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Journal of Anatomy

Gillian Morriss-Kay, John Morris, Jeremy Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Motoharu Oishi, Naomichi Ogihara, Daisuke Shimizu, Yasuhiro Kikuchi, Hideki Endo, Yumi Une, Satoshi Soeta, Hajime Amasaki, Nobutsune Ichihara
Comparative analysis of the foot muscle architecture among extant great apes is important for understanding the evolution of the human foot and, hence, human habitual bipedal walking. However, to our knowledge, there is no previous report of a quantitative comparison of hominoid intrinsic foot muscle dimensions. In the present study, we quantitatively compared muscle dimensions of the hominoid foot by means of multivariate analysis. The foot muscle mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of five chimpanzees, one bonobo, two gorillas, and six orangutans were obtained by our own dissections, and those of humans were taken from published accounts...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Shin-Ichi Fujiwara
Deducing the scapular positions of extinct tetrapod skeletons remains difficult, because the scapulae and rib cage are connected with each other not directly by skeletal joint, but by thoracic muscles. In extant non-testudine quadrupedal tetrapods, the top positions of the scapulae/suprascapulae occur at the anterior portion of the rib cage, above the vertebral column and near the median plane. The adequacy of this position was tested using three-dimensional mechanical models of Felis, Rattus and Chamaeleo that assumed stances on a forelimb on a single side and the hindlimbs...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Tuong-Van Hoang, Claudio Nardiello, David E Surate Solaligue, José Alberto Rodríguez-Castillo, Philipp Rath, Konstantin Mayer, István Vadász, Susanne Herold, Kathrin Ahlbrecht, Werner Seeger, Rory E Morty
The quantitative assessment of the lung architecture forms the foundation of many studies on lung development and lung diseases, where parameters such as alveoli number, alveolar size, and septal thickness are quantitatively influenced by developmental or pathological processes. Given the pressing need for robust data that describe the lung structure, there is currently much enthusiasm for the development and refinement of methodological approaches for the unbiased assessment of lung structure with improved precision...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Krzysztof Dudek, Marta Nowakowska-Kotas, Alicja Kędzia
The evaluation of cerebellar growth in the fetal period forms a part of a widely used examination to identify any features of abnormalities in early stages of human development. It is well known that the development of anatomical structures, including the cerebellum, does not always follow a linear model of growth. The aim of the study was to analyse a variety of mathematical models of human cerebellar development in fetal life to determine their adequacy. The study comprised 101 fetuses (48 males and 53 females) between the 15th and 28th weeks of fetal life...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Pauline Hanot, Anthony Herrel, Claude Guintard, Raphaël Cornette
The relationships between the different component parts of organisms, such as the sharing of common development or function, produce a coordinated variation between the different traits. This morphological integration contributes to drive or constrain morphological variation and thus impacts phenotypic diversification. Artificial selection is known to contribute significantly to phenotypic diversification of domestic species. However, little attention has been paid to its potential impact on integration patterns...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Sayaka Tojima, Haruyuki Makishima, Tetsuya Takakuwa, Shigehito Yamada
Although the human tail is completely absent at birth, the embryonic tail is formed just as in other tailed amniotes. Since all morphological variations are created from variations in developmental processes, elucidation of the tail reduction process during embryonic development may be necessary to clarify the human evolutionary process. The tail has also been of great interest to the medical community. The congenital anomaly referred to as 'human tail', i.e. the occurrence of a tail-like structure, has been reported and was thought to represent a vestige of the embryonic tail; however, this hypothesis has not been verified...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
P Marcos, J González-Fuentes, L Castro-Vázquez, M V Lozano, M J Santander-Ortega, V Rodríguez-Robledo, N Villaseca-González, M M Arroyo-Jiménez
Its high metabolic rate and high polyunsaturated fatty acid content make the brain very sensitive to oxidative damage. In the brain, neuronal metabolism occurs at a very high rate and generates considerable amounts of reactive oxygen species and free radicals, which accumulate inside neurons, leading to altered cellular homeostasis and integrity and eventually irreversible damage and cell death. A misbalance in redox metabolism and the subsequent neurodegeneration increase throughout the course of normal aging, leading to several age-related changes in learning and memory as well as motor functions...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Fengyi Liang
The mammalian olfactory epithelium (OE) sustains persistent neurogenesis even in the adult. Sustentacular cells therein play both epithelial and neuroglial roles, although their relation with olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and their function in ORN maturation remain insufficiently understood. Sustentacular wrapping of ORN dendrites has been long known but always considered a minor presence, as opposed to the supposedly unwrapped majority of ORN dendrites at inter-sustentacular borderlines. Using immunofluorescence, confocal and immuno-electron microscopy, the current study examined cytoarchitectonic organization and maturation of ORN dendrites at the rat OE apical layer...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Asima Karim, Anish K Amin, Andrew C Hall
Chondrocytes are the major cell type present in hyaline cartilage and they play a crucial role in maintaining the mechanical resilience of the tissue through a balance of the synthesis and breakdown of extracellular matrix macromolecules. Histological assessment of cartilage suggests that articular chondrocytes in situ typically occur singly and demonstrate a rounded/elliptical morphology. However, there are suggestions that their grouping and fine shape is more complex and that these change with cartilage degeneration as occurs in osteoarthritis...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Clemens Kiecker
The circumventricular organs (CVOs) are specialised neuroepithelial structures found in the midline of the brain, grouped around the third and fourth ventricles. They mediate the communication between the brain and the periphery by performing sensory and secretory roles, facilitated by increased vascularisation and the absence of a blood-brain barrier. Surprisingly little is known about the origins of the CVOs (both developmental and evolutionary), but their functional and organisational similarities raise the question of the extent of their relationship...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Keita Nishi, Toshiyuki Tsurumoto, Keishi Okamoto, Keiko Ogami-Takamura, Takashi Hasegawa, Takefumi Moriuchi, Junya Sakamoto, Joichi Oyamada, Toshio Higashi, Yoshitaka Manabe, Kazunobu Saiki
The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is responsible for weight transmission between the spine and lower extremity. However, details of the structure and function of the SIJ remain unclear. In a previous study, we devised a method of quantitatively evaluating the level of degeneration of the SIJ using an age estimation procedure for the auricular surface of the ilium. Our results in that study suggested that the degree of degeneration of the joint surface may be associated with the morphology of the auricular surface of the ilium...
