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Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738360/targeting-developmental-pathways-the-achilles-heel-of-cancer
#1
Wolfram C M Dempke, Klaus Fenchel, Peter Uciechowski, Timothy Chevassut
Developmental pathways (e.g., Notch, Hippo, Hedgehog, Wnt, and TGF-β/BMP/FGF) are networks of genes that act co-ordinately to establish the body plan, and disruptions of genes in one pathway can have effects in related pathways and may result in serious dysmorphogenesis or cancer. Interestingly, all developmental pathways are highly conserved cell signalling systems present in almost all multicellular organisms. In addition, they have a crucial role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and finally in organ development...
July 22, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728151/a-modified-classification-of-prognostic-factors-based-on-pathological-stage-and-tumor-regression-grade-in-patients-with-rectal-cancer-who-receive-preoperative-chemoradiotherapy
#2
Toshiyuki Suzuki, Sotaro Sadahiro, Akira Tanaka, Kazutake Okada, Gota Saito, Hiroshi Miyakita, Takeshi Akiba, Hiroshi Yamamuro
OBJECTIVE: The histologic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has been intimately related to outcomes in locally advanced rectal cancer. However, reliable prognostic factors have yet to be established. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study group comprised 198 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received CRT. A modified classification based on the combination of ypStage and tumor regression grade (TRG) was developed. ypStage II with TRG 2 was classified as ypTRGstage IIA, and ypStage II with TRG 3 or 4 was classified as ypTRGstage IIB...
July 21, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719890/effect-of-neoadjuvant-nab-paclitaxel-plus-gemcitabine-therapy-on-overall-survival-in-patients-with-borderline-resectable-pancreatic-cancer-a-prospective-multicenter-phase-ii-trial-nac-ga-trial
#3
Ken-Ichi Okada, Toshio Shimokawa, Seiko Hirono, Manabu Kawai, Masayuki Sho, Sohei Satoi, Ippei Matsumoto, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Yoshiaki Murakami, Suguru Yamada, Mariko Doi, Hiroki Yamaue
We conducted a prospective multicenter phase II trial of patients with borderline resectable pancreatic carcinoma to investigate the efficacy of neoadjuvant nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine therapy on overall survival (OS). The clinical trial primarily evaluated OS time from the first day of protocol therapy as a primary endpoint. The secondary endpoints were recurrence-free survival from the first day of protocol therapy, safety of the protocol therapy (adverse effect), morbidity based on the Clavien Dindo classification of more than III, response rate, preoperative/postoperative tumor marker (CA 19-9, CEA), rate of normalization, reduction rate of the maximum standardized uptake value on positron emission tomography-computed tomography (limited to institutions where positron emission tomography-computed tomography was available), chemotherapeutic effect grade based on Evans' classification, resection rate, R0 resection rate, surgical data (operative time, blood loss, transfusion, postoperative hospital day), overall morbidity rates (reoperation, rate of readmission, mortality), patient rate in postoperative adjuvant therapy (entry rate, completion rate), dose intensity, quality of life regarding fatigue and malaise assessed by the questionnaire of FACIT-F (Japanese version), and peripheral sensory neuropathy assessed by the questionnaire of the FACT/GOG-NTX subscale (version 4; Japanese version)...
July 19, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700994/brain-metastasis-from-colorectal-cancer-predictors-and-treatment-outcomes
#4
Hiroaki Nozawa, Soichiro Ishihara, Kazushige Kawai, Kazuhito Sasaki, Koji Murono, Kensuke Otani, Takeshi Nishikawa, Toshiaki Tanaka, Tomomichi Kiyomatsu, Keisuke Hata, Toshiaki Watanabe
OBJECTIVE: Difficulties are associated with the management of brain metastasis (BM), which portends a poor prognosis in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for BM in CRC and evaluate the outcomes of various treatment modalities. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data on a total of 2,238 patients with primary CRC who underwent surgical resection at our hospital between 1999 and 2014. Predictive factors for BM and prognostic factors after the diagnosis of BM were examined by univariate and multivariate analyses using Cox proportional hazards models...
