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Journal of Anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449202/barn-owls-maximize-head-rotations-by-a-combination-of-yawing-and-rolling-in-functionally-diverse-regions-of-the-neck
#1
Markus Krings, John A Nyakatura, Mark L L M Boumans, Martin S Fischer, Hermann Wagner
Owls are known for their outstanding neck mobility: these birds can rotate their heads more than 270°. The anatomical basis of this extraordinary neck rotation ability is not well understood. We used X-ray fluoroscopy of living owls as well as forced neck rotations in dead specimens and computer tomographic (CT) reconstructions to study how the individual cervical joints contribute to head rotation in barn owls (Tyto furcata pratincola). The X-ray data showed the natural posture of the neck, and the reconstructions of the CT-scans provided the shapes of the individual vertebrae...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436567/an-ultrastructural-study-of-chondroptosis-programmed-cell-death-in-degenerative-intervertebral-discs-in%C3%A2-vivo
#2
Li-Bo Jiang, Hai-Xiao Liu, Yu-Long Zhou, Sun-Ren Sheng, Hua-Zi Xu, En-Xing Xue
Apoptosis has been regarded to mediate intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD); however, the basic question of how the apoptotic bodies are cleared in the avascular intervertebral disc without phagocytes, which are essential to apoptosis, remains to be elucidated. Our goals were to investigate the ultrastructure of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells undergoing chondroptosis, a variant of apoptotic cell death, in a rabbit annular needle-puncture model of IDD. Experimental IDD was induced by puncturing discs with a 16-G needle in New Zealand rabbits...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429369/variation-in-brain-anatomy-in-frogs-and-its-possible-bearing-on-their-locomotor-ecology
#3
Adriana S Manzano, Anthony Herrel, Anne-Claire Fabre, Virginia Abdala
Despite the long-standing interest in the evolution of the brain, relatively little is known about variation in brain anatomy in frogs. Yet, frogs are ecologically diverse and, as such, variation in brain anatomy linked to differences in lifestyle or locomotor behavior can be expected. Here we present a comparative morphological study focusing on the macro- and micro-anatomy of the six regions of the brain and its choroid plexus: the olfactory bulbs, the telencephalon, the diencephalon, the mesencephalon, the rhombencephalon, and the cerebellum...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425099/network-analysis-of-adhesion-growth-regulatory-galectins-and-their-binding-sites-in-adult-chicken-retina-and-choroid
#4
Joachim C Manning, Gabriel García Caballero, Clemens Knospe, Herbert Kaltner, Hans-Joachim Gabius
The highly ordered multilayered organization of the adult chicken retina is a suitable test model for examining zonal distribution of the members of a bioeffector family. Based on the concept of the sugar code, the functional pairing of glycan epitopes with cognate receptors (lectins) is emerging as a means to explain the control of diverse physiological activities. Having recently completed the biochemical characterization of all seven adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins present in chicken, it was possible to establish how the individual characteristics of their expression profiles add up to shape the galectin network, which until now has not been defined at this level of complexity...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421607/laterality-and-grip-strength-influence-hand-bone-micro-architecture-in-modern-humans-an-hrpqct-study
#5
Nicolas Reina, Etienne Cavaignac, William H Trousdale, Jean-Michel Laffosse, José Braga
It is widely hypothesized that mechanical loading, specifically repetitive low-intensity tasks, influences the inner structure of cancellous bone. As such, there is likely a relationship between handedness and bone morphology. The aim of this study is to determine patterns in trabecular bone between dominant and non-dominant hands in modern humans. Seventeen healthy patients between 22 and 32 years old were included in the study. Radial carpal bones (lunate, capitate, scaphoid, trapezium, trapezoid, 1st, 2nd and 3rd metacarpals) were analyzed with high-resolution micro-computed tomography...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418109/sagittal-crest-formation-in-great-apes-and-gibbons
#6
Katharine L Balolia, Christophe Soligo, Bernard Wood
The frequency of sagittal crest expression and patterns of sagittal crest growth and development have been documented in hominoids, including some extinct hominin taxa, and the more frequent expression of the sagittal crest in males has been traditionally linked with the need for larger-bodied individuals to have enough attachment area for the temporalis muscle. In the present study, we investigate sagittal cresting in a dentally mature sample of four hominoid taxa (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus and Hylobates lar)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397980/uterine-remodelling-during-pregnancy-and-pseudopregnancy-in-the-brushtail-possum-trichosurus-vulpecula-phalangeridae
#7
Melanie K Laird, Hanon McShea, Bronwyn M McAllan, Christopher R Murphy, Michael B Thompson
The formation of a placenta is critical for successful mammalian pregnancy and requires remodelling of the uterine epithelium. In eutherian mammals, remodelling involves specific morphological changes that often correlate with the mode of embryonic attachment. Given the differences between marsupial and eutherian placentae, formation of a marsupial placenta may involve patterns of uterine remodelling that are different from those in eutherians. Here we present a detailed morphological study of the uterus of the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula; Phalangeridae) throughout pregnancy, using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy, to identify whether uterine changes in marsupials correlate with mode of embryonic attachment as they do in eutherian mammals...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397961/the-association-between-wedging-of-the-aorta-and-cardiac-structural-anatomy-as-revealed-using-multidetector-row-computed-tomography
