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Journal of Anatomy

Isaac V Pratt, David M L Cooper
Vascular canals in cortical bone during growth and development typically show an anisotropic pattern with canals falling into three main categories: circumferential, radial, and longitudinal. Two major hypotheses attempt to explain the preferred orientations in bone: that vascular canal orientation is optimized to resist a predominant strain direction from functional loading, or that it reflects growth requirements and velocity. We use a controlled growth experiment in broiler chickens to investigate the effect of growth rate on vascular canal orientation...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
David Dora, Emily Arciero, Ryo Hotta, Csilla Barad, Sukhada Bhave, Tamas Kovacs, Adam Balic, Allan M Goldstein, Nandor Nagy
The enteric nervous system shares embryological, morphological, neurochemical, and functional features with the central nervous system. In addition to neurons and glia, the CNS includes a third component, microglia, which are functionally and immunophenotypically similar to macrophages, but a similar cell type has not previously been identified in enteric ganglia. In this study we identify a population of macrophages in the enteric ganglia, intermingling with the neurons and glia. These intraganglionic macrophages (IMs) are highly ramified and express the hematopoietic marker CD45, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen, and chB6, a marker specific for B cells and microglia in avians...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Parvathy Thampi, Jinpeng Liu, Zheng Zeng, James N MacLeod
Axolotl salamanders (Ambystoma mexicanum) remain aquatic in their natural state, during which biomechanical forces on their diarthrodial limb joints are likely reduced relative to salamanders living on land. However, even as sexually mature adults, these amphibians can be induced to metamorphose into a weight-bearing terrestrial stage by environmental stress or the exogenous administration of thyroxine hormone. In some respects, this aquatic to terrestrial transition of axolotl salamanders through metamorphosis may model developmental and changing biomechanical skeletal forces in mammals during the prenatal to postnatal transition at birth and in the early postnatal period...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
B Dries, B Vanwanseele, I Jonkers, W Dingemanse, J Vander Sloten, A Villamonte-Chevalier, E Van der Vekens, I Polis, K Vanderperren, H Van Bree, I Gielen
Although the form-function relation of muscles and tendons has been studied extensively, little in vivo data exist on the musculotendon properties of the gastrocnemius complex in dogs. Using a combination of ultrasound and 3D motion tracking, musculotendon parameters were obtained in vivo from the lateral gastrocnemius muscle and the gastrocnemius tendon in nine healthy Labrador Retrievers. These parameters include musculotendon length and excursion potential, tendon slack length, muscle belly length, muscle fibre length, pennation angle and architectural index...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Kirsten Ferner
A morphological and morphometric study of the skin of a variety of newborn marsupials (Dasyurus viverrinus, Monodelphis domestica, Trichosurus vulpecula, Isoodon obesulus, Perameles nasuta, Phascolarctos cinereus, Potorous tridactylus, Petrogale penicillata, Thylogale thetidi, Macropus dorsalis) and of a monotreme hatchling (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) was undertaken to assess the possibility of cutaneous gas exchange. Additionally, the lungs of some of these species were investigated to assess its structural degree at birth...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Timo van Leeuwen, Marie J M Vanhoof, Faes D Kerkhof, Jeroen M G Stevens, Evie E Vereecke
The human hand is well known for its unique dexterity which is largely facilitated by a highly mobile, long and powerful thumb that enables both tool manufacturing and use, a key component of human evolution. The bonobo (Pan paniscus), the closest extant relative to modern humans together with the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), also possesses good manipulative capabilities but with a lower level of dexterity compared with modern humans. Despite the close phylogenetic relationship between bonobos and humans, detailed quantitative data of the bonobo forelimb musculature remains largely lacking...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Ronak Sandy, Quentin Hennocq, Johan Nysjö, Guillaume Giran, Martin Friess, Roman Hossein Khonsari
Intentional cranial deformations are the result of external mechanical forces exerted on the skull vault that modify the morphology of various craniofacial structures such as the skull base, the orbits and the zygoma. In this controlled study, we investigated the 3D shape of the orbital inner mould and the orbital volume in various types of intentional deformations and in adult non-operated scaphocephaly - the most common type of craniosynostosis - using dedicated morphometric methods. CT scans were performed on 32 adult skulls with intentional deformations, 21 adult skull with scaphocephaly and 17 non-deformed adult skulls from the collections of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle in Paris, France...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
John Davenport, Natasha D Phillips, Elizabeth Cotter, Lawrence E Eagling, Jonathan D R Houghton
Adult ocean sunfish are the heaviest living teleosts. They have no axial musculature or caudal fin. Propulsion is by unpaired dorsal and anal fins; a pseudocaudal fin ('clavus') acts as a rudder. Despite common perception, young sunfish are active predators that swim quickly, beating their vertical fins in unison to generate lift-based propulsion and attain cruising speeds similar to salmon and marlin. Here we show that the thick subcutaneous layer (or 'capsule'), already known to provide positive buoyancy, is also crucial to locomotion...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Ella Been, Sara Shefi, Leonid Kalichman, Jeannie F Bailey, Michalle Soudack
Spinal muscle cross-sectional area has been highly associated with spinal pathology. Despite the medium-high prevalence of spinal pathology in children, there is very limited knowledge regarding muscle size and growth pattern in individuals younger than 20 years of age. The aim of this study is to analyze the change in size and symmetry of spinal muscles (erector spinae, multifidus, psoas and quadratus lumborum) in children 2-20 years of age. We studied reformatted images from 91 abdominal computed tomographic scans of children aged 2-20 years, from an existing imaging dataset...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Julian Sartori, Sebastian Köhring, Hartmut Witte, Martin S Fischer, Markus Löffler
