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Journal of Anatomy

Adrian C Miller, Martin A Cake, Natalie M Warburton
The kangaroo knee is, as in other species, a complex diarthrodial joint dependent on interacting osseous, cartilaginous and ligamentous components for its stability. While principal load bearing occurs through the femorotibial articulation, additional lateral articulations involving the fibula and lateral fabella also contribute to the functional arrangement. Several fibrocartilage and ligamentous structures in this joint remain unexplained or have been misunderstood in previous studies. In this study, we review the existing literature on the structure of the kangaroo 'knee' before providing a new description of the gross anatomical and histological structures...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Jessika Bertacchini, Marta Benincasa, Marta Checchi, Francesco Cavani, Alberto Smargiassi, Marzia Ferretti, Carla Palumbo
Hitherto, the role of the osteocyte as transducer of mechanical stimuli into biological signals is far from settled. In this study, we used an appropriate model represented by the cortex of Xenopus laevis long bone diaphysis lacking (unlike the mammalian one) of vascular structures and containing only osteocytes inside the bone matrix. These structural features allow any change of protein profile that might be observed upon different experimental conditions, such as bone adaptation to stress/mechanical loading, to be ascribed specifically to osteocytes...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Y García-Mesa, J García-Piqueras, B García, J Feito, R Cabo, J Cobo, J A Vega, O García-Suárez
The transformation of mechanical energy into electrical signals is the first step in mechanotransduction in the peripheral sensory nervous system and relies on the presence of mechanically gated ion channels within specialized sensory organs called mechanoreceptors. Piezo2 is a vertebrate stretch-gated ion channel necessary for mechanosensitive channels in mammalian cells. Functionally, it is related to light touch, which has been detected in murine cutaneous Merkel cell-neurite complexes, Meissner-like corpuscles and lanceolate nerve endings...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Andrea Stephenson, Justin W Adams, Mauro Vaccarezza
Convergence is the tendency of independent species to evolve similarly when subjected to the same environmental conditions. The primitive blueprint for the circulatory system emerged around 700-600 Mya and exhibits diverse physiological adaptations across the radiations of vertebrates (Subphylum Vertebrata, Phylum Chordata). It has evolved from the early chordate circulatory system with a single layered tube in the tunicate (Subphylum Urchordata) or an amphioxus (Subphylum Cephalochordata), to a vertebrate circulatory system with a two-chambered heart made up of one atrium and one ventricle in gnathostome fish (Infraphylum Gnathostomata), to a system with a three-chambered heart made up of two atria which maybe partially divided or completely separated in amphibian tetrapods (Class Amphibia)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Aaron R H LeBlanc, Denis O Lamoureux, Michael W Caldwell
Squamates present a unique challenge to our understanding of dental evolution in amniotes because they are the only extant tooth-bearing group for which a ligamentous tooth attachment is considered to be absent. This has led to the assumption that mammals and crocodilians have convergently evolved a ligamentous tooth attachment, composed of root cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone, whereas squamates are thought to possess a single bone of attachment tissue that fuses teeth to the jaws. The identity and homology of tooth attachment tissues between squamates, crocodilians, and mammals have thus been a focal point of debate for decades...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Christopher T Griffin, Candice M Stefanic, William G Parker, Axel Hungerbühler, Michelle R Stocker
The sacrum - consisting of those vertebrae that articulate with the ilia - is the exclusive skeletal connection between the hindlimbs and axial skeleton in tetrapods. Therefore, the morphology of this portion of the vertebral column plays a major role in the evolution of terrestrial locomotion. Whereas most extant reptiles only possess the two plesiomorphic sacral vertebrae, additional vertebrae have been incorporated into the sacrum multiple times independently among early-diverging archosaurian (crocodylians + birds) clades...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Robert E Kambic, Thomas J Roberts, Stephen M Gatesy
