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Elizabeth M Mulligan, Brady D Nelson, Zachary P Infantolino, Katherine R Luking, Radhika Sharma, Greg Hajcak
The menstrual cycle impacts mood and neural response to reward-phenomena that may be related to natural fluctuations in ovarian hormones. Using a within-subject design, the present study examined ovarian hormones (i.e., estradiol and progesterone) and ERPs in response to feedback indicating gains and losses in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. We examined whether hormone levels and variation in neural response to reward and loss across menstrual cycle phases were associated with depressive symptoms...
July 16, 2018: Psychophysiology
I V Talalay, A V Kurgansky, R I Machinskaya
The anticipation of future events based on a background experience is one of the main components of any goal-directed behavior. Anticipatory attention can be either voluntary (explicit) or involuntary (implicit). We presumed that these two types of anticipatory attention differed in terms of cortical functional organization. We examined this assumption with an experimental model consisting of three experimental sessions (cued attention, implicit learning, and baseline) that were equal in terms of stimuli, motor responses, and cognitive task...
July 16, 2018: Psychophysiology
Mikołaj Tytus Szulczewski, Andrzej Rynkiewicz
The present study aimed to investigate changes induced by breathing at 0.1 Hz in affective state, cardiovascular activity, and adequacy of ventilation as well as the relation between changes in peripheral physiological processes and alteration of affect. Eighty-three participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Two groups doing paced breathing at 0.1 Hz, one with and the other without a cover story hiding the goal of the experiment, and, as a control, paced breathing at 0.28 Hz. We measured the effects of breathing at 0...
July 16, 2018: Psychophysiology
Barbara Schmidt, Hannah Kanis, Clay B Holroyd, Wolfgang H R Miltner, Johannes Hewig
In this study, we address the effect of anxiety measured with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) on EEG and risk decisions. We selected 20 high and 20 low anxious participants based on their STAI trait scores in the upper or lower quartile of the norm distribution and implemented a risk game developed in our laboratory. We investigate if high anxious individuals exert more cognitive control, reflected in higher frontal midline theta (FMT) power when they make a risky decision, and if they act less risky compared to low anxious individuals...
June 20, 2018: Psychophysiology
Michaela Rohr, Timea Folyi, Dirk Wentura
There is ongoing debate regarding the degree to which, and the conditions under which, physiological, affect-related (i.e., embodied) processes contribute to emotion information processing. Whereas most studies focus on clearly visible and intentional processing conditions, the present study targeted this issue by studying the implicit processing of emotional (angry, fearful, joyful, neutral) faces in a masked emotion misattribution procedure. That is, participants had to categorize neutral-looking faces with regard to the allegedly felt emotion, which were preceded by a very briefly presented emotional expression...
June 11, 2018: Psychophysiology
Gary G Berntson, Gregory A Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 11, 2018: Psychophysiology
Eddie Brummelman, Milica Nikolić, Susan M Bögels
Physiological responses can reveal emotional states that individuals are unwilling to admit to others. Here, we studied what blushing reveals about the emotional states of narcissistic children. Narcissistic children (i.e., those high on the personality trait of narcissism) have a pervasive sense of grandiosity. We theorized that narcissistic children are so invested in their sense of grandiosity that even modest praise can make them feel depreciated. Because narcissistic children may not admit this feeling to others, we measured their physiological blushing: an involuntary reddening of the face that occurs when individuals anticipate being depreciated...
June 6, 2018: Psychophysiology
Magdalena Senderecka, Jakub Szewczyk, Szymon Wichary, Małgorzata Kossowska
The aim of the current study was to examine whether and how self-reported decisiveness is associated with response inhibition and performance monitoring. We hypothesized that these two cognitive control mechanisms, both of which are often associated with decision making, would differ in individuals varying in decisiveness. We focused on ERP correlates and behavioral measures of inhibition and error processing in the stop-signal task. We expected a negative relationship between decisiveness and behavioral measures of inhibitory control...
