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Journal of the History of Ideas

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366891/just-society-as-a-fair-game-john-rawls-and-game-theory-in-the-1950s
#1
Andrius Gališanka
I explore the influence of game theory on the political philosopher John Rawls as a way of analyzing the character of his democratic thought. Recent narratives bring Rawls closer to direct democracy as a result of game theory's influence. I argue that game theory prompted creative, organic developments in Rawls's political framework rather than shaping it. It prompted Rawls to emphasize autonomy and fairness, leading him to the analogy between a just society and a fair game. And it prompted thought experiments that analyzed our considered judgments...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366890/rawls-on-dewey-before-the-dewey-lectures
#2
Daniele Botti
This article sheds light on John Rawls's views on John Dewey's philosophical temperament by investigating unpublished papers and lectures that Rawls wrote and delivered across the late 1940s, the 1950s, the 1960s, and the early 1970s. Moreover, the article shows that Rawls's rejection of Kant's dualisms predates by at least three decades the "Dewey Lectures" (1980) and that Dewey's notion of deliberation as "dramatic rehearsal in imagination" might have had an impact on Rawls's development of the notion of "reflective equilibrium" as a state of affairs that we strive to reach in ethical reflection...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366889/-the-latest-invasion-from-britain-young-rawls-and-his-community-of-american-ethical-theorists
#3
P MacKenzie Bok
This piece shows how other archives can complement the Rawls Papers at Harvard by reconstructing Rawls's community of ethical theorists in the 1950s and early 1960s. It casts new light on Rawls's early immersion in the nascent movement of American Wittgensteinianism at Cornell, and traces his involvement in a transatlantic group of philosophers doing "analytic ethics" with an emphasis on inductive logic in order to rebut the "emotive theory." It further illustrates how the willingness of Rawls and his contemporaries to question "the naturalistic fallacy" laid the groundwork for Rawls to build his own mature moral theory on natural foundations...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366888/rawls-on-philosophy-and-democracy-lessons-from-the-archived-papers
#4
David A Reidy
Drawing from Rawls's archived papers, I explore a few of the basic relationships between philosophy and democracy framing Rawls's political philosophy.
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366887/john-rawls-in-light-of-the-archive-introduction-to-the-symposium-on-the-rawls-papers
#5
Mark Bevir
This symposium calls attention to the archival papers of the political philosopher John Rawls. As the symposium papers show, the archive illuminates the development of Rawls's philosophical and political visions, showing the varied intellectual traditions on which he drew. The papers portray Rawls as a naturalist who believed that moral and political arguments should be made in light of facts about natural human capacities and propensities. The papers explore Rawls's engagement with Wittgenstein, Dewey, and game theory...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366886/leopold-zunz-and-the-meanings-of-i-wissenschaft-i
#6
Amos Bitzan
When Jewish historians narrate the history of their field, they often point to Leopold Zunz (1794-1886) as its founder. My article challenges the notion that Zunz's early understanding of Wissenschaft was primarily historical. Reconstructing the meaning of Wissenschaft for Zunz in its context, I argue that it was more philosophical than historical and closely linked to an ideal of character formation. Zunz's view of Wissenschaft reveals the ways in which German idealist philosophy, neo-Humanist manifestos, and a Romantic religious reform agenda could produce a scientific interest in the human past that seems at odds with central tenets of historicism...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366885/spinoza-s-life-1677-1802
#7
Wiep van Bunge
Immediately after Spinoza's death in 1677 his first biographers framed a life which would play an important part in the eighteenth-century perception of the Dutch philosopher. Bayle's entry on Spinoza in the Dictionnaire in particular, together with Jelles's preface to the Opera posthuma, created the image of a philosopher whose dedication to philosophy was unconditional and whose moral behavior was impeccable. Despite the general hostility which Spinoza's views continued to meet, his life appears to have contributed considerably to the gradual rediscovery of his works during the dying decades of the eighteenth century, most notably in Germany and the Netherlands...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366884/zilsel-s-thesis-maritime-culture-and-iberian-science-in-early-modern-europe
#8
Henrique Leitão, Antonio Sánchez