#8
Shumpei Mori, Robert H Anderson, Tomofumi Takaya, Takayoshi Toba, Tatsuro Ito, Sei Fujiwara, Yoshiaki Watanabe, Tatsuya Nishii, Atsushi K Kono, Ken-Ichi Hirata
The aortic root is wedged within the cardiac base. The precise extent of aortic wedging, however, and its influence on the surrounding cardiac structures, has not been systematically investigated. We analysed 100 consecutive patients, who underwent coronary arterial computed tomographic angiography. We assessed the extent of aortic wedging by measuring the vertical distance between the non-adjacent aortic sinus and the inferior epicardium. A shorter distance indicates deeper aortic wedging. We assessed the tilt angle and diameter of the ascending aorta, the relative heights of the left atrial roof and the oval fossa, the shape of the proximal right coronary artery, the angle of the aorta relative to the left ventricular axis, and the lung volume...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370065/the-cerebral-basal-arterial-network-morphometry-of-inflow-and-outflow-components
#9
Arjun Burlakoti, Jaliya Kumaratilake, Jamie Taylor, Nicola Massy-Westropp, Maciej Henneberg
The aim of this project was to study how the morphology of the incoming and outgoing arterial components of the cerebral basal arterial network influence the blood flow to the brain. The cerebral basal arterial network consists of the circulus arteriosus cerebri anteriorly and the basilar artery posteriorly. Diameters of inflow vessels (bilateral vertebral and internal carotid arteries), connecting vessels (anterior communicating, basilar and bilateral posterior communicating arteries) and outflow vessels (anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries) were measured and cross-sectional areas calculated in 51 cadaveric brain specimens...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369929/the-plantar-calcaneal-spur-a-review-of-anatomy-histology-etiology-and-key-associations
#10
REVIEW
Joshua Kirkpatrick, Omid Yassaie, Seyed Ali Mirjalili
The plantar calcaneal spur (PCS) is a bony outgrowth from the calcaneal tuberosity and has been studied using various methods including cadavers, radiography, histology and surgery. However, there are currently a number of discrepancies in the literature regarding the anatomical relations, histological descriptions and clinical associations of PCS. Historically, authors have described the intrinsic muscles of the foot and/or the plantar fascia as attaching to the PCS. In this article we review the relationship between the PCS and surrounding soft tissues as well as examining the histology of the PCS...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369928/phase-contrast-synchrotron-radiation-computed-tomography-of-muscle-spindles-in-the-mouse-soleus-muscle
#11
B Zeller-Plumhoff, T Roose, O L Katsamenis, M N Mavrogordato, C Torrens, P Schneider, G F Clough
Muscle spindles are skeletal muscle sensory organs involved in the sensation of position and movement of the body. We have explored the capability of phase contrast computed tomography to visualise muscle spindles in murine skeletal muscle. In particular, we have validated the visualisation of nerve fibres through phase contrast computed tomography using light microscopy on stained histological sections. We further present the first three-dimensional visualisation of muscle spindles in mouse soleus skeletal muscle in conjunction with the neurovascular bundle associated with it...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369863/symmetry-breaking-in-branching-epithelia-cells-on-micro-patterns-under-flow-challenge-the-hypothesis-of-positive-feedback-by-a-secreted-autocrine-inhibitor-of-motility
#12
Kimberly C Martin, Xiaofei Yuan, Gregory Stimac, Kieran Bannerman, Jamie Anderson, Chloe Roy, Fokion Glykofrydis, Huabing Yin, Jamie A Davies
Branching morphogenesis of epithelia involves division of cells into leader (tip) and follower (stalk) cells. Published work on cell lines in culture has suggested that symmetry-breaking takes place via a secreted autocrine inhibitor of motility, the inhibitor accumulating more in concave regions of the culture boundary, slowing advance of cells there, and less in convex areas, allowing advance and a further exaggeration of the concave/convex difference. Here we test this hypothesis using a two-dimensional culture system that includes strong flow conditions to remove accumulating diffusible secretions...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369819/feeding-biomechanics-of-late-triassic-metoposaurids-amphibia-temnospondyli-a-3d-finite-element-analysis-approach
#13
Josep Fortuny, Jordi Marcé-Nogué, Dorota Konietzko-Meier
The Late Triassic freshwater ecosystems were occupied by different tetrapod groups including large-sized anamniotes, such as metoposaurids. Most members of this group of temnospondyls acquired gigantic sizes (up to 5 m long) with a nearly worldwide distribution. The paleoecology of metoposaurids is controversial; they have been historically considered passive, bottom-dwelling animals, waiting for prey on the bottom of rivers and lakes, or they have been suggested to be active mid-water feeders. The present study aims to expand upon the paleoecological interpretations of these animals using 3D finite element analyses (FEA)...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299781/architectural-differences-in-the-anterior-and-middle-compartments-of-the-pelvic-floor-of-young-adult-and-postmenopausal-females
#14
Yi Wu, Noshir F Dabhoiwala, Jaco Hagoort, Li-Wen Tan, Shao-Xiang Zhang, Wouter H Lamers