May 20, 2018: Psychophysiology
Gaetano Valenza, Alberto Greco, Matteo Bianchi, Mimma Nardelli, Simone Rossi, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo
Noninvasive, objective quantitative techniques to gauge emotional states are fundamental for clinical psychology as they overcome subjective bias of currently used questionnaires. To this end, we investigated brain oscillatory EEG activity during caresslike, affective haptic elicitation conveyed on the forearm at two force (strength of the caress) and three velocity (velocity of the caress) levels. Thirty-two healthy subjects (16 female) were asked to assess each haptic stimulus in terms of arousal (i.e., intensity of emotional perception) and valence (i...
May 20, 2018: Psychophysiology
Adreanna T M Watts, Edward M Bernat
The role of reward context has been investigated as an important factor in feedback processing. Previous work has demonstrated that the amplitude of the feedback negativity (FN) depends on the value of the outcome relative to the range of possible outcomes in a given context, not the objective value of the outcome. However, some research has shown that the FN does not scale with loss magnitude in loss-only contexts, suggesting that some contexts do not show a pattern of context dependence. Methodologically, time-frequency decomposition techniques have proven useful for isolating time-domain ERP activity as separable processes indexed in delta (< 3 Hz) and theta (3-7 Hz)...
May 11, 2018: Psychophysiology
Mathias Weymar, Margaret M Bradley, Christopher T Sege, Peter J Lang
Stimulus repetition elicits either enhancement or suppression in neural activity, and a recent fMRI meta-analysis of repetition effects for visual stimuli (Kim, 2017) reported cross-stimulus repetition enhancement in medial and lateral parietal cortex, as well as regions of prefrontal, temporal, and posterior cingulate cortex. Repetition enhancement was assessed here for repeated and novel scenes presented in the context of either an explicit episodic recognition task or an implicit judgment task, in order to study the role of spontaneous retrieval of episodic memories...
May 6, 2018: Psychophysiology
Francesco Giannelli, Nicola Molinaro
We investigated how native language experience shapes anticipatory language processing. Two groups of bilinguals (either Spanish or Basque natives) performed a word matching task (WordMT) and a picture matching task (PictureMT). They indicated whether the stimuli they visually perceived matched with the noun they heard. Spanish noun endings were either diagnostic of the gender (transparent) or ambiguous (opaque). ERPs were time-locked to an intervening gender-marked determiner preceding the predicted noun. The determiner always gender agreed with the following noun but could also introduce a mismatching noun, so that it was not fully task diagnostic...
May 6, 2018: Psychophysiology
Patrick Mussel, Johannes Hewig, Martin Weiß
Altruistic punishment is the attempt to penalize deviant behavior of another person even though it is accompanied by personal costs. Here, we investigated the influence of the reaction on the socioemotional level of the other person following altruistic punishment behavior on future decision making and neural responses. We used a modified ultimatum game, which included an emotional facial feedback of the proposer following the decision of the participant. We found higher acceptance rates for proposers showing a smile upon acceptance or a sad face upon rejection of an offer, compared to proposers showing a neutral facial expression...
April 27, 2018: Psychophysiology
Scott Tillem, Josanne van Dongen, Inti A Brazil, Arielle Baskin-Sommers
Recent advances in the application of graph theory made it possible to quantify the efficiency of communication within a neural network, going beyond traditional connectivity methods that only identify the degree to which neural regions are connected. Psychopathic traits, namely, interpersonal-affective and impulsive-antisocial traits, have been linked to widespread and distinct disruptions in neural connectivity. The efficiency of neural communication for individuals high on these psychopathic traits, though, is unknown...
