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Journal of Anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761492/c7-vertebra-homeotic-transformation-in-domestic-dogs-are-pug-dogs-breaking-mammalian-evolutionary-constraints
#1
J Brocal, S De Decker, R José-López, E G Manzanilla, J Penderis, C Stalin, S Bertram, J J Schoenebeck, C Rusbridge, N Fitzpatrick, R Gutierrez-Quintana
The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is almost constant at seven, regardless of their neck length, implying that there is selection against variation in this number. Homebox (Hox) genes are involved in this evolutionary mammalian conservation, and homeotic transformation of cervical into thoracic vertebrae (cervical ribs) is a common phenotypic abnormality when Hox gene expression is altered. This relatively benign phenotypic change can be associated with fatal traits in humans. Mutations in genes upstream of Hox, inbreeding and stressors during organogenesis can also cause cervical ribs...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761487/the-phytoestrogen-genistein-prevents-trabecular-bone-loss-and-affects-thyroid-follicular-cells-in-a-male-rat-model-of-osteoporosis
#2
Branko Filipović, Branka Šošić-Jurjević, Vladimir Ajdžanović, Jasmina Živanović, Milica Manojlović-Stojanoski, Nataša Nestorović, Nataša Ristić, Svetlana Trifunović, Verica Milošević
As a major phytoestrogen of soy, genistein effectively prevents bone loss in both humans and rat models of osteoporosis. However, although the bone-sparing effects of genistein are achieved directly through estrogen receptors, its mode of action on bone by modulation of other endocrine functions is not entirely clear. Thus, thyroid hormones and calcitonin (CT) have an essential influence on bone metabolism. Besides its action on bones, in this study we examined the effect of genistein on the activity of two different endocrine cell populations, thyroid follicular and C-cells...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761472/cranial-morphology-in-mollisquama-sp-squaliformes-dalatiidae-and-patterns-of-cranial-evolution-in-dalatiid-sharks
#3
John S S Denton, John G Maisey, Mark Grace, Alan Pradel, Michael H Doosey, Henry L Bart, Gavin J P Naylor
Dalatiid sharks are members of a family of predominantly small, midwater meso- and bathypelagic chondrichthyans. The family is notable for both its number of monotypic genera and high morphological disparity. Three of the seven dalatiid genera are known only from holotype specimens (Mollisquama parini) or from only a handful of specimens (Euprotomicroides zantedeschia, Heteroscymnoides marleyi), with the only detailed anatomical work consistent across all taxa being studies of dentition. Here, we present detailed anatomical description of the second-ever specimen of Mollisquama (Mollisquama sp...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761471/the-infrapatellar-fat-pad-and-the-synovial-membrane-an-anatomo-functional-unit
#4
REVIEW
Veronica Macchi, Elena Stocco, Carla Stecco, Elisa Belluzzi, Marta Favero, Andrea Porzionato, Raffaele De Caro
The infrapatellar pad, a fibro-adipose tissue with peculiar microscopic and mechanical features, is gaining wide attention in the field of rheumatological research. The purpose of this descriptive review is to summarize the most recent published evidence on the anatomic, physiologic and biomechanical inter-relationship between the infrapatellar fat pad and the knee synovial membrane. As an extrasynovial tissue, the infrapatellar fat pad does not directly interact with the articular cartilage; based on its location in close contact with the synovial membrane, and due to the metabolic properties of adipose tissue, it may influence the behavior of the synovial membrane...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745448/early-development-of-the-human-dentition-revisited
#5
REVIEW
Maria Hovorakova, Herve Lesot, Miroslav Peterka, Renata Peterkova
In this review, classical data on the early steps in human odontogenesis are summarized and updated with specific insights into the development of the upper and lower embryonic jaws to help in understanding some oral pathologies. The initial step of human odontogenesis is classically characterized by two parallel horseshoe-shaped epithelial laminae. These originate from the oral epithelium and an ingrowth into the jaw mesenchyme: the internal dental lamina gives rise to deciduous tooth primordia, while the external vestibular lamina represents the developmental base of the oral vestibule...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745426/human-neural-stem-cells-dispersed-in-artificial-ecm-form-cerebral-organoids-when-grafted-in-vivo
