Read by QxMD icon Read

Journal of Anatomy

Faes D Kerkhof, Timo van Leeuwen, Evie E Vereecke
How changes in anatomy affect joint biomechanics can be studied using musculoskeletal modelling, making it a valuable tool to explore joint function in healthy and pathological joints. However, gathering the anatomical, geometrical and physiological data necessary to create a model can be challenging. Very few integrated datasets exist and even less raw data is openly available to create new models. Therefore, the goal of the present study is to create an integrated digital forearm and make the raw data available via an open-access database...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Russell T Hogg, Bin Hu, Timothy G Bromage
Our objective is to assess variation in Havers-Halberg oscillation (HHO) periodicities among domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). The HHO is hypothesized to be a hypothalamic-generated biorhythm coordinating multiple life history variables including body mass and lifespan. Dogs have a broad mass range spanning two orders of magnitude, but this variation has been shown to result from selection on very few genetic loci, and dogs have low variation in other life history traits. Therefore, we predict that HHO variation will not be correlated to body mass among domestic dogs, as it is in anthropoid primates...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Benjamin Jevans, Conor J McCann, Nikhil Thapar, Alan J Burns
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes paralysis, multisystem impairment and reduced life expectancy, as yet with no cure. Stem cell therapy can potentially replace lost neurons, promote axonal regeneration and limit scar formation, but an optimal stem cell source has yet to be found. Enteric neural stem cells (ENSC) isolated from the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are an attractive source. Here, we used the chick embryo to assess the potential of ENSC to integrate within the developing spinal cord...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Amanda K Kingston
Museum fluid collections preserve important biological specimens for study. Tissues are often fixed in 10% buffered formalin to halt metabolic activities and transferred to a solution of ethanol for long-term storage. This process, however, forces water from the tissues and has been shown to alter the morphology of preserved specimens in ways that may influence the biological interpretation of results. The degree to which fluid preservation alters morphology is linked to multiple biological factors, such as tissue size and composition, and should therefore be examined prior to functional analysis...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Karl T Bates, Peter L Falkingham
Functional reconstructions of extinct animals represent a crucial step towards understanding palaeocological interactions, selective pressures and macroevolutionary patterns in the fossil record. In recent years, computational approaches have revolutionised the field of 'evolutionary biomechanics' and have, in general, resulted in convergence of quantitative estimates of performance on increasingly narrow ranges for well studied taxa. Studies of body mass and locomotor performance of Tyrannosaurus rex - arguably the most intensively studied extinct animal - typify this pattern, with numerous independent studies predicting similar body masses and maximum locomotor speeds for this animal...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Irene Montañez-Rivera, John A Nyakatura, Eli Amson
Bone remodeling, one of the main processes that regulate bone microstructure, consists of bone resorption followed by the deposition of secondary bone at the same location. Remodeling intensity varies among taxa, but a characteristically compact cortex is ubiquitous in the long bones of mature terrestrial mammals. A previous analysis found that cortical bone in a few 'tree sloth' (Bradypus and Choloepus) specimens is heavily remodeled and characterized by numerous immature secondary osteons, suggesting that these animals were remodeling their bones at high rate until late in their ontogeny...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Yohann Renard, Louis de Mestier, Clémence Balaj, Jean-Michel Arnoux, Marc Labrousse, Gabriela Hossu, Manuela Perez
Surgical laparoscopic procedures in the retroperitoneal and supramesocolic spaces are increasingly frequent. There is a high risk of iatrogenic intraoperative injury of the retroperitoneal lymphatic structures during these procedures. A precise understanding of the anatomy of the thoracic duct (TD) and the cisterna chyli (CC) is essential for safe surgical procedures in this area. However, routine imaging procedures rarely and often incorrectly visualize the CC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a retrograde injection of the TD to fill the CC with a contrast agent in 16 human cadavers...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Robert L Cieri
Because the musculoskeletal anatomy of the trunk is the framework for the behaviors of locomotion, ventilation, and body support in lepidosaurs, comparative study of trunk anatomy in this group is critical for unraveling the selective pressures leading to extant diversity in axial form and function among vertebrates. This work uses gross dissection and computed tomography to describe the muscular and skeletal anatomy of the trunk of varanid lizards (Varanidae, Anguimorpha). Gross muscle dissections were conducted to investigate the axial muscular anatomy of Varanus exanthematicus, Varanus giganteus, Varanus rosenbergi, and Varanus panoptes...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
A P Rodrigo, C Martins, M H Costa, A P Alves de Matos, P M Costa
Eulalia viridis is a marine Polychaeta of the rocky intertidal that, despite its simple anatomy, is an active predator of much larger invertebrates, from which it extracts pieces of soft tissue through suction. This uncanny feeding strategy triggered the pursuit for the morphological mechanisms that enable adaptation to its environment. The evaluation of the worm anatomy and microanatomy, combining electron and optical microscopy, revealed a series of particular adaptations in the epidermis and in the proboscis (the heavily muscled eversible pharynx)...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
C Tristan Stayton
Finite element (FE) models have become increasingly popular in comparative biomechanical studies, with researchers continually developing methods such as 'warping' preexisting models to facilitate analyses. However, few studies have investigated how well FE models can predict biologically crucial whole-structure performance or whether 'warped' models can provide useful information about the mechanical behavior of actual specimens. This study addresses both of these issues through a validation of warped FE models of turtle shells...
