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Journal of Anatomy

Azim Patar, Peter Dockery, Linda Howard, Siobhan S McMahon
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disorder that has a poor prognosis of recovery. Animal models of SCI are useful to understand the pathophysiology of SCI and the potential use of therapeutic strategies for human SCI. Ex vivo models of central nervous system (CNS) trauma, particularly mechanical trauma, have become important tools to complement in vivo models of injury in order to reproduce the sequelae of human CNS injury. Ex vivo organotypic slice cultures (OSCs) provide a reliable model platform for the study of cell dynamics and therapeutic intervention following SCI...
November 11, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Jan Wilke, Veronica Macchi, Raffaele De Caro, Carla Stecco
The morphology of the connective tissue may play an important role in locomotor mechanics. Recent research has revealed an association between increased fascia thickness and reduced joint flexibility in patients with chronic pain. The present study aimed to examine the relationship of both factors in healthy individuals, additionally testing the hypothesis that older subjects display a higher fascia thickness. Young (n = 18, 22 ± 1 years) and old (n = 17, 69 ± 4 years) healthy females were recruited for a quasi-experimental, cross-sectional trial...
November 11, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Dave Bandke, Konstantin Ebauer, Alexander Ebauer, Serge Weis
Only a few papers exist dealing with the development and aging of the autonomic nervous system - and even rarer are studies that investigated the otic ganglion. Using a special trepan, we removed and investigated 172 samples from 86 corpses, ranging from 20 weeks of gestational age (GA) to 95 years of age. The aim of the study was to measure different morphometric parameters of the ganglionic neurons in order to study age-related changes from early development until old age. Fetuses show the highest numerical density of neurons...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Freya Hik, David C Ackland
The moment arm of a muscle represents its leverage or torque-producing capacity, and is indicative of the role of the muscle in joint actuation. The objective of this study was to undertake a systematic review of the moment arms of the major muscles spanning the glenohumeral joint during abduction, flexion and axial rotation. Moment arm data for the deltoid, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, teres major, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis and teres minor were reported when measured using the geometric and tendon excursion methods...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
John G Skedros, Steven C Su, Alex N Knight, Roy D Bloebaum, Kent N Bachus
Sheep and deer calcanei are finding increased use as models for studies of bone adaptation, including advancing understanding of how the strain (deformation) environment influences the ontogenetic emergence of biomechanically relevant structural and material variations in cortical and trabecular bone. These artiodactyl calcanei seem ideal for these analyses because they function like simply loaded short-cantilevered beams with net compression and tension strains on the dorsal and plantar cortices, respectively...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Luciano Luis Rasia, Adriana M Candela
Chinchilloidea are a clade of caviomorph rodents that includes seven living species, the Dinomyidae Dinomys branickii, the Chinchillidae Lagostomus maximus, two species of Chinchilla and three species of Lagidium. In addition, two extinct families are traditionally considered chinchilloids - Neoepiblemidae and Cephalomyidae. The phylogeny of the Chinchilloidea has so far not been well established and is based on partial analyses. Studying the anatomy and ontogeny of extinct and extant taxa, we propose homologies for the upper molars of Chinchilloidea for which these homologies have not been previously proposed: that is the Chinchillidae Prolagostomus, Lagostomus, Lagidium and Chinchilla, and the Neoepiblemidae Neoepiblema and Phoberomys...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Nazlı Tümer, Vahid Arbabi, Willem Paul Gielis, Pim A de Jong, Harrie Weinans, Gabrielle J M Tuijthof, Amir A Zadpoor
The bones forming the talocrural joint (TCJ) and subtalar joint (STJ) are often assumed to be bilaterally symmetric. Therefore, the contralateral limb (i.e. the fibula, tibia, calcaneus and talus) is used as a template or an intra-subject control in clinical and research practice. However, the validity of the symmetry assumption is controversial, because insufficient information is available on the shape variations and bilateral (a)symmetry of the fibula, tibia, calcaneus and talus. Using three-dimensional spatially dense sampled representations of bone shapes extracted from bilateral computed tomography scans of 66 individuals (55 male, mean age: 61 ± 10 years; 11 female, mean age: 53 ± 15 years), we analyzed whether: (i) similar shape patterns exist in the left and right bones of the same type; (ii) gender has an effect on bone shape variations; (iii) intra-subject shape variation is smaller than that of inter-subject for a given shape variance direction...
