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Journal of Anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910103/reliability-and-concurrent-validity-of-a-new-iphone-%C3%A2-goniometric-application-for-measuring-active-wrist-range-of-motion-a-cross-sectional-study-in-asymptomatic-subjects
#1
Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mehrdad Bahramian, Mohammad Ali Mohseni-Bandpei, Fatemeh Rajabzadeh, Morteza Taghipour
Measurement of wrist range of motion (ROM) is often considered to be an essential component of wrist physical examination. The measurement can be carried out through various instruments such as goniometers and inclinometers. Recent smartphones have been equipped with accelerometers and magnetometers, which, through specific software applications (apps) can be used for goniometric functions. This study, for the first time, aimed to evaluate the reliability and concurrent validity of a new smartphone goniometric app (Goniometer Pro©) for measuring active wrist ROM...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896830/vagal-nerve-endings-in-visceral-pleura-and-triangular-ligaments-of-the-rat-lung
#2
Feng-Bin Wang, Yi-Han Liao, Yao-Chen Wang
The inner thoracic cavity is lined by the parietal pleura, and the lung lobes are covered by the visceral pleura. The parietal and visceral plurae form the pleural cavity that has negative pressure within to enable normal respiration. The lung tissues are bilaterally innervated by vagal and spinal nerves, including sensory and motor components. This complicated innervation pattern has made it difficult to discern the vagal vs. spinal processes in the pulmonary visceral pleura. With and without vagotomy, we identified vagal nerve fibres and endings distributed extensively in the visceral pleura ('P'-type nerve endings) and triangular ligaments ('L'-type nerve endings) by injecting wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase as a tracer into the nucleus of solitary tract or nodose ganglion of male Sprague-Dawley rats...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896808/the-effects-of-cracks-on-the-quantification-of-the-cancellous-bone-fabric-tensor-in-fossil-and-archaeological-specimens-a-simulation-study
#3
Peter J Bishop, Christofer J Clemente, Scott A Hocknull, Rod S Barrett, David G Lloyd
Cancellous bone is very sensitive to its prevailing mechanical environment, and study of its architecture has previously aided interpretations of locomotor biomechanics in extinct animals or archaeological populations. However, quantification of architectural features may be compromised by poor preservation in fossil and archaeological specimens, such as post mortem cracking or fracturing. In this study, the effects of post mortem cracks on the quantification of cancellous bone fabric were investigated through the simulation of cracks in otherwise undamaged modern bone samples...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896803/the-effect-of-craniokinesis-on-the-middle-ear-of-domestic-chickens-gallus-gallus-domesticus
#4
Raf Claes, Pieter G G Muyshondt, Luc Van Hoorebeke, Jelle Dhaene, Joris J J Dirckx, Peter Aerts
The avian middle ear differs from that of mammalians and contains a tympanic membrane, one ossicle (bony columella and cartilaginous extra-columella), some ligaments and one muscle. The rim of the eardrum (closing the middle ear cavity) is connected to the neurocranium and, by means of a broad ligament, to the otic process of the quadrate. Due to the limited number of components in the avian middle ear, the possibilities of attenuating the conduction of sound seem to be limited to activity of the stapedius muscle...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861854/lectins-selectively-label-cartilage-condensations-and-the-otic-neuroepithelium-within-the-embryonic-chicken-head
#5
Poulomi Ray, Ami J Hughes, Misha Sharif, Susan C Chapman
Cartilage morphogenesis during endochondral ossification follows a progression of conserved developmental events. Cells are specified towards a prechondrogenic fate and subsequently undergo condensation followed by overt differentiation. Currently available molecular markers of prechondrogenic and condensing mesenchyme rely on common regulators of the chondrogenic program that are not specific to the tissue type or location. Therefore tissue-specific condensations cannot be distinguished based on known molecular markers...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861845/quantum-dots-labelling-allows-detection-of-the-homing-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-administered-as-immunomodulatory-therapy-in-an-experimental-model-of-pancreatic-islets-transplantation
#6
Silvia Mannucci, Laura Calderan, Paola Quaranta, Sara Antonini, Franco Mosca, Biancamaria Longoni, Pasquina Marzola, Federico Boschi
Cell transplantation is considered a promising therapeutic approach in several pathologies but still needs innovative and non-invasive imaging technologies to be validated. The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) attracts major interest in clinical transplantation thanks to their regenerative properties, low immunogenicity and ability to regulate immune responses. In several animal models, MSCs are used in co-transplantation with pancreatic islets (PIs) for the treatment of type I diabetes, supporting graft survival and prolonging normal glycaemia levels...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861847/structural-and-functional-characteristics-of-the-thoracolumbar-multifidus-muscle-in-horses
#7
J A García Liñeiro, G H Graziotti, J M Rodríguez Menéndez, C M Ríos, N O Affricano, C L Victorica
