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Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918425/definitive-chemoradiotherapy-for-anal-carcinoma-long-term-results-based-on-consistent-time-to-event-endpoints
#1
Francesca De Felice, Maria Teresa Martinetti, Simone Orelli, Nadia Bulzonetti, Daniela Musio, Vincenzo Tombolini
AIM: To report the long-term results after definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for anal carcinoma, using consistent time-to-event endpoints. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Anal carcinoma patient charts were reviewed. All patients received definitive CRT. Overall survival (OS), local failure-free survival (LFFS), locoregional failure-free survival (LRFFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and anal dysfunction-free survival (ADFS) were estimated. RESULTS: In total, 65 patients were included...
September 16, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918424/systemic-inflammatory-response-is-a-prognostic-marker-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#2
David J Pinato, Marco Merli, Alessia Dalla Pria, Shiraz Jamshaid, Kizzy Parker, Nicole Pagani, Hamid Hasson, Caterina Uberti Foppa, Emanuela Messina, Rohini Sharma, Mark Nelson, Mark Bower
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasingly prevalent in people living with HIV. Systemic inflammation is a prognostic factor requiring validation in HIV-associated HCC. AIMS: Using a multi-centre database of consecutive HCC cases, we investigated the prognostic role of a panel of inflammatory markers, including neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), using univariate and multivariate survival analyses. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients with HIV-associated HCC secondary to hepatitis C (69%) or B virus infection (32%) were identified...
September 16, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910818/protein-expression-of-programmed-death-1-ligand-1-and-her2-in-gastric-carcinoma
#3
Eiji Oki, Shinji Okano, Hiroshi Saeki, Yuichiro Umemoto, Koji Teraishi, Yu Nakaji, Koji Ando, Yoko Zaitsu, Nami Yamashita, Masahiko Sugiyama, Yuichiro Nakashima, Kippei Ohgaki, Yoshinao Oda, Yoshihiko Maehara
OBJECTIVES: Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is an immunoinhibitory receptor and has been identified as a new target for immunotherapy in cancer. Here we report the expression of PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) in surgically resected gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined formalin-fixed tumor samples from 144 gastric cancer patients with a primary diagnosis of gastric carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect PD-L1. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss of heterozygosity were investigated in these patients...
September 15, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889127/buccal-epithelium-cigarette-smoking-and-lung-cancer-review-of-the-literature
#4
Raya Saba, Oleksandr Halytskyy, Nasir Saleem, Ira A Oliff
Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among men and women in the United States, and optimal screening methods are still lacking. The field effect is a well-supported phenomenon wherein a noxious stimulus triggers genetic, epigenetic and molecular changes that are widespread throughout the entire exposed organ system. The buccal epithelium is an easily accessible part of the respiratory tree that has good potential of yielding a surrogate marker for the field effect in cigarette smokers, and thus, a noninvasive, reliable lung cancer screening method...
September 9, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881354/preoperative-capecitabine-oxaliplatin-and-irinotecan-in-resectable-gastric-or-gastroesophageal-junction-cancer-pathological-response-as-primary-endpoint-and-fdg-pet-predictions
#5
Rosa Berenato, Federica Morano, Filippo Pietrantonio, Christian Cotsoglou, Marta Caporale, Gabriele Infante, Alessandro Pellegrinelli, Alessandra Alessi, Carlo Battiston, Jorgelina Coppa, Barbara Padovano, Alessia Mennitto, Monica Niger, Giovanni Fucà, Silvia Lazzati, Giorgio Greco, Gabriele Delconte, Filippo de Braud, Vincenzo Mazzaferro, Maria Di Bartolomeo
OBJECTIVES: This phase II trial was aimed at assessing the safety and activity of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan (COI regimen) as a preoperative treatment for resectable gastric cancer (GC) or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. METHODS: Patients affected by T3-T4/N0-N+/M0 GC/GEJ cancer were treated with the COI regimen for 4 cycles followed by restaging and gastroresection with D2 lymphadenectomy. Four postoperative cycles were scheduled. The primary endpoint was pathological response rate according to Becker et al...
September 8, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873372/efficacy-and-safety-of-the-oral-multikinase-regorafenib-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#6
Giuseppe Cicero, Rossella De Luca, Francesco Dieli
BACKGROUND/AIM: A clinical trial demonstrated that treatment with oral multikinase regorafenib improved overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and disease control [García-Alfonso et al.: J Clin Transl Oncol 2016;18:1072-1081; Bertocchi et al.: J Chemother 2017;29:102-105]. In this study, we aimed to evaluate its effectiveness in Italian patients with hormone-refractory metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) progressing after chemotherapy with docetaxel plus prednisone...
