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Radiologic Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29936954/multienergy-computed-tomography-a-new-horizon-in-computed-tomographic-imaging
#1
EDITORIAL
Savvas Nicolaou, Mohammed F Mohammed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29936953/dedications
#2
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29936952/strategies-to-improve-image-quality-on-dual-energy-computed-tomography
#3
REVIEW
Bhavik N Patel, Daniele Marin
Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) offers several advantages over conventional single-energy CT. These advantages include improved image quality, beam hardening correction, and metal artifact reduction. Additionally, DECT allows derivation of quantitative information through material decomposition analysis. Although newer third-generation rapid-kilovolt switching and dual-source DECT scanners have significantly improved in image quality and workflow compared with initial iterations and early scanners, sources of potential image quality degradation can exist secondary to the inherent capabilities in which the image acquisition occurs...
July 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29936951/pearls-pitfalls-and-problems-in-dual-energy-computed-tomography-imaging-of-the-body
#4
REVIEW
Jeremy R Wortman, Aaron D Sodickson
Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is an exciting technology that is increasing in routine use and has the potential for significant clinical impact. With the advancement of DECT, it is important for radiologists to be aware of potential challenges with DECT acquisition and postprocessing, and to have a basic knowledge of unique artifacts and diagnostic pitfalls that can occur when interpreting DECT scans and DECT postprocessed images. This article serves as a practical overview of potential problems and diagnostic pitfalls associated with DECT, and steps that can be taken to avoid them...
July 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29936950/dual-energy-computed-tomography-dose-reduction-series-reduction-and-contrast-load-reduction-in-dual-energy-computed-tomography
#5
REVIEW
Anushri Parakh, Francesco Macri, Dushyant Sahani
Evolution in computed tomography technology and image reconstruction have significantly changed practice. Dual energy computed tomography is being increasingly adopted owing to benefits of material separation, quantification, and improved contrast-to-noise ratio. The radiation dose can match that from single energy computed tomography. Spectral information derived from a polychromatic x-ray beam at different energies yields in image reconstructions that reduce the number of phases in a multiphasic examination and decrease the absolute amount of contrast media...
July 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29936949/advanced-musculoskeletal-applications-of-dual-energy-computed-tomography
#6
REVIEW
William D Wong, Samad Shah, Nicolas Murray, Frances Walstra, Faisal Khosa, Savvas Nicolaou
Dual-energy CT (DECT) is a rapidly growing tool in musculoskeletal radiology. It has been validated as an accurate imaging modality for the assessment of gout and bone marrow edema. DECT can be used to reduce metal artifacts. A few studies have shown its ability to calculate bone mineral density and examine pathologic states in tendons and ligaments. Its capacity for material separation suggests its emergence as a technique for arthrography, and for the evaluation of intervertebral discs and other inflammatory arthropathies...
July 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29936948/the-role-of-dual-energy-computed-tomography-in-assessment-of-abdominal-oncology-and-beyond
#7
REVIEW
Desiree E Morgan
The added value and strength of dual energy computed tomography for the evaluation of oncologic patients revolve around the use of lower energy reconstructed images and iodine material density images. Lower keV simulated monoenergetic images optimize soft tissue tumor to nontumoral attenuation differences and increase contrast to noise ratios to improve lesion detection. Iodine material density images or maps are helpful from a qualitative standpoint for image interpretation because they result in improved detection and characterization of tumors and lymph node involvement, and from a quantitative assessment by enabling interrogation of specific properties of tissues to predict and assess therapeutic response...
July 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29936947/practical-applications-of-dual-energy-computed-tomography-in-the-acute-abdomen
#8
REVIEW
Mohammed F Mohammed, Khaled Y Elbanna, Abdelazim M E Mohammed, Nicolas Murray, Fahad Azzumea, Ghassan Almazied, Savvas Nicolaou
With new developments in workflow automation, as well as technological advances enabling faster imaging with improved image quality and dose profile, dual-energy computed tomography is being used more often in the imaging of the acutely ill and injured patient. Its ability to identify iodine, differentiate it from hematoma or calcification, and improve contrast resolution has proven invaluable in the assessment of organ perfusion, organ injury, and inflammation.