The multifidus muscle fascicles of horses attach to vertebral spinous processes after crossing between one to six metameres. The fascicles within one or two metameres are difficult to distinguish in horses. A vertebral motion segment is anatomically formed by two adjacent vertebrae and the interposed soft tissue structures, and excessive mobility of a vertebral motion segment frequently causes osteoarthropathies in sport horses. The importance of the equine multifidus muscle as a vertebral motion segment stabilizer has been demonstrated; however, there is scant documentation of the structure and function of this muscle...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813090/reconstruction-of-body-cavity-volume-in-terrestrial-tetrapods
#8
Marcus Clauss, Irina Nurutdinova, Carlo Meloro, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Duofang Jiang, Johannes Koller, Bernd Herkner, P Martin Sander, Olaf Hellwich
Although it is generally assumed that herbivores have more voluminous body cavities due to larger digestive tracts required for the digestion of plant fiber, this concept has not been addressed quantitatively. We estimated the volume of the torso in 126 terrestrial tetrapods (synapsids including basal synapsids and mammals, and diapsids including birds, non-avian dinosaurs and reptiles) classified as either herbivore or carnivore in digital models of mounted skeletons, using the convex hull method. The difference in relative torso volume between diet types was significant in mammals, where relative torso volumes of herbivores were about twice as large as that of carnivores, supporting the general hypothesis...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807861/interplay-between-cytoskeletal-polymerization-and-the-chondrogenic-phenotype-in-chondrocytes-passaged-in-monolayer-culture
#9
Justin Parreno, Mortah Nabavi Niaki, Katarina Andrejevic, Amy Jiang, Po-Han Wu, Rita A Kandel
Tubulin and actin exist as monomeric units that polymerize to form either microtubules or filamentous actin. As the polymerization status (monomeric/polymeric ratio) of tubulin and/or actin have been shown to be important in regulating gene expression and phenotype in non-chondrocyte cells, the objective of this study was to examine the role of cytoskeletal polymerization on the chondrocyte phenotype. We hypothesized that actin and/or tubulin polymerization status modulates the chondrocyte phenotype during monolayer culture as well as in 3D culture during redifferentiation...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761896/transitory-cystic-cavities-in-the-developing-mammalian-brain-normal-or-anomalous
#10
Charanjit Kaur, Eng-Ang Ling
Transitory cavities associated with the ventricular system represent probably one of the most unique features in the developing mammalian brain. In rodents, the cavities exist transiently in the developing brain and do not appear to be associated with any pathological events. Among the various cavities, the pyramidal-shaped cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) located beneath the corpus callosum and between the lateral ventricles is most well defined. In addition to the CSP are the bilateral subependymal cysts that are consistently associated with the third and fourth ventricles as well as the aqueduct...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757964/role-of-c16-angiopoietin-1-and-regeneration-gene-protein-2-in-attenuating-inflammation-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#11
Ke-Wei Tian, Fan Zhang, Hong Jiang, Beibei Wang, Shu Han
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disorder that affects the central nervous system (CNS), and results in CNS inflammation and damage to myelin. In this study, we examined the possible synergistic effects of C16, angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and regeneration gene protein 2 (Reg-2) in alleviating inflammation in an acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. We employed multiple histological, morphological and iconographic assays to examine the effect of those drugs on disease onset, clinical scores and behavioral deficits...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726136/prenatal-growth-stages-show-the-development-of-the-ruminant-bony-labyrinth-and-petrosal-bone
#12
Loïc Costeur, Bastien Mennecart, Bert Müller, Georg Schulz
Foetuses are a source of scientific information to understand the development and evolution of anatomical structures. The bony labyrinth, surrounding the organ of balance and hearing, is a phylogenetically and ecologically informative structure for which still little concerning growth and shape variability is known in many groups of vertebrates. Except in humans, it is poorly known in many other placentals and its prenatal growth has almost never been studied. Ruminants are a diversified group of placentals and represent an interesting case study to understand the prenatal growth of the ear region...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726135/enamel-biorhythms-of-humans-and-great-apes-the-havers-halberg-oscillation-hypothesis-reconsidered
#13
Patrick Mahoney, Justyna J Miszkiewicz, Rosie Pitfield, Chris Deter, Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg
The Havers-Halberg Oscillation (HHO) hypothesis links evidence for the timing of a biorhythm retained in permanent tooth enamel (Retzius periodicity) to adult body mass and life history traits across mammals. Potentially, these links provide a way to access life history of fossil species from teeth. Recently we assessed intra-specific predictions of the HHO on human children. We reported Retzius periodicity (RP) corresponded with enamel thickness, and cusp formation time, when calculated from isolated deciduous teeth...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726134/survival-of-motor-neurone-protein-is-required-for-normal-postnatal-development-of-the-spleen
#14
Alison K Thomson, Eilidh Somers, Rachael A Powis, Hannah K Shorrock, Kelley Murphy, Kathryn J Swoboda, Thomas H Gillingwater, Simon H Parson