September 6, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869931/a-phase-ii-exploratory-study-of-pxd-101-belinostat-followed-by-zevalin-in-patients-with-relapsed-aggressive-high-risk-lymphoma
#7
Soham D Puvvada, José M Guillén-Rodríguez, Xavier I Rivera, Kara Heard, Lora Inclan, Monika Schmelz, Jonathan H Schatz, Daniel O Persky
OBJECTIVE: Aggressive lymphomas (aNHL) including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have poor outcomes in relapsed refractory patients. Prior studies have demonstrated that loss of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) expression in DLBCL is associated with poor survival. The objective of this single-arm phase II study was to evaluate if PXD-101 would increase MHCII expression, synergize with Zevalin, and improve clinical outcomes. METHODS: This was a single-center open-label phase II trial (NCT01686165) geared toward heavily pretreated patients with CD20-positive aNHL...
September 5, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869928/atypical-uterine-smooth-muscle-tumors-a-retrospective-evaluation-of-clinical-and-pathologic-features
#8
Giuseppa Maltese, Caterina Fontanella, Stefano Lepori, Cono Scaffa, Giovanni Fucà, Giorgio Bogani, Salvatore Provenzano, Maria Luisa Carcangiu, Francesco Raspagliesi, Domenica Lorusso
BACKGROUND: Clinical characteristics combined with new biomarkers help discriminate between atypical uterine smooth muscle tumors (AUSMT) and leiomyosarcomas (LMS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected a series of leiomyomas (LM), AUSMT, and LMS. Estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), p16, Ki-67, and p53 expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry. For AUSMT patients, immunohistochemistry evaluations were performed at the time of diagnosis and at recurrences...
September 5, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866662/serum-ca19-9-response-is-an-early-predictive-marker-of-efficacy-of-regorafenib-in-refractory-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#9
Azusa Komori, Hiroya Taniguchi, Satoshi Hamauchi, Toshiki Masuishi, Yosuke Kito, Yukiya Narita, Takahiro Tsushima, Makoto Ishihara, Akiko Todaka, Tsutomu Tanaka, Tomoya Yokota, Shigenori Kadowaki, Nozomu Machida, Takashi Ura, Akira Fukutomi, Masashi Ando, Yusuke Onozawa, Masahiro Tajika, Hirofumi Yasui, Kei Muro, Keita Mori, Kentaro Yamazaki
PURPOSE: Regorafenib improves survival in chemorefractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. However, regorafenib induces various adverse events (AEs) that often impair patients' quality of life. Identification of early predictive markers of the efficacy is warranted. METHODS: We retrospectively examined 146 consecutive mCRC patients who received regorafenib. Clinical parameters, including patient background, AEs, and changes in biochemical parameters until day 28, were evaluated to identify efficacy predictors...
September 2, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848147/evaluation-of-transvaginal-ultrasound-plus-ca-125-measurement-and-prophylactic-salpingo-oophorectomy-in-women-at-different-risk-levels-of-ovarian-cancer-the-modena-study-group-cohort-study
#10
Laura Cortesi, Elisabetta De Matteis, Angela Toss, Isabella Marchi, Veronica Medici, Giannina Contu, Anjeza Xholli, Giovanni Grandi, Angelo Cagnacci, Massimo Federico
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and serum CA-125 measurement in women at different risk of developing ovarian cancer/fallopian tube cancer (OC/FTC) and the incidence of primary peritoneal cancer (PPC) after risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). METHODS: Between 2002 and 2014, 661 women at different risk of OC/FTC/PPC due to a family history or BRCA1/2 gene mutation were offered TVU and CA-125 measurement or RRSO as prevention strategies...
August 26, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848220/clinical-impact-of-aprepitant-in-patients-receiving-high-dose-chemotherapy-prior-to-autologous-peripheral-blood-stem-cell-transplantation-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#11
Ayumi Nakamura, Yuki Kojima, Kenji Miyazawa, Syuichi Matsumoto, Hiroatsu Iida, Hirokazu Nagai
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and cost benefits of the administration of aprepitant for the prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) during high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients who received HDCT at our institution between January 2009 and December 2013. Cost-effectiveness was analyzed using direct medical costs. RESULTS: We identified a total of 38 patients (27 with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 11 with multiple myeloma)...