December 25, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Pengling Ren, Haijun Niu, He Gong, Rui Zhang, Yubo Fan
The purpose of this study was to investigate age-related changes in the morphological, biochemical and mechanical properties of articular cartilage (AC) and subchondral bone in the rat tibial plateau. Female Wistar rats were grouped according to age (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 16 and 17 months, with 10 rats in each group). The ultrastructures, surface topographies, and biochemical and mechanical properties of the AC and subchondral bone in the knee joints of the rats were determined through X-ray micro-tomography, histology, immunohistochemistry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Arsalan Marghoub, Joseph Libby, Christian Babbs, Erwin Pauws, Michael J Fagan, Mehran Moazen
During postnatal calvarial growth the brain grows gradually and the overlying bones and sutures accommodate that growth until the later juvenile stages. The whole process is coordinated through a complex series of biological, chemical and perhaps mechanical signals between various elements of the craniofacial system. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent a computational model can accurately predict the calvarial growth in wild-type (WT) and mutant type (MT) Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice displaying bicoronal suture fusion...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Ana Ivanović, Jan W Arntzen
We carried out a comparative morphometric analysis of 56 species of salamandrid salamanders, representing 19 out of 21 extant genera, with the aim of uncovering the major patterns of skull shape diversification, and revealing possible trends and directions of evolutionary change. To do this we used micro-computed tomography scanning and three-dimensional geometric morphometrics, along with a well-resolved molecular phylogeny. We found that allometry explains a relatively small amount of shape variation across taxa...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Timothy E Chong, Helen M S Davies
The objective of this research was to investigate how the range of flexion and extension of the canine elbow joint is constrained by the mechanical connections and attachments of soft tissue structures. The skin, a section of deep fascia and several muscles from both forelimbs from six adult greyhounds and seven other breeds were sequentially transected or removed, over 13 steps. During each step, repeated measurements of elbow flexion and extension were recorded using a goniometer. Only marginally significant changes to the range of flexion occurred in any of the 13 steps or overall for the greyhounds...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Laura Taberner, Aitor Bañón, Berta Alsina
There is growing evidence of a direct influence of vasculature on the development of neurons in the brain. The development of the cranial vasculature has been well described in zebrafish but its anatomical relationship with the adjacent developing sensory ganglia has not been addressed. Here, by 3D imaging of fluorescently labelled blood vessels and sensory ganglia, we describe for the first time the spatial organization of the cranial vasculature in relation to the cranial ganglia during zebrafish development...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Takakiyo Nomura, Tetsu Niwa, Jun Koizumi, Shuhei Shibukawa, Shun Ono, Yutaka Imai
The thoracic duct, a terminal lymph vessel, is thought to dilate after the intake of a fatty meal. However, this physiological change has not been well explored in vivo. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess serial changes in the thoracic duct after the intake of a fatty meal using magnetic resonance thoracic ductography (MRTD). Eight healthy volunteers were subjected to one MRTD scan before a fatty meal and eight serial MRTD scans every hour thereafter. The cross-sectional areas of the thoracic duct were estimated using MRTD measurements of the diameters of the thoracic duct at the upper edge of the aortic arch, the tracheal bifurcation, the mid-point between the tracheal bifurcation and the left part of the diaphragm and the left part of the diaphragm...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Christine L Hammer, Tamara A Franz-Odendaal
Previous work, almost four decades ago, showed that hydrocortisone (HC) treatment reduces the number of skeletogenic condensations that give rise to the scleral ossicles in the chicken eye. The scleral ossicles are a ring of overlapping intramembranous bones, the sclerotic ring, and are present in most reptiles, including birds. The scleral condensations that give rise to the scleral ossicles are induced by a series of overlying thickenings (or papillae) of the conjunctival epithelium. Here, we further explore the effects of altering the dosage and timing of HC treatment on the morphology and number of skeletogenic condensations and conjunctival papillae...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Yara Haridy, Aaron R H LeBlanc, Robert R Reisz
Continuous tooth replacement is common for tetrapods, but some groups of acrodont lepidosaurs have lost the ability to replace their dentition (monophyodonty). Acrodonty, where the tooth attaches to the apex of the jawbone, is an unusual form of tooth attachment that has been associated with the highly autapomorphic condition of monophyodonty. Beyond Lepidosauria, very little is known about the relationship between acrodonty and monophyodonty in other amniotes. We test for this association with a detailed study of the dentition of Opisthodontosaurus, an unusual Early Permian captorhinid eureptile with acrodont dentition...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
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