#6
Reem Basuodan, Anna P Basu, Gavin J Clowry
Human neural stem cells (hNSC) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells can be differentiated into neurons that could be used for transplantation to repair brain injury. In this study we dispersed such hNSC in a three-dimensional artificial extracellular matrix (aECM) and compared their differentiation in vitro and following grafting into the sensorimotor cortex (SMC) of postnatal day (P)14 rat pups lesioned by localised injection of endothelin-1 at P12. After 10-43 days of in vitro differentiation, a few cells remained as PAX6+ neuroprogenitors but many more resembled post-mitotic neurons expressing doublecortin, β-tubulin and MAP2...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736914/sinus-like-dilatations-of-the-mammary-milk-ducts-ki67-expression-and-cd3-positive-t-lymphocyte-infiltration-in-the-mammary-gland-of-wild-european-rabbits-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#7
Katherine Hughes, Christine J Watson
Sinus-like dilatations of the mammary duct are recognisable in the mammary gland of pregnant and lactating wild European rabbits. These dilatations exhibit a bilaminar epithelial lining, with luminal epithelial cells expressing basal and lateral E-cadherin. Occasional binucleated mammary epithelial cells are present in the luminal layer. Underlying the luminal epithelial cells is a basal layer of cytokeratin 14-positive cells, supported by a thin layer of fibrous tissue. Multi-segmental epithelial proliferation, as indicated by Ki67 expression, is apparent in the luminal epithelial cells, suggesting a capacity for division during pregnancy and lactation...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726018/hitherto-unknown-detailed-muscle-anatomy-in-an-8-week-old-embryo
#8
Moritz V Warmbrunn, Bernadette S de Bakker, Jaco Hagoort, Pauline B Alefs-de Bakker, Roelof-Jan Oostra
Congenital muscle diseases, such as myopathies or dystrophies, occur relatively frequently, with estimated incidences of up to 4.7 per 100 000 newborns. To diagnose congenital diseases in the early stages of pregnancy, and to interpret the results of increasingly advanced in utero imaging techniques, a profound knowledge of normal human morphological development of the locomotor system and the nervous system is necessary. Muscular development, however, is an often neglected topic or is only described in a general way in embryology textbooks and papers...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708266/nerves-and-blood-vessels-in-degenerated-intervertebral-discs-are-confined-to-physically-disrupted-tissue
#9
Polly Lama, Christine L Le Maitre, Ian J Harding, Patricia Dolan, Michael A Adams
Nerves and blood vessels are found in the peripheral annulus and endplates of healthy adult intervertebral discs. Degenerative changes can allow these vessels to grow inwards and become associated with discogenic pain, but it is not yet clear how far, and why, they grow in. Previously we have shown that physical disruption of the disc matrix, which is a defining feature of disc degeneration, creates free surfaces which lose proteoglycans and water, and so become physically and chemically conducive to cell migration...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708263/parameters-and-functional-analysis-of-the-deep-epaxial-muscles-in-the-thoracic-lumbar-and-sacral-regions-of-the-equine-spine
#10
J A García Liñeiro, G H Graziotti, J M Rodríguez Menéndez, C M Ríos, N O Affricano, C L Victorica
The epaxial muscles produce intervertebral rotation in the transverse, vertical and axial axes. These muscles also counteract the movements induced by gravitational and inertial forces and movements produced by antagonistic muscles and the intrinsic muscles of the pelvic limb. Their fascicles are innervated by the dorsal branch of the spinal nerve, which corresponds to the metamere of its cranial insertion in the spinous process. The structure allows the function of the muscles to be predicted: those with long and parallel fibres have a shortening function, whereas the muscles with short and oblique fibres have an antigravity action...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663381/resin-embedded-anatomical-cross-sections-as-a-teaching-adjunct-for-medical-curricula-is-this-technique-an-alternative-to-potting-and-plastination
#11
Fraser Chisholm, Ourania Varsou
