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Journal of Anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299781/architectural-differences-in-the-anterior-and-middle-compartments-of-the-pelvic-floor-of-young-adult-and-postmenopausal-females
#1
Yi Wu, Noshir F Dabhoiwala, Jaco Hagoort, Li-Wen Tan, Shao-Xiang Zhang, Wouter H Lamers
The pelvic floor guards the passage of the pelvic organs to the exterior. The near-epidemic prevalence of incontinence in women continues to generate interest in the functional anatomy of the pelvic floor. However, due to its complex architecture and poor accessibility, the classical 'dissectional' approach has been unable to come up with a satisfactory description, so that many aspects of its anatomy continue to raise debate. For this reason, we opted for a 'sectional' approach, using the Chinese Visible Human project (four females, 21-35 years) and the Visible Human Project (USA; one female, 59 years) datasets to investigate age-related changes in the architecture of the anterior and middle compartments of the pelvic floor...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295274/kisspeptin-innervation-of-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-sexual-dimorphism-and-effect-of-estrous-cycle-in-female-mice
#2
Marilena Marraudino, Dèsirèe Miceli, Alice Farinetti, Giovanna Ponti, GianCarlo Panzica, Stefano Gotti
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is the major autonomic output area of the hypothalamus and a critical regulatory center for energy homeostasis. The organism's energetic balance is very important for both the regular onset of puberty and regulation of fertility. Several studies have suggested a relationship among neural circuits controlling food intake, energy homeostasis and the kisspeptin peptide. The kisspeptin system is clustered in two main groups of cell bodies [the anterior ventral periventricular region (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus (ARC)] projecting mainly to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and to a few other locations, including the PVN...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294323/segmental-morphometrics-of-the-olive-baboon-papio-anubis-a-longitudinal-study-from-birth-to-adulthood
#3
François Druelle, Peter Aerts, Kristiaan D'Août, Valérie Moulin, Gilles Berillon
The linear dimensions and inertial characteristics of the body are important in locomotion and they change considerably during the ontogeny of animals, including humans. This longitudinal and ontogenetic study has produced the largest dataset to date of segmental morphometrics in a Catarrhini species, the olive baboon. The objectives of the study were to quantify the changes in body linear and inertial dimensions and to explore their (theoretical) mechanical significance for locomotion. We took full-body measurements of captive individuals at regular intervals...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266009/a-detailed-musculoskeletal-study-of-a-fetus-with-anencephaly-and-spina-bifida-craniorachischisis-and-comparison-with-other-cases-of-human-congenital-malformations
#4
Malak A Alghamdi, Janine M Ziermann, Lydia Gregg, Rui Diogo
Few descriptions of the musculoskeletal system of humans with anencephaly or spina bifida exist in the literature. Even less is published about individuals in which both phenomena occur together, i.e. about craniorachischisis. Here we provide a detailed report on the musculoskeletal structures of a fetus with craniorachischisis, as well as comparisons with the few descriptions for anencephaly and with musculoskeletal anomalies found in other congenital malformations. We focused in particular on the comparison with trisomies 13, 18, and 21 because neural tube defects have been associated with such chromosomal defects...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256093/a-quantitative-structural-and-morphometric-analysis-of-the-purkinje-network-and-the-purkinje-myocardial-junctions-in-pig-hearts
#5
V Garcia-Bustos, R Sebastian, M Izquierdo, P Molina, F J Chorro, A Ruiz-Sauri
The morpho-functional properties of the distal section of the cardiac Purkinje network (PN) and the Purkinje-myocardial junctions (PMJs) are fundamental to understanding the sequence of electrical activation in the heart. The overall structure of the system has already been described, and several computational models have been developed to gain insight into its involvement in cardiac arrhythmias or its interaction with implantable devices, such as pacemakers. However, anatomical descriptions of the PN in the literature have not enabled enough improvements in the accuracy of anatomical-based electrophysiological simulations of the PN in 3D hearts models...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256069/variations-in-bone-density-across-the-body-of-the-immature-human-mandible
#6
Erin F Hutchinson, Mauro Farella, Jakobus Hoffman, Beverley Kramer
During growth the mandible accommodates increases in biomechanical loading resulting from changes in the function of structures of the oral cavity. Biomechanical loads are thought to play an intricate and vital role in the modelling and remodelling of bone, with site-specific effects on bone mineral density. It is anticipated that the effects of this loading on bone mineral density are intensified during the functional transition from prenatal to postnatal stages. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate changes in bone mineral density across the body of the immature human mandible during the early stages of dental development...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255996/distribution-of-the-characteristics-of-barbs-and-barbules-on-barn-owl-wing-feathers
#7
Matthias Weger, Hermann Wagner
