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Journal of Anatomy

Arnold Adikrishna, Young-Ho Shin, Rizki F Zulkarnain, Hanpyo Hong, Yucheng Sun, In-Ho Jeon
The posteromedial quadrant of the radial head is known to be different from the other quadrants. However, the explanation of this unique anatomical feature remains elusive. Hence, this study was designed to address this unique anatomical variance using three-dimensional μCT (micro-computed tomography) analysis. Nine fresh cadaveric radial heads were scanned using μCT. Three-dimensional subchondral bone and cartilage models were rendered. Both models were separated into the four quadrants at both the periphery (rim) and the articulating dish (fovea): anteromedial (AM), posteromedial (PM), posterolateral (PL), and anterolateral (AL)...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Sophie Macaulay, John R Hutchinson, Karl T Bates
Centre of mass is a fundamental anatomical and biomechanical parameter. Knowledge of centre of mass is essential to inform studies investigating locomotion and other behaviours, through its implications for segment movements, and on whole body factors such as posture. Previous studies have estimated centre of mass position for a range of organisms, using various methodologies. However, few studies assess the accuracy of the methods that they employ, and often provide only brief details on their methodologies...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
B Fernández-López, D Sobrido-Cameán, R Anadón, M C Rodicio, A Barreiro-Iglesias
Co-localization of dopamine with other classical neurotransmitters in the same neuron is a common phenomenon in the brain of vertebrates. In mammals, some dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area and the hypothalamus have a glutamatergic co-phenotype. However, information on the presence of this type of dopaminergic neurons in other vertebrate groups is very scant. Here, we aimed to provide new insights on the evolution of this neuronal co-phenotype by studying the presence of a dual dopaminergic/glutamatergic neuron phenotype in the central nervous system of lampreys...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Jill P J M Hikspoors, Mathijs M J P Peeters, Hayelom K Mekonen, Nutmethee Kruepunga, Greet M C Mommen, Pieter Cornillie, S Eleonore Köhler, Wouter H Lamers
Differentiation of endodermal cells into hepatoblasts is well studied, but the remodeling of the vitelline and umbilical veins during liver development is less well understood. We compared human embryos between 3 and 10 weeks of development with pig and mouse embryos at comparable stages, and used Amira 3D reconstruction and Cinema 4D remodeling software for visualization. The vitelline and umbilical veins enter the systemic venous sinus on each side via a common entrance, the hepatocardiac channel. During expansion into the transverse septum at Carnegie Stage (CS)12 the liver bud develops as two dorsolateral lobes or 'wings' and a single ventromedial lobe, with the liver hilum at the intersection of these lobes...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Harald Kryvi, Iselin Rusten, Per Gunnar Fjelldal, Kari Nordvik, Geir K Totland, Tine Karlsen, Helge Wiig, John H Long
We present the development of the notochord of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), from early embryo to sexually mature fish. Over the salmon's lifespan, profound morphological changes occur. Cells and gross structures of the notochord reorganize twice. In the embryo, the volume of the notochord is dominated by large, vacuolated chordocytes; each cell can be modeled as a hydrostat organized into a larger cellular-hydrostat network, structurally bound together with desmosomes. After the embryo hatches and grows into a fry, vacuolated chordocytes disappear, replaced by extracellular lacunae...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Luka Opitz, Katharina Maria Kling, Christina Brandenberger, Christian Mühlfeld
Pulmonary alveolar septa are thought to contain at least two types of fibroblasts that are termed myofibroblasts and lipofibroblasts based on their morphological characteristics. Lipofibroblasts possess cytoplasmic lipid inclusions (lipid bodies or droplets) and are involved in several important functions, such as surfactant synthesis, development, vitamin A storage and presumably regeneration. As vitamin A was shown to reduce pulmonary emphysema in several but not all mouse and rat strains, we hypothesized that these strain differences might be explained by a differential occurrence of lipofibroblasts and their lipid bodies in various mouse strains...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Colin W Moore, Charles L Rice
The palmaris brevis (PB) is a small cutaneous hand muscle that has been described as the most mysterious muscle from a functional and developmental perspective [Kaplan () Kaplan's Functional and Surgical Anatomy of the Hand]. Functionally, the PB is considered to deepen the hollow of the palm and to protect the neurovasculature of the ulnar canal. Although the function of the PB has been inferred from cadaveric observations, the electromyographic (EMG) activity of this muscle has not been explored systematically during specific movements of the hand...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Jumpei Tomiyasu, Daisuke Kondoh, Hideyuki Sakamoto, Naoya Matsumoto, Motoki Sasaki, Nobuo Kitamura, Shingo Haneda, Motozumi Matsui
The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a peripheral receptor structure that is involved in reproductive behavior and is part of the vomeronasal system. Male bears exhibit flehmen behavior that is regarded as the uptake of pheromones into the VNO to detect estrus in females. However, the morphological and histological features of the VNO in bears have not been comprehensively studied. The present study investigated the properties and degree of development of the VNO of the brown bear by histological, histochemical and ultrastructural methods...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Xiaoyu Tong, Markus K H Malo, Inari S Burton, Jukka S Jurvelin, Hanna Isaksson, Heikki Kröger
The histomorphometric properties of the subtrochanteric femoral region have rarely been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the age-associated variations and regional differences of histomorphometric and osteocytic properties in the cortical bone of the subtrochanteric femoral shaft, and the association between osteocytic and histological cortical bone parameters. Undecalcified histological sections of the subtrochanteric femoral shaft were obtained from cadavers (n = 20, aged 18-82 years, males)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Emily J Lessner, Michelle R Stocker