November 4, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Juan Fernando Vélez-García, María José Monroy-Cendales, Fabian Enrique Castañeda-Herrera
The white-footed tamarin (Saguinus leucopus) is an endangered endemic primate of Colombia, mainly due to the deforestation of its habitat and illegal trade, which generates a high incidence of these animals in wildlife care centres. Musculoskeletal system disorders in S. leucopus are one of the most common diseases and therefore the aim of this study was to contribute to the morphologic studies with a morphometric, anatomic and radiographic description of the scapula in this species to provide a basis for medical interventions, surgical approaches, radiologic diagnoses and comparative functions of this bone...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Elizabeth G Clark, John R Hutchinson, Simon A F Darroch, Nicolás Mongiardino Koch, Travis R Brady, Sloane A Smith, Derek E G Briggs
Brittle stars (Phylum Echinodermata, Class Ophiuroidea) have evolved rapid locomotion employing muscle and skeletal elements within their (usually) five arms to apply forces in a manner analogous to that of vertebrates. Inferring the inner workings of the arm has been difficult as the skeleton is internal and many of the ossicles are sub-millimeter in size. Advances in 3D visualization and technology have made the study of movement in ophiuroids possible. We developed six virtual 3D skeletal models to demonstrate the potential range of motion of the main arm ossicles, known as vertebrae, and six virtual 3D skeletal models of non-vertebral ossicles...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Ugo E Pazzaglia, Valeria Sibilia, Lavinia Casati, Andrea G Salvi, Andrea Minini, Marcella Reguzzoni
Whether the 1st segment of the human autopod 1st ray is a 'true' metapodial with loss of the proximal or mid phalanx or the original basal phalanx with loss of the metacarpal has been a long-lasting discussion. The actual knowledge of the developmental pattern of upper autopod segments at a fetal age of 20-22 weeks, combined with X-ray morphometry of normal long bones of the hand in the growing ages, was used for analysis of the parameters, percentage length, position of epiphyseal ossification centers and proximal/distal growth rate...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Paulo de Souza Junior, Lucas Mucci Richter Pereira Dos Santos, Wilson Viotto-Souza, Natan da Cruz de Carvalho, Erick Candiota Souza, Carlos Benhur Kasper, Marcelo Abidu-Figueiredo, André Luiz Quagliatto Santos
The characteristics of the muscles of the thoracic limb were evaluated in 22 specimens of Lycalopex gymnocercus. Descriptive and comparative analyses showed similarity with other canids in terms of topography and tendon insertions. Differences with the domestic dog were observed in the pectoralis profundus, triceps brachii and interflexorii muscles. Intraspecific variations were observed in the rhomboideus capitis, serratus ventralis cervicis, extensor carpi radialis, extensor digiti I and II, lumbricales, flexor digiti I brevis, abductor digiti I brevis, and flexor digiti V muscles...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Márcio Luis A Moura, Mariana Fugimoto, Ana Paula M Kawachi, Mônica L de Oliveira, Marise Lazaretti-Castro, Rejane D Reginato
We investigated the effects of estrogen therapy (ET) associated with low-intensity and high-frequency mechanical vibration (MV) on bone tissue in osteopenic female mice. Fifty 3-month-old female Swiss mice were ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-operated, and distributed after 4 months into the following groups, with 10 animals per group: Sham; Control, OVX + vehicle solution; MV, OVX + MV; ET, OVX + 17β-estradiol; and MV + ET, OVX + MV and 17β-estradiol. Both vehicle solution and 17β-estradiol (10 μg kg-1  day-1 ) were injected subcutaneously 7 days per week, and vibration (0...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Craig Byron, Meghan Segreti, Katelyn Hawkinson, Katelyn Herman, Shivam Patel
Cranial sutures are fibrous connective tissue articulations found between intramembranous bones of the vertebrate cranium. Growth and remodeling of these tissues is partially regulated by biomechanical loading patterns that include stresses related to chewing. Advances in oral processing structure and function of the cranium that enabled mammalian-style chewing is commonly tied to the origins and evolution of this group. To what degree masticatory overuse or underuse shapes the complexity and ossification around these articulations can be predicted based on prior experimental and comparative work...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Nutmethee Kruepunga, Jill P J M Hikspoors, Hayelom K Mekonen, Greet M C Mommen, Krai Meemon, Wattana Weerachatyanukul, Somluk Asuvapongpatana, S Eleonore Köhler, Wouter H Lamers
Subdivision of cloaca into urogenital and anorectal passages has remained controversial because of disagreements about the identity and role of the septum developing between both passages. This study aimed to clarify the development of the cloaca using a quantitative 3D morphological approach in human embryos of 4-10 post-fertilisation weeks. Embryos were visualised with Amira 3D-reconstruction and Cinema 4D-remodelling software. Distances between landmarks were computed with Amira3D software. Our main finding was a pronounced difference in growth between rapidly expanding central and ventral parts, and slowly or non-growing cranial and dorsal parts...