August 24, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848126/the-impact-of-treatment-preferences-in-second-line-chemotherapy-on-the-prognosis-of-her2-negative-metastatic-breast-cancer
#12
Hirofumi Mukai, Yasuhiro Hagiwara, Kentaro Imi, Hirotsugu Isaka, Kenichi Watanabe, Yutaka Matsuyama
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the impact of treatment preferences in second-line chemotherapy on breast cancer prognosis using the SELECT BC study. METHODS: The SELECT BC study was performed in patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer treated with initial chemotherapy. From these patients, 618 were assigned to 2 groups (S-1 group, 309; taxane group, 309). The S-1 and taxane groups were each subdivided into 3 groups: crossover group, protocol-recommended group, and other group, and the analysis of overall survival (OS) was performed using Cox regression with inverse probability weighting, to adjust for postrandomization confounding...
August 24, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848104/adenosquamous-carcinoma-of-the-esophagus-an-ncdb-based-investigation-on-comparative-features-and-overall-survival-in-a-rare-tumor
#13
Michael Evans, Yuan Liu, Chuqing Chen, Conor Steuer, Richard Cassidy Iii, Jerome Landry, Kristin Higgins, Jonathan J Beitler, Field Willingham, Taofeek Kunle Owonikoko, Suresh S Ramalingam, Dong Moon Shin, Naresh Kumar Jegadeesh, Bassel El-Rayes, Felix Fernandez, Alyssa M Krasinskas, Theresa Gillespie, Nabil F Saba
OBJECTIVES: Esophageal adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) is a rare tumor with characteristics of adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), the two most common esophageal cancers. Its behavior is aggressive but poorly understood. Using the National Cancer Database (NCDB), the clinical features and overall survival of ASC were compared with AC and SCC. METHODS: The NCDB was queried for patients with esophageal ASC, AC, and SCC. Univariate association of histology with patient characteristics and overall survival were analyzed and socioeconomic characteristics were balanced...
August 24, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848182/neutrophil-recovery-in-breast-cancer-patients-receiving-docetaxel-containing-chemotherapy-with-and-without-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-prophylaxis
#14
Maureen J Aarts, Birgit E Vriens, Maaike de Boer, Frank P Peters, Caroline M Mandigers, M Wouter Dercksen, Jacqueline M Stouthard, Jolien Tol, Laurence J van Warmerdam, Agnes J van de Wouw, Esther M Jacobs, Carin C D van der Rijt, Tineke J Smilde, Annette W van der Velden, Nelly Peer, Vivianne C G Tjan-Heijnen
OBJECTIVE: The primary outcome of the current study is, whether there is a protective effect of prior chemotherapy or of prior granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on the next cycle blood cell counts. METHODS: Hematologic toxicity was evaluated, based on a randomized phase III study in breast cancer patients (n = 167) with >20% risk of febrile neutropenia. The primary endpoint was the nadir blood cell counts for patients treated with G-CSF given during all 6 chemotherapy cycles or limited to the first 2 chemotherapy cycles only...
August 22, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803241/gender-specific-aspects-in-patients-with-multiple-myeloma-undergoing-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-a-single-center-experience
#15
Doris Posch, Werner Rabitsch, Philipp Wohlfarth, Michael Leiner, Edit Porpaczy, Johannes Drach, Markus Raderer, Wolfgang Lamm
OBJECTIVE: Limited data exist on gender-specific aspects in hematologic malignancies and have been obtained mostly in non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The objective of this study was to investigate gender-specific aspects in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). METHODS: A retrospective data analysis of 191 patients with MM who underwent ASCT was performed. Data collected from clinical records included age, sex, stage, induction therapy, outcome of induction, kind of stem cell mobilization, response to induction therapy and ASCT, cytogenetic aberrations, progression-free survival, and overall survival...
August 12, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746931/treatment-outcomes-for-metastatic-melanoma-of-unknown-primary-in-the-new-era-a-single-institution-study-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Kierstin Utter, Chloe Goldman, Sarah A Weiss, Richard L Shapiro, Russell S Berman, Melissa Ann Wilson, Anna C Pavlick, Iman Osman
BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma of unknown primary (MUP) is uncommon, biologically ill defined, and clinically understudied. MUP outcomes are seldom reported in clinical trials. In this study, we analyze responses of MUP patients treated with systemic therapy in an attempt to inform treatment guidelines for this unique population. METHODS: New York University (NYU)'s prospective melanoma database was searched for MUP patients treated with systemic therapy. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for MUP patients treated with immunotherapy or targeted therapy reported in the literature, and their response and survival data were compared to the MUP patient data from NYU...
