journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Journal of Anatomy

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722161/abstracts
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718946/evidence-for-plical-support-of-the-patella
#2
Robert M Geraghty, Michelle Spear
There is a consensus that there is no overt anterior joint capsule in the knee. However, other anterior structures act in lieu of a joint capsule: the quadriceps tendon and patellar retinacular fibres. In the absence of a capsule, the synovium forms the suprapatellar pouch. Other synovial structures, the plicae, are more controversial. They are often described as embryonic remnants with no function, despite surrounding the patella. We aimed to identify plical anatomy and histology on cadaveric dissection and to examine their embryology using the human virtual embryo website...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718921/homology-homoplasy-and-cusp-variability-at-the-enamel-dentine-junction-of-hominoid-molars
#3
Alejandra Ortiz, Shara E Bailey, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Matthew M Skinner
Evolutionary studies of mammalian teeth have generally concentrated on the adaptive and functional significance of dental features, whereas the role of development on phenotypic generation and as a source of variation has received comparatively little attention. The present study combines an evolutionary biological framework with state-of-the-art imaging techniques to examine the developmental basis of variation of accessory cusps. Scholars have long used the position and relatedness of cusps to other crown structures as a criterion for differentiating between developmentally homologous and homoplastic features, which can be evaluated with greater accuracy at the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718217/a-3d-musculoskeletal-model-of-the-western-lowland-gorilla-hind-limb-moment-arms-and-torque-of-the-hip-knee-and-ankle
#4
Colleen Goh, Mary L Blanchard, Robin H Crompton, Michael M Gunther, Sophie Macaulay, Karl T Bates
Three-dimensional musculoskeletal models have become increasingly common for investigating muscle moment arms in studies of vertebrate locomotion. In this study we present the first musculoskeletal model of a western lowland gorilla hind limb. Moment arms of individual muscles around the hip, knee and ankle were compared with previously published data derived from the experimental tendon travel method. Considerable differences were found which we attribute to the different methodologies in this specific case...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714092/serial-block-face-scanning-electron-microscopy-of-erythrocytes-protruding-through-the-human-placental-syncytiotrophoblast
#5
Eleni Palaiologou, Patricia Goggin, David S Chatelet, Emma M Lofthouse, Christopher Torrens, Bram G Sengers, Jane K Cleal, Anton Page, Rohan M Lewis
The syncytiotrophoblast forms a continuous barrier between the maternal and fetal circulations. Here we present a serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) study, based on a single image stack, showing pooling of fetal blood underneath a region of stretched syncytiotrophoblast that has become detached from the basement membrane. Erythrocytes are protruding from discrete holes in the syncytiotrophoblast suggesting that, under specific circumstances, the syncytiotrophoblast may be permeable to fetal cells...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714118/body-wall-structure-in-the-starfish-asterias-rubens
#6
Liisa M Blowes, Michaela Egertová, Yankai Liu, Graham R Davis, Nick J Terrill, Himadri S Gupta, Maurice R Elphick
The body wall of starfish is composed of magnesium calcite ossicles connected by collagenous tissue and muscles and it exhibits remarkable variability in stiffness, which is attributed to the mechanical mutability of the collagenous component. Using the common European starfish Asterias rubens as an experimental animal, here we have employed a variety of techniques to gain new insights into the structure of the starfish body wall. The structure and organisation of muscular and collagenous components of the body wall were analysed using trichrome staining...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703361/non-decoupled-morphological-evolution-of-the-fore-and-hindlimb-of-sabretooth-predators
#7
Alberto Martín-Serra, Borja Figueirido, Paul Palmqvist
Specialized organisms are useful for exploring the combined effects of selection of functional traits and developmental constraints on patterns of phenotypic integration. Sabretooth predators are one of the most interesting examples of specialization among mammals. Their hypertrophied, sabre-shaped upper canines and their powerfully built forelimbs have been interpreted as adaptations to a highly specialized predatory behaviour. Given that the elongated and laterally compressed canines of sabretooths were more vulnerable to fracture than the shorter canines of conical-tooth cats, it has been long hypothesized that the heavily muscled forelimbs of sabretooths were used for immobilizing prey before developing a quick and precise killing bite...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703298/introduction-to-anatomy-on-wikipedia
#8
Thomas Stephen Ledger
Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.com) is the largest encyclopaedia in existence. Of over five million English-language articles, about 6000 relate to Anatomy, which are viewed roughly 30 million times monthly. No work parallels the amount of attention, scope or interdisciplinary layout of Wikipedia, and it offers a unique opportunity to improve the anatomical literacy of the masses. Anatomy on Wikipedia is introduced from an editor's perspective. Article contributors, content, layout and accuracy are discussed, with a view to demystifying editing for anatomy professionals...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695619/m%C3%A3-ller-glia-and-phagocytosis-of-cell-debris-in-retinal-tissue
#9
REVIEW
Ruth Bejarano-Escobar, Hortensia Sánchez-Calderón, Josué Otero-Arenas, Gervasio Martín-Partido, Javier Francisco-Morcillo
Müller cells are the predominant glial cell type in the retina of vertebrates. They play a wide variety of roles in both the developing and the mature retina that have been widely reported in the literature. However, less attention has been paid to their role in phagocytosis of cell debris under physiological, pathological or experimental conditions. Müller glia have been shown to phagocytose apoptotic cell bodies originated during development of the visual system. They also engulf foreign molecules that are injected into the eye, cone outer segments and injured photoreceptors...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695607/visualization-of-the-tentorial-innervation-of-human-dura-mater
#10
Shin-Hyo Lee, Kang-Jae Shin, Ki-Seok Koh, Wu-Chul Song
Posterior projections of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve (the ophthalmic nerve) are distributed in the tentorium cerebelli as recurrent meningeal branches. We investigated the morphological tentorial distribution of the ophthalmic nerve. Fifty-two sides of the tentorium cerebelli and adjacent dura mater obtained from 29 human specimens were stained using Sihler's method to examine the nerve fibres in the dural sheets. The innervation patterns of the tentorium cerebelli were classified into the following four types according to their distributions: Type 1, where nerve fibres projected to both the straight and transverse sinuses; Type 2, where nerve fibres projected only to the transverse sinus and lateral convexity; Type 3, where nerve fibres projected medially only to the straight sinus and the posterior part of the falx cerebri; and Type 4, where the nerve fibres terminated within the tentorium cerebelli...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670836/epithelial-cadherin-disassociates-from-the-lateral-plasma-membrane-of-uterine-epithelial-cells-throughout-pregnancy-in-a-marsupial
#11
Jessica S Dudley, Christopher R Murphy, Michael B Thompson, Bronwyn M McAllan
The uterine luminal epithelium is the first site of contact between fetal and maternal tissues during therian pregnancy and must undergo specialised changes for implantation of the blastocyst to be successful. These changes, collectively termed the plasma membrane transformation (PMT), allow the blastocyst to attach to the uterine epithelium preceding the formation of a placenta. There are similarities in the morphological and molecular changes occurring in live-bearing eutherian species during the PMT studied so far...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660634/effects-of-phylogeny-and-locomotor-style-on-the-allometry-of-body-mass-and-pelvic-dimensions-in-birds
#12
Matthew V Anten-Houston, Marcello Ruta, D Charles Deeming
The pelvic girdle provides physical support and attachment for the hind limb musculature. In birds there is variability in pelvic morphology across different orders and this has been used as evidence for various types of locomotion. However, the morphological variation of pelvic bones has yet to be studied systematically in birds. Therefore, we investigated basic allometric relationships among female body mass (as a size proxy) and various pelvic measurements in a phylogenetic context. We also examined in detail the inter-relationships among various pelvic measurements...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656622/a-population-level-atlas-of-mus-musculus-craniofacial-skeleton-and-automated-image-based-shape-analysis
#13
A Murat Maga, Nicholas J Tustison, Brian B Avants
Laboratory mice are staples for evo/devo and genetics studies. Inbred strains provide a uniform genetic background to manipulate and understand gene-environment interactions, while their crosses have been instrumental in studies of genetic architecture, integration and modularity, and mapping of complex biological traits. Recently, there have been multiple large-scale studies of laboratory mice to further our understanding of the developmental basis, evolution, and genetic control of shape variation in the craniofacial skeleton (i...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620965/determination-of-retinal-surface-area
#14
Manbir Nagra, Bernard Gilmartin, Ngoc Jade Thai, Nicola S Logan
