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Journal of the History of Ideas

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104192/contents-of-volume-78
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2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104189/theory-practice-and-modernity-leo-strauss-on-rousseau-s-epicureanism
#2
Jared Holley
This article reconstructs Leo Strauss's reading of Rousseau's Epicureanism to argue that his work is unified by an abiding concern with the problem of theory and practice. Strauss sought to clarify the distinction between theory and practice he considered a fundamental precondition of any properly philosophical reflection on political life, and he explained the pernicious obscuring of that distinction through a narrative tracing the modern modifications of classical Epicureanism. Strauss's critical history of modern political thought is thus part of his attempt to restore the classical distinction between theory and practice to the status of a philosophical problem in modernity...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104188/marie-stopes-s-wonderful-rhythm-charts-normalizing-the-natural
#3
Laura Doan
Historians of sexuality credit marital advice with disseminating a modern discourse of the sexual, as developed by sexologists who understood sex as normal or abnormal. Marie Stopes did not reproduce their findings but drew on the methods of biometricians in attempting to normalize the natural. Thinking about Stopes's methods in discerning a naturally occurring curve of normal female sex-impulses in relation to Havelock Ellis points to constraints in his production of the normal. The article traces the impact of Stopes's attempt to measure desire by analyzing letters from her readers who became partners in the great scientific project of normalization...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104187/charles-darwin-s-theory-of-moral-sentiments-what-darwin-s-ethics-really-owes-to-adam-smith
#4
Greg Priest
When we read the Origin, we cannot help but hear echoes of the Wealth of Nations. Darwin's "economy of nature" features a "division of labour" that leads to complexity and productivity. We should not, however, analyze Darwin's ethics through this lens. Darwin did not draw his economic ideas from Smith, nor did he base his ethics on an economic foundation. Darwin's ethics rest on Smith's notion from the Theory of Moral Sentiments of an innate human faculty of sympathy. Darwin gave this faculty an evolutionary interpretation and built on this foundation an ethics far removed from what is commonly supposed...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104186/useful-knowledge-improvement-and-the-logic-of-capital-in-richard-ligon-s-i-true-and-exact-history-of-barbados-i
#5
David Chan Smith
Richard Ligon's True and Exact History of Barbados has been recognized as a major source of information on the emergence of planter society and slavery in the English Caribbean. Curiously, however, the centrality of the text's discussion of business has been overlooked. Yet Ligon presents the History as a how-to manual on building and managing a sugar fortune. In doing so, Ligon self-consciously connects his work to Baconian ideas of improvement and useful knowledge to legitimize the position of the planters over others, and lend respectability to commercial accumulation...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104185/saving-the-philosopher-s-soul-the-i-de-pietate-aristotelis-i-by-fortunio-liceti
#6
Eva Del Soldato
The De pietate Aristotelis erga Deum et homines (1645) by Fortunio Liceti is a one-of-a-kind text. In this book Liceti claimed that Aristotle converted to Judaism, and that he never contradicted the Scriptures in his writings. At a time when competing philosophical and scientific schools put Aristotle at odds with faith, restoring his reputation from a religious point of view could be seen as key to safeguarding Peripateticism. Nonetheless Liceti composed his work not to polemicize with anti-Aristotelians, but rather with fellow Aristotelians who were not sufficiently committed to defending his stature...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104184/can-the-nonhuman-speak-breaking-the-chain-of-being-in-the-anthropocene
#7
Joyce E Chaplin
The fact that nonhuman animals share the power of communication, plus the likelihood that some share our capacity for ideation, demands reevaluation of why human ideas matter, and especially whether they adequately convey a sense of our place within the rest of nature. Nonhuman beings and phenomena may be intrinsically unhuman, but are not necessarily less important than us. Analysis of this difference-as-significance is an ongoing problem of the Anthropocene. This essay focuses on Arthur Lovejoy's Great Chain of Being and Edmund Burke's concept of the sublime, describing alternative ways of situating humans in relation to the nonhuman...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757490/the-philosophical-genealogy-of-taylor-s-social-imaginaries-a-complex-history-of-ideas-and-predecessors