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), traditionally described as a predominantly childhood form of motor neurone disease, is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. Although motor neurones are undoubtedly the primary affected cell type, the severe infantile form of SMA (Type I SMA) is now widely recognised to represent a multisystem disorder where a variety of organs and systems in the body are also affected. Here, we report that the spleen is disproportionately small in the 'Taiwanese' murine model of severe SMA (Smn(-/-) ;SMN2(tg/0) ), correlated to low levels of cell proliferation and increased cell death...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726131/reevaluation-of-the-arterial-blood-supply-of-the-auricle
#15
Isaac Zilinsky, Detlev Erdmann, Oren Weissman, Niels Hammer, Mircea-Constantin Sora, Thilo L Schenck, Sebastian Cotofana
The anatomical basis for auricular flaps used in multiple aesthetic and reconstructive procedures is currently based on a random distribution of the underlying arterial network. However, recent findings reveal a systematic pattern as opposed to the present concepts. Therefore, we designed this study to assess the arterial vascular pattern of the auricle in order to provide reliable data about the vascular map required for surgical interventions. Sixteen human auricles from eight body donors (five females/three males, 84...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682432/long-bone-histology-of-the-subterranean-rodent-bathyergus-suillus-bathyergidae-ontogenetic-pattern-of-cortical-bone-thickening
#16
Germán Montoya-Sanhueza, Anusuya Chinsamy
Patterns of bone development in mammals are best known from terrestrial and cursorial groups, but there is a considerable gap in our understanding of how specializations for life underground affect bone growth and development. Likewise, studies of bone microstructure in wild populations are still scarce, and they often include few individuals and tend to be focused on adults. For these reasons, the processes generating bone microstructural variation at intra- and interspecific levels are not fully understood...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666133/palaeobiology-of-hyaenodon-exiguus-hyaenodonta-mammalia-based-on-morphometric-analysis-of-the-bony-labyrinth
#17
Cathrin Pfaff, Doris Nagel, Gregg Gunnell, Gerhard W Weber, Jürgen Kriwet, Michael Morlo, Katharina Bastl
Species of the extinct genus Hyaenodon were among the largest carnivorous mammals from the Late Eocene through Early Miocene in North America, Europe and Asia. The origin, phylogeny and palaeobiology of Hyaenodonta are still ambiguous. Most previous studies focused on teeth and dental function in these highly adapted species, which might be influenced by convergent morphologies. The anatomy of the bony labyrinth in vertebrates is generally quite conservative and, additionally, was used in functional-morphological studies...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659172/the-peri-esophageal-connective-tissue-layers-and-related-compartments-visualization-by-histology-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#18
T J Weijs, L Goense, P S N van Rossum, G J Meijer, A L H M W van Lier, F J Wessels, M N G Braat, I M Lips, J P Ruurda, M A Cuesta, R van Hillegersberg, R L A W Bleys
An organized layer of connective tissue coursing from aorta to esophagus was recently discovered in the mediastinum. The relations with other peri-esophageal fascias have not been described and it is unclear whether this layer can be visualized by non-invasive imaging. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive description of the peri-esophageal fascias and determine whether the connective tissue layer between aorta and esophagus can be visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). First, T2-weighted MRI scanning of the thoracic region of a human cadaver was performed, followed by histological examination of transverse sections of the peri-esophageal tissue between the thyroid gland and the diaphragm...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620700/evaluating-osteological-ageing-from-digital-data
#19
Chiara Villa, Jo Buckberry, Niels Lynnerup
Age at death estimation of human skeletal remains is one of the key issues in constructing a biological profile both in forensic and archaeological contexts. The traditional adult osteological methods evaluate macroscopically the morphological changes that occur with increasing age of specific skeletal indicators, such as the cranial sutures, the pubic bone, the auricular surface of the ilium and the sternal end of the ribs. Technologies such as computed tomography and laser scanning are becoming more widely used in anthropology, and several new methods have been developed...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620531/of-skin-and-bone-did-langerhans-cells-and-osteoclasts-evolve-from-a-common-ancestor
#20
Christopher G Mueller, Benjamin Voisin
Skin Langerhans cells are antigen-presenting cells of the interfollicular epidermis and the upper part of the hair follicle, whereas osteoclasts are specialized bone-resorbing macrophages. Although at first view these two cell types appear to have little in common, a closer analysis reveals shared features, and when taking into account their surrounding environment, a hypothesis can be developed that Langerhans cells and osteoclasts have evolved from a common ancestral cell type. In this mini-review, we have compared the ontogenetic features of Langerhans cells and osteoclasts from a genetic and a functional point of view, an issue that so far has been overlooked...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
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