July 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29936946/role-of-dual-energy-computed-tomography-in-thoracic-oncology
#9
REVIEW
Erika G Odisio, Mylene T Truong, Cihan Duran, Patricia M de Groot, Myrna C Godoy
Dual-energy CT (DECT) is an emerging technology that has potential to enhance diagnostic performance and radiologists' confidence in the evaluation of thoracic malignancies. DECT clinical applications include characterization of solitary pulmonary nodule, lung masses and mediastinal tumors. DECT-derived iodine uptake quantification may assist in characterization of tumor differentiation and gene expression. The use DECT in oncology has potential to improve lung cancer staging, therapy planning, and assessment of response to therapy as well as detection of incidental pulmonary embolism...
July 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29936945/dual-energy-computed-tomography-in-cardiothoracic-vascular-imaging
#10
REVIEW
Domenico De Santis, Marwen Eid, Carlo N De Cecco, Brian E Jacobs, Moritz H Albrecht, Akos Varga-Szemes, Christian Tesche, Damiano Caruso, Andrea Laghi, Uwe Joseph Schoepf
Dual energy computed tomography is becoming increasingly widespread in clinical practice. It can expand on the traditional density-based data achievable with single energy computed tomography by adding novel applications to help reach a more accurate diagnosis. The implementation of this technology in cardiothoracic vascular imaging allows for improved image contrast, metal artifact reduction, generation of virtual unenhanced images, virtual calcium subtraction techniques, cardiac and pulmonary perfusion evaluation, and plaque characterization...
July 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29936944/dual-energy-computed-tomography-image-acquisition-processing-and-workflow
#11
REVIEW
Alec J Megibow, Avinash Kambadakone, Lakshmi Ananthakrishnan
Dual energy computed tomography has been available for more than 10 years; however, it is currently on the cusp of widespread clinical use. The way dual energy data are acquired and assembled must be appreciated at the clinical level so that the various reconstruction types can extend its diagnostic power. The type of scanner that is present in a given practice dictates the way in which the dual energy data can be presented and used. This article compares and contrasts how dual source, rapid kV switching, and spectral technologies acquire and present dual energy reconstructions to practicing radiologists...
July 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29936943/dual-energy-computed-tomography-technology-and-challenges
#12
REVIEW
Bernhard Krauss
Dual-energy computed tomography (CT) is an imaging technique in which the same axial slice of the patient is scanned with two different X-ray spectra in order to extract chemical information or improve diagnostic image quality. This method is useful for the detection or visualization of heavy atoms like iodine but the differentiation of soft tissue types containing only light atoms is usually not markedly improved compared with single-energy CT. The commercially available dual-energy CT scanners use different technological approaches that differ in complexity and result quality...
July 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622081/imaging-of-lung-cancer-update-on-screening-staging-and-therapy
#13
EDITORIAL
Jeremy J Erasmus, Mylene T Truong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622080/targeted-therapy-and-immunotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Girish S Shroff, Patricia M de Groot, Vassiliki A Papadimitrakopoulou, Mylene T Truong, Brett W Carter
The treatment strategy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has evolved from empirical chemotherapy to a personalized approach based on histology and molecular markers of primary tumors. Targeted therapies are directed at the products of oncogenic driver mutations. Immunotherapy facilitates the recognition of cancer as foreign by the host immune system, stimulates the immune system, and alleviates the inhibition that allows the growth and spread of cancer cells. The authors describes the role of targeted therapy and immunotherapy in the treatment of NSCLC, patterns of disease present on imaging studies, and immune-related adverse events encountered with immunotherapy...