With an ever-expanding use of cross-sectional imaging for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, there has also been an increase in the need for exposure to such radiological and anatomical views at the undergraduate and postgraduate level to allow for early familiarisation with the relevant anatomy. Cadaveric cross-sections offer an excellent link between the two-dimensional radiological images and the three-dimensional anatomical structures. For such cross-sections to be useful and informative within educational settings, they need to be: (i) safe for students and trainees to handle and (ii) robust enough to withstand repeated handling; as well as (iii) displaying anatomy clearly and accurately...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663371/distribution-of-extracellular-matrix-molecules-in-human-uterine-tubes-during-the-menstrual-cycle-a-histological-and-immunohistochemical-analysis
#12
Carlos Godoy-Guzmán, Claudio Nuñez, Pedro Orihuela, Antonio Campos, Víctor Carriel
The uterine tube (UT) is an important and complex organ of the women's reproductive system. In general, the anatomy and basic histology of this organ are well-known. However, the composition and function of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the UT is still poorly understood. The ECM is a complex supramolecular material produced by cells which is commonly restricted to the basement membrane and interstitial spaces. ECM molecules play not only a structural role, they are also important for cell growth, survival and differentiation in all tissues...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663370/deformable-torso-phantoms-of-chinese-adults-for-personalized-anatomy-modelling
#13
Hongkai Wang, Xiaobang Sun, Tongning Wu, Congsheng Li, Zhonghua Chen, Meiying Liao, Mengci Li, Wen Yan, Hui Huang, Jia Yang, Ziyu Tan, Libo Hui, Yue Liu, Hang Pan, Yue Qu, Zhaofeng Chen, Liwen Tan, Lijuan Yu, Hongcheng Shi, Li Huo, Yanjun Zhang, Xin Tang, Shaoxiang Zhang, Changjian Liu
In recent years, there has been increasing demand for personalized anatomy modelling for medical and industrial applications, such as ergonomics device development, clinical radiological exposure simulation, biomechanics analysis, and 3D animation character design. In this study, we constructed deformable torso phantoms that can be deformed to match the personal anatomy of Chinese male and female adults. The phantoms were created based on a training set of 79 trunk computed tomography (CT) images (41 males and 38 females) from normal Chinese subjects...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635686/the-anatomy-and-physiology-of-the-terminal-thoracic-duct-and-ostial-valve-in-health-and-disease-potential-implications-for-intervention
#14
REVIEW
Chathura Bathiya Bandara Ratnayake, Alistair Brian James Escott, Anthony Ronald John Phillips, John Albert Windsor
The thoracic duct (TD) transports lymph drained from the body to the venous system in the neck via the lymphovenous junction. There has been increased interest in the TD lymph (including gut lymph) because of its putative role in the promotion of systemic inflammation and organ dysfunction during acute and critical illness. Minimally invasive TD cannulation has recently been described as a potential method to access TD lymph for investigation. However, marked anatomical variability exists in the terminal segment and the physiology regarding the ostial valve and terminal TD is poorly understood...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624658/primary-visual-cortex-in-neandertals-as-revealed-from-the-occipital-remains-from-the-el-sidr%C3%A3-n-site-with-emphasis-on-the-new-sd-2300-specimen
#15
Antonio García-Tabernero, Angel Peña-Melián, Antonio Rosas
The comparative analysis of the endocranial surface of the El Sidrón new occipital fragment SD-2300 shows meaningful differences in the configuration of the occipital pole region between neandertals and anatomically modern humans (AMH). The particular asymmetries found in neandertals in the venous sinus drainage and the petalial patterns are recognizable in this new specimen as well. In addition, the supra- and infracalcarine fossae of the occipital pole region appear to deviate obliquely from the mid-line when compared with sapiens...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611183/maternal-environment-and-craniofacial-growth-geometric-morphometric-analysis-of-mandibular-shape-changes-with-in-utero-thyroxine-overexposure-in-mice
#16