Measuring range of motion (ROM) is a valuable technique that can link bone morphology to joint function in both extant and extinct taxa. ROM results are commonly presented as tables or graphs of maxima and minima for each rotational degree of freedom. We investigate the interactions among three degrees of freedom using X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM) to measure ROM of the main hind limb joints of Helmeted Guineafowl (Numida meleagris). By plotting each rotation on an axis, we generate three-dimensional ROM volumes or envelopes composed of hundreds of extreme joint positions for the hip, knee, and intertarsal joints...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
D Alessio Panzica, Amy S Findlay, Rianne van Ladesteijn, J Martin Collinson
The role of the core planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway protein, Vangl2, was investigated in the corneal epithelium of the mammalian eye, a paradigm anatomical model of planar cell migration. The gene was conditionally knocked out in vivo and knocked down by siRNA, followed by immunohistochemical, behavioural and morphological analysis of corneal epithelial cells. The primary defects observed in vivo were of apical-basal organisation of the corneal epithelium, with abnormal stratification throughout life, mislocalisation of the cell membrane protein, Scribble, to the basal side of cells, and partial loss of the epithelial basement membrane...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Arnold Adikrishna, Young-Ho Shin, Rizki F Zulkarnain, Hanpyo Hong, Yucheng Sun, In-Ho Jeon
The posteromedial quadrant of the radial head is known to be different from the other quadrants. However, the explanation of this unique anatomical feature remains elusive. Hence, this study was designed to address this unique anatomical variance using three-dimensional μCT (micro-computed tomography) analysis. Nine fresh cadaveric radial heads were scanned using μCT. Three-dimensional subchondral bone and cartilage models were rendered. Both models were separated into the four quadrants at both the periphery (rim) and the articulating dish (fovea): anteromedial (AM), posteromedial (PM), posterolateral (PL), and anterolateral (AL)...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Sophie Macaulay, John R Hutchinson, Karl T Bates
Centre of mass is a fundamental anatomical and biomechanical parameter. Knowledge of centre of mass is essential to inform studies investigating locomotion and other behaviours, through its implications for segment movements, and on whole body factors such as posture. Previous studies have estimated centre of mass position for a range of organisms, using various methodologies. However, few studies assess the accuracy of the methods that they employ, and often provide only brief details on their methodologies...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
B Fernández-López, D Sobrido-Cameán, R Anadón, M C Rodicio, A Barreiro-Iglesias
Co-localization of dopamine with other classical neurotransmitters in the same neuron is a common phenomenon in the brain of vertebrates. In mammals, some dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area and the hypothalamus have a glutamatergic co-phenotype. However, information on the presence of this type of dopaminergic neurons in other vertebrate groups is very scant. Here, we aimed to provide new insights on the evolution of this neuronal co-phenotype by studying the presence of a dual dopaminergic/glutamatergic neuron phenotype in the central nervous system of lampreys...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Jill P J M Hikspoors, Mathijs M J P Peeters, Hayelom K Mekonen, Nutmethee Kruepunga, Greet M C Mommen, Pieter Cornillie, S Eleonore Köhler, Wouter H Lamers
Differentiation of endodermal cells into hepatoblasts is well studied, but the remodeling of the vitelline and umbilical veins during liver development is less well understood. We compared human embryos between 3 and 10 weeks of development with pig and mouse embryos at comparable stages, and used Amira 3D reconstruction and Cinema 4D remodeling software for visualization. The vitelline and umbilical veins enter the systemic venous sinus on each side via a common entrance, the hepatocardiac channel. During expansion into the transverse septum at Carnegie Stage (CS)12 the liver bud develops as two dorsolateral lobes or 'wings' and a single ventromedial lobe, with the liver hilum at the intersection of these lobes...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Harald Kryvi, Iselin Rusten, Per Gunnar Fjelldal, Kari Nordvik, Geir K Totland, Tine Karlsen, Helge Wiig, John H Long
