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Akira Yamamoto, Yuji Toiyama, Yoshinaga Okugawa, Susumu Saigusa, Shozo Ide, Hiroyuki Fujikawa, Junichiro Hiro, Hiromi Yasuda, Shigeyuki Yoshiyama, Masaki Ohi, Toshimitsu Araki, Masato Kusunoki
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate clinicopathological responses and oncological outcome in patients receiving short- or long-course chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and to assess the predictive factor for recurrence in each treatment. METHODS: A total of 118 rectal cancer patients receiving preoperative CRT were enrolled. Clinicopathological responses and oncological outcome in patients receiving short- or long-course CRT were investigated. RESULTS: Despite there being no significant differences in the prognosis of disease-free survival (DFS) based on TNM stage classification in patients receiving long-course CRT, patients with advanced stage demonstrated poor DFS after short-course CRT...
September 18, 2018: Oncology
Markus Glatzer, Cedric Michael Panje, Charlotta Sirén, Nikola Cihoric, Paul Martin Putora
Decision making is one of the most complex skills required of an oncologist and is affected by a broad range of parameters. For example, the wide variety of treatment options, with various outcomes, side-effects and costs present challenges in selecting the most appropriate treatment. Many treatment choices are affected by limited scientific evidence, availability of therapies or patient-specific factors. In the decision making process, standardized approaches can be useful, but a multitude of criteria are relevant to this process...
September 18, 2018: Oncology
Francesca De Felice, Mario Tombolini, Gessica Abate, Francesca Salerno, Nadia Bulzonetti, Vincenzo Tombolini, Daniela Musio
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of the pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (N/L) on non-human papilloma virus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: N/L was calculated by dividing the neutrophil count by the lymphocyte count. Survival outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic impact of N/L and other clinical factors on survival outcomes...
September 13, 2018: Oncology
Hiroshi Shiratori, Kazushige Kawai, Keisuke Hata, Toshiaki Tanaka, Takeshi Nishikawa, Kazuhito Sasaki, Manabu Kaneko, Koji Murono, Shigenobu Emoto, Teppei Morikawa, Masashi Fukayama, Hiroaki Nozawa
OBJECTIVE: Factors that predict rectal cancer metastasis to the lungs remain undefined. We investigated whether the lateral pelvic lymph node (LPN) sizes before and after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) correlate with lung metastasis after surgery for lower rectal cancer. METHODS: Two hundred and forty patients with lower rectal cancer who received preoperative CRT and curative surgery between 2003 and 2017 were examined. Computed tomography-measured LPN sizes before and after CRT were retrospectively determined by 1 colorectal surgeon who was blinded to the patients' clinical and pathological outcomes...
September 13, 2018: Oncology
Raffaele Addeo, Liliana Montella, Amerigo Mastella, Bruno Vincenzi, Salvatore Mazzone, Filippo Ricciardiello, Salvatore Del Prete
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates maintenance cetuximab administered every 2 weeks (q2w) after chemotherapy plus cetuximab as first-line treatment in a series of patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer and compares the results with those obtained in a historical control group of patients receiving weekly cetuximab. METHODS: After chemotherapy plus cetuximab as first-line treatment, in Group A, 36 patients enrolled from October 2016 to November 2017, received biweekly cetuximab, administered at 500 mg/m2...
September 5, 2018: Oncology
Diane Willis, Emmanuelle Samalin, Daniel Satgé
People with intellectual disabilities (PWIDs) are now living longer; thus, the incidence of cancer within this population is increasing. Available data indicate an excess of digestive tract cancers in PWIDs, but colorectal cancer has rarely been specifically studied and has not been extensively reviewed. This is despite risk factors such as being overweight, obesity, and lack of exercise being more frequent in PWIDs. In this article, we examine the literature on the frequency, screening, and treatment of colorectal cancer in PWIDs by as sessing 4 databases, Medline, EBSCO-CINHL, ASSIA, and PsychLIT, from 1970 to February 2017...
August 31, 2018: Oncology
Masaaki Motoori, Kazumasa Fujitani, Keijiro Sugimura, Hiroshi Miyata, Rie Nakatsuka, Yujiro Nishizawa, Hisateru Komatsu, Susumu Miyazaki, Takamichi Komori, Masaki Kashiwazaki, Kazuhiro Iwase, Masahiko Yano
OBJECTIVE: Neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery has been the standard treatment for advanced esophageal cancer. Severe toxicities may influence body composition, including skeletal muscle mass, and increase postoperative complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of sarcopenia, changes in body composition, and adverse events during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) on postoperative complications in esophageal cancer patients. METHODS: A total of 83 patients with esophageal cancer undergoing NACT followed by esophagectomy were included...
