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Kevin Zarrabi, Shenhong Wu
BACKGROUND: Nivolumab is approved for the treatment of many cancers. This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the risk of hepatotoxicity with nivolumab therapy. METHODS: An analysis from all phase I-III clinical trials up to December 2016 examining nivolumab was conducted. Data on elevations in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were extracted from the safety profiles of each trial. Incidence and relative risk (RR) were calculated using random- or fixed-effects models with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
March 14, 2018: Oncology
Nathália Kersting, Bárbara Kunzler Souza, Igor Araujo Vieira, Rafael Pereira Dos Santos, Danielly Brufatto Olguins, Lauro José Gregianin, André Tesainer Brunetto, Algemir Lunardi Brunetto, Rafael Roesler, Caroline Brunetto de Farias, Gilberto Schwartsmann
OBJECTIVE: Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a type of childhood cancer probably arising from stem mesenchymal or neural crest cells. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) acts as a driver oncogene in many types of solid tumors. However, its involvement in ES remains poorly understood. METHODS: Human SK-ES-1 and RD-ES ES cells were treated with EGF, the EGFR inhibitor tyrphostin (AG1478), or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) inhibitors...
March 14, 2018: Oncology
Rie Kanaoka, Hisae Iinuma, Hitoshi Dejima, Takashi Sakai, Hirofumi Uehara, Noriyuki Matsutani, Masafumi Kawamura
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to clarify the usefulness of plasma exosomal microRNA-451a (miR-451a) as a novel biomarker for the early prediction of recurrence and prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients after curative resection. METHODS: Before surgery, plasma samples were collected and exosomal microRNA (miRNA) levels were evaluated. We first profiled specific exosomal miRNAs related to recurrence in 6 NSCLC patients with stage IA cancer by miRNA microarray...
March 13, 2018: Oncology
Serge Mignani, Nabil El Brahmi, Thierry Cresteil, Jean-Pierre Majoral
The metallo-phosphorus dendrimer 1G3-Cu (generation 3 dendrimer bearing 48 conjugated copper(II) on its surface) has antiproliferative activity related to its capacity to activate Bax translocation. In the present study, we evaluate the activity of an association of 1G3-Cu with 5 cytotoxic agents used in chemotherapy having different modes of action. Data show no additive effect with camptothecin and cisplatin, additivity with paclitaxel and MG132, and synergy with doxorubicin. Results suggest that the multivalent Cu-conjugated dendrimer 1G3-Cu (activator of Bax translocation) plays an important role in boosting the clinical impact of Bax accumulation stimulated by the proteasome inhibitor MG132, antimitotic taxanes, and the topo II inhibitor doxorubicin...
March 13, 2018: Oncology
Li Rebekah Feng, Alexandra Espina, Leorey N Saligan
PURPOSE: Cancer-related fatigue is a common complaint during cancer treatment and is often associated with cognitive impairment. This study examined cognitive deficits that were associated with fatigue symptoms during external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in men with localized prostate cancer. METHODS: A total of 36 participants were enrolled and followed up at baseline, 24 h, 7 days, 14 days after EBRT initiation, at midpoint, and at completion of EBRT. Fatigue was measured by self-report using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Fatigue (FACT-F), and cognitive impairment by the Computer Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI®)...
March 7, 2018: Oncology
Hiroaki Tanioka, Yuji Miyamoto, Akihito Tsuji, Masako Asayama, Takeshi Shiraishi, Satoshi Yuki, Masahito Kotaka, Akitaka Makiyama, Mototsugu Shimokawa, Takayuki Shimose, Satohiro Masuda, Takuhiro Yamaguchi, Yoshito Komatsu, Hiroshi Saeki, Yasunori Emi, Hideo Baba, Eiji Oki, Yoshihiko Maehara
BACKGROUND: Regorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor with a proven survival benefit for metastatic colorectal cancer patients. The KSCC1402/HGCSG1402 study investigated the prophylactic effect of oral dexamethasone (DEX) on regorafenib-related fatigue and/or malaise. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who progressed after standard chemotherapy were randomized 1: 1 to a DEX group (2 mg/day; days 1-28) with regorafenib or a placebo group with regorafenib. The primary endpoint was the incidence of fatigue and/or malaise, based on version 4...
March 7, 2018: Oncology
Bruno Vincenzi, Giuseppe Badalamenti, Grazia Armento, Marianna Silletta, Mariella Spalato Ceruso, Giovanna Catania, Andrea Napolitano, Giuseppa Maltese, Sergio Valeri, Lorena Incorvaia, Daniele Santini, Giuseppe Tonini
OBJECTIVES: Low body mass index (BMI) and/or low lean body mass have been shown to be risk factors for chemotherapy-related toxicities in a number of different cancers. However, no data are available regarding the role of BMI as a risk factor for developing toxicities related to the novel anticancer agent, trabectedin, in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma (STS). We evaluated the role of BMI as a risk factor for trabectedin-related toxicity in patients with STS. METHODS: Data from 51 patients with metastatic/advanced STS treated with trabectedin after progression on ≥1 anthracycline ± ifosfamide regimen were retrospectively reviewed...