July 13, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683465/abca3-phenotype-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-indicates-poor-outcome
#5
Tobias R Overbeck, Johanna Arnemann, Regina Waldmann-Beushausen, Lorenz Trümper, Friedrich A Schöndube, Kirsten Reuter-Jessen, Bernhard C Danner
BACKGROUND: ATP-binding cassette transport protein A3 (ABCA3) is expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We hypothesize that high-level ABCA3 expression may have a negative prognostic impact in patients with NSCLC. METHODS: In 89 patients with NSCLC and curative intended surgery, we analyzed postoperative immunohistochemistry staining of primary tumors (anti-ABCA3) and clinicopathological parameters. We used a unidimensional four point score (FPS) system for intensity assessment and, furthermore, a combined bidimensional scoring of intensity and quantity resulting in the positive index (PI)...
July 6, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683459/natural-history-of-t1n0m0-hepatocellular-carcinoma-large-scale-study-in-the-united-states
#6
Humaid O Al-Shamsi, Reham Abdel-Wahab, Manal M Hassan, Ahmed S Shalaby, Ibrahim Dahbour, Sahin Lacin, Armeen Mahvash, Bruno C Odisio, Ravi Murthy, Rony Avritscher, Mohamed E Abdelsalam, Asif Rashid, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Thomas A Aloia, Claudius Conrad, Yun Shin Chun, Sunil Krishnan, Prajnan Das, Eugene J Koay, Hesham M Amin, James C Yao, Ahmed O Kaseb
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis depends on clinicopathological features in addition to the treatment provided. We aimed to assess the natural history of TNM stage I HCC tumors which received different treatment over a period of 20 years. METHODS: Between 1992 and 2011, a total of 397 stage I HCC patients were included. Detailed information was retrieved from MD Anderson Cancer Center patients' medical records. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate patients' overall survival (OS)...
July 6, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683449/101-long-term-survivors-who-had-metastatic-gastroesophageal-cancer-and-received-local-consolidative-therapy
#7
Dilsa Mizrak Kaya, Xuemei Wang, Kazuto Harada, Mariela A Blum Murphy, Prajnan Das, Bruce D Minsky, Jeannelyn S Estrella, Quan Lin, Fatemeh G Amlashi, Jeffrey H Lee, Brian Weston, Manoop S Bhutani, Aurelio Matamoros, Tara Sagebiel, Carol C Wu, Jane E Rogers, Irene Thomas, Dipen M Maru, Heath D Skinner, Brian D Badgwell, Wayne L Hofstetter, Jaffer A Ajani
BACKGROUND: Through a multidisciplinary decision-making process, we developed a strategy of systemic therapy followed by local consolidative therapy (chemoradiation with/without surgery) in selected patients with metastatic gastroesophageal carcinoma (mGEAC). Only after a consensus during multidisciplinary discussions, local therapy was initiated. METHODS: We identified 101 patients with mGEAC who had local consolidation. We evaluated the association between various clinical variables (location of the primary, location of metastases, duration of initial chemotherapy, histologic grade, and radiation dose) and overall survival (OS)...
July 6, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647740/integrative-assessment-of-pretreatment-inflammation-nutrition-and-muscle-based-prognostic-markers-in-patients-with-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-undergoing-radical-cystectomy
#8
Makito Miyake, Yosuke Morizawa, Shunta Hori, Nagaaki Marugami, Kota Iida, Kenta Ohnishi, Daisuke Gotoh, Yoshihiro Tatsumi, Yasushi Nakai, Takeshi Inoue, Satoshi Anai, Kazumasa Torimoto, Katsuya Aoki, Nobumichi Tanaka, Keiji Shimada, Noboru Konishi, Kiyohide Fujimoto
OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the clinical relevance of an integrative preoperative assessment of inflammation-, nutrition-, and muscle-based markers for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) undergoing curative radical cystectomy (RC). METHODS: The analysis enrolled 117 patients and the variables included age, body mass index (BMI), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), Controlling Nutritional Status score, psoas muscle index (PMI), and peak expiratory flow (PEF)...
June 24, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641281/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-a-clinical-study-in-1-016-hematology-oncology-patients
#9
Marina Hierl, Jochen Pfirstinger, Reinhard Andreesen, Ernst Holler, Stephanie Mayer, Daniel Wolff, Martin Vogelhuber
INTRODUCTION: Surveys state a widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in patients with malignant diseases. CAM methods might potentially interfere with the metabolization of tumor-specific therapy. However, there is little communication about CAM use in hematology/oncology patients between patients, CAM providers, and oncologists. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was handed out to all patients attending to the hematology/oncology outpatient clinic of Regensburg University Hospital...