Zilsel's thesis on the artisanal origins of modern science remains one of the most original proposals about the emergence of scientific modernity. We propose to inspect the scientific developments in Iberia in the early modern period using Zilsel's ideas as a guideline. Our purpose is to show that his ideas illuminate the situation in Iberia but also that the Iberian case is a remarkable illustration of Zilsel's thesis. Furthermore, we argue that Zilsel's thesis is essentially a sociological explanation that cannot be applied to isolated cases; its use implies global events that involve extended societies over large periods of time...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366883/girolamo-cardano-and-julius-caesar-scaliger-in-debate-about-nature-s-musical-secrets
#9
Jacomien Prins
This article examines the theories of the power of ancient music and the superiority of the sense of hearing proposed by Girolamo Cardano in his De subtilitate and Julius Caesar Scaliger's critique of these views in his Exercitationes exotericae de subtilitate. Despite Scaliger's rejection of Cardano's claim that he had successfully revealed the "subtle" nature of the sense of hearing and the innate harmony between music and the passions, both thinkers are shown to conduct their debate in one and the same inherited discourse in which new theories were shaped about music, what it does, or what it should do...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477347/wheeler-and-whitehead-process-biology-and-process-philosophy-in-the-early-twentieth-century
#10
Dennis Sölch
The case of William Morton Wheeler and Alfred North Whitehead represents a striking example of how biologists and philosophers engaged in a common enterprise in the early twentieth century. Both challenge the notion that the living world is composed of distinct organisms. Based on his studies of the behavior of social insects, Wheeler developed a concept of superorganisms that paved the way for a theory of emergent evolution. This paper argues that Whitehead, whose relation to academic biology has been largely ignored, drew on Wheeler's findings and integrated them into a universal philosophical cosmology...
July 2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477346/bergson-s-philosophy-of-will-and-the-war-of-1914-1918
#11
Mark Sinclair
In his wartime discourses of 1914, Henri Bergson mobilizes his philosophy of creative evolution: France is a nation of creative life able to replenish itself, whereas Germany, for all its technological might, is a mechanistic power bound to wear itself out. This paper shows that this moblization is made possible by Bergson's philosophy of will: life as a creative principle is will, and it is a controllable and commandable willpower that he opposes to Germany. Grasping this is crucial for understanding not only the war discourses but also Bergson's later reflections on technology, modernity, and mysticism...
July 2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477345/free-will-predestination-and-the-fate-of-the-ottoman-empire
#12
Ethan L Menchinger
Although European travelers to the Ottoman Empire often noted the inhabitants' "fatalism," historians have never seriously examined this intellectual phenomenon. Whether or not we can credit such sources, the testimony of seventeenth-and eighteenth-century Turkish and Arabic sources points to a robust debate over fate, free will, and predestination. What were the reasons behind these discussions? What issues were at stake? This article outlines the context and content of the debate. It then offers some observations about the wider significance of free will and predestination in the Ottoman intellectual universe - particularly their relation to early modern bureaucratic and military reform...
July 2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477344/pufendorf-on-passions-and-sociability
#13
Heikki Haara
Samuel Pufendorf is known for his normative natural law philosophy, and particularly for his theory of sociability. This article concentrates on a topic that has received very little attention - his theory of the motivating character of passions in social life. It will demonstrate that individually and politically governed passions play a central role in Pufendorf's description of the structure of human societies. I argue that for Pufendorf the norms of sociability are effective in social life because social interaction, guided by political governance, enables people to moderate their antisocial passions and habituate themselves to sociable passions...
July 2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477343/john-punch-scotist-holy-war-and-the-irish-catholic-revolutionary-tradition-in-the-seventeenth-century
#14
Ian W Campbell
During the 1640s, the Irish Franciscan theologian John Punch taught his theology students in Rome that war against Protestants was made just by their religion alone. Jesuits like Luis de Molina identified the holy war tradition in which Punch stood as a Scotist one, and insisted that the Scotists had confused the natural and supernatural spheres. Among Irishmen, Punch was unusual. The main Irish Catholic revolutionary tradition employed Jesuit and Thomist theory. They argued that the Stuarts had lost the right to rule Ireland for natural reasons, not supernatural ones; because the Stuarts were tyrants, not because they were Protestants...