March 6, 2018: Oncology
Claudio Martín, Andrés F Cardona, Zyanya Lucia Zatarain-Barrón, Alejandro Ruiz-Patiño, Omar Castillo, George Oblitas, Luis Corrales, Lorena Lupinacci, María Angelina Pérez, Leonardo Rojas, Lisde González, Luis Chirinos, Carlos Ortíz, Mauricio Lema, Carlos Vargas, Carmen Puparelli, Hernán Carranza, Jorge Otero, Oscar Arrieta
OBJECTIVE: This study describes the real-world characteristics, treatment sequencing, and outcomes among Hispanic patients with locally advanced/metastatic ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with crizotinib. METHODS: A retrospective patient review was conducted for several centers in Latin America. Clinicians identified ALK-positive NSCLC patients who received crizotinib and reported their clinical characteristics, treatments, and survival. Overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) were described...
March 6, 2018: Oncology
Michael S Broder, Beilei Cai, Eunice Chang, Maureen P Neary, Elya Papoyan, Al B Benson Iii
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe real-world lung neuroendocrine tumor (NET) treatment patterns. METHODS: This study examined cytotoxic chemotherapy (CC), somatostatin analogues (SSA), targeted therapy (TT), interferon, and liver-directed therapies in 2 US claims databases. Patients ≥18 years with ≥1 inpatient or ≥2 outpatient claims for lung NET, initiating pharmacologic treatment between July 1, 2009, and June 30, 2014, were identified and followed until the end of enrollment or study end, whichever occurred first...
March 6, 2018: Oncology
Cheol-Kyu Park, In-Jae Oh, Yoo-Duk Choi, Tae-Won Jang, Jeong-Eun Lee, Jeong-Seon Ryu, Shin-Yup Lee, Young-Chul Kim
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predictive role of c-MET expression and EGFR mutation in the efficacy of erlotinib in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: We prospectively recruited 196 patients with stage IV or recurrent NSCLC treated with erlotinib after failure of first-line chemotherapy. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate c-MET overexpression, silver in situ hybridization (SISH) to assess gene copy number, and real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect EGFR mutations, respectively, in tumor tissue...
March 2, 2018: Oncology
Soham D Puvvada, José M Guillén-Rodríguez, Jessica Yan, Lora Inclán, Kara Heard, Xavier I Rivera, Faiz Anwer, Daruka Mahadevan, Jonathan H Schatz, Daniel O Persky
BACKGROUND: Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is effective in treating relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma (FL), with durable remissions in first-line consolidation. We hypothesized that RIT with ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin®) would result in durable remissions by eliminating minimal residual disease after cytoreduction. METHODS: Patients with FL received 2 cycles of ESHAP (etoposide, methylprednisolone, cytarabine, cisplatin) every 28 days, followed by Zevalin 4-6 weeks later if there was no disease progression and bone marrow biopsy showed < 25% involvement...
February 22, 2018: Oncology
Maurie Markman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: Oncology
Rie Kondo, Satoshi Watanabe, Satoshi Shoji, Kosuke Ichikawa, Tetsuya Abe, Junko Baba, Junta Tanaka, Hiroki Tsukada, Masaki Terada, Kazuhiro Sato, Yoshie Maruyama, Masato Makino, Akira Hirata, Hiroshi Tanaka, Toshiyuki Koya, Hirohisa Yoshizawa, Toshiaki Kikuchi
OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapy with irinotecan plus cisplatin has shown promise in chemo-naïve small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients. However, irinotecan treatment for relapsed or refractory SCLC has not been adequately evaluated. This phase II study evaluated the appropriate treatment schedule of irinotecan as a single agent. This study was designed to determine the antitumor activity, toxicity, and survival in previously treated SCLC patients. METHODS: Previously treated SCLC patients with at least one platinum-based regimen received irinotecan (100 mg/m2) on days 1 and 8, every 3 weeks, until disease progression...
February 14, 2018: Oncology
Markus Kieler, Leonhard Müllauer, Oskar Koperek, Daniela Bianconi, Matthias Unseld, Markus Raderer, Gerald W Prager
OBJECTIVE: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare disease with a dismal prognosis. We aimed to evaluate if a personalized medicine approach may be useful for matching patients with ACC to targeted therapies. METHODS: This is an analysis of 10 molecularly profiled ACCs that were progressing under standard of care treatment. The profile consisted of a 50-gene next-generation sequencing panel, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and fluorescence in situ hybridization for several proteins or chromosomal aberrations...