July 29, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Kirsten Ferner
A morphological and morphometric study of the skin of a variety of newborn marsupials (Dasyurus viverrinus, Monodelphis domestica, Trichosurus vulpecula, Isoodon obesulus, Perameles nasuta, Phascolarctos cinereus, Potorous tridactylus, Petrogale penicillata, Thylogale thetidi, Macropus dorsalis) and of a monotreme hatchling (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) was undertaken to assess the possibility of cutaneous gas exchange. Additionally, the lungs of some of these species were investigated to assess its structural degree at birth...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Timo van Leeuwen, Marie J M Vanhoof, Faes D Kerkhof, Jeroen M G Stevens, Evie E Vereecke
The human hand is well known for its unique dexterity which is largely facilitated by a highly mobile, long and powerful thumb that enables both tool manufacturing and use, a key component of human evolution. The bonobo (Pan paniscus), the closest extant relative to modern humans together with the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), also possesses good manipulative capabilities but with a lower level of dexterity compared with modern humans. Despite the close phylogenetic relationship between bonobos and humans, detailed quantitative data of the bonobo forelimb musculature remains largely lacking...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Julian K A Langowski, Henk Schipper, Anne Blij, Frank T van den Berg, Sander W S Gussekloo, Johan L van Leeuwen
The morphology of the digital pads of tree frogs is adapted towards attachment, allowing these animals to attach to various substrates and to explore their arboreal habitat. Previous descriptions and functional interpretations of the pad morphology mostly focussed on the surface of the ventral epidermis, and little is known about the internal pad morphology and its functional relevance in attachment. In this study, we combine histology and synchrotron micro-computer-tomography to obtain a comprehensive 3-D morphological characterisation of the digital pads (in particular of the internal structures involved in the transmission of attachment forces from the ventral pad surface towards the phalanges) of the tree frog Hyla cinerea...
October 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Kazutoshi Nishijima, Tamio Ohno, Ryoichi Saito, Yasunori Sumi, Hiroaki Aoyama, Shin Tanaka
Age-dependent changes of the mandible bone in female F344/N rats, aged 22-1196 days, were analyzed using physiological bone properties and morphology. Bone weight, bone area, bone mineral components, and bone mineral density were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The bone weight, bone area, bone mineral components, and bone mineral density increased rapidly until approximately 150 days of age, increased gradually thereafter, and then stabilized or decreased after 910 days of age. The ratio of bone mineral components to bone weight (bone mineral ratio) increased rapidly until approximately 43 days of age and stabilized thereafter...
October 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Yi Wu, Noshir F Dabhoiwala, Jaco Hagoort, Jill P J M Hikspoors, Li-Wen Tan, Greet Mommen, Xin Hu, Shao-Xiang Zhang, Wouter H Lamers
The fibro-muscular architecture of the urogenital triangle remains contentious. Reasons are small size of the constituting structures and poor visibility with most imaging methods. We reinvestigated the area in serial sections of three males (21-38 years old) of the American and Chinese Visible Human Projects and two 26-week-old male fetuses, and compared the findings with earlier observations in females. The mass of the levator ani muscle was approximately twofold smaller and its funnel shape steeper in males than females...
October 2018: Journal of Anatomy
C Fede, A Angelini, R Stern, V Macchi, A Porzionato, P Ruggieri, R De Caro, C Stecco
Recently, alterations in fascial gliding-like movement have been invoked as critical in the etiology of myofascial pain. Various methods have been attempted for the relief of this major and debilitating clinical problem. Paramount have been attempts to restore correct gliding between fascial layers and the movement over bone, joint, and muscular structures. One of the key elements that underlies such fascial movement is hyaluronan. However, until now, the precise content of hyaluronan within fasciae has been unknown...
October 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Kaare Meier, Erisela Qerama, Kåre Schmidt Ettrup, Andreas Nørgaard Glud, Aage Kristian Olsen Alstrup, Jens Christian Hedemann Sørensen
The Göttingen minipig is being used increasingly in biomedical research. The anatomical structure of the porcine peripheral nervous system has been extensively characterized, but no equivalent to the dermatome map, which is so valuable in human neurophysiological research, has been created. We characterized the medullar segmental skin and muscle innervations of the minipig hind body, using neurophysiological methodology. Six adult minipigs underwent unilateral laminectomy from L2 to S3, exposing the nerve roots...
October 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Daria Razmadze, Aleksandra A Panyutina, Nikita V Zelenkov
Parrots (order Psittaciformes) are a rather homogeneous group of birds that can be easily distinguished by the notably modified morphology of the skull and hindlimb. Detailed description of the forelimb morphology in these birds has never been provided, though parrots are often used as model objects in flight studies. Parrots are also considered the closest living relatives of the perching birds (Passeriformes), and thus knowledge of the wing morphology in Psittaciformes is important for understanding the evolution of the locomotor apparatus on the way to the most speciose group of birds...
October 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Anouk Agten, Jonas Verbrugghe, Sjoerd Stevens, Lukas Boomgaert, Bert O Eijnde, Annick Timmermans, Frank Vandenabeele
The lumbar muscular system, in particular the lumbar multifidus muscle (LM) and the erector spinae muscle (ES), plays an important role in stabilizing and mobilizing the lumbar spine. Based on the topography, the lumbar paraspinal muscles can be classified into local and global muscles. LM is part of the local system, whereas ES is part of the global system. Therefore, it is interesting to investigate the muscle fibre type composition in both muscles. There is accumulating evidence that nonspecific chronic low back pain is associated with lumbar muscle dysfunction...
October 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Rachel A Racicot, Simon A F Darroch, Naoki Kohno
Narwhals (Monodon monoceros) and belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) are the only extant members of the Monodontidae, and are charismatic Arctic-endemic cetaceans that are at risk from global change. Investigating the anatomy and sensory apparatuses of these animals is essential to understanding their ecology and evolution, and informs efforts for their conservation. Here, we use X-ray CT scans to compare aspects of the endocranial and inner ear labyrinth anatomy of extant monodontids and use the overall morphology to draw larger inferences about the relationship between morphology and ecology...
October 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"