July 2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477342/democritus-junior-as-reader-of-auctoritates-robert-burton-s-method-and-italic-the-anatomy-of-melancholy-italic
#15
Giuliano Mori
This essay analyzes Robert Burton's methodological approach to the subject of melancholy and draws comparisons between Burton's method of inquiry and the 17th-century scientific method at large. Burton's sources are hence examined and two epistemological lines of influence are singled out, one being characterized by deductive procedures (Galen, Ramus), and the other by inductivism (Hippocrates, pseudo-Hippocratic representation of Democritus). Combined by Burton, these traditions inspired the structure of Burton's Anatomy, which allowed the concurrence of multiple opinions that mutually interact and automatically correct one another within a cento-like text...
July 2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477341/2015-arthur-o-lovejoy-lecture-the-boys-on-the-beach-children-s-games-and-baptismal-grace-in-medieval-thought
#16
Marcia L Colish
This paper tracks the fortunes of the debate on whether children playing at baptism can actually administer and receive a valid sacramental baptism from Rufinus of Aquileia (late 4th to early 5th century) through ca. 1300. Theologians and canonists who addressed this question arrived at no consensus. They often disagreed with their own masters, applied Rufinus to a range of issues he never took up, used him to support or criticize Augustine on this topic, and viewed as acceptable more than one position on it within orthodox Christianity...
July 2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763410/dialogue-eurocentrism-and-comparative-political-theory-a-view-from-cross-cultural-intellectual-history
#17
Takashi Shogimen
Comparative political theory is an emerging sub-field of political theory; it is a response to the dissatisfaction with the prevalent Eurocentric mode of political theorizing in the age of globalization. A methodological characteristic of comparative political theory is cross-cultural engagement through dialogue with foreign political ideas. The present paper argues that the dialogical mode of cross-cultural engagement is distinctively European. While the dialogical engagement with foreign worldviews constitutes a mainstream of the European literary tradition, it is largely absent, for example, from the Japanese counterpart...
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763409/big-is-a-thing-of-the-past-climate-change-and-methodology-in-the-history-of-ideas
#18
Deborah R Coen
The climate crisis has raised questions about the proper scale of historical analysis in the Anthropocene. After explaining how this methodological crisis differs from an earlier stand-off between proponents of microhistory and total history, this paper suggests a role for intellectual history in moving us beyond the current debate. What is needed is a history of "scaling"; that is, we need to historicize the process of mediating between different frameworks of measurement, even those that might at first appear incommensurable...
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763408/a-contingent-affinity-max-weber-carl-schmitt-and-the-challenge-of-modern-politics
#19
Pedro T Magalhães
The thesis that the theory of charismatic-plebiscitary democracy developed by Max Weber in the wake of the Weimar Republic was developed to its ultimate consequences by Carl Schmitt in the final crisis of Weimar has been hotly debated since it was first advanced in the 1950s. This paper proposes a fresh look at the controversy. By comparing both authors' concepts of politics in their relation to the problem of modernity, it argues that the Weber-Schmitt affair is neither a baseless legend nor a case of natural continuity...
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763407/empiricism-and-rationalism-in-nineteenth-century-histories-of-philosophy
#20
Alberto Vanzo
This paper traces the ancestry of a familiar historiographical narrative, according to which early modern philosophy was marked by the development of empiricism, rationalism, and their synthesis by Kant. It is often claimed that this narrative became standard in the nineteenth century because of the influence of Thomas Reid, Kant and his disciples, or German and British idealists. I argue that the narrative became standard at the turn of the twentieth century. Among the factors that allowed it to become standard are its aptness to be adopted by philosophers of the most diverse persuasions, its simplicity and suitability for teaching...
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
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