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Clinical Biochemistry

Gilmar de Souza Lacerda, Thalia Medeiros, Natalia Fonseca do Rosário, Regina Helena Saramago Peralta, Mauro Jorge Cabral-Castro, Eliane Bordalo Cathalá Esberard, Thaís Guaraná de Andrade, Analúcia Rampazzo Xavier, Andrea Alice Silva
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus is known to be highly dependent of lipid metabolism to infect new cells and replicate. AIMS: To investigate lipid and apolipoprotein profile in chronic HCV patients according to treatment response. METHODS: Patients recruited from the Hepatitis Treatment Center at Niteroi (Brazil) who received interferon (IFN)-based therapies were separated into two groups, those who achieved sustained virological response (SVR) or not (non-SVR)...
July 18, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Kristian Berge, Magnus Nakrem Lyngbakken, Gunnar Einvik, Jacob A Winther, Jon Brynildsen, Ragnhild Røysland, Heidi Strand, Geir Christensen, Arne Didrik Høiseth, Torbjørn Omland, Helge Røsjø
BACKGROUND: Procalcitonin (PCT) concentrations increase during bacterial infections and could improve diagnosis of pneumonia and risk stratification in patients with acute dyspnea. METHODS: PCT concentrations were measured <24 h of admission in 310 patients with acute dyspnea and compared to C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells (WBC) in the total cohort and the subset of patients with concomitant acute heart failure (HF). RESULTS: We diagnosed pneumonia in 16 out of 140 patients with acute HF (11%) and in 45 out of 170 patients with non-HF-related dyspnea (27%)...
July 17, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Celia Rodd, AbdulRazaq Sokoro, Lisa M Lix, Laurel Thorlacius, Michael Moffatt, Jim Slater, Eric Bohm
INTRODUCTION: Laboratories have noted marked increases in the analysis of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) in recent decades. Our objectives were to describe the annual number of 25(OH)D tests, examine the characteristics of those tested and those ordering them, and determine the proportion of potentially unnecessary tests in Manitoba. METHODS: Manitoba residents who were tested between 2006/7 and 2012/13 had their data anonymously linked to Manitoba Centre for Health Policy comprehensive administrative datasets...
July 16, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Mehmet Arif İçer, Makbule Gezmen-Karadağ
Osteopontin (OPN) is a highly phosphorylated glycophosphoprotein having acidic characteristics and rich in aspartic acid. OPN, a multifunctional protein, has important functions on cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes and kidney stone diseases and in the process of inflammation, biomineralization, cell viability and wound healing. Osteopontin acts on organisms by playing a key role in secretion levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin-3 (IL-3), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), integrin αvB3, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), macrophage and T cells, regulating the osteoclast function and affecting CD44 receptors...
July 9, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
F Khaki-Khatibi, F Mansouri, M Hajahmadipoorrafsanjani, M Ghojazadeh, R Gholikhani-Darbroud
OBJECTIVE: NSTEMI is a type of myocardial infarction (MI) causing partial but progressive occlusion of cardiac coronary vessels. The aim of this study was to investigate rs1137101 polymorphism of soluble leptin receptor (sLEPR) as well as circulatory selenium and copper levels in NSTEMI patients and their usefulness in analyzing susceptibility to NSTEMI. METHODS: We collected sera and whole blood of 80 NSTEMI patients and 80 healthy individuals using cTnI levels plus electrocardiography as the "gold standard"...
June 28, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Zahra Shajani-Yi, Abigail A Johnston, Samuel J Casella, Mark A Cervinski
OBJECTIVE: The case report details an unusual presentation of a teenage patient with hypophosphatasia. PATIENT AND METHODS: A 17 year-old female patient presented to endocrinology for the evaluation of fatigue and possible adrenal insufficiency. In the course of her clinical evaluation she was noted to have a low serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Relatively few conditions are associated with a low serum alkaline phosphatase including Wilson's disease, hypophosphatasia, pernicious anemia and untreated hypothyroidism...
June 27, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Panagiota S Filippou, Annie H Ren, Antoninus Soosaipillai, Michail-Dimitrios Papaioannou, Dimitrios Korbakis, Roaa Safar, Eleftherios P Diamandis, James Conner
BACKGROUND: Human tissue kallikrein 15 (KLK15) is the latest member of the kallikrein-related peptidase family. Little is known about the pathophysiological roles of KLK15. Previous studies implied a role of KLK15 in prostate cancer. METHODS: In the present study, we examined KLK15 protein expression using a new immunoassay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS: Highest KLK15 levels were detected in the testis and seminal fluid, whereas lower levels were observed in prostate and other tissues...