The examination of endocranial data of archosauriforms has led to advances on the evolution of body size, nerve pathways, and sensory abilities. However, much of that research has focused on bird-line archosaurs, resulting in a skewed view of Archosauria. Phytosauria, a hypothesized sister taxon to or early-branching member of Archosauria, provides a potential outgroup condition. Most previous phytosaur endocranial studies were executed without the use of modern technology and focused on derived members of Phytosauria...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Ludmilla Carvalho Coutinho, João Alves de Oliveira
Sigmodontinae rodents constitute the second-largest subfamily among mammals. Alongside the taxonomic diversity, they are also ecologically diverse, exhibiting a wide array of locomotion modes, with semifossorial, terrestrial, semiaquatic, scansorial, arboreal, and saltatorial forms. To understand the ecomorphologic aspects that allow these rodents to display such locomotion diversity, we analyzed 35 qualitative characters of the appendicular skeleton (humerus, ulna, radius, scapula, femur, tibia, ilium, ischium and pubis) in 795 specimens belonging to 64 species, 34 genera and 10 tribes, representing all locomotion modes assigned to this subfamily...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
William Moffat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Stefan H Geyer, Lukas F Reissig, Markus Hüsemann, Cordula Höfle, Robert Wilson, Fabrice Prin, Dorota Szumska, Antonella Galli, David J Adams, Jacqui White, Timothy J Mohun, Wolfgang J Weninger
Accurate identification of abnormalities in the mouse embryo depends not only on comparisons with appropriate, developmental stage-matched controls, but also on an appreciation of the range of anatomical variation that can be expected during normal development. Here we present a morphological, topological and metric analysis of the heart and arteries of mouse embryos harvested on embryonic day (E)14.5, based on digital volume data of whole embryos analysed by high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM). By comparing data from 206 genetically normal embryos, we have analysed the range and frequency of normal anatomical variations in the heart and major arteries across Theiler stages S21-S23...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Andrew C Cook, Vi-Hue Tran, Diane E Spicer, Jafrin M H Rob, Shankar Sridharan, Andrew Taylor, Robert H Anderson, Bjarke Jensen
Differences between hearts of crocodilians and those of mammals and birds are only partly understood because there is no standardised approach and terminology for describing cardiac structure. Whereas most reptiles have an undivided ventricle, crocodilians have a fully septated ventricle. Their hearts, therefore, are more readily comparable with the hearts of mammals and birds. Here, we describe the heart of a crocodile (Crocodylus noliticus). We use the versatile sequential segmental approach to analysis, juxtaposing several key views of the crocodilian heart to the comparable views of human hearts...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Sara H Burch
Forelimb reduction occurred independently in multiple lineages of theropod dinosaurs. Although tyrannosaurs are renowned for their tiny, two-fingered forelimbs, the degree of their reduction in length is surpassed by abelisaurids, which possess an unusual morphology distinct from that of other theropods. The forelimbs of abelisaurids are short but robust and exhibit numerous crests, tubercles, and scars that allow for inferences of muscle attachment sites. Phylogenetically based reconstructions of the musculature were used in combination with close examination of the osteology in the Malagasy abelisaurid Majungasaurus to create detailed muscle maps of the forelimbs, and patterns of the muscular and bony morphology were compared with those of extant tetrapods with reduced or vestigial limbs...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
A De Clercq, M R Perrott, P S Davie, M A Preece, B Wybourne, N Ruff, A Huysseune, P E Witten
Teleost vertebral centra are often similar in size and shape, but vertebral-associated elements, i.e. neural arches, haemal arches and ribs, show regional differences. Here we examine how the presence, absence and specific anatomical and histological characters of vertebral centra-associated elements can be used to define vertebral column regions in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). To investigate if the presence of regions within the vertebral column is independent of temperature, animals raised at 8 and 12 °C were studied at 1400 and 1530 degreedays, in the freshwater phase of the life cycle...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Alexander Spassov, Viviana Toro-Ibacache, Mirjam Krautwald, Heinrich Brinkmeier, Kornelius Kupczik
The bones of the mammalian skull respond plastically to changes in masticatory function. However, the extent to which muscle function affects the growth and development of the skull, whose regions have different maturity patterns, remains unclear. Using muscle dissection and 3D landmark-based geometric morphometrics we investigated the effect of changes in muscle function established either before or after weaning, on skull shape and muscle mass in adult mice. We compared temporalis and masseter mass and skull shape in mice with a congenital muscle dystrophy (mdx) and wild type (wt) mice fed on either a hard or a soft diet...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
S Rocio Moyano, Norberto P Giannini
Skull morphology in tapirs is particularly interesting due to the presence of a proboscis with important trophic, sensory and behavioral functions. Several studies have dealt with tapir skull osteology but chiefly in a comparative framework between fossil and recent species of tapirs. Only one study examined an aspect of cranial ontogeny, development of the sagittal crest (Holbrook. J Zool Soc Lond 2002; 256; 215). Our goal is to describe in detail the morphological changes that occur during the postnatal ontogeny of the skull in two representative tapir species, Tapirus terrestris and Tapirus indicus, and to explore possible functional consequences of their developmental trajectories...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Robert M Geraghty, Michelle Spear
There is a consensus that there is no overt anterior joint capsule in the knee. However, other anterior structures act in lieu of a joint capsule: the quadriceps tendon and patellar retinacular fibres. In the absence of a capsule, the synovium forms the suprapatellar pouch. Other synovial structures, the plicae, are more controversial. They are often described as embryonic remnants with no function, despite surrounding the patella. We aimed to identify plical anatomy and histology on cadaveric dissection and to examine their embryology using the human virtual embryo website...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
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