The whole-organ, three-dimensional microstructure of murine Achilles tendon entheses was visualized with micro-computed tomography (microCT). Contrast-enhancement was achieved either by staining with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) or by a combination of cell-maceration, demineralization and critical-point drying with low tube voltages and propagation-based phase-contrast (fibrous structure scan). By PTA-staining, X-ray absorption of the enthesial soft tissues became sufficiently high to segment the tendon and measure cross-sectional areas along its course...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Neia Naldaiz-Gastesi, Ola A Bahri, Adolfo López de Munain, Karl J A McCullagh, Ander Izeta
The panniculus carnosus is a thin striated muscular layer intimately attached to the skin and fascia of most mammals, where it provides skin twitching and contraction functions. In humans, the panniculus carnosus is conserved at sparse anatomical locations with high interindividual variability, and it is considered of no functional significance (most possibly being a remnant of evolution). Diverse research fields (such as anatomy, dermatology, myology, neuroscience, surgery, veterinary science) use this unique muscle as a model, but several unknowns and misconceptions remain in the literature...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Juan A Sanchis-Gimeno, Esther Blanco-Perez, Susanna Llido, Marcelino Perez-Bermejo, Shahed Nalla, Federico Mata-Escolano
The C6 is the cervical vertebra into which the vertebral artery enters the passage of the transverse foramen and it is the vertebra most affected by double transverse foramina. There is currently little information about the relation between the vertebral artery and the double transverse foramen in C6. We aimed to test whether subjects with a double transverse foramen in C6 have a reduced transverse foramen/vertebral artery ratio when compared with normal anatomy subjects who possess a single transverse foramen which may be a risk for transient vertebral artery stenosis...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Anneli M Du Plessis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
J De Meyer, T Goethals, S Van Wassenbergh, T Augustijns, J Habraken, J Hellemans, V Vandewiele, J Dhaene, M Bouillart, D Adriaens
A well-known link exists between an organism's ecology and morphology. In the European eel, a dimorphic head has been linked to differences in feeding ecology, with broad-headed eels consuming harder prey items than narrow-headed ones. Consequently, we hypothesized that broad-heads should exhibit a cranial musculoskeletal system that increases bite force and facilitates the consumption of harder prey. Using 3D-reconstructions and a bite model, we tested this hypothesis in two life stages: the sub-adult yellow eel stage and its predecessor, the elver eel stage...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Vladimír Sládek, Veronika Sabolová, Ondřej Šebesta, Tomáš Zikmund, Jozef Kaiser, Simona Čerevková
Derivation of periosteal and endosteal contours taken from transversal long bone cross-sections limits the accuracy of calculated biomechanical properties. Although several techniques are available for deriving both contours, the effect of these techniques on accuracy of calculated cross-sectional properties in non-adults is unknown. We examine a sample of 86 non-adult femora from birth to 12 years of age to estimate the effect of error in deriving periosteal and endosteal contours on cross-sectional properties...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
François Chauvigné, Janmejay Parhi, Carla Ducat, Judith Ollé, Roderick Nigel Finn, Joan Cerdà
Aquaporin-mediated fluid transport in the mammalian efferent duct and epididymis is believed to play a role in sperm maturation and concentration. In fish, such as the marine teleost gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), the control of fluid homeostasis in the spermatic duct seems also to be crucial for male fertility, but no information exists on the expression and distribution of aquaporins. In this study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses, employing available and newly raised paralog-specific antibodies for seabream aquaporins, indicate that up to nine functional aquaporins, Aqp0a, -1aa, -1ab, -3a, -4a, -7, -8bb, -9b and -10b, are expressed in the spermatic duct...
May 27, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Ian C Welsh, James Hart, Joel M Brown, Karissa Hansen, Marcelo Rocha Marques, Robert J Aho, Irina Grishina, Romulo Hurtado, Doris Herzlinger, Elisabetta Ferretti, Maria J Garcia-Garcia, Licia Selleri
Orofacial clefting represents the most common craniofacial birth defect. Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is genetically distinct from cleft palate only (CPO). Numerous transcription factors (TFs) regulate normal development of the midface, comprising the premaxilla, maxilla and palatine bones, through control of basic cellular behaviors. Within the Pbx family of genes encoding Three Amino-acid Loop Extension (TALE) homeodomain-containing TFs, we previously established that in the mouse, Pbx1 plays a preeminent role in midfacial morphogenesis, and Pbx2 and Pbx3 execute collaborative functions in domains of coexpression...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Hua Zhang, Man Qiu, Zhongwei Xu, Weilin Wang, Shiyang Chen, Jian Zhang, Aiguo Zhou, Kaihui Lu, Michael Huo, Dianming Jiang
The anterolateral ligament, a distinct structure connecting the lateral femoral epicondyle to the anterolateral proximal tibia, is gaining attention because of its possible function in ensuring internal rotational stability of the tibia. To study the prevalence and precise anatomical characteristics of the anterolateral ligament and its relationship to adjacent structures in a Chinese population, a total of 20 amputated knee specimens were collected. The anterolateral regions of the knees underwent detailed surgical dissection, followed by precise measurement of the anterolateral ligament and its adjacent structures...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
J Brocal, S De Decker, R José-López, E G Manzanilla, J Penderis, C Stalin, S Bertram, J J Schoenebeck, C Rusbridge, N Fitzpatrick, R Gutierrez-Quintana
The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is almost constant at seven, regardless of their neck length, implying that there is selection against variation in this number. Homebox (Hox) genes are involved in this evolutionary mammalian conservation, and homeotic transformation of cervical into thoracic vertebrae (cervical ribs) is a common phenotypic abnormality when Hox gene expression is altered. This relatively benign phenotypic change can be associated with fatal traits in humans. Mutations in genes upstream of Hox, inbreeding and stressors during organogenesis can also cause cervical ribs...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
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