August 27, 2018: Oncology
Hiroki Ishihara, Satoshi Yamashita, Ryosuke Amano, Kenjiro Kimura, Kosei Hirakawa, Takako Ueda, Yoshiki Murakami, Akihiro Tamori, Kazunari Tanabe, Norifumi Kawada, Atsushi Hagihara, Toshikazu Ushijima
OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic cancers are characterized by dense stroma. To estimate the degree of interference by coexisting noncancer cells in molecular analyses, we aimed to develop a DNA methylation marker that assesses a cancer cell fraction in DNA samples. METHODS: The microarray data of 22 pancreatic cancer tissues from the The Cancer Genome Atlas database and 9 noncancer tissues were used for genome-wide screening. Thirty-one surgical tumor samples (10 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms [IPMNs] and 21 pancreatic cancers), 4 normal, and 26 nontumor samples were used for validation...
August 27, 2018: Oncology
Kazutake Okada, Sotaro Sadahiro, Lin Fung Chan, Takashi Ogimi, Hiroshi Miyakita, Gota Saito, Akira Tanaka, Toshiyuki Suzuki
OBJECTIVE: We previously reported that the largest diameter of retrieved lymph nodes (LNs) correlates with the number of LNs and is a prognostic factor in stage II colon cancer. We examine whether T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells in LNs are related to the number of LNs and survival. METHODS: The subjects comprised 320 patients with stage II colon cancer. An LN with the largest diameter was selected in each patient. The positive area ratios of cells that stained for CD3 and CD20, and the numbers of CD56-positive cells were measured...
August 23, 2018: Oncology
Sandra Santasusagna, Isabel Moreno, Alfons Navarro, Francisco Martinez Rodenas, Raquel Hernández, Joan J Castellano, Carmen Muñoz, Mariano Monzo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic potential of expression levels of miR-200 family members (miR-200a, miR-200b, miR-200c, miR-429, miR-141) in plasma and exosomes from the tumor-draining vein (mesenteric vein [MV]) and peripheral vein (PV) of colon cancer (CC) patients. METHODS: We analyzed the expression of miR-200 family members in matched samples of MV and PV plasma from 50 resected patients with CC and correlated our findings with overall survival (OS). We also examined the content of these microRNAs in MV and PV exosomes...
August 23, 2018: Oncology
Quoc Thang Pham, Naohide Oue, Yohei Sekino, Yuji Yamamoto, Yoshinori Shigematsu, Naoya Sakamoto, Kazuhiro Sentani, Naohiro Uraoka, Wataru Yasui
OBJECTIVE: Esophageal cancer is one of the deadliest cancers in the world, and the main subtype is esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), which comprises 90% of cases. Expression of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), an enzyme involved in tryptophan catabolism, has been linked with tumor survival and poor prognosis of brain and breast cancer. However, no studies have investigated the potential role of TDO2 in esophageal cancer. Here we explored the expression and biological significance of TDO2 in ESCC...
August 22, 2018: Oncology
Filippo Pietrantonio, Francesco Barretta, Valentina Fanotto, Se Hoon Park, Federica Morano, Giovanni Fucà, Monica Niger, Michele Prisciandaro, Nicola Silvestris, Francesca Bergamo, Lorenzo Fornaro, Roberto Bordonaro, Lorenza Rimassa, Daniele Santini, Gianluca Tomasello, Lorenzo Antonuzzo, Silvia Noventa, Antonio Avallone, Francesco Leone, Luca Faloppi, Samantha Di Donato, Filippo de Braud, Jeeyun Lee, Ferdinando De Vita, Maria Di Bartolomeo, Rosalba Miceli, Giuseppe Aprile
OBJECTIVE: We built and externally validated a nomogram for predicting the overall survival (OS) probability of advanced gastric cancer patients receiving second-line treatment. METHODS: The nomogram was developed on a set of 320 Italian patients and validated on two independent sets (295 Italian and 172 Korean patients). Putative prognostic variables were selected using a random forest model and included in the multivariable Cox model. The nomogram's performance was evaluated by calibration plot and C index...
