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Journal of Anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220482/morphological-interaction-between-the-nasal-septum-and-nasofacial-skeleton-during-human-ontogeny
#1
Matthew J Goergen, Nathan E Holton, Thorsten Grünheid
The nasal septal cartilage is thought to be a key growth center that contributes to nasofacial skeletal development. Despite the developmental influence of the nasal septum however, humans often exhibit a high frequency of septal deviation suggesting discordance in the growth between the septum and surrounding nasofacial skeleton. While there are numerous etiological factors that contribute to septal deviation, the surrounding nasofacial skeleton may also act to constrain the septum, resulting in altered patterns of growth...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220476/response-of-trabecular-bone-thyroid-c-and-follicular-cells-to-synthetic-salmon-calcitonin-in-middle-aged-orchidectomized-male-rats
#2
Branko Filipović, Branka Šošić-Jurjević, Vladimir Ajdžanović, Jasmina Živanović, Nataša Ristić, Svetlana Trifunović, Verica Milošević
In contrast to studies in women, male osteoporosis is poorly understood and strictly related to advancing age. Among the first antiresorptive substances used in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis is calcitonin (CT), a hypocalcemic hormone that potently inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption. Natural CT is produced and secreted by thyroid C-cells. The other endocrine population of thyroid cells produces thyroid hormones (TH), which also affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of salmon CT on trabecular bone microarchitecture with special reference to effects on the structure and function of both CT- and TH-producing thyroid cells in orchidectomized (Orx) middle-aged rats...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185265/teres-major-muscle-insertion-footprint
#3
Malte Dancker, Simon Lambert, Erich Brenner
Teres major muscle (TM) and latissimus dorsi muscle (LD) are frequently used in muscle transfers around the shoulder girdle. Some authors have suggested harvesting techniques in which the muscle is detached in continuity with a bone segment. Information on the bony attachment footprint of these muscles is lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the region of attachment of the TM to facilitate safe and complete harvesting with a bone segment where it is indicated, and to determine the relationship of the TM footprint with that of the LD...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185240/a-staging-system-for-correct-phenotype-interpretation-of-mouse-embryos-harvested-on-embryonic-day-14-e14-5
#4
Stefan H Geyer, Lukas Reissig, Julia Rose, Robert Wilson, Fabrice Prin, Dorota Szumska, Ramiro Ramirez-Solis, Catherine Tudor, Jacqui White, Timothy J Mohun, Wolfgang J Weninger
We present a simple and quick system for accurately scoring the developmental progress of mouse embryos harvested on embryonic day 14 (E14.5). Based solely on the external appearance of the maturing forelimb, we provide a convenient way to distinguish six developmental sub-stages. Using a variety of objective morphometric data obtained from the commonly used C57BL/6N mouse strain, we show that these stages correlate precisely with the growth of the entire embryo and its organs. Applying the new staging system to phenotype analyses of E14...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127750/standing-sagittal-alignment-of-the-whole-axial-skeleton-with-reference-to-the-gravity-line-in-humans
#5
Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Masashi Okamoto, Shun Hatsushikano, Haruka Shimoda, Masatoshi Ono, Takao Homma, Kei Watanabe
Human beings stand upright with the chain of balance beginning at the feet, progressing to the lower limbs (ankles, knees, hip joints, pelvis), each of the spinal segments, and then ending at the cranium to achieve horizontal gaze and balance using minimum muscle activity. The details of the alignment and balance of the chain, however, are not clearly understood, due to the lack of information regarding the three-dimensional (3D) orientation of all bony elements in relation to the gravity line (GL). We performed a clinical study to clarify the standing sagittal alignment of whole axial skeletons in reference to the GL using the EOS slot-scanning 3D X-ray imaging system with simultaneous force plate measurement in a healthy human population...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116763/intestinal-smooth-muscle-is-required-for-patterning-the-enteric-nervous-system
#6
Hannah K Graham, Ivy Maina, Allan M Goldstein, Nandor Nagy
The development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and intestinal smooth muscle occurs in a spatially and temporally correlated manner, but how they influence each other is unknown. In the developing mid-gut of the chick embryo, we find that α-smooth muscle actin expression, indicating early muscle differentiation, occurs after the arrival of migrating enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs). In contrast, hindgut smooth muscle develops prior to ENCC arrival. Smooth muscle development is normal in experimentally aganglionic hindguts, suggesting that proper development and patterning of the muscle layers does not rely on the ENS...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097658/segmental-fibre-type-composition-of-the-rat-iliopsoas-muscle
#7
Hrvoje Vlahovic, Ksenija Bazdaric, Verner Marijancic, Tamara Soic-Vranic, Daniela Malnar, Juraj Arbanas
