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Journal of Anatomy

Loïc Costeur, Bastien Mennecart, Bert Müller, Georg Schulz
Foetuses are a source of scientific information to understand the development and evolution of anatomical structures. The bony labyrinth, surrounding the organ of balance and hearing, is a phylogenetically and ecologically informative structure for which still little concerning growth and shape variability is known in many groups of vertebrates. Except in humans, it is poorly known in many other placentals and its prenatal growth has almost never been studied. Ruminants are a diversified group of placentals and represent an interesting case study to understand the prenatal growth of the ear region...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Patrick Mahoney, Justyna J Miszkiewicz, Rosie Pitfield, Chris Deter, Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg
The Havers-Halberg Oscillation (HHO) hypothesis links evidence for the timing of a biorhythm retained in permanent tooth enamel (Retzius periodicity) to adult body mass and life history traits across mammals. Potentially, these links provide a way to access life history of fossil species from teeth. Recently we assessed intra-specific predictions of the HHO on human children. We reported Retzius periodicity (RP) corresponded with enamel thickness, and cusp formation time, when calculated from isolated deciduous teeth...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Alison K Thomson, Eilidh Somers, Rachael A Powis, Hannah K Shorrock, Kelley Murphy, Kathryn J Swoboda, Thomas H Gillingwater, Simon H Parson
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), traditionally described as a predominantly childhood form of motor neurone disease, is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. Although motor neurones are undoubtedly the primary affected cell type, the severe infantile form of SMA (Type I SMA) is now widely recognised to represent a multisystem disorder where a variety of organs and systems in the body are also affected. Here, we report that the spleen is disproportionately small in the 'Taiwanese' murine model of severe SMA (Smn(-/-) ;SMN2(tg/0) ), correlated to low levels of cell proliferation and increased cell death...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Isaac Zilinsky, Detlev Erdmann, Oren Weissman, Niels Hammer, Mircea-Constantin Sora, Thilo L Schenck, Sebastian Cotofana
The anatomical basis for auricular flaps used in multiple aesthetic and reconstructive procedures is currently based on a random distribution of the underlying arterial network. However, recent findings reveal a systematic pattern as opposed to the present concepts. Therefore, we designed this study to assess the arterial vascular pattern of the auricle in order to provide reliable data about the vascular map required for surgical interventions. Sixteen human auricles from eight body donors (five females/three males, 84...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Germán Montoya-Sanhueza, Anusuya Chinsamy
Patterns of bone development in mammals are best known from terrestrial and cursorial groups, but there is a considerable gap in our understanding of how specializations for life underground affect bone growth and development. Likewise, studies of bone microstructure in wild populations are still scarce, and they often include few individuals and tend to be focused on adults. For these reasons, the processes generating bone microstructural variation at intra- and interspecific levels are not fully understood...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
William Ruger Porter, Jayc C Sedlmayr, Lawrence M Witmer
Extant crocodilians are a highly apomorphic archosaur clade that is ectothermic, yet often achieve large body sizes that can be subject to higher heat loads. Therefore, the anatomical and physiological roles that blood vessels play in crocodilian thermoregulation need further investigation to better understand how crocodilians establish and maintain cephalic temperatures and regulate neurosensory tissue temperatures during basking and normal activities. The cephalic vascular anatomy of extant crocodilians, particularly American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection technique and high resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Cathrin Pfaff, Doris Nagel, Gregg Gunnell, Gerhard W Weber, Jürgen Kriwet, Michael Morlo, Katharina Bastl
Species of the extinct genus Hyaenodon were among the largest carnivorous mammals from the Late Eocene through Early Miocene in North America, Europe and Asia. The origin, phylogeny and palaeobiology of Hyaenodonta are still ambiguous. Most previous studies focused on teeth and dental function in these highly adapted species, which might be influenced by convergent morphologies. The anatomy of the bony labyrinth in vertebrates is generally quite conservative and, additionally, was used in functional-morphological studies...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
T J Weijs, L Goense, P S N van Rossum, G J Meijer, A L H M W van Lier, F J Wessels, M N G Braat, I M Lips, J P Ruurda, M A Cuesta, R van Hillegersberg, R L A W Bleys
An organized layer of connective tissue coursing from aorta to esophagus was recently discovered in the mediastinum. The relations with other peri-esophageal fascias have not been described and it is unclear whether this layer can be visualized by non-invasive imaging. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive description of the peri-esophageal fascias and determine whether the connective tissue layer between aorta and esophagus can be visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). First, T2-weighted MRI scanning of the thoracic region of a human cadaver was performed, followed by histological examination of transverse sections of the peri-esophageal tissue between the thyroid gland and the diaphragm...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Chiara Villa, Jo Buckberry, Niels Lynnerup
Age at death estimation of human skeletal remains is one of the key issues in constructing a biological profile both in forensic and archaeological contexts. The traditional adult osteological methods evaluate macroscopically the morphological changes that occur with increasing age of specific skeletal indicators, such as the cranial sutures, the pubic bone, the auricular surface of the ilium and the sternal end of the ribs. Technologies such as computed tomography and laser scanning are becoming more widely used in anthropology, and several new methods have been developed...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Christopher G Mueller, Benjamin Voisin
Skin Langerhans cells are antigen-presenting cells of the interfollicular epidermis and the upper part of the hair follicle, whereas osteoclasts are specialized bone-resorbing macrophages. Although at first view these two cell types appear to have little in common, a closer analysis reveals shared features, and when taking into account their surrounding environment, a hypothesis can be developed that Langerhans cells and osteoclasts have evolved from a common ancestral cell type. In this mini-review, we have compared the ontogenetic features of Langerhans cells and osteoclasts from a genetic and a functional point of view, an issue that so far has been overlooked...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Alex P A Donovan, M Albert Basson