Owls are known for the development of a silent flight. One conspicuous specialization of owl wings that has been implied in noise reduction and that has been demonstrated to change the aerodynamic behavior of the wing is a soft dorsal wing surface. The soft surface is a result of changes in the shape of feather barbs and barbules in owls compared with other bird species. We hypothesized that as the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing change along its chordwise and spanwise direction, so may the shape of the barbs and barbules...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251615/stiffness-mapping-of-lower-leg-muscles-during-passive-dorsiflexion
#8
Guillaume Le Sant, Antoine Nordez, Ricardo Andrade, François Hug, Sandro Freitas, Raphaël Gross
It is challenging to differentiate the mechanical properties of synergist muscles in vivo. Shear wave elastography can be used to quantify the shear modulus (i.e. an index of stiffness) of a specific muscle. This study assessed the passive behavior of lower leg muscles during passive dorsiflexion performed with the knee fully extended (experiment 1, n = 22) or with the knee flexed at 90° (experiment 2, n = 20). The shear modulus measurements were repeated twice during experiment 1 to assess the inter-day reliability...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244593/growth-factor-signaling-alters-the-morphology-of-the-zebrafish-ethmoid-plate
#9
Brian J Cusack, Trish E Parsons, Seth M Weinberg, Alexandre R Vieira, Heather L Szabo-Rogers
Craniofacial development relies on coordinated tissue interactions that allow for patterning and growth of the face. We know a priori that the Wingless, fibroblast growth factor, Hedgehog and transforming growth factor-beta growth factor signaling pathways are required for the development of the face, but how they contribute to the shape of the face is largely untested. Here, we test how each signaling pathway contributes to the overall morphology of the zebrafish anterior neurocranium. We tested the contribution of each signaling pathway to the development of the ethmoid plate during three distinct time periods: the time of neural crest migration [10 hour post fertilization (hpf)]; once the neural crest is resident in the face (20 hpf); and finally at the time at which the cartilaginous condensations are being initiated (48 hpf)...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233306/histology-and-ultrastructure-of-the-thymus-during-development-in-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#10
Jianmeng Cao, Qiong Chen, Maixin Lu, Xinxin Hu, Miao Wang
The thymus in teleost fishes plays an important role in producing functionally competent T-lymphocytes. However, the thymus in tilapia is not well known, which greatly hampers investigations into the immune responses of tilapia infected by aquatic pathogens. The histological structure and ultrastructure of the thymus in Oreochromis niloticus, including embryos and larvae at different developmental stages, juveniles, and adult fish, were systematically investigated using whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH), and light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220482/morphological-interaction-between-the-nasal-septum-and-nasofacial-skeleton-during-human-ontogeny
#11
Matthew J Goergen, Nathan E Holton, Thorsten Grünheid
The nasal septal cartilage is thought to be a key growth center that contributes to nasofacial skeletal development. Despite the developmental influence of the nasal septum however, humans often exhibit a high frequency of septal deviation suggesting discordance in the growth between the septum and surrounding nasofacial skeleton. While there are numerous etiological factors that contribute to septal deviation, the surrounding nasofacial skeleton may also act to constrain the septum, resulting in altered patterns of growth...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220476/response-of-trabecular-bone-thyroid-c-and-follicular-cells-to-synthetic-salmon-calcitonin-in-middle-aged-orchidectomized-male-rats
#12
Branko Filipović, Branka Šošić-Jurjević, Vladimir Ajdžanović, Jasmina Živanović, Nataša Ristić, Svetlana Trifunović, Verica Milošević
In contrast to studies in women, male osteoporosis is poorly understood and strictly related to advancing age. Among the first antiresorptive substances used in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis is calcitonin (CT), a hypocalcemic hormone that potently inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption. Natural CT is produced and secreted by thyroid C-cells. The other endocrine population of thyroid cells produces thyroid hormones (TH), which also affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of salmon CT on trabecular bone microarchitecture with special reference to effects on the structure and function of both CT- and TH-producing thyroid cells in orchidectomized (Orx) middle-aged rats...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185265/teres-major-muscle-insertion-footprint
#13
Malte Dancker, Simon Lambert, Erich Brenner
Teres major muscle (TM) and latissimus dorsi muscle (LD) are frequently used in muscle transfers around the shoulder girdle. Some authors have suggested harvesting techniques in which the muscle is detached in continuity with a bone segment. Information on the bony attachment footprint of these muscles is lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the region of attachment of the TM to facilitate safe and complete harvesting with a bone segment where it is indicated, and to determine the relationship of the TM footprint with that of the LD...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185240/a-staging-system-for-correct-phenotype-interpretation-of-mouse-embryos-harvested-on-embryonic-day-14-e14-5
#14
Stefan H Geyer, Lukas Reissig, Julia Rose, Robert Wilson, Fabrice Prin, Dorota Szumska, Ramiro Ramirez-Solis, Catherine Tudor, Jacqui White, Timothy J Mohun, Wolfgang J Weninger
