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Abdurrahman Aldiab, Khayal A Al Khayal, Omar A Al Obaid, Ahmed Alsheikh, Khalid Alsaleh, Mohamed Shahid, Hana Alkharji
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most frequent cancer and a leading cause of cancer death in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). To date, no nationwide screening programs have been adopted. This prospective, longitudinal study investigated factors influencing the outcome of CRC in Saudi patients. METHODS: Patients completed a CRC awareness questionnaire. Colonoscopy, CT/MRI, histopathology of tumor biopsies, and KRAS and BRAF testing were performed...
December 3, 2016: Oncology
Osamu Shiraishi, Makoto Yamasaki, Tomoki Makino, Masaaki Motoori, Hiroshi Miyata, Masayuki Shinkai, Yutaka Kimura, Motohiro Hirao, Kazumasa Fujitani, Shigeyuki Tamura, Kenji Kobayashi, Masahiko Yano, Yuichiro Doki, Takushi Yasuda
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for resectable advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) requires reassessment. We have conducted a trial aiming at the comparison between DCF and ACF concerning perioperative adverse events. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive either DCF [docetaxel 70 mg/m2, cisplatin 70 mg/m2 on day 1, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 700 mg/m2 for 5 days] every 3 weeks or ACF (adriamycin 35 mg/m2, cisplatin 70 mg/m2 on day 1, and 5-FU 700 mg/m2 for 7 days) every 4 weeks...
December 2, 2016: Oncology
Eiji Shimura, Takanori Hama, Toshihito Suda, Masahiro Ikegami, Mitsuyoshi Urashima, Hiromi Kojima
BACKGROUND: Few studies have addressed how human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) affects the outcome of surgical therapy; furthermore, the relationship between the presence of HPV DNA and neck lymph node (LN) metastasis has not been well established. METHODS: A total of 65 patients who underwent surgery as a first-line therapy for OPSCC were enrolled in this study. In HPV-positive patients, the presence of HPV DNA in metastatic neck LN lesions was evaluated...
December 1, 2016: Oncology
James W Snider Iii, Yildirim Mutaf, Elizabeth Nichols, Andrea Hall, Patrick Vadnais, William F Regine, Steven J Feigenberg
OBJECTIVE: Partial-breast irradiation (PBI) with external-beam radiotherapy has produced higher than expected rates of fair-to-poor cosmesis. Worsened outcomes have been correlated with larger volumes of breast tissue exposed to radiation. A novel breast-specific stereotactic radiotherapy (BSRT) device (BSRTD) has been developed at our institution and has shown promise in delivering highly conformal dose distributions. We compared normal tissue sparing with this device with that achieved with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)-PBI...
November 30, 2016: Oncology
Yuta Kasagi, Eiji Oki, Koji Ando, Shuhei Ito, Tomohiro Iguchi, Masahiko Sugiyama, Yuichiro Nakashima, Kippei Ohgaki, Hiroshi Saeki, Koshi Mimori, Yoshihiko Maehara
Colon cancer-associated transcription 2 (CCAT2) was recently identified as a novel long noncoding RNA transcript encompassing the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs6983267. CCAT2 is overexpressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) where it promotes tumor growth, metastasis, and chromosomal instability, although the clinical relevance of this enhanced expression is unknown. In this retrospective study, CCAT2 expression was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction in 149 CRC patients, and its associations with clinicopathological characteristics, outcome, rs6983267 genotypes, microsatellite status, DNA ploidy, and BubR1 expression were analyzed...
November 23, 2016: Oncology
I Márquez-Rodas, M Lobo, C Flores-Sanchez, M Sanz, S Luque, S Lizarraga, C González-Asanza, J A Pajares, M I Peligros, O Bueno, C Mata, C Lopez, S López-Tarruella, Y Jerez, A Muñoz-Martin, M Blanco, M Die-Trill, J P Justel, J Solera, M Martin
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the evolution of a multidisciplinary heredofamilial cancer unit (HFCU) in a university hospital. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of the activity of our HFCU in its first 5 years of existence. RESULTS: Between July 2010 and July 2015, 1,518 patients from 1,318 families attended our HFCU. Genetic testing was offered to 862 patients. Of those, 833 (96.6%) accepted testing, with available results for 636 (76.4%)...