August 21, 2018: Oncology
Nao Ito, Hiroshi Kawahira, Hirotaka Nakashima, Masaya Uesato, Hideaki Miyauchi, Hisahiro Matsubara
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to use convolutional neural network (CNN), a deep learning software, to assist in cT1b diagnosis. METHODS: This retrospective study used 190 colon lesion images from 41 cases of colon endoscopies performed between February 2015 and October 2016. Unenhanced colon endoscopy images (520 × 520 pixels) with white light were used. Images included 14 cTis cases with endoscopic resection and 14 cT1a and 13 cT1b cases with surgical resection...
August 21, 2018: Oncology
David Hsiehchen, Reuben Arasaratnam, Karuna Raj, Thomas Froehlich, Larry Anderson
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a fatal demyelinating disease associated with immunocompromised states. We describe a case of PML, which developed after prolonged ibrutinib use and a low burden of chronic lymphocytic leukemia disease. The delay in diagnosis of the patient despite multiple presentations to medical providers across different facilities suggests that there is a lack of awareness of PML as a potential complication of ibrutinib. Treatments with postulated anti-John Cunningham polyomavirus agents and IL-2 were ineffective, likely due to the advanced state of the patient's disease...
July 25, 2018: Oncology
Yuji Toiyama, Satoshi Oki, Yoshinaga Okugawa, Shozou Ide, Hiromi Yasuda, Hiroyuki Fujikawa, Shigeyuki Yoshiyama, Junichiro Hiro, Masaki Ohi, Yasuhiro Inoue, Toshimitsu Araki, Masato Kusunoki
OBJECTIVE: The serum albumin-globulin ratio (AGR) is associated with malignancy outcomes. However, among patients with rectal cancer (RC) who undergo neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT), the clinical and prognostic significance of the pretreatment AGR is unclear. METHODS: We investigated whether the pre-nCRT AGR can help predict oncological outcomes in patients with RC receiving nCRT. We analyzed 114 patients with RC who received nCRT followed by total mesorectal excision at our institution...
July 11, 2018: Oncology
Wolfram C M Dempke, Peter Uciechowski, Klaus Fenchel, Timothy Chevassut
Well-balanced levels of tyrosine phosphorylation, maintained by the reversible and coordinated actions of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), are critical for a wide range of cellular processes including growth, differentiation, metabolism, migration, and survival. Aberrant tyrosine phosphorylation, as a result of a perturbed balance between the activities of PTKs and PTPs, is linked to the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases, including cancer, suggesting that PTPs may be innovative molecular targets for cancer treatment...
June 20, 2018: Oncology
Guido Giordano, Antonio Febbraro, Erica Quaquarini, Anna Turletti, Rebecca Pedersini, Mimma Raffaele, Federica Villa, Rosalba Rossello
Liver metastases are very common in metastatic breast cancer (MBC); current treatments for these lesions are based on systemic chemotherapy, endocrine- or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy, and palliative therapy. However, no standard approach has been clearly identified for second and further chemotherapy lines in MBC patients. In the phase III clinical trial EMBRACE, eribulin was particularly effective in reducing liver lesions and improving both overall survival and progression-free survival in liver MBC patients...
2018: Oncology
Giovanna Catania, Paola Malaguti, Simona Gasparro, Francesco Cognetti, Antonello Vidiri, Alessandra Fabi
BACKGROUND: Brain metastases develop in approximately 10-25% of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and are associated with a very poor prognosis. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with MBC and associated lung, bone, liver, and brain metastases, who experienced a time to progression of several months with eribulin after whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), 2 lines of chemotherapy, and 1 line of hormonal therapy, maintaining a good toxicity profile...
2018: Oncology
Rita De Sanctis, Elisa Agostinetto, Giovanna Masci, Emanuela Ferraro, Agnese Losurdo, Alessandro Viganò, Lidija Antunovic, Monica Zuradelli, Rosalba Maria Concetta Torrisi, Armando Santoro
OBJECTIVES: Predictive factors of response to eribulin are lacking. We aimed to investigate the activity and safety of eribulin in a real-world population of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients and to identify possible predictive factors of progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 71 eribulin-treated MBC patients. Best response rate, PFS, and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated. The impact of different clinical-pathological factors on PFS was evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model...
2018: Oncology
Raffaele Nettuno, Carmine Menditto
Eribulin, a non-taxane inhibitor of microtubule dynamics, is approved for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer patients after progression with anthracyclines and taxanes. Nevertheless, to our knowledge, information on its use in dialytic patients is not available to date. This report describes the case of a chemo-pretreated dialytic woman with lung, bone, and liver metastasis from breast cancer, who experienced stable disease with a response < 20% with eribulin in fifth line after 3 hormonal lines and 1 chemotherapy line...
2018: Oncology
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