June 23, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633143/tumor-associated-macrophages-in-the-development-of-4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-a-mouse-model
#10
Kentaro Miki, Yorihisa Orita, Yuka Gion, Soshi Takao, Kyotaro Ohno, Mai Takeuchi, Toshihiro Ito, Akira Minoura, Tomoyasu Tachibana, Hidenori Marunaka, Takuma Makino, Akihiro Matsukawa, Kazunori Nishizaki, Tadashi Yoshino, Yasuharu Sato
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the distribution of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the development of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to elucidate the role of TAMs in the progression of tongue SCC. METHODS: The expression of the macrophage markers nitric oxide synthase, Retnla, and mannose receptor 1 in the development of tongue SCC was longitudinally observed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, an immunohistochemical study using an anti-mannose receptor (MR) antibody was performed...
June 21, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614816/optimizing-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-hormone-receptor-positive-metastatic-breast-cancer-treatment-options-and-considerations
#11
Pavani Chalasani
The treatment landscape for hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer continues to evolve as the molecular mechanisms of this heterogeneous disease are better understood and targeted treatment strategies are developed. Patients are now living for extended periods of time with this disease as they progress through sequential lines of treatment. With a rapidly expanding therapeutic armamentarium, the prevalence of metastatic breast cancer patients with prolonged survival is expected to increase, as is the duration of survival...
June 15, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609768/financial-implication-of-radioactive-iodine-therapy-for-early-stage-papillary-thyroid-cancer
#12
Zaid Al-Qurayshi, Daniah Bu Ali, Sudesh Srivastav, Emad Kandil
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate disease-specific survival and cost related to radioactive iodine therapy (RAI) utilization in patients with early-stage papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, 2004-2012. RESULTS: A total of 38,374 patients with PTC were identified. Of those, 56.3% had adjuvant RAI. RAI administration was not associated with a survival advantage in patients with PTC stage I (hazard ratio [HR] 1...
June 14, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601879/outcomes-in-melanoma-patients-treated-with-braf-mek-directed-therapy-or-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-stratified-by-clinical-trial-versus-standard-of-care
#13
Chloe Goldman, Jeremy Tchack, Eric M Robinson, Sung Won Han, Una Moran, David Polsky, Russell S Berman, Richard L Shapiro, Patrick A Ott, Iman Osman, Hua Zhong, Anna C Pavlick, Melissa Ann Wilson
OBJECTIVES: Since 2011, metastatic melanoma treatment has evolved with commercial approval of BRAF- and MEK-targeted therapy and CTLA-4- and PD-1-blocking antibodies (immune checkpoint inhibitors, ICI). While novel therapies have demonstrated improved prognosis in clinical trials, few studies have examined the evolution of prognosis and toxicity of these drugs among an unselected population. We assess whether survival and toxicity reported in trials, which typically exclude most patients with brain metastases and poor performance status, are recapitulated within a commercial access population...
June 10, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571030/less-fibrotic-burden-differently-affects-the-long-term-outcomes-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-curative-resection
#14
Hye Won Lee, Gi Hong Choi, Do Young Kim, Young Nyun Park, Kyung Sik Kim, Jin Sub Choi, Sang Hoon Ahn, Kwang-Hyub Han
BACKGROUND: The clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) differ in patients with and without cirrhosis. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the long-term outcomes of noncirrhotic HCC patients after curative resection. METHODS: We retrospectively examined 649 consecutive patients with HCC who underwent curative resection from 1996 to 2012; 387 (59.6%) were cirrhotic and 262 (40.4%) were noncirrhotic. RESULTS: The mean age was 54...
June 2, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571009/surgery-is-an-effective-option-after-failure-of-chemoradiation-in-cancers-of-the-anal-canal-and-anal-margin
#15
Jean-Baptiste Delhorme, François Severac, Waisse Waissi, Benoit Romain, Delphine Antoni, Kelle C Freel, Catherine Schumacher, Serge Rohr, Cécile Brigand, Georges Noël
BACKGROUND: Surgery for anal canal cancer (ACC) and anal margin cancer (AMC) is the only curative option after failure of chemoradiotherapy (CRT). This study aimed to determine the efficacy of surgery for ACC or AMC after failed CRT. METHODS: This was a single-centre, retrospective study of 161 patients initially treated with CRT. We compared the survival rates of patients successfully treated by CRT with those of patients whose CRT failed (both surgically salvaged and treated palliatively)...