November 18, 2016: Oncology
Marine Gilabert, Young Soo Rho, Petr Kavan
Poorly differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (PD pNECs) is a rare disease that has a poor prognosis and is treated with systemic chemotherapy as the standard of care. We present 6 cases of chemo-naïve patients diagnosed with PD pNECs who refused systemic chemotherapy and received targeted therapies with sunitinib (37.5 mg/day, 5 patients) or the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus (10 mg/day, 1 patient) as the first-line treatment. We evaluated the drugs' toxicities and survival...
November 12, 2016: Oncology
Giuseppe Luigi Banna, Giuseppe Anile, Giorgio Russo, Paolo Vigneri, Marine Castaing, Maurizio Nicolosi, Salvatore Strano, Stefania Gieri, Rosaria Spina, Domenico Patanè, Giacomo Calcara, Filippo Fraggetta, Francesco Marletta, Alessandro Stefano, Massimo Ippolito
OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive and prognostic value of progressive metabolic disease (PMD) by the use of early 18Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18FDG-PET) in patients with clinical stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with first-line chemotherapy. METHODS: An 18FDG-PET performed following the first cycle of chemotherapy (PET-1) was compared with a pretreatment 18FDG-PET (PET-0) and a computed tomography (CT) scan after the third cycle (CT-3)...
November 11, 2016: Oncology
Claire F Verschraegen, Hibba Rehman, Bhargavi Pulluri, James DeKay, Maura Barry, Edmund Folefac, Kim Dittus, Chris Holmes, Julian Sprague, Steve Ades, Pam C Gibson
The combination of personalized therapy with immunotherapy might lead to rapid complete remission in patients who are too sick to be eligible for clinical trials. We report 2 such extraordinary responders. A discussion on the use and purpose of clinical trials in this new era of very active anticancer drug discovery concludes that a paradigm shift is urgently needed.
November 8, 2016: Oncology
Holly Kinahan, Abhishek Maiti, Kenneth Hess, Jennifer Dempsey, Laura Beatty, Sarah Baldwin, David S Hong, Aung Naing, Siqing Fu, Apostolia M Tsimberidou, Sarina Piha-Paul, Filip Janku, Daniel Karp, Suresh Reddy, Sriram Yennu, Daniel Epner, Eduardo Bruera, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Gerald Falchook, Vivek Subbiah
BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced cancer who progress on standard therapy are potential candidates for phase I clinical trials. Due to their aggressive disease and complex comorbid conditions, these patients often need inpatient admission. This study assessed the outcomes of such patients after they were discharged to hospice care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with solid tumor malignancies who were discharged to hospice care from the inpatient service...
November 2, 2016: Oncology
Victoria Hale, Gregory A Hale, Patrick A Brown, Ernest K Amankwah
Acute leukemia is the most common childhood cancer diagnosis and leading cause of cancer-related death among children and adolescents. Despite substantial improvements in the survival rate of childhood acute leukemia, approximately 20-40% of the patients who undergo treatment develop relapse, with a dismal one third of these patients surviving in the long term. Epigenetics plays an important role in the progression of cancer, and existing evidence suggests a role in childhood acute leukemia relapse. A better understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms in recurrent acute leukemia could potentially lead to novel therapeutic regimens to prevent or treat disease recurrences...
November 2, 2016: Oncology
Shinya Abe, Kazushige Kawai, Soichiro Ishihara, Hiroaki Nozawa, Keisuke Hata, Tomomichi Kiyomatsu, Toshiaki Tanaka, Takeshi Nishikawa, Kensuke Ootani, Koji Yasuda, Koji Murono, Toshiaki Watanabe
OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of the post-/preoperative anti-p53 antibody (p53 Ab) ratio as a prognostic factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence. METHODS: A total of 737 nonmetastatic CRC patients who had undergone R0 resection were retrospectively analyzed. p53 Ab levels were measured within 1 month prior to and at least every 3 months after surgery. Post-/preoperative p53 Ab ratios were calculated, and the optimal ratio cutoff values for predicting recurrence were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test...
October 29, 2016: Oncology
Felipe Andrés Cordero Luz, Paula Cristina Brígido, Alberto Silva Moraes, Marcelo José Barbosa Silva
Although the efforts to understand the genetic basis of cancer allowed advances in diagnosis and therapy, little is known about other molecular bases. Splicing is a key event in gene expression, controlling the excision of introns decoded inside genes and being responsible for 80% of the proteome amplification through events of alternative splicing. Growing data from the last decade point to deregulation of splicing events as crucial in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Several alterations in splicing events were observed in cancer, caused by either missexpression of or detrimental mutations in some splicing factors, and appear to be critical in carcinogenesis and key events during tumor progression...
