
Unlike other basic emotions, anger is relatively difficult to produce in the lab, with the most reliable methods involving elaborate and time-consuming manipulations. These factors preclude the possibility of using them for studying short-lived changes in neural activity associated with the subjective experience of anger. In this paper, we present a novel task that allows for the trial-by-trial manipulation of anger and the examination of associated ERPs. Participants completed an incentive delay task, in which accurate responses were rewarded with monetary gains (or breaking even, in a neutral condition), and inaccurate responses were punished with monetary losses...
September 23, 2018: Psychophysiology
Gábor Csifcsák, Viktória Roxána Balla, Vera Daniella Dalos, Tünde Kilencz, Edit Magdolna Biró, Gábor Urbán, Szilvia Szalóki
This study investigated the influence of action-associated predictive processes on visual ERPs. In two experiments, we sought evidence for sensory attenuation (SA) indexed by ERP amplitude reductions for self-induced stimuli when compared to passive viewing of the same images. We assessed if SA is (a) present for both ecological and abstract stimuli (pictures depicting hands or checkerboards), (b) modulated by the degree of stimulus predictability (certain or uncertain action-effect contingencies), and (c) sensitive to laterality of hand movements (dominant or subdominant hand actions)...
September 19, 2018: Psychophysiology
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