October 7, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
François Druelle, Kirsten Schoonaert, Peter Aerts, Sandra Nauwelaerts, Jeroen M G Stevens, Kristiaan D'Août
The inertial properties of body segments reflect performance and locomotor habits in primates. While Pan paniscus is generally described as more gracile, lighter in body mass, and as having relatively longer and heavier hindlimbs than Pan troglodytes, both species exhibit very similar patterns of (quadrupedal and bipedal) kinematics, but show slightly different locomotor repertoires. We used a geometric model to estimate the inertial properties for all body segments (i.e. head, trunk, upper and lower arms, hand, thigh, shank and foot) using external length and diameter measurements of 12 anaesthetized bonobos (eight adults and four immatures)...
October 7, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
José-Miguel Carretero, Laura Rodríguez, Rebeca García-González, Rolf-Michael Quam, Juan-Luis Arsuaga
Body mass estimation in fossil human species is a crucial topic in paleoanthropology as it yields information about ecologically relevant characteristics. Nevertheless, variables crucial to body mass estimation such as bone volume and skeletal weight have never before been calculated in a fossil human species. The exceptional state of preservation of several fossil human long bones from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) Middle Pleistocene site, in the Sierra de Atapuerca, makes it possible to calculate for the first time the absolute bone volume in five complete long bones (two femora and three humeri) of a fossil human species, an approach not possible in fragmentary or poorly preserved fossils...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Sahrunizam Kasah, Christopher Oddy, M Albert Basson
Recent large-scale exome sequencing studies have identified mutations in several members of the CHD (Chromodomain Helicase DNA-binding protein) gene family in neurodevelopmental disorders. Mutations in the CHD2 gene have been linked to developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism and seizures, CHD8 mutations to autism and intellectual disability, whereas haploinsufficiency of CHD7 is associated with executive dysfunction and intellectual disability. In addition to these neurodevelopmental features, a wide range of other developmental defects are associated with mutants of these genes, especially with regards to CHD7 haploinsufficiency, which is the primary cause of CHARGE syndrome...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Jana Goyens, Menelia Vasilopoulou-Kampitsi, Raf Claes, Jan Sijbers, Lucia Mancini
The vestibular system, located in the inner ear, plays a crucial role in balance and gaze stabilisation by sensing head movements. The interconnected tubes with membranous walls of the vestibular system are located in the skull bone (the 'membranous labyrinth'). Unfortunately, these membranes are very hard to visualise using three-dimensional (3D) X-ray imaging techniques. This difficulty arises due to the embedment of the membranes in the dense skull bone, the thinness of the membranes, and the small difference in X-ray absorption between the membranes and the surrounding fluid...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Mervyn V P Dauer, Peter D Currie, Joachim Berger
Klippel-Feil syndrome is a congenital vertebral anomaly, which is characterised by the fusion of at least two cervical vertebrae and a clinically broad set of symptoms, including congenital scoliosis and elevated scapula (Sprengel's deformity). Klippel-Feil syndrome is associated with mutations in MEOX1. The zebrafish mutant choker (cho) carries a mutation in its orthologue, meox1. Although zebrafish is being increasingly employed as fidelitous models of human spinal disease, the vertebral column of Meox1-deficient fish has not been assessed for defects...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Paula R Villamayor, Jose Manuel Cifuentes, Patricia Fdz-de-Troconiz, Pablo Sanchez-Quinteiro
The characterization of the rabbit mammary pheromone, which is sensed by the main olfactory system, has made this species a unique model for the study of pheromonal communication in mammals. This discovery has brought attention to the global understanding of chemosensory communication in this species. Chemocommunication is mediated by two distinct organs located in the nasal cavity, the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ (VNO). However, there is a lack of knowledge about the vomeronasal system in rabbits...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
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