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed solely on the basis of behaviour. A large body of work has reported neuroanatomical differences between individuals with ASD and neurotypical controls. Despite the huge clinical and genetic heterogeneity that typifies autism, some of these anatomical features appear to be either present in most cases or so dramatically altered in some that their presence is now reasonably well replicated in a number of studies...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
F Genet, A Schnitzler, F Droz-Bartholet, M Salga, L Tatu, C Debaud, P Denormandie, B Parratte
Botulinum Toxin A has been the main treatment for spasticity since the beginning of the 1990s. Surprisingly, there is still no consensus regarding injection parameters or, importantly, how to determine which muscles to target to improve specific functions. The aim of this study was to develop a systematic approach to determine this, using the example of the arm flexion pattern. We first determined anatomical landmarks for selective motor block of the brachialis nerve, using 20 forearms from 10 fresh cadavers in Ecole Européenne de Chirurgie and a university-based dissection centre, Paris, France...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Lizzy Ward, Susan E Evans, Claudio D Stern
Segmentation of the vertebrate body axis is established in the embryo by formation of somites, which give rise to the axial muscles (myotome) and vertebrae (sclerotome). To allow a muscle to attach to two successive vertebrae, the myotome and sclerotome must be repositioned by half a segment with respect to each other. Two main models have been put forward: 'resegmentation' proposes that each half-sclerotome joins with the half-sclerotome from the next adjacent somite to form a vertebra containing cells from two successive somites on each side of the midline...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Ornella C Bertrand, Farrah Amador-Mughal, Mary T Silcox
Extant squirrels exhibit extensive variation in brain size and shape, but published endocranial data for living squirrels are limited, and no study has ever examined brain evolution in Sciuridae from the perspective of the fossil record to understand how this diversity emerged. We describe the first virtual endocast for a fossil sciurid, Cedromus wilsoni, which is known from a complete cranium from Wyoming (Orellan, Oligocene), and make comparisons to a diverse sample of virtual endocasts for living sciurids (N = 20)...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Zachary R Lewis, James Hanken
Nearly two thirds of the approximately 700 species of living salamanders are lungless. These species respire entirely through the skin and buccopharyngeal mucosa. Lung loss dramatically impacts the configuration of the circulatory system but the effects of evolutionary lung loss on cardiac morphology have long been controversial. For example, there is presumably little need for an atrial septum in lungless salamanders due to the absence of pulmonary veins and the presence of a single source of mixed blood flowing into the heart, but whether lungless salamanders possess an atrial septum and whether the sinoatrial aperture is located in the left or right atrium are unresolved; authors have stated opposing claims since the late 1800s...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Ryoko Matsumoto, Susan E Evans
The presence of a palatal dentition is generally considered to be the primitive condition in amniotes, with each major lineage showing a tendency toward reduction. This study highlights the variation in palatal tooth arrangements and reveals clear trends within the evolutionary history of tetrapods. Major changes occurred in the transition between early tetrapods and amphibians on the one hand, and stem amniotes on the other. These changes reflect the function of the palatal dentition, which can play an important role in holding and manipulating food during feeding...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Samantha A Rodrigues, Ashvin Thambyah, Neil D Broom
The annulus-endplate anchorage system plays a vital role in structurally linking the compliant disc to its adjacent much more rigid vertebrae. Past literature has identified the endplate as a region of weakness, not just in the mature spine but also in the immature spine. The aim of this structural study was to investigate in detail the morphological changes associated with annulus-endplate integration through different stages of maturity. Ovine lumbar motion segments were collected from two immature age groups: (i) newborn and (ii) spring lamb (roughly 3 months old); these were compared with a third group of previously analysed mature ewe samples (3-5 years)...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Francesco Cavani, Marzia Ferretti, Alberto Smargiassi, Carla Palumbo
The timetable of effects on bone repair of the active fraction-parathyroid hormone, PTH(1-34), was analytically investigated from the morphometric viewpoint in 3-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, whose femurs were drilled at mid-diaphyseal level (transcortical holes). The animals were divided into groups with/without PTH(1-34) administration, and sacrificed at different times (10, 28, 45 days after surgery). The observations reported here need to be framed in the context of our previous investigations regarding bone histogenesis (Ferretti et al...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Christoph P E Zollikofer, Thibaut Bienvenu, Marcia S Ponce de León
Because brains do not fossilize, the internal surface of the braincase (endocast) serves as an important source of information about brain growth, development, and evolution. Recent studies of endocranial morphology and development in great apes, fossil hominins, and modern humans have revealed taxon-specific differences. However, it remains to be investigated to which extent differences in endocranial morphology reflect differences in actual brain morphology and development, and to which extent they reflect different interactions of the brain and its case with the cranial base and face...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Nieves Candelas González, Josefina Rascón Pérez, Beatriz Chamero, Oscar Cambra-Moo, Armando González Martín
The methodology for sex determination in human skeletal remains depends on the different bone morphologies presented by men and women. Due to their direct implications in reproduction, the whole pelvis, particularly the os coxae, shows different characteristics in either sex. The sacrum and the os coxae constitute the birth canal. In this research study, the os coxae shape is analyzed using geometric morphometrics, providing information on morphology, regardless of size or any other factor beyond the geometry itself...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
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