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Journal of Anatomy

C H Harrison, G R Buckland, S E Brooks, D A Johnston, D S Chatelet, A K L Liu, S M Gentleman, D Boche, J A R Nicoll
Current tissue-clearing protocols for imaging in three dimensions (3D) are typically applied to optimally fixed, small-volume rodent brain tissue - which is not representative of the tissue found in diagnostic neuropathology laboratories. We present a method to visualise the cerebral cortical vasculature in 3D in human post-mortem brain tissue which had been preserved in formalin for many years. Tissue blocks of cerebral cortex from two control cases, two Alzheimer's brains and two cases from Alzheimer's patients immunised against Aβ42 were stained with fluorescent Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin (Tomato lectin), dehydrated and cleared using an adapted three-dimensional imaging of solvent cleared organs (3DISCO) protocol to visualise the vascular endothelium...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Isaac V Pratt, James D Johnston, Ernie Walker, David M L Cooper
Cortical bone porosity and specifically the orientation of vascular canals is an area of growing interest in biomedical research and comparative/paleontological anatomy. The potential to explain microstructural adaptation is of great interest. However, the determinants of the development of canal orientation remain unclear. Previous studies of birds have shown higher proportions of circumferential canals (called laminarity) in flight bones than in hindlimb bones, and interpreted this as a sign that circumferential canals are a feature for resistance to the torsional loading created by flight...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
María Laura Ponssa, Jéssica Fratani, Virginia Abdala
Anurans are characterized by their saltatory mode of locomotion, which is associated with a specific morphology. The coordinated action of the muscles and bones of the pelvic girdle is key to the transmission of the force of the hindlimbs to the axial skeleton during jumping. Two features are critical for optimal locomotory performance: the cross-sectional area of muscle and the bone crest attachment sites. The first character is a proxy of the force exerted by the muscle, whereas the crests are muscle attachments sites related to muscle force...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Paolo Fais, Maria Carla Mazzotti, Gabriella Teti, Rafael Boscolo-Berto, Susi Pelotti, Mirella Falconi
Estimating the post mortem interval (PMI) is still a crucial step in Forensic Pathology. Although several methods are available for assessing the PMI, a precise estimation is still quite unreliable and can be inaccurate. The present study aimed to investigate the immunohistochemical distribution and mRNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α) in post mortem gingival tissues to establish a correlation between the presence of HIF-1α and the time since death, with the final goal of achieving a more accurate PMI estimation...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Moya Meredith Smith, Charlie Underwood, Brett Clark, Jürgen Kriwet, Zerina Johanson
A defining feature of dentitions in modern sharks and rays is the regulated pattern order that generates multiple replacement teeth. These are arranged in labio-lingual files of replacement teeth that form in sequential time order both along the jaw and within successively initiated teeth in a deep dental lamina. Two distinct adult dentitions have been described: alternate, in which timing of new teeth alternates between two adjacent files, each erupting separately, and the other arranged as single files, where teeth of each file are timed to erupt together, in some taxa facilitating similarly timed teeth to join to form a cutting blade...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Yalda A Kharaz, Elizabeth G Canty-Laird, Simon R Tew, Eithne J Comerford
Tendons and ligaments play key roles in the musculoskeletal system in both man and animals. Both tissues can undergo traumatic injury, age-related degeneration and chronic disease, causing discomfort, pain and increased susceptibility to wider degenerative joint disease. To date, tendon and ligament ultrastructural biology is relatively under-studied in healthy, non-diseased tissues. This information is essential to understand the pathology of these tissues with regard to function-related injury and to assist with the future development of tissue-engineered tendon and ligament structures...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Andrea Stephenson, Justin W Adams, Mauro Vaccarezza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Robert H Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Gernot Schmidle, Hannes Leonhard Ebner, Günter Klima, Kristian Pfaller, Josef Fritz, Romed Hoermann, Markus Gabl
The scaphoid is the most frequently fractured carpal bone and prone to non-union due to mechanical and biological factors. Whereas the importance of stability is well documented, the evaluation of biological activity is mostly limited to the assessment of vascularity. The purpose of this study was to select histological and immunocytochemical parameters that could be used to assess healing potential after scaphoid fractures and to correlate these findings with time intervals after fracture for the three parts of the scaphoid (distal, gap and proximal)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Wiesława Klimek-Piotrowska, Agata Krawczyk-Ożóg, Maciej Suski, Przemysław Kapusta, Paweł P Wołkow, Mateusz K Hołda
Our objective was to assess the changes in protein abundance in the human sinoatrial node (SAN) compared with working cardiomyocytes to identify SAN-specific protein signatures. Four pairs of samples (the SAN and working cardiomyocytes) were obtained postmortem from four human donors with no evidence of cardiovascular disease. We performed protein identification and quantitation using two-dimensional chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with isobaric peptide labeling (iTRAQ). We identified 451 different proteins expressed in both the SAN and working cardiomyocytes, 166 of which were differentially regulated (110 were upregulated in the SAN and 56 in the working cardiomyocytes)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
David A Penning
A snake's body represents an extreme degree of elongation with immense muscle complexity. Snakes have approximately 25 different muscles on each side of the body at each vertebra. These muscles serially repeat, overlap, interconnect, and rarely insert parallel to the vertebral column. The angled muscles mean that simple measurements of anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA, perpendicular to the long-axis of the body) serve only as proxies for the primary determinant of muscle force, physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA, area perpendicular to the muscle fibers)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Gillian K Maxwell, Eva Szunyogova, Hannah K Shorrock, Thomas H Gillingwater, Simon H Parson