June 2, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558382/znf750-expression-as-a-novel-candidate-biomarker-of-chemoradiosensitivity-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#16
Ryota Otsuka, Yasunori Akutsu, Haruhito Sakata, Naoyuki Hanari, Kentaro Murakami, Masayuki Kano, Masahiko Takahashi, Yasunori Matsumoto, Nobufumi Sekino, Masaya Yokoyama, Keiko Iida, Hisahiro Matsubara
OBJECTIVE: ZNF750, an epidermal differentiation regulator, has been suggested to act as a tumor suppressor of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Although a correlation between the epidermal differentiation gene and resistance to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has been posited, no data regarding the ZNF750 status in ESCC have been reported. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between ZNF750 expression and response to CRT in ESCC. METHODS: Eighty-seven patients who had been pathologically diagnosed with ESCC were evaluated in the present study...
May 31, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531891/dual-inhibition-of-egfr-and-vegf-in-heavily-pretreated-patients-with-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#17
Finn Ole Larsen, Alice Markussen, Dorte Nielsen, Bonnie Colville-Ebeling, Lene B Riis, Benny V Jensen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combining irinotecan, bevacizumab, and cetuximab/panitumumab as a 4th-line treatment in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. METHODS: All patients had KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer and had previously received fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and cetuximab/panitumumab in a 1st, 2nd, and 3rd line setting. Most patients had previously received bevacizumab as well...
May 23, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521313/amrubicin-monotherapy-for-patients-with-platinum-pretreated-non-gastrointestinal-non-pancreatic-extrapulmonary-neuroendocrine-carcinoma
#18
Takahiro Ebata, Tatsunori Shimoi, Tsukasa Ishiwata, Shunichiro Iwasawa, Seiko Bun, Mayu Yunokawa, Kan Yonemori, Yuichi Takiguchi, Kenji Tamura
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of amrubicin therapy for patients with non-gastrointestinal (GI) non-pancreatic extrapulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma (EP-NEC). METHODS: The medical records of patients from the 2 participating institutions were retrospectively reviewed. The eligibility criteria were: patients with non-GI non-pancreatic EP-NEC who received amrubicin monotherapy after platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients in whom the platinum-free interval (interval between the last day of platinum administration and the first subsequent documentation of disease progression) was 90 days or longer were classified into the platinum-sensitive group...
May 19, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511189/the-role-of-audiometry-prior-to-high-dose-cisplatin-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer
#19
Miguel Caballero, Paula Mackers, Oscar Reig, Elvira Buxo, Pilar Navarrete, Jose L Blanch, Juan J Grau
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the role of audiometry in considering change to a less ototoxic treatment in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. METHODS: Consecutive patients prescribed high-dose cisplatin (100 mg/m2) between January 2013 and February 2015 were enrolled. Audiometry was performed at baseline and before cisplatin. Change to a less ototoxic agent or reduced cisplatin dose was considered with audiometric decreases >25 dB. RESULTS: A total of 103 patients were included; the median age of the patients was 59 years (range 18-75)...
May 17, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511180/response-predictors-of-s-1-cisplatin-and-docetaxel-combination-chemotherapy-for-metastatic-gastric-cancer-microarray-analysis-of-whole-human-genes
#20
Shinji Kitamura, Toshihito Tanahashi, Eriko Aoyagi, Tadahiko Nakagawa, Koichi Okamoto, Tetsuo Kimura, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Yasuhiro Mitsui, Kazuhito Rokutan, Naoki Muguruma, Tetsuji Takayama
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers for predicting the efficacy of docetaxel, cisplatin, and S-1 (DCS) therapy for advanced gastric cancer using microarrays of biopsy specimens before chemotherapy. METHODS: Nineteen samples were taken from 19 patients with unresectable metastatic gastric cancer who received DCS as a first-line therapy. Laser capture microdissection was performed, and total cellular RNA was extracted from each microdissected sample...
May 17, 2017: Oncology
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