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Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation

Nora Hlavac, Samuel Miller, Michael Grinter, Pamela VandeVord
Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) has become an increasingly significant concern in Veterans returning from warfare. Associated brain injury and cognitive deficits are difficult to diagnose as the nature of this injury is progressive. In order to better understand the mechanisms of BINT at the microscopic level, two- and three-dimensional models of astrocytes were studied. The 3-D model was developed using Matrigel® to embed the cells. Injury was induced by exposure to an overpressure of 20 psi (140 kPa) using a shock wave generator which simulates a free field blast profile...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
John Humm, Brian Peterson, Frank Pintar, Narayan Yoganandan, David Moorcroft, Amanda Taylor, Rick DeWeese
Increased interest in the airline industry to enhance occupant comfort and maximize seating density has prompted the design and installation of obliquely mounted seats in aircraft. The potential for injury and their mechanism in this seating environment is unknown. Epidemiology-based field injury data do not exist for airplane crashes, however, typical impact scenarios have been determined and safety standards addressing fore, aft, and side-facing seats have been levied by the FAA. The impact scenarios defined in these standards can be used to study likely injuries and injury mechanisms using Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) in a controlled laboratory environment...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
Zachary S Bailey, Venkata Silva Sai Sujith Sajja, W Brad Hubbard, Pamela J VandeVord
Blast induced neurotrauma (BINT) leads to widespread aberrant gene expression and molecular changes resulting in cognitive impairment. Enzymes such as HDAC2, HDAC6, SIRT1, DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b control histone acetylation and DNA methylation which play a major role in regulation of the transcriptome. Changes in the expression of these enzymes have been implicated in the pathology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We hypothesize that blast exposure will lead to changes in the expression of these enzymes which play a key role in injury progression and pathology...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
K R Butler, Hamed Benghuzzi, Michelle Tucci, A D Puckett
Macrophages and blood vessels are critical components in the biocompatibility and functionality of implantable ceramic materials used in drug delivery applications. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation of macrophage and neovascularization by further defining their presence, relationship, and correlation in the fibrous tissue capsule of calcium phosphate (TCP) ceramic drug delivery systems. Sixteen animals in four experimental groups were implanted with one TCP bioceramic each. Group I animals were implanted with a TCP ceramic not containing a biologic (control group)...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
K R Butler, Hamed Benghuzzi, Michelle Tucci, A D Puckett
The objective of this investigation was to quantify and further elucidate the tissue-implant response in the fibrous tissue surrounding tricalcium phosphate (TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA), and aluminum calcium phosphate (ALCAP) implants when implanted subcutaneously. Sixteen animals in four experimental groups (n = 4/group) were implanted with one implant each: Group I (control, TCP), Group II (HA), and Group III (ALCAP). At 90 days post-implantation, the fibrous tissue surrounding the implants was harvested. Sections of stained fibrous tissue were evaluated for the presence of macrophages, fibrocytes, neutrophils, vascularity and thickness for all three groups using semi-automated quantitative methods...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
Shana A Nelson, Gerri A Wilson, Michelle Tucci, Hamed Benghuzzi
Recent reports in the literature show an increase in the risk of heart related events in patients treated with tricyclic antidepressants. There is also evidence that serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are negatively associated with heart failure. The objective of our study is to determine if cardiomyocytes in culture can be used as a tool to mimic clinical scenarios and to evaluate therapeutic concentrations of SSRIs (fluoxetine) and antidiabetic (troglitazone) medication. Cardiomyocytes were grown in a tissue culture environment and challenged with therapeutic concentrations of SSRIs alone or a combination of SSRIs and antidiabetic drugs...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
Victoria Hodges, Michelle Tucci, Hamed Benghuzzi
There is less than a thirty percent survival rate for patients with a localized pancreatic tumor, and less than a ten percent survival rate for patients with metastases. Patients with pancreatic cancer often have altered glucose metabolism and are prescribed metformin which has been shown to reduce cancer cell proliferation. Metformin administered at doses ranging between 10-20 mM has been reported in the literature to induce AMPK signaling pathways which increase cellular apoptosis. Epigallacto-catechan (EGCG) is a polyphenolic antioxidant that has also been shown to increase the AMPK pathway that increases cellular apoptosis...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
Domen Novak, Robert Riener
Rehabilitation robots physically support patients during exercise, but their assistive strategies often constrain patients by forcing them to execute predefined motions. To allow more freedom during rehabilitation, the robot should be able to predict what motion the patient wants to perform, then intelligently support the motion. As a first step, this paper presents an algorithm that predicts targets of reaching motions made with an arm rehabilitation exoskeleton. Different sensing modalities are compared with regard to their predictive abilities: arm kinematics, eye tracking, contextual information, and combinations of these modalities...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
Paul Frenger
Twenty years ago the author unveiled his inexpensive complex hand model, which reproduced every motion of the human hand. A control system programmed in the Forth language operated its actuators and sensors. Follow-on papers for this popular project were next presented in Texas, Canada and Germany. From this hand grew the author’s meter-tall robot (nicknamed ANNIE: Android With Neural Networks, Intellect and Emotions). It received machine vision, facial expressiveness, speech synthesis and speech recognition; a simian version also received a dexterous ape foot...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
Ibrahim O Farah, Carlene Holt-Gray, Joseph A Cameron, Michelle Tucci, Zelma Cason, Hamed Benghuzzi