The iliopsoas of the rat is composed of two muscles - the psoas major muscle and the iliacus muscle. The psoas major muscle arises from all the lumbar vertebrae and the iliacus muscle from the fifth and sixth lumbar vertebrae and ilium. Their common insertion point is the lesser trochanter of the femur, and their common action is the lateral rotation of the femur and flexion of the hip joint. Unlike humans, the rat is a quadruped and only occasionally rises up on its hind legs. Therefore, it is expected that the fibre type composition of the rat iliopsoas muscle will be different than that of humans...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078731/rapid-automated-landmarking-for-morphometric-analysis-of-three-dimensional-facial-scans
#8
Mao Li, Joanne B Cole, Mange Manyama, Jacinda R Larson, Denise K Liberton, Sheri L Riccardi, Tracey M Ferrara, Stephanie A Santorico, Jordan J Bannister, Nils D Forkert, Richard A Spritz, Washington Mio, Benedikt Hallgrimsson
Automated phenotyping is essential for the creation of large, highly standardized datasets from anatomical imaging data. Such datasets can support large-scale studies of complex traits or clinical studies related to precision medicine or clinical trials. We have developed a method that generates three-dimensional landmark data that meet the requirements of standard geometric morphometric analyses. The method is robust and can be implemented without high-performance computing resources. We validated the method using both direct comparison to manual landmarking on the same individuals and also analyses of the variation patterns and outlier patterns in a large dataset of automated and manual landmark data...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070906/evolutionary-aspects-of-the-development-of-teeth-and-baleen-in-the-bowhead-whale
#9
J G M Thewissen, Tobin L Hieronymus, John C George, Robert Suydam, Raphaela Stimmelmayr, Denise McBurney
In utero, baleen whales initiate the development of several dozens of teeth in upper and lower jaws. These tooth germs reach the bell stage and are sometimes mineralized, but toward the end of prenatal life they are resorbed and no trace remains after birth. Around the time that the germs disappear, the keratinous baleen plates start to form in the upper jaw, and these form the food-collecting mechanism. Baleen whale ancestors had two generations of teeth and never developed baleen, and the prenatal teeth of modern fetuses are usually interpreted as an evolutionary leftover...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070887/diversity-in-the-organization-of-elastin-bundles-and-intramembranous-muscles-in-bat-wings
#10
Jorn A Cheney, Justine J Allen, Sharon M Swartz
Unlike birds and insects, bats fly with wings composed of thin skin that envelops the bones of the forelimb and spans the area between the limbs, digits, and sometimes the tail. This skin is complex and unusual; it is thinner than typical mammalian skin and contains organized bundles of elastin and embedded skeletal muscles. These elements are likely responsible for controlling the shape of the wing during flight and contributing to the aerodynamic capabilities of bats. We examined the arrangement of two macroscopic architectural elements in bat wings, elastin bundles and wing membrane muscles, to assess the diversity in bat wing skin morphology...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054714/reflection-imaging-of-china-ink-perfused-brain-vasculature-using-confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy-after-clarification-of-brain-tissue-by-the-spalteholz-method
#11
R C Gutierre, D Vannucci Campos, R A Mortara, A A Coppi, R M Arida
Confocal laser-scanning microscopy is a useful tool for visualizing neurons and glia in transparent preparations of brain tissue from laboratory animals. Currently, imaging capillaries and venules in transparent brain tissues requires the use of fluorescent proteins. Here, we show that vessels can be imaged by confocal laser-scanning microscopy in transparent cortical, hippocampal and cerebellar preparations after clarification of China ink-injected specimens by the Spalteholz method. This method may be suitable for global, three-dimensional, quantitative analyses of vessels, including stereological estimations of total volume and length and of surface area of vessels, which constitute indirect approaches to investigate angiogenesis...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052333/on-the-prenatal-initiation-of-t-cell-development-in-the-opossum-monodelphis-domestica
#12
Victoria L Hansen, Robert D Miller
Thymus-dependent lymphocytes (T cells) are a critical cell lineage in the adaptive immune system of all jawed vertebrates. In eutherian mammals the initiation of T cell development takes place prenatally and the offspring of many species are born relatively immuno-competent. Marsupials, in contrast, are born in a comparatively altricial state and with a less well developed immune system. As such, marsupials are valuable models for studying the peri- and postnatal initiation of immune system development in mammals...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033680/calcification-of-the-lower-respiratory-tract-in-relation-to-flight-development-in-jamaican-fruit-bats-phyllostomidae-artibeus-jamaicensis
#13
Richard T Carter
The production of echolocation calls in bats along with forces produced by contraction of thoracic musculature used in flight presumably puts relatively high mechanical loads on the lower respiratory tract (LRT). Thus, there are likely adaptations to prevent collapse or distortion of the bronchial tree and trachea during flight in echolocating bats. By clearing and staining (Alcian blue and Alizarin red) LRTs removed from nonvolant neonates, semivolant juveniles, volant subadults, and adult Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis), I found that calcification of the tracheal, primary bronchial, and secondary bronchial (lobar) cartilage rings occurs over the span of about 3 days and coincides with later developmental stages of flight and the increased production of echolocation calls...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032348/stereological-analysis-of-size-and-density-of-hepatocytes-in-the-porcine-liver