Previous attempts at determining retinal surface area and surface area of the whole eye have been based upon mathematical calculations derived from retinal photographs, schematic eyes and retinal biopsies of donor eyes. 3-dimensional (3-D) ocular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a more direct measurement, it can be used to image the eye in vivo, and there is no risk of tissue shrinkage. The primary purpose of this study is to compare, using T2-weighted 3D MRI, retinal surface areas for superior-temporal (ST), inferior-temporal (IT), superior-nasal (SN) and inferior-nasal (IN) retinal quadrants...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620932/fiber-type-composition-of-the-palmaris-brevis-muscle-implications-for-palmar-function
#15
Colin W Moore, Tyler S Beveridge, Charles L Rice
The palmaris brevis (PB) is a small muscle of variant morphology located on the ulnar aspect of the palm, superficial to the hypothenar eminence. Functionally, the PB has been proposed to protect the neurovasculature of the ulnar canal from compressive forces during repetitive or intermittent trauma associated with grasping. Although PB function has been inferred from cadaveric observations, it is unknown whether it has the contractile capacity and fatigue-resistance necessary to withstand these functional demands...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620929/cartilage-canals-in-the-distal-intermediate-ridge-of-the-tibia-of-fetuses-and-foals-are-surrounded-by-different-types-of-collagen
#16
Ingunn Risnes Hellings, Nils Ivar Dolvik, Stina Ekman, Kristin Olstad
Some epiphyseal growth cartilage canals are surrounded by a ring of hypereosinophilic matrix consisting of collagen type I. Absence of the collagen type I ring may predispose canal vessels to failure and osteochondrosis, which can lead to fragments in joints (osteochondrosis dissecans). It is not known whether the ring develops in response to programming or biomechanical force. The distribution that may reveal the function of the ring has only been described in the distal femur of a limited number of foals...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617981/what-is-the-variability-in-shoulder-axillae-and-waist-position-in-a-group-of-adolescents
#17
Adrian Gardner, Fiona Berryman, Paul Pynsent
The clinical assessment of scoliosis is based on the recognition of asymmetry. It is not clear what the degree of asymmetry is in a population without scoliosis, which could make the differentiation between abnormal and normal uncertain. This study defines the range of normality in certain parameters of torso shape that are also associated with the clinical assessment of scoliosis. This was done by analysing the surface topography of a group of 195 children serially measured over a 5-year period. The analysis considered both the spinal curvature and the relative position of shoulders, axillae and waist on each side...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614587/scholars-and-scientists-in-the-history-of-the-lymphatic-system
#18
REVIEW
Gianfranco Natale, Guido Bocci, Domenico Ribatti
The discovery of the lymphatic system has a long and fascinating history. The interest in anatomy and physiology of this system paralleled that of the blood cardiocirculatory system and has been maybe obscured by the latter. Paradoxically, if the closed blood system appeared open in Galen's anatomy and physiology, and took a very long time to be correctly described in terms of pulmonary and general circulation by ibn Al-Nafis/Michael Servetus/Realdo Colombo and William Harvey, respectively, the open lymphatic system was incorrectly described as a closed circuit connected with arteries and veins...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612467/the-effect-of-age-and-demographics-on-rib-shape
#19
Sven A Holcombe, Stewart C Wang, James B Grotberg
Elderly populations have a higher risk of rib fractures and other associated thoracic injuries than younger adults, and the changes in body morphology that occur with age are a potential cause of this increased risk. Rib centroidal path geometry for 20 627 ribs was extracted from computed tomography (CT) scans of 1042 live adult subjects, then fitted to a six-parameter mathematical model that accurately characterizes rib size and shape, and a three-parameter model of rib orientation within the body. Multivariable regression characterized the independent effect of age, height, weight, and sex on the rib shape and orientation across the adult population, and statistically significant effects were seen from all demographic factors (P < 0...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597918/inflammation-in-the-developing-rat-modulates-astroglial-reactivity-to-seizures-in-the-mature-brain
#20
Zuzanna Setkowicz, Emilia Kosonowska, Krzysztof Janeczko
Astrocytes participate in neuronal development and excitability, and produce factors enhancing or suppressing inflammatory processes occurring due to neurodegenerative diseases, such as epilepsy. Seizures, in turn, trigger the release of inflammatory mediators, causing structural and functional changes in the brain. Therefore, it appears reasonable to determine whether generalized inflammation at developmental periods can affect astrocyte reactivity to epileptic seizures occurring in the adult brain. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected in 6- or 30-day-old rats (P6 or P30, respectively)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
journal
journal
21844
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"