We present a simple and quick system for accurately scoring the developmental progress of mouse embryos harvested on embryonic day 14 (E14.5). Based solely on the external appearance of the maturing forelimb, we provide a convenient way to distinguish six developmental sub-stages. Using a variety of objective morphometric data obtained from the commonly used C57BL/6N mouse strain, we show that these stages correlate precisely with the growth of the entire embryo and its organs. Applying the new staging system to phenotype analyses of E14...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127750/standing-sagittal-alignment-of-the-whole-axial-skeleton-with-reference-to-the-gravity-line-in-humans
#15
Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Masashi Okamoto, Shun Hatsushikano, Haruka Shimoda, Masatoshi Ono, Takao Homma, Kei Watanabe
Human beings stand upright with the chain of balance beginning at the feet, progressing to the lower limbs (ankles, knees, hip joints, pelvis), each of the spinal segments, and then ending at the cranium to achieve horizontal gaze and balance using minimum muscle activity. The details of the alignment and balance of the chain, however, are not clearly understood, due to the lack of information regarding the three-dimensional (3D) orientation of all bony elements in relation to the gravity line (GL). We performed a clinical study to clarify the standing sagittal alignment of whole axial skeletons in reference to the GL using the EOS slot-scanning 3D X-ray imaging system with simultaneous force plate measurement in a healthy human population...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116763/intestinal-smooth-muscle-is-required-for-patterning-the-enteric-nervous-system
#16
Hannah K Graham, Ivy Maina, Allan M Goldstein, Nandor Nagy
The development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and intestinal smooth muscle occurs in a spatially and temporally correlated manner, but how they influence each other is unknown. In the developing mid-gut of the chick embryo, we find that α-smooth muscle actin expression, indicating early muscle differentiation, occurs after the arrival of migrating enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs). In contrast, hindgut smooth muscle develops prior to ENCC arrival. Smooth muscle development is normal in experimentally aganglionic hindguts, suggesting that proper development and patterning of the muscle layers does not rely on the ENS...
April 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097658/segmental-fibre-type-composition-of-the-rat-iliopsoas-muscle
#17
Hrvoje Vlahovic, Ksenija Bazdaric, Verner Marijancic, Tamara Soic-Vranic, Daniela Malnar, Juraj Arbanas
The iliopsoas of the rat is composed of two muscles - the psoas major muscle and the iliacus muscle. The psoas major muscle arises from all the lumbar vertebrae and the iliacus muscle from the fifth and sixth lumbar vertebrae and ilium. Their common insertion point is the lesser trochanter of the femur, and their common action is the lateral rotation of the femur and flexion of the hip joint. Unlike humans, the rat is a quadruped and only occasionally rises up on its hind legs. Therefore, it is expected that the fibre type composition of the rat iliopsoas muscle will be different than that of humans...
April 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078731/rapid-automated-landmarking-for-morphometric-analysis-of-three-dimensional-facial-scans
#18
Mao Li, Joanne B Cole, Mange Manyama, Jacinda R Larson, Denise K Liberton, Sheri L Riccardi, Tracey M Ferrara, Stephanie A Santorico, Jordan J Bannister, Nils D Forkert, Richard A Spritz, Washington Mio, Benedikt Hallgrimsson
Automated phenotyping is essential for the creation of large, highly standardized datasets from anatomical imaging data. Such datasets can support large-scale studies of complex traits or clinical studies related to precision medicine or clinical trials. We have developed a method that generates three-dimensional landmark data that meet the requirements of standard geometric morphometric analyses. The method is robust and can be implemented without high-performance computing resources. We validated the method using both direct comparison to manual landmarking on the same individuals and also analyses of the variation patterns and outlier patterns in a large dataset of automated and manual landmark data...
April 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070906/evolutionary-aspects-of-the-development-of-teeth-and-baleen-in-the-bowhead-whale
#19
J G M Thewissen, Tobin L Hieronymus, John C George, Robert Suydam, Raphaela Stimmelmayr, Denise McBurney
In utero, baleen whales initiate the development of several dozens of teeth in upper and lower jaws. These tooth germs reach the bell stage and are sometimes mineralized, but toward the end of prenatal life they are resorbed and no trace remains after birth. Around the time that the germs disappear, the keratinous baleen plates start to form in the upper jaw, and these form the food-collecting mechanism. Baleen whale ancestors had two generations of teeth and never developed baleen, and the prenatal teeth of modern fetuses are usually interpreted as an evolutionary leftover...
April 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070887/diversity-in-the-organization-of-elastin-bundles-and-intramembranous-muscles-in-bat-wings
#20
Jorn A Cheney, Justine J Allen, Sharon M Swartz
Unlike birds and insects, bats fly with wings composed of thin skin that envelops the bones of the forelimb and spans the area between the limbs, digits, and sometimes the tail. This skin is complex and unusual; it is thinner than typical mammalian skin and contains organized bundles of elastin and embedded skeletal muscles. These elements are likely responsible for controlling the shape of the wing during flight and contributing to the aerodynamic capabilities of bats. We examined the arrangement of two macroscopic architectural elements in bat wings, elastin bundles and wing membrane muscles, to assess the diversity in bat wing skin morphology...
April 2017: Journal of Anatomy
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