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive disease caused by a decrease in levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, is the most common genetic cause of infant mortality. Although neuromuscular pathology is the most severe feature of SMA, other organs and tissues, including the heart, are also known to be affected in both patients and animal models. Here, we provide new insights into changes occurring in the heart, predominantly at pre- and early symptomatic ages, in the Taiwanese mouse model of severe SMA...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Roland Frey, David Reby, Guido Fritsch, Benjamin D Charlton
Koalas are characterised by a highly unusual vocal anatomy, with a descended larynx and velar vocal folds, allowing them to produce calls at disproportionately low frequencies. Here we use advanced imaging techniques, histological data, classical macroscopic dissection and behavioural observations to provide the first detailed description and interpretation of male and female koala vocal anatomy. We show that both males and females have an elongated pharynx and soft palate, resulting in a permanently descended larynx...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
John G Skedros, Tanner R Henrie, Madison S Doutré, Roy D Bloebaum
Sealed osteons are unusual variants of secondary osteons that have received little attention, especially in non-human bones. Sealed osteons are characterized by central canals that are plugged with bone tissue. As with other variants of secondary osteons (e.g. drifting, dumbbell, multi-canal), understanding how and why sealed osteons form can shed light on the mechanisms that regulate normal bone remodeling and how this process can be perturbed with aging and some diseases. In a recent microscopic evaluation of human tibiae obtained after traumatic amputations, 4-5% of the osteons were sealed...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Sandra Martig, Peta L Hitchens, Mark A Stevenson, R Chris Whitton
The repetitive large loads generated during high-speed training and racing commonly cause subchondral bone injuries in the metacarpal condyles of racehorses. Adaptive bone modelling leads to focal sclerosis at the site of highest loading in the palmar aspect of the metacarpal condyles. Information on whether and how adaptive modelling of subchondral bone changes during the career of a racehorse is sparse. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the changes in subchondral bone micromorphology in the area of highest loading in the palmar aspect of the metacarpal condyle in thoroughbred racehorses as a function of age and training...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Nanette Y Schneider, Frédérique Datiche, Gérard Coureaud
The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a widely used model in fundamental, medical and veterinary neurosciences. Besides investigations in adults, rabbit pups are relevant to study perinatal neurodevelopment and early behaviour. To date, the rabbit is also the only species in which a pheromone - the mammary pheromone (MP) - emitted by lactating females and active on neonatal adaptation has been described. The MP is crucial since it contributes directly to nipple localisation and oral seizing in neonates, i...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Ines E Tinhofer, Maximilian Zaussinger, Stefan H Geyer, Stefan Meng, Lars-Peter Kamolz, Chieh-Han J Tzou, Wolfgang J Weninger
Studies examining thick skin of the thumb pad have challenged the existence of an arterial plexus in the papillary dermis. Instead of a plexus, discrete arterial units, interconnected by arterio-arterial anastomoses, were identified. We hypothesise that the dermal arteries of thin skin are arranged likewise and that there are fewer arterio-arterial anastomoses in the centre of an angiosome than in zones where neighbouring angiosomes overlap. To test these hypotheses, we examined the dermal arteries in the centre of the cutaneous angiosome of the descending genicular artery (DGA) and its zone of overlap with neighbouring angiosomes...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Carmen Murciano, Salvador Cazorla-Vázquez, Javier Gutiérrez, Juan Antonio Hijano, Josefa Ruiz-Sánchez, Laura Mesa-Almagro, Flores Martín-Reyes, Tahía Diana Fernández, Manuel Marí-Beffa
The amputation of a teleost fin rapidly triggers an intricate maze of hierarchically regulated signalling processes which ultimately reconstruct the diverse tissues of the appendage. Whereas the generation of the fin pattern along the proximodistal axis brings with it several well-known developmental regulators, the mechanisms by which the fin widens along its dorsoventral axis remain poorly understood. Utilizing the zebrafish as an experimental model of fin regeneration and studying more than 1000 actinopterygian species, we hypothesized a connection between specific inter-ray regulatory mechanisms and the morphological variability of inter-ray membranes found in nature...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Simone Sangiorgi, Alessandro De Benedictis, Marcella Reguzzoni, Andrea Trezza, Silvia Cossu, Carlo Efisio Marras, Silvio Bellocchi, Alessandro Manelli, Marina Protasoni
Morphological analyses of cerebral vascularization are not only important for the characterization of the anatomical and physiological relationships between vascular and nervous tissue, but also required to understand structural modifications that occur in many pathological conditions affecting the brain. The aim of this study was to generate a three-dimensional vascular map of the cerebral hemispheres in the nude mouse brain, a widely used animal model for studying tumour biology. We used the corrosion casting (CC) technique to isolate blood vessels from 30 nude mouse brains...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Gabrielle M Finn, Geeta Hitch, Buge Apampa, Catherine M Hennessy, Claire F Smith, Jane Stewart, Paul R Gard
The Anatomical Society has developed a series of learning outcomes that 'experts' within the field would recommend as core knowledge outputs for a Master's Degree Programme in Pharmacy (MPharm) within the UK. Using the Anatomical Society core gross anatomy syllabus for medical anatomy as a foundation, a modified Delphi technique was used to develop outcomes specific to pharmacy graduates. A Delphi panel consisting of medical practitioners, pharmacists and anatomists (n = 39) was created and involved 'experts' representing 20 UK Higher Education Institutions...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
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