Matthew J Kesterke, Margaret A Judd, Mark P Mooney, Michael I Siegel, Mohammed Elsalanty, R Nicole Howie, Seth M Weinberg, James J Cray
An estimated 3% of US pregnancies are affected by maternal thyroid dysfunction, with between one and three of every 1000 pregnancies being complicated by overactive maternal thyroid levels. Excess thyroid hormones are linked to neurological impairment and excessive craniofacial variation, affecting both endochondral and intramembranous bone. Using a geometric morphometric approach, this study evaluates the role of in utero thyroxine overexposure on the growth of offspring mandibles in a sample of 241 mice. Canonical variate analysis utilized 16 unilateral mandibular landmarks obtained from 3D micro-computed tomography to assess shape changes between unexposed controls (n = 63) and exposed mice (n = 178)...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582433/calcaneal-adduction-and-eversion-are-coupled-to-talus-and-tibial-rotation
#17
Katina Mira Fischer, Steffen Willwacher, Anton Arndt, Gert-Peter Brüggemann
The purpose of this study was to quantify isolated coupling mechanisms of calcaneal adduction/abduction and calcaneal eversion/inversion to proximal bones in vitro. The in vitro approach is necessary because in vivo both movements appear together, making it impossible to determine the extent of their individual contribution to overall ankle joint coupling. Eight fresh frozen foot-leg specimens were tested. Data describing bone orientation and coupling mechanisms between segments were obtained using bone pin marker triads...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582431/retinal-histogenesis-in-an-altricial-avian-species-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata-vieillot-1817
#18
Guadalupe Álvarez-Hernán, Elena Sánchez-Resino, Ismael Hernández-Núñez, Alfonso Marzal, Joaquín Rodríguez-León, Gervasio Martín-Partido, Javier Francisco-Morcillo
Comparative developmental studies have shown that the retina of altricial fish and mammals is incompletely developed at birth, and that, during the first days of life, maturation proceeds rapidly. In contrast, precocial fish and mammals are born with fully differentiated retinas. Concerning birds, knowledge about retinal development is generally restricted to a single order of precocial birds, Galliformes, due to the fact that both the chicken and the Japanese quail are considered model systems. However, comparison of embryonic pre-hatchling retinal development between altricial and precocial birds has been poorly explored...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574717/dynamic-sap102-expression-in-the-hippocampal-subregions-of-rats-and-app-ps1-mice-of-various-ages
#19
Dongning Su, Hui Liu, Tianrong Liu, Xin Zhang, Wei Yang, Yizhi Song, Jinping Liu, Yan Wu, Lirong Chang
The hippocampus is a structurally and functionally complex brain area that plays important and diverse roles in higher brain functions, such as learning and memory, and mounting evidence indicates that different hippocampal subregions play distinctive roles. The hippocampus is also one of the first regions in the brain to suffer damage in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Synaptic dysfunction in the hippocampus, rather than neuronal loss per se, is paralleled by behavioural and functional deficits in AD. The membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of proteins, including SAP102, PSD-95, PSD-93 and SAP97, have long been recognized as essential components of the postsynaptic density (PSD) at excitatory synapses...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574917/the-tracheal-system-in-post-embryonic-development-of-holometabolous-insects-a-case-study-using-the-mealworm-beetle
#20
Marcin Raś, Dariusz Iwan, Marcin Jan Kamiński
The tracheal (respiratory) system is regarded as one of the key elements which enabled insects to conquer terrestrial habitats and, as a result, achieve extreme species diversity. Despite this fact, anatomical data concerning this biological system is relatively scarce, especially in an ontogenetic context. The purpose of this study is to provide novel and reliable information on the post-embryonic development of the tracheal system of holometabolous insects using micro-computed tomography methods. Data concerning the structure of the respiratory system acquired from different developmental stages (larvae, pupae and adults) of a single insect species (Tenebrio molitor) are co-analysed in detail...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
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