We present the development of the notochord of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), from early embryo to sexually mature fish. Over the salmon's lifespan, profound morphological changes occur. Cells and gross structures of the notochord reorganize twice. In the embryo, the volume of the notochord is dominated by large, vacuolated chordocytes; each cell can be modeled as a hydrostat organized into a larger cellular-hydrostat network, structurally bound together with desmosomes. After the embryo hatches and grows into a fry, vacuolated chordocytes disappear, replaced by extracellular lacunae...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Luka Opitz, Katharina Maria Kling, Christina Brandenberger, Christian Mühlfeld
Pulmonary alveolar septa are thought to contain at least two types of fibroblasts that are termed myofibroblasts and lipofibroblasts based on their morphological characteristics. Lipofibroblasts possess cytoplasmic lipid inclusions (lipid bodies or droplets) and are involved in several important functions, such as surfactant synthesis, development, vitamin A storage and presumably regeneration. As vitamin A was shown to reduce pulmonary emphysema in several but not all mouse and rat strains, we hypothesized that these strain differences might be explained by a differential occurrence of lipofibroblasts and their lipid bodies in various mouse strains...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Colin W Moore, Charles L Rice
The palmaris brevis (PB) is a small cutaneous hand muscle that has been described as the most mysterious muscle from a functional and developmental perspective [Kaplan () Kaplan's Functional and Surgical Anatomy of the Hand]. Functionally, the PB is considered to deepen the hollow of the palm and to protect the neurovasculature of the ulnar canal. Although the function of the PB has been inferred from cadaveric observations, the electromyographic (EMG) activity of this muscle has not been explored systematically during specific movements of the hand...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Jumpei Tomiyasu, Daisuke Kondoh, Hideyuki Sakamoto, Naoya Matsumoto, Motoki Sasaki, Nobuo Kitamura, Shingo Haneda, Motozumi Matsui
The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a peripheral receptor structure that is involved in reproductive behavior and is part of the vomeronasal system. Male bears exhibit flehmen behavior that is regarded as the uptake of pheromones into the VNO to detect estrus in females. However, the morphological and histological features of the VNO in bears have not been comprehensively studied. The present study investigated the properties and degree of development of the VNO of the brown bear by histological, histochemical and ultrastructural methods...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Xiaoyu Tong, Markus K H Malo, Inari S Burton, Jukka S Jurvelin, Hanna Isaksson, Heikki Kröger
The histomorphometric properties of the subtrochanteric femoral region have rarely been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the age-associated variations and regional differences of histomorphometric and osteocytic properties in the cortical bone of the subtrochanteric femoral shaft, and the association between osteocytic and histological cortical bone parameters. Undecalcified histological sections of the subtrochanteric femoral shaft were obtained from cadavers (n = 20, aged 18-82 years, males)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Emily J Lessner, Michelle R Stocker
The examination of endocranial data of archosauriforms has led to advances on the evolution of body size, nerve pathways, and sensory abilities. However, much of that research has focused on bird-line archosaurs, resulting in a skewed view of Archosauria. Phytosauria, a hypothesized sister taxon to or early-branching member of Archosauria, provides a potential outgroup condition. Most previous phytosaur endocranial studies were executed without the use of modern technology and focused on derived members of Phytosauria...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Ludmilla Carvalho Coutinho, João Alves de Oliveira
Sigmodontinae rodents constitute the second-largest subfamily among mammals. Alongside the taxonomic diversity, they are also ecologically diverse, exhibiting a wide array of locomotion modes, with semifossorial, terrestrial, semiaquatic, scansorial, arboreal, and saltatorial forms. To understand the ecomorphologic aspects that allow these rodents to display such locomotion diversity, we analyzed 35 qualitative characters of the appendicular skeleton (humerus, ulna, radius, scapula, femur, tibia, ilium, ischium and pubis) in 795 specimens belonging to 64 species, 34 genera and 10 tribes, representing all locomotion modes assigned to this subfamily...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
William Moffat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
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