The impact of retinoic acid (All Trans Retinoic Acid; ATRA) and Mold spores (MLD) in the development of lung pathology and in vivo tissue remodeling have not been well established in the literature. In addition, the role of citral (inhibitor of retinoid function) in the improvement of lung pathology has not been ascertained in animal studies. Therefore, it is hypothesized that ATRA and Mold (MLD) exposure will sensitize lung tissues leading to lung tissue pathology and that Citrals (C1 and C2) will reverse, ameliorate or improve the associated pathological damage to lung tissues...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
Ibrahim O Farah, Carlene Holt-Gray, Joseph A Cameron, Michelle Tucci, Zelma Cason, Hamed Benghuzzi
The health impact of retinoic acid (All Trans Retinoic Acid; ATRA) in the development of lung pathology and tissue remodeling has not been well established in the literature. Equally, the role of Citral (inhibitor of retinoid function) in the improvement of lung pathology has not been ascertained in vivo. Therefore, it is hypothesized that ATRA and Ovalbumin (Egg albumin; OVA) exposure will sensitize lung tissues leading to lung tissue pathology and that citrals (C1 and C2) will reverse or ameliorate the related pathological damage to lung tissues...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
K R Anandh, C M Sujatha, S Ramakrishnan
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a common form of dementia that affects gray and white matter structures of brain. Manifestation of AD leads to cognitive deficits such as memory impairment problems, ability to think and difficulties in performing day to day activities. Although the etiology of this disease is unclear, imaging biomarkers are highly useful in the early diagnosis of AD. Magnetic resonance imaging is an indispensible non-invasive imaging modality that reflects both the geometry and pathology of the brain...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
S S Suganthi, S Singh Allmin Pradhap, S Ramakrishnan
Observing and classifying the indirect immunofluorescence patterns on HEp-2 cells can help in detecting Anti-Nuclear-Antibodies. A computer algorithm to perform this function can lead to a more standardized, faster and accurate diagnosis of auto-immune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, sjogren’s syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis. In this paper, HEp-2 staining patterns are classified using segmentation based fractal texture features. The images used for this experimentation are obtained from a publicly available database...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
S Prabha, C M Sujatha, S Ramakrishnan
Breast thermography plays a major role in early detection of breast cancer in which the thermal variations are associated with precancerous state of breast. The distribution of asymmetrical thermal patterns indicates the pathological condition in breast thermal images. In this work, asymmetry analysis of breast thermal images is carried out using level set segmentation and Zernike moments. The breast tissues are subjected to Tukey’s biweight robust anisotropic diffusion filtering (TBRAD) for the generation of edge map...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
M Kayalvizhi, G Kavitha, C M Sujatha, S Ramakrishnan
In this work, the ventricles in MR brain images are segmented using edge based modified Distance Regularized Level Set Evolution (DRLSE) method and the structural changes in the disease is further analysed using Minkowski functionals (MFs). Twenty normal and abnormal T1-weighted coronal mid slice MR image are considered for the analysis. The MR brain image is pre-processed using contrast enhancement method. The edge based modified DRLSE with a new penalty term is used to segment the ventricles from the enhanced images...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
A R Jac Fredo, G Kavitha, S Ramakrishnan
In this work, the subcortical regions of control and autistic MR brain are segmented from the skull stripped images using Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) based Augmented Lagrangian (AL) multiphase level set method. The FCM method is used as he intensity discriminator for the multiphase level set method. The AL function avoids the re-initialization procedure. The segmented subcortical regions are validated with the ground truth images using dice similarity index. The texture features such as energy and entropy are calculated from the extracted cortical and subcortical regions...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
Nantakrit Yodpijit, Chalida Songwongamarit, Nicha Tavichaiyuth
In today’s information-rich environment, one of the most popular devices is a smartphone. Research has shown significant growth in the use of smartphones and apps all over the world. Accelerometer within smartphone is a motion sensor that can be used to detect human movements. Compared to other major vital signs, gait characteristics represent general health status, and can be determined using smartphones. The objective of the current study is to design and develop the alternative technology that can potentially predict health status and reduce healthcare cost...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
Amin A Sheikh, Adel Mohamed
Ependymal Cells are a type of Glial Cell lining the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. Their primary function is to secrete and circulate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Neural stem cells (NSC) exist within the ependymal lining that are capable of neurogenesis. Historically it was thought that neurogenesis only occurred prenatally and that adult ependymal cells are incapable of regeneration. It is now known that primary neurogenic areas within the Central Nervous System (CNS) are located within the lateral ventricle and hippocampus...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
Mary Pearson, Jacob Parrow, Benjamin Braaten, J Wandler, Keerthi Nawarathna, Dan Ewert
With the prevalence of wireless radio frequency (RF) devices, interest is growing to more fully understand the effect of RF on biological tissue. This research explores how ?DNA interacts with RF energy. By sweeping a radio frequency range from 1 GHz to 8.5 GHz we hope to observe if specific frequencies show significantly elevated RF energy-?DNA interaction (e.g. either absorbed and/or reflected). Our procedure is as follows: 1) Set up RF equipment (horn antennas and network analyzer), 2) vary frequency from 1- 8...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
William H Curry, Brian D Stemper, Jason Pryzbylo, Justine Trueden, Natasha Wilkins, Glenn R Paskoff, Barry S Shender
Internal intervertebral disc disruption is involved in the onset of a wide range of spinal dysfunction, ultimately affecting not only the disc itself but the surrounding osseous and neural structures as well. The ability of disc to withstand and effectively distribute axial load is dependent upon whether peripherally located annular fibers provide the support necessary to contain and corral the pressure sensitive nucleus. Any alteration in the structures immediate to the nucleus jeopardize this ability. While annular tears and fissures have been thoroughly investigated, one form of internal disc disruption is less well-understood...
2015: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
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