#14
Khan L Junatas, Zbyněk Tonar, Tereza Kubíková, Václav Liška, Richard Pálek, Patrik Mik, Milena Králíčková, Kirsti Witter
The porcine liver is frequently used as a large animal model for verification of surgical techniques, as well as experimental therapies. Often, a histological evaluation is required that include measurements of the size, nuclearity or density of hepatocytes. Our aims were to assess the mean number-weighted volume of hepatocytes, the numerical density of hepatocytes, and the fraction of binuclear hepatocytes (BnHEP) in the porcine liver, and compare the distribution of these parameters among hepatic lobes and macroscopic regions of interest (ROIs) with different positions related to the liver vasculature...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032345/zygomatic-bone-shape-in-intentional-cranial-deformations-a-model-for-the-study-of-the-interactions-between-skull-growth-and-facial-morphology
#15
S Ketoff, F Girinon, S Schlager, M Friess, T Schouman, P Rouch, R H Khonsari
Intentional cranial deformations (ICD) were obtained by exerting external mechanical constraints on the skull vault during the first years of life to permanently modify head shape. The repercussions of ICD on the face are not well described in the midfacial region. Here we assessed the shape of the zygomatic bone in different types of ICDs. We considered 14 non-deformed skulls, 19 skulls with antero-posterior deformation, nine skulls with circumferential deformation and seven skulls with Toulouse deformation...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028798/a-biomechanical-view-on-stinger-diversity-in-scorpions
#16
Arie van der Meijden, Thomas Kleinteich
Scorpions have elongated metasomas that bear a telson, which is used as a stinger for venom injection. There is a remarkable diversity in the use of the stinger among scorpions, comprising defensive behavior, prey subjugation and mating. This diversity could be reflected by the shape of the telson, as different stinging behaviors will result in very different functional demands. Here we explored the diversity of telson shapes in scorpions by providing morphological measurements, such as curvature and tip angle, as well as by testing stingers under load using finite element analysis (FEA)...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026856/gene-tracing-analysis-reveals-the-contribution-of-neural-crest-derived-cells-in-pituitary-development
#17
Hiroki Ueharu, Saishu Yoshida, Takako Kikkawa, Naoko Kanno, Masashi Higuchi, Takako Kato, Noriko Osumi, Yukio Kato
The anterior pituitary originates from the adenohypophyseal placode. Both the preplacode region and neural crest (NC) derive from subdivision of the neural border region, and further individualization of the placode domain is established by a reciprocal interaction between placodal precursors and NC cells (NCCs). It has long been known that NCCs are present in the adenohypophysis as interstitial cells. A recent report demonstrated that NCCs also contribute to the formation of pericytes in the developing pituitary...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026018/a-preliminary-investigation-into-the-morphology-of-oral-papillae-and-denticles-of-blue-sharks-prionace-glauca-with-inferences-about-its-functional-significance-across-life-stages
#18
Bianca de S Rangel, Natascha Wosnick, Neil Hammerschlag, Adriano P Ciena, José Roberto Kfoury Junior, Rose E G Rici
Sensory organs in elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, rays) detect and respond to a different set of biotic and/or abiotic stimuli, through sight, smell, taste, hearing, mechanoreception and electroreception. Although gustation is crucial for survival and essential for growth, mobility, and maintenance of neural activity and the proper functioning of the immune system, comparatively little is known about this sensory system in elasmobranchs. Here we present a preliminary investigation into the structural and dimensional characteristics of the oral papillae and denticles found in the oropharyngeal cavity of the blue shark (Prionace glauca) during embryonic development through adulthood...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995631/a-multilevel-framework-to-reconstruct-anatomical-3d-models-of-the-hepatic-vasculature-in-rat-livers
#19
Geert Peeters, Charlotte Debbaut, Wim Laleman, Diethard Monbaliu, Ingrid Vander Elst, Jan R Detrez, Tim Vandecasteele, Thomas De Schryver, Luc Van Hoorebeke, Kasper Favere, Jonas Verbeke, Patrick Segers, Pieter Cornillie, Winnok H De Vos
The intricate (micro)vascular architecture of the liver has not yet been fully unravelled. Although current models are often idealized simplifications of the complex anatomical reality, correct morphological information is instrumental for scientific and clinical purposes. Previously, both vascular corrosion casting (VCC) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) have been separately used to study the hepatic vasculature. Nevertheless, these techniques still face a number of challenges such as dual casting in VCC and limited imaging depths for IHC...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995620/inner-ear-development-in-cetaceans
#20
Tara Thean, Nikolay Kardjilov, Robert J Asher
Cetaceans face the challenge of maintaining equilibrium underwater and obtaining sensory input within a dense, low-visibility medium. The cetacean ear represents a key innovation that marked their evolution from terrestrial artiodactyls to among the most fully aquatic mammals in existence. Using micro-CT and histological data, we document shape and size changes in the cetacean inner ear during ontogeny, and demonstrate that, as a proportion of gestation time, the cetacean inner ear is precocial in its growth compared with that of suid artiodactyls...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
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