October 29, 2016: Oncology
Naoshi Nishida, Masatoshi Kudo
Despite recent advances in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the prognosis of patients with advanced stage of disease remains unfavorable. Several immune therapies have been applied to HCC, and their responses have not been satisfactory. The immune response to cancer is determined by the balance between the antigenicity of the tumor and the microenvironment of cancer tissues. Generally, accumulated genetic mutations are observed in HCC, which may lead to increased neoantigens on cancer cells with high antigenicity...
October 21, 2016: Oncology
Christhardt Köhler, Simone Marnitz, Peter Biel, Tim Cordes
Anal cancer was diagnosed in a 36-year-old nulliparous woman. Before chemoradiation was started, ovarian transposition and uterine fixation were performed in order to preserve capability for future parenthood. Despite of a low anti-Mullerian hormone level, IVF therapy was successful and resulted in a full-term delivery of a healthy baby by cesarean section. This is the first case report of successful pregnancy after full-dose pelvic radiation for anal cancer.
September 28, 2016: Oncology
Hye Sook Kim, Suk Young Lee, Ju Won Kim, Yoon Ji Choi, In Hae Park, Keun Seok Lee, Jae Hong Seo, Sang Won Shin, Yeul Hong Kim, Jun Suk Kim, Kyong Hwa Park
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study was undertaken to assess the incidence of and risk factors for febrile neutropenia (FN) during adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer (ESBC). METHODS: A multicenter survey of three tertiary hospitals was conducted, with data extracted from the records of ESBC patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy containing AC (doxorubicin, 60 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide, 600 mg/m2 every 21 days). Assessments included clinical characteristics, chemotherapy dose modifications, and incidence of FN...
September 14, 2016: Oncology
Teiji Kuzuya, Masatoshi Ishigami, Yoji Ishizu, Takashi Honda, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Isao Nakano, Hidemi Goto, Yoshiki Hirooka
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fever within 2 weeks after the start of sorafenib therapy and treatment efficacy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: One hundred and two patients with advanced HCC were enrolled in this study. We retrospectively compared patients with fever (more than 38°C) within 2 weeks after the start of sorafenib therapy (fever group, n = 34) and patients without fever (non-fever group, n = 68) in terms of survival, best antitumor response, and change in intratumor blood on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) after 2 weeks of sorafenib therapy...
September 14, 2016: Oncology
Emiliano Calvo, Fadi Braiteh, Daniel Von Hoff, Robert McWilliams, Carlos Becerra, Matthew D Galsky, Gayle Jameson, Ji Lin, Scott McKane, Enaksha R Wickremsinhe, Scott M Hynes, Aimee Bence Lin, Karla Hurt, Donald Richards
OBJECTIVE: LY2603618, a selective inhibitor of checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) and key regulator of the DNA damage checkpoint, may enhance the effects of antimetabolites. This phase I study defined the recommended phase II dose of LY2603618 combined with gemcitabine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced/metastatic disease were administered doses of LY2603618 (70-250 mg/m2 or flat-fixed doses of 200 or 230 mg) after gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m2). Safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) were assessed...
September 7, 2016: Oncology
Elisa Paolicchi, Caterina Vivaldi, Veronica De Gregorio, Francesco Crea, Lorenzo Fornaro, Gianluca Masi, Fotios Loupakis, Francesco Graziano, Monica Ronzoni, Vincenzo Ricci, Alfredo Falcone, Romano Danesi
OBJECTIVE: Topoisomerase 1 (topo-1) is an important target for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between topo-1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and clinical outcome in metastatic CRC (mCRC) patients. METHODS: With the use of specific software (PROMO 3.0), we performed an in silico analysis of topo-1 promoter SNPs; the rs6072249 and rs34282819 SNPs were included in the study. DNA was extracted from 105 mCRC patients treated with FOLFIRI ± bevacizumab in the first line...
August 31, 2016: Oncology
Katalin Fábián, Márton Gyulai, József Furák, Péter Várallyay, Márta Jäckel, Krisztina Bogos, Balázs Döme, Judit Pápay, József Tímár, Zoltán Szállási, Judit Moldvay
BACKGROUND: Brain metastasis of lung cancer adversely affects overall survival (OS) and quality of life, while peritumoral brain edema is responsible for life-threatening complications. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathological and cerebral radiological data of 575 consecutive lung cancer patients with brain metastases. RESULTS: In adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, peritumoral brain edema was more pronounced than in small-cell lung cancer (p < 0...
August 26, 2016: Oncology
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