#8
Guido M Vanheeswijck
The deepest sources of Charles Taylor's use of the concept "social imaginaries" are often related to political philosophy or social anthropology (Anderson, Castoriadis). The purpose of this article is to show that they also form part of Taylor's struggle to overcome the epistemological construal in modern philosophy and culture. Taylor locates the concept "social imaginaries" in the Kantian tradition, identifying their role to that of transcendental schemes. However, there remains a central difference between Kant's transcendental schemes and Taylor's social imaginaries...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757489/the-metaphysics-of-morris-r-cohen-from-realism-to-objective-relativism
#9
Lawrence Cahoone
Morris Cohen is mainly remembered as a philosopher of history and law, a friend of jurists (Oliver Wendell Holmes, Felix Frankfurter), and a teacher of more prominent philosophers (e.g., Ernest Nagel, Paul Weiss, Morton White). But his unique position as a student of the work of Russell and Peirce led him to make a distinctive contribution to the debate over realism in in the 1910s. Largely ignored and completely uncited, his early papers formulated what would later be called "objective relativism," influencing the later work of Columbia naturalism, hence American philosophy, from the 1940s to the 1960s...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757488/the-greatest-metaphor-ever-mixed-gold-in-the-british-bible-1750-1850
#10
Timothy Alborn
Given the frequency of negative references to gold in British allusions to filthy lucre, it emerges as an historical puzzle that Britons resorted to biblical metaphors of gold so often in describing heaven and their aspiration to be purified in God's crucible. This article provides evidence for the prominence of these two metaphors in British religious and secular discourse between 1750 and 1850, and argues that Britons tried to resolve the resulting tensions by celebrating their uniquely abstract valuation of gold, in contrast to less "civilized" connotations of gold in Catholic and non-Christian cultures...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757487/deformities-of-nature-sleepwalking-and-non-conscious-states-of-mind-in-late-eighteenth-century-britain
#11
Sasha Handley
This article examines the didactic appropriation of sleepwalking reports in late eighteenth-century Britain in pedagogical treatises, conduct books, and children's literature. It examines how and why reports of sleepwalkers were used to edify young minds and in so doing traces a critical shift in understandings of sleepwalkers, which were transformed from preternatural wonders to deformities of nature that exemplified the dangerous consequences of irrational, unregulated bodies and minds. This new role was predicated on new medical and philosophical understandings of sleepwalking and on the prioritisation of developmental psychology by pedagogues and philosophers...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757486/the-picture-multiple-figuring-thinking-and-knowing-in-descartes-s-i-essais-i-1637
#12
Melissa Lo
Throughout his Essais (1637), Descartes appropriated the visual language of practical mathematics in order to forge a new natural philosophy. This article argues that by grafting geometric line onto descriptive figure, the philosopher and his illustrator, Frans van Schooten Jr., underscored doubts about a natural philosophy based on qualities, all the while situating his new epistemology in the 17th-century present and exercising a deep attention to the differences between nature seen, nature pictured, and nature understood...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757485/francis-bacon-s-i-valerius-terminus-i-and-the-voyage-to-the-great-instauration
#13
Richard Serjeantson
Francis Bacon's earliest surviving natural philosophical treatise (composed circa 1603) bears the title Valerius Terminus of the Interpretation of Nature. This study, resting on fresh attention to the surviving authorial manuscript, has three goals. It begins by identifying a lost precursor work apparently entitled "Of Active Knowledge." It then examines the significance of the pseudonyms Bacon chose to introduce his ideas, considering especially his invocation of Erasmus's emblem, the Roman deity Terminus...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757484/-scholasticism-is-a-daughter-of-judaism-the-discovery-of-jewish-influence-on-medieval-christian-thought