April 26, 2018: Psychophysiology
Mingli Liang, Michael J Starrett, Arne D Ekstrom
Numerous reports have demonstrated low-frequency oscillations during navigation using invasive recordings in the hippocampus of both rats and human patients. Given evidence, in some cases, of low-frequency synchronization between midline cortex and hippocampus, it is also possible that low-frequency movement-related oscillations manifest in healthy human neocortex. However, this possibility remains largely unexplored, in part due to the difficulties of coupling free ambulation and effective scalp EEG recordings...
April 22, 2018: Psychophysiology
Heidi Mauersberger, Annekatrin Hoppe, Gudrun Brockmann, Ursula Hess
Conflicts are an undesirable yet common aspect of daily interactions with wide-ranging negative consequences. The present research aimed to examine the buffering effect of experimentally instructed reappraisal on self-reported, physiological and behavioral stress indices during interpersonal conflicts, taking into account habitual emotion regulation strategies. For this, 145 participants experienced a standardized laboratory conflict with the instruction to either reappraise (n = 48), to suppress (n = 50), or with no instruction (n = 47) while cardiovascular and neuroendocrine measures were taken...
April 22, 2018: Psychophysiology
Michael Christopher Melnychuk, Paul M Dockree, Redmond G O'Connell, Peter R Murphy, Joshua H Balsters, Ian H Robertson
The locus coeruleus (LC) has established functions in both attention and respiration. Good attentional performance requires optimal levels of tonic LC activity, and must be matched to task consistently. LC neurons are chemosensitive, causing respiratory phrenic nerve firing to increase frequency with higher CO2 levels, and as CO2 level varies with the phase of respiration, tonic LC activity should exhibit fluctuations at respiratory frequency. Top-down modulation of tonic LC activity from brain areas involved in attentional regulation, intended to optimize LC firing to suit task requirements, may have respiratory consequences as well, as increases in LC activity influence phrenic nerve firing...
April 22, 2018: Psychophysiology
Tyson V Barker, Sonya V Troller-Renfree, Lindsay C Bowman, Daniel S Pine, Nathan A Fox
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by increased social motivation and a heightened concern of peer evaluation. However, little research has examined social influences on neural functioning in adolescence. One psychophysiological measure of motivation, the error-related negativity (ERN), is an ERP following an error. In adults, the ERN is enhanced by contextual factors that influence motivation, such as social observation and evaluation. The current study examined relations among age and neural responses in social contexts in adolescence...
April 22, 2018: Psychophysiology
Rodolphe J Gentili, Kyle J Jaquess, Isabelle M Shuggi, Emma P Shaw, Hyuk Oh, Li-Chuan Lo, Ying Ying Tan, Clayton A Domingues, Justin A Blanco, Jeremy C Rietschel, Matthew W Miller, Bradley D Hatfield
A novel ERP approach was proposed to index variations in mental workload, particularly in attentional reserve, which is complementary to EEG spectral content thought to reflect mental effort. To our knowledge, no study has assessed mental effort and attentional reserve simultaneously in EEG gel-based and, importantly, dry systems, which are particularly well suited for real-world settings. Therefore, by systematically considering ERP, EEG spectral, and importantly the combination of both, this study examined if a small set of dry EEG electrodes could detect changes in both spectral and ERP metrics to assess the mental workload under various challenges with a similar fidelity to their gel-based counterparts in a laboratory setting...
June 2018: Psychophysiology
Martin F Wittkamp, Katja Bertsch, Claus Vögele, André Schulz
Interoceptive accuracy (IAc), that is, the ability to accurately perceive one's own bodily signals, is widely assumed to be a trait, although experimental manipulations such as stress may affect IAc. We used structural equation modeling to estimate the reliability of IAc, and the proportions of individual differences in IAc, explained by a trait and occasion-specific effects of situation and person-situation interactions. We assessed IAc in 59 healthy participants (40 women, MAge  = 23.4 years) on three consecutive measurement occasions, approximately 1 week apart, in a rest and poststress condition, using a heartbeat counting and a heartbeat discrimination task...
June 2018: Psychophysiology
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