June 26, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Jonatan Blais, Sylvie Giroux, André Caron, Valérie Clément, Alexandre Dionne-Laporte, Loubna Jouan, Julie Gauthier, Tina MacLeod, Richard Moore, Jeremy Parker, Lucas Swanson, Yongjun Zhao, Guy Rouleau, Aly Karsan, Sylvie Langlois, François Rousseau
OBJECTIVES: Non-invasive prenatal aneuploidy testing (NIPT) by next-generation sequencing of circulating cell-free DNA in maternal plasma relies on chromosomal ratio (chrratio ) measurements to detect aneuploid values that depart from euploid ratios. Diagnostic performances are known to depend on the fraction of fetal DNA (FF) present in maternal plasma, although how this translates into specific quantitative changes in specificity/positive predictive values and which other variables might also be important is not well understood...
June 26, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Nareshni Moodley, Sudesh Hariparshad, Fozy Peer, Verena Gounden
BACKGROUND: The estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) plays a vital role in assessment of the renal function. This study evaluated the performance of the CKD-EPIcreat and MDRD equations in the South African Kwa-Zulu Natal population. OBJECTIVES: The objectives if the study were to compare the of CKD-EPIcreat and MDRD equations in the selected population to the measured GFR using Sodium Technetium-99 m-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetate clearance derived GFR...
June 22, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
María de Los Lirios Juliá Sanchis, Karen Vanesa Falcones Gracia, María Del Pino Navarro Téllez, María Victoria González Bueno, Enrique Ricart Álvarez, Ricardo Molina Gasset
OBJECTIVES: Primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia is an uncommon cause of endogenous Cushing's syndrome characterized by the presence of aberrant adrenal expression of ectopic receptors that regulate steroidogenesis by mimicking the events triggered by ACTH receptor activation. Receptors of this type have been described for several hormones. The aim of the study is to detect these receptors in two patients with ACTH-independent hypercortisolism by means of the application of a screening protocol...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Ásthildur Árnadóttir, Mikkel Schoos, Jacob Lønborg, Kiril Ahtarovski, Henning Kelbæk, Steffen Helqvist, Dan Høfsten, Peter Clemmensen, Thomas Engstrøm, Lars Nepper-Christensen, Niels Vejlstrup, Lars Køber, Kasper Iversen
BACKGROUND: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) is recommended in patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) within <12 h of symptom onset. However, patients-reported symptom duration is not always reliable. Cardiac specific troponin T (cTnT) and the endogenous stress marker copeptin have different temporal release patterns for myocardial infarction MI. We hypothesized that copeptin/troponin-ratio is associated to the duration of coronary occlusion and therefore inversely proportional to myocardial salvage...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Marilucy Lopez-Sublet, Lorenzo Caratti di Lanzacco, A H Jan Danser, Michel Lambert, Ghassan Elourimi, Alexandre Persu
Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) is a well-known zinc-metallopeptidase that converts angiotensin I to the potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II and degrades bradykinin, a powerful vasodilator, and as such plays a key role in the regulation of vascular tone and cardiac function. Increased circulating ACE (cACE) activity has been reported in multiple diseases, including but not limited to granulomatous disorders. Since 2001, genetic mutations leading to cACE elevation have also been described. This review takes advantage of the identification of a novel ACE mutation (25-IVS25 + 1G > A) in two Belgian pedigrees to summarize current knowledge about the differential diagnosis of cACE elevation, based on literature review and the experience of our centre...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Panagiota S Filippou, Annie H Ren, Sudarshan Bala, Michail-Dimitrios Papaioannou, Davor Brinc, Ioannis Prassas, Theano Karakosta, Eleftherios P Diamandis
OBJECTIVE: Human tissue kallikrein 15 (KLK15) is the last cloned member of the KLK-related gene family. Despite being implicated in multiple cancers, its pathophysiological role remains unknown. We aimed to biochemically characterize KLK15 and preliminarily study its role in cancer. DESIGN & METHODS: Recombinant KLK15 protein was produced, purified to homogeneity and quantified by mass spectrometry (parallel reaction monitoring analysis). We profiled the enzymatic activity of KLK15 using fluorogenic peptide substrates, and performed kinetic analysis to discover the cleavage sites...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
James P Corsetti, Tanzy M Love, Charles E Sparks, Stephan J L Bakker, Robin P F Dullaart