#14
George Y Kohler
This article retells the surprising discovery of a considerable Jewish influence on Christian scholasticism in the Middle Ages. While most students of Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas knew that both had read Jewish philosophy, only the rediscovery of especially Maimonides's Guide of the Perplexed by Jewish philosophers in the nineteenth century showed the whole extent of the scholastics' dependence on Jewish predecessors - especially where they do not refer to them specifically. This Jewish discovery naturally faced Catholic resistance, if not denial, and turns thus into an interesting chapter in the history of theological ideas...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366891/just-society-as-a-fair-game-john-rawls-and-game-theory-in-the-1950s
#15
Andrius GaliĊĦanka
I explore the influence of game theory on the political philosopher John Rawls as a way of analyzing the character of his democratic thought. Recent narratives bring Rawls closer to direct democracy as a result of game theory's influence. I argue that game theory prompted creative, organic developments in Rawls's political framework rather than shaping it. It prompted Rawls to emphasize autonomy and fairness, leading him to the analogy between a just society and a fair game. And it prompted thought experiments that analyzed our considered judgments...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366890/rawls-on-dewey-before-the-dewey-lectures
#16
Daniele Botti
This article sheds light on John Rawls's views on John Dewey's philosophical temperament by investigating unpublished papers and lectures that Rawls wrote and delivered across the late 1940s, the 1950s, the 1960s, and the early 1970s. Moreover, the article shows that Rawls's rejection of Kant's dualisms predates by at least three decades the "Dewey Lectures" (1980) and that Dewey's notion of deliberation as "dramatic rehearsal in imagination" might have had an impact on Rawls's development of the notion of "reflective equilibrium" as a state of affairs that we strive to reach in ethical reflection...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366889/-the-latest-invasion-from-britain-young-rawls-and-his-community-of-american-ethical-theorists
#17
P MacKenzie Bok
This piece shows how other archives can complement the Rawls Papers at Harvard by reconstructing Rawls's community of ethical theorists in the 1950s and early 1960s. It casts new light on Rawls's early immersion in the nascent movement of American Wittgensteinianism at Cornell, and traces his involvement in a transatlantic group of philosophers doing "analytic ethics" with an emphasis on inductive logic in order to rebut the "emotive theory." It further illustrates how the willingness of Rawls and his contemporaries to question "the naturalistic fallacy" laid the groundwork for Rawls to build his own mature moral theory on natural foundations...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366888/rawls-on-philosophy-and-democracy-lessons-from-the-archived-papers
#18
David A Reidy
Drawing from Rawls's archived papers, I explore a few of the basic relationships between philosophy and democracy framing Rawls's political philosophy.
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366887/john-rawls-in-light-of-the-archive-introduction-to-the-symposium-on-the-rawls-papers
#19
Mark Bevir
This symposium calls attention to the archival papers of the political philosopher John Rawls. As the symposium papers show, the archive illuminates the development of Rawls's philosophical and political visions, showing the varied intellectual traditions on which he drew. The papers portray Rawls as a naturalist who believed that moral and political arguments should be made in light of facts about natural human capacities and propensities. The papers explore Rawls's engagement with Wittgenstein, Dewey, and game theory...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366886/leopold-zunz-and-the-meanings-of-i-wissenschaft-i
#20
Amos Bitzan
When Jewish historians narrate the history of their field, they often point to Leopold Zunz (1794-1886) as its founder. My article challenges the notion that Zunz's early understanding of Wissenschaft was primarily historical. Reconstructing the meaning of Wissenschaft for Zunz in its context, I argue that it was more philosophical than historical and closely linked to an ideal of character formation. Zunz's view of Wissenschaft reveals the ways in which German idealist philosophy, neo-Humanist manifestos, and a Romantic religious reform agenda could produce a scientific interest in the human past that seems at odds with central tenets of historicism...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
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