February 14, 2018: Oncology
Kenichiro Kodama, Tomokazu Kawaoka, Hiroshi Aikata, Shinsuke Uchikawa, Yuno Nishida, Yuki Inagaki, Masahiro Hatooka, Kei Morio, Takashi Nakahara, Eisuke Murakami, Masataka Tsuge, Akira Hiramatsu, Michio Imamura, Yoshiiku Kawakami, Keiichi Masaki, Yoji Honda, Nami Mori, Shintaro Takaki, Keiji Tsuji, Hirotaka Kohno, Hiroshi Kohno, Takashi Moriya, Michihiro Nonaka, Hideyuki Hyogo, Yasuyuki Aisaka, Tomoki Kimura, Yasushi Nagata, Kazuaki Chayama
OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcome of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy (HAIC + RT) versus sorafenib monotherapy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and major portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). METHODS: This retrospective study included 108 HCC patients with PVTT of the main trunk or first branch and Child-Pugh ≤7. Sixty-eight received HAIC + RT and 40 received sorafenib. Patients were then assigned to the HAIC + RT group (n = 36) and the sorafenib group (n = 36) through case-control matching...
February 9, 2018: Oncology
Satoshi Igawa, Masayuki Shirasawa, Tomoya Fukui, Noriko Nishinarita, Hideyuki Sone, Takahiro Ozawa, Keisuke Sugita, Yuriko Okuma, Shintaro Kurahayashi, Taihei Ono, Ai Sugimoto, Hisashi Mitsufuji, Masaru Kubota, Masato Katagiri, Jiichiro Sasaki, Katsuhiko Naoki
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown amrubicin to be an effective first- or second-line treatment option for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). However, there have been few studies reporting the efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy after amrubicin therapy. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy as second-line treatment for elderly patients and those with SCLC with poor performance status (PS) previously treated with amrubicin monotherapy. METHODS: The records of SCLC patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy as a second-line chemotherapy after first-line treatment with amrubicin monotherapy were retrospectively reviewed and the treatment outcomes were evaluated...
January 31, 2018: Oncology
Soo Jung Lee, Jeeyeon Lee, Wan Wook Kim, Jin Hyang Jung, Ho Yong Park, Ji-Young Park, Yee Soo Chae
OBJECTIVE: A differential diagnostic role for plasma Del-1 was proposed for early breast cancer (EBC) in our previous study. We examined tumoral Del-1 expression and analyzed its prognostic impact among patients with EBC. METHODS: Del-1 mRNA expression was assessed in breast epithelial and cancer cells. Meanwhile, the tumoral expression of Del-1 was determined based on tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry results from 440 patients. RESULTS: While a high Del-1 mRNA expression was found in all the breast cancer cell lines, the expression was significantly higher in MDA-MB-231...
January 31, 2018: Oncology
Katherine E Cameron, Martha B Kole, Mary D Sammel, Jill P Ginsberg, Yasmin Gosiengfiao, Jennifer E Mersereau, H Irene Su, Clarisa R Gracia
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of menopausal symptoms in young cancer survivors immediately following the completion of chemotherapy. METHODS: This prospective cohort study followed 124 young females with a new diagnosis of cancer requiring chemotherapy to assess symptoms of menopause before treatment and immediately following chemotherapy. Symptoms were compared before and after treatment using the McNemar test and between cancer patients and 133 similar-aged healthy controls using Pearson χ2 and Fisher's exact tests...
January 26, 2018: Oncology
Fausto Petrelli, Raffaele Ardito, Antonio Ghidini, Alberto Zaniboni, Michele Ghidini, Sandro Barni, Gianluca Tomasello
BACKGROUND: Over the last few years only one large randomized phase III study has tried to prospectively assess the safety of cetuximab and panitumumab in a head-to-head comparison. Despite the similar overall toxicity profile, cetuximab and panitumumab retain peculiar safety characteristics that deserve to be deeply investigated. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review for randomized trials in PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and EMBASE using the terms ("cetuximab" or "panitumumab") AND ("colorectal cancer" OR "colorectal carcinoma")...
January 23, 2018: Oncology
Heidi Kemiläinen, Kaisa Huhtinen, Annika Auranen, Olli Carpén, Leena Strauss, Matti Poutanen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of hydroxysteroid (17β) dehydrogenase type 12 (HSD17B12), an enzyme involved in the synthesis of arachidonic acid (AA), in ovarian cancer, and to study its coexpression with its upstream and downstream enzymes in the AA pathway, namely elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 5 (ELOVL5) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples from benign and malignant ovarian neoplastic lesions were immunohistochemically stained with HSD17B12, ELOVL5, and COX-2...
January 12, 2018: Oncology
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