OBJECTIVE: Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (FD) or Type III hyperlipoproteinemia is closely associated with the ε2ε2 genotype of the common APOE polymorphism although not all ε2 homozygotes develop FD indicating that additional factors play a role including insulin resistance (IR). The current study was undertaken to explore relationships and influences among factors, especially IR, that might elucidate FD progression pathways. METHODS: Bayesian network (BN) modeling, a probabilistic graphical exploratory data analysis tool that portrays relationships and influences among variables as simple diagrams, was applied to 52 e2e2 subjects...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Giulia M Sancesario, Sergio Bernardini
Recent progresses in high-throughput technologies have led to a new scenario in investigating pathologies, named the "Omics era", which integrate the opportunity to collect large amounts of data and information at the molecular and protein levels together with the development of novel computational and statistical tools that are able to analyze and filter such data. Subsequently, advances in genotyping arrays, next generation sequencing, mass spectrometry technology, and bioinformatics allowed for the simultaneous large-scale study of thousands of genes (genomics), epigenetics factors (epigenomics), RNA (transcriptomics), metabolites (metabolomics) and proteins(proteomics), with the possibility of integrating multiple types of omics data ("multi -omics")...
June 16, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Shengwen Yang, Zhimin Liu, Shangyu Liu, Ligang Ding, Keping Chen, Wei Hua, Shu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Serum concentration of big endothelin-1 (ET-1) has prognostic significance in heart failure. However, its prognostic value in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) recipients has not been well-characterized. METHODS: A cohort of 367 consecutive patients who received CRT between January 2010 and December 2015 were enrolled, and categorized into three groups according to baseline big ET-1 tertiles: big ET-1 ≤ 0.34 pmol/L (N = 119), big ET-1 between 0...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
John G Toffaletti, Catherine Hammett-Stabler, Elizabeth A Handel
PURPOSE: The effect of eating meat on serum concentrations of creatinine has varied among previous reports, with some finding no effect and others finding 50-100% increases, which appears related to how the beef is cooked. For other analytes related to kidney function, urea is well known to increase following a protein meal, and the effect of eating meat on cystatin C concentrations has been studied once. METHODS: We had 32 participants eat a measured amount of cooked beef (5-6 or 10-12 oz; 142-170 or 284-340 g) and collected blood for measurements at 1 h before and immediately before eating beef, then at 1, 2, and 4 h after eating the beef...
May 26, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Georgia Papachristopoulou, Nikolaos Tsapralis, Kleita Michaelidou, Gerasimos Ardavanis-Loukeris, Ioannis Griniatsos, Andreas Scorilas, Maroulio Talieri
OBJECTIVES: As kallikrein-related peptidase 12 (KLK12) has been implicated in the cancer progression and alternative splicing plays significant role in this disease, the aim of this study was to examine the expression profile and the clinical impact of the KLK12 splice variants in breast cancer. DESIGN AND METHODS: Total RNA was isolated and reverse transcripted from 141 tissues. Afterwards, quantitative real-time PCR were conducted, followed by the performance of the comparative CT (2-ΔΔCT) method for relative quantification, whilst their correlation with the clinicopathological features of breast malignancies were assessed by statistical analysis...
May 25, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Christine L H Snozek, Erin J Kaleta, Paul J Jannetto, Jaclyn J Linkenmeyer, Tanya L Harnish, Jenise Stephen, Loralie J Langman
OBJECTIVE: False-positive urine drug of abuse screening (UDS) results can have serious implications in clinical practice, particularly when confirmation assay results are not immediately available to providers making medical decisions. Often it is not possible to identify the specific medication or other interfering compound that is responsible for the false-positive UDS result. Even when a potential interference is reported in the literature or package insert for one assay, the applicability to other UDS platforms/assays is often unknown...
May 23, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Laura Smy, Joely A Straseski
The measurement of estrogens is important for diagnosing and monitoring the health of women, men, and children. For example, for postmenopausal women or women undergoing treatment for breast cancer with aromatase inhibitors, the measurement of extremely low concentrations of estrogens in serum, especially estradiol, is problematic but essential for proper medical care. Achieving superb analytical sensitivity and specificity has been and continues to be a challenge for the clinical laboratory, but is a challenge that is being taken seriously...
May 22, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
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