The pelvic floor guards the passage of the pelvic organs to the exterior. The near-epidemic prevalence of incontinence in women continues to generate interest in the functional anatomy of the pelvic floor. However, due to its complex architecture and poor accessibility, the classical 'dissectional' approach has been unable to come up with a satisfactory description, so that many aspects of its anatomy continue to raise debate. For this reason, we opted for a 'sectional' approach, using the Chinese Visible Human project (four females, 21-35 years) and the Visible Human Project (USA; one female, 59 years) datasets to investigate age-related changes in the architecture of the anterior and middle compartments of the pelvic floor...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295274/kisspeptin-innervation-of-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-sexual-dimorphism-and-effect-of-estrous-cycle-in-female-mice
#15
Marilena Marraudino, Dèsirèe Miceli, Alice Farinetti, Giovanna Ponti, GianCarlo Panzica, Stefano Gotti
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is the major autonomic output area of the hypothalamus and a critical regulatory center for energy homeostasis. The organism's energetic balance is very important for both the regular onset of puberty and regulation of fertility. Several studies have suggested a relationship among neural circuits controlling food intake, energy homeostasis and the kisspeptin peptide. The kisspeptin system is clustered in two main groups of cell bodies [the anterior ventral periventricular region (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus (ARC)] projecting mainly to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and to a few other locations, including the PVN...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294323/segmental-morphometrics-of-the-olive-baboon-papio-anubis-a-longitudinal-study-from-birth-to-adulthood
#16
François Druelle, Peter Aerts, Kristiaan D'Août, Valérie Moulin, Gilles Berillon
The linear dimensions and inertial characteristics of the body are important in locomotion and they change considerably during the ontogeny of animals, including humans. This longitudinal and ontogenetic study has produced the largest dataset to date of segmental morphometrics in a Catarrhini species, the olive baboon. The objectives of the study were to quantify the changes in body linear and inertial dimensions and to explore their (theoretical) mechanical significance for locomotion. We took full-body measurements of captive individuals at regular intervals...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266009/a-detailed-musculoskeletal-study-of-a-fetus-with-anencephaly-and-spina-bifida-craniorachischisis-and-comparison-with-other-cases-of-human-congenital-malformations
#17
Malak A Alghamdi, Janine M Ziermann, Lydia Gregg, Rui Diogo
Few descriptions of the musculoskeletal system of humans with anencephaly or spina bifida exist in the literature. Even less is published about individuals in which both phenomena occur together, i.e. about craniorachischisis. Here we provide a detailed report on the musculoskeletal structures of a fetus with craniorachischisis, as well as comparisons with the few descriptions for anencephaly and with musculoskeletal anomalies found in other congenital malformations. We focused in particular on the comparison with trisomies 13, 18, and 21 because neural tube defects have been associated with such chromosomal defects...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256093/a-quantitative-structural-and-morphometric-analysis-of-the-purkinje-network-and-the-purkinje-myocardial-junctions-in-pig-hearts
#18
V Garcia-Bustos, R Sebastian, M Izquierdo, P Molina, F J Chorro, A Ruiz-Sauri
The morpho-functional properties of the distal section of the cardiac Purkinje network (PN) and the Purkinje-myocardial junctions (PMJs) are fundamental to understanding the sequence of electrical activation in the heart. The overall structure of the system has already been described, and several computational models have been developed to gain insight into its involvement in cardiac arrhythmias or its interaction with implantable devices, such as pacemakers. However, anatomical descriptions of the PN in the literature have not enabled enough improvements in the accuracy of anatomical-based electrophysiological simulations of the PN in 3D hearts models...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256069/variations-in-bone-density-across-the-body-of-the-immature-human-mandible
#19
Erin F Hutchinson, Mauro Farella, Jakobus Hoffman, Beverley Kramer
During growth the mandible accommodates increases in biomechanical loading resulting from changes in the function of structures of the oral cavity. Biomechanical loads are thought to play an intricate and vital role in the modelling and remodelling of bone, with site-specific effects on bone mineral density. It is anticipated that the effects of this loading on bone mineral density are intensified during the functional transition from prenatal to postnatal stages. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate changes in bone mineral density across the body of the immature human mandible during the early stages of dental development...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255996/distribution-of-the-characteristics-of-barbs-and-barbules-on-barn-owl-wing-feathers
#20
Matthias Weger, Hermann Wagner
Owls are known for the development of a silent flight. One conspicuous specialization of owl wings that has been implied in noise reduction and that has been demonstrated to change the aerodynamic behavior of the wing is a soft dorsal wing surface. The soft surface is a result of changes in the shape of feather barbs and barbules in owls compared with other bird species. We hypothesized that as the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing change along its chordwise and spanwise direction, so may the shape of the barbs and barbules...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
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