July 27, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738360/targeting-developmental-pathways-the-achilles-heel-of-cancer
#17
Wolfram C M Dempke, Klaus Fenchel, Peter Uciechowski, Timothy Chevassut
Developmental pathways (e.g., Notch, Hippo, Hedgehog, Wnt, and TGF-β/BMP/FGF) are networks of genes that act co-ordinately to establish the body plan, and disruptions of genes in one pathway can have effects in related pathways and may result in serious dysmorphogenesis or cancer. Interestingly, all developmental pathways are highly conserved cell signalling systems present in almost all multicellular organisms. In addition, they have a crucial role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and finally in organ development...
July 22, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728151/a-modified-classification-of-prognostic-factors-based-on-pathological-stage-and-tumor-regression-grade-in-patients-with-rectal-cancer-who-receive-preoperative-chemoradiotherapy
#18
Toshiyuki Suzuki, Sotaro Sadahiro, Akira Tanaka, Kazutake Okada, Gota Saito, Hiroshi Miyakita, Takeshi Akiba, Hiroshi Yamamuro
OBJECTIVE: The histologic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has been intimately related to outcomes in locally advanced rectal cancer. However, reliable prognostic factors have yet to be established. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study group comprised 198 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received CRT. A modified classification based on the combination of ypStage and tumor regression grade (TRG) was developed. ypStage II with TRG 2 was classified as ypTRGstage IIA, and ypStage II with TRG 3 or 4 was classified as ypTRGstage IIB...
July 21, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719890/effect-of-neoadjuvant-nab-paclitaxel-plus-gemcitabine-therapy-on-overall-survival-in-patients-with-borderline-resectable-pancreatic-cancer-a-prospective-multicenter-phase-ii-trial-nac-ga-trial
#19
Ken-Ichi Okada, Toshio Shimokawa, Seiko Hirono, Manabu Kawai, Masayuki Sho, Sohei Satoi, Ippei Matsumoto, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Yoshiaki Murakami, Suguru Yamada, Mariko Doi, Hiroki Yamaue
We conducted a prospective multicenter phase II trial of patients with borderline resectable pancreatic carcinoma to investigate the efficacy of neoadjuvant nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine therapy on overall survival (OS). The clinical trial primarily evaluated OS time from the first day of protocol therapy as a primary endpoint. The secondary endpoints were recurrence-free survival from the first day of protocol therapy, safety of the protocol therapy (adverse effect), morbidity based on the Clavien Dindo classification of more than III, response rate, preoperative/postoperative tumor marker (CA 19-9, CEA), rate of normalization, reduction rate of the maximum standardized uptake value on positron emission tomography-computed tomography (limited to institutions where positron emission tomography-computed tomography was available), chemotherapeutic effect grade based on Evans' classification, resection rate, R0 resection rate, surgical data (operative time, blood loss, transfusion, postoperative hospital day), overall morbidity rates (reoperation, rate of readmission, mortality), patient rate in postoperative adjuvant therapy (entry rate, completion rate), dose intensity, quality of life regarding fatigue and malaise assessed by the questionnaire of FACIT-F (Japanese version), and peripheral sensory neuropathy assessed by the questionnaire of the FACT/GOG-NTX subscale (version 4; Japanese version)...
July 19, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700994/brain-metastasis-from-colorectal-cancer-predictors-and-treatment-outcomes
#20
Hiroaki Nozawa, Soichiro Ishihara, Kazushige Kawai, Kazuhito Sasaki, Koji Murono, Kensuke Otani, Takeshi Nishikawa, Toshiaki Tanaka, Tomomichi Kiyomatsu, Keisuke Hata, Toshiaki Watanabe
OBJECTIVE: Difficulties are associated with the management of brain metastasis (BM), which portends a poor prognosis in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for BM in CRC and evaluate the outcomes of various treatment modalities. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data on a total of 2,238 patients with primary CRC who underwent surgical resection at our hospital between 1999 and 2014. Predictive factors for BM and prognostic factors after the diagnosis of BM were examined by univariate and multivariate analyses using Cox proportional hazards models...
July 13, 2017: Oncology
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