May 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622079/lung-cancer-posttreatment-imaging-radiation-therapy-and-imaging-findings
#15
REVIEW
Marcelo F Benveniste, James Welsh, Chitra Viswanathan, Girish S Shroff, Sonia L Betancourt Cuellar, Brett W Carter, Edith M Marom
In this review, we discuss the different radiation delivery techniques available to treat non-small cell lung cancer, typical radiologic manifestations of conventional radiotherapy, and different patterns of lung injury and temporal evolution of the newer radiotherapy techniques. More sophisticated techniques include intensity-modulated radiotherapy, stereotactic body radiotherapy, proton therapy, and respiration-correlated computed tomography or 4-dimensional computed tomography for radiotherapy planning. Knowledge of the radiation treatment plan and technique, the completion date of radiotherapy, and the temporal evolution of radiation-induced lung injury is important to identify expected manifestations of radiation-induced lung injury and differentiate them from tumor recurrence or infection...
May 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622078/update-of-mr-imaging-for-evaluation-of-lung-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Mario Ciliberto, Yuji Kishida, Shinichiro Seki, Takeshi Yoshikawa, Yoshiharu Ohno
Since MR imaging was introduced for the assessment of thoracic and lung diseases, various limitations have hindered its widespread adoption in clinical practice. Since 2000, various techniques have been developed that have demonstrated the usefulness of MR imaging for lung cancer evaluation, and it is now reimbursed by health insurance companies in many countries. This article reviews recent advances in lung MR imaging, focusing on its use for lung cancer evaluation, especially with regard to pulmonary nodule detection, pulmonary nodule and mass assessment, lung cancer staging and detection of recurrence, postoperative lung function prediction, and therapeutic response evaluation and prediction...
May 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622077/dilemmas-in-lung-cancer-staging
#17
REVIEW
Ioannis Vlahos
The advent of the 8th edition of the lung cancer staging system reflects a further meticulous evidence-based advance in the stratification of the survival of patients with lung cancer. Although addressing many limitations of earlier staging systems, several limitations in staging remain. This article reviews from a radiological perspective the limitations of the current staging system, highlighting the process of TNM restructuring, the residual issues with regards to the assignment of T, N, M descriptors, and their associated stage groupings and how these dilemmas impact guidance of multidisciplinary teams taking care of patients with lung cancer...
May 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622076/staging-lung-cancer-metastasis
#18
REVIEW
Girish S Shroff, Chitra Viswanathan, Brett W Carter, Marcelo F Benveniste, Mylene T Truong, Bradley S Sabloff
The updated eighth edition of the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification for lung cancer includes revisions to T and M descriptors. In terms of the M descriptor, the classification of intrathoracic metastatic disease as M1a is unchanged from TNM-7. Extrathoracic metastatic disease, which was classified as M1b in TNM-7, is now subdivided into M1b (single metastasis, single organ) and M1c (multiple metastases in one or multiple organs) descriptors. In this article, the rationale for changes in the M descriptors, the utility of preoperative staging with PET/computed tomography, and the treatment options available for patients with oligometastatic disease are discussed...
May 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622075/staging-lung-cancer-regional-lymph-node-classification
#19
REVIEW
Ahmed H El-Sherief, Charles T Lau, Brett W Carter, Carol C Wu
This article reviews regional lymph node assessment in lung cancer. In the absence of a distant metastasis, the absence or location of lung cancer spread to a regional mediastinal lymph node affects treatment options and prognosis. Regional lymph node maps have been created to standardize assessment of the N descriptor. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer lymph node map is used for the standardization of N descriptor assessment. CT, PET/CT with fluorodeoxyglucose, endobronchial ultrasound-guided and/or esophageal ultrasound-guided biopsy, and mediastinoscopy are common modalities used to determine the N descriptor...
May 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622074/tumor-staging-of-lung-cancer-essential-concepts-for-the-radiologist
#20
REVIEW
Constantine A Raptis, Caroline L Robb, Sanjeev Bhalla
Several important modifications have been proposed for the tumor (T) descriptor for lung cancers. New size cutoffs have been determined and there are new T descriptors for adenocarcinoma in situ, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, and part-solid adenocarcinomas with a solid component > 0.5 cm to 3 cm (T1a, T1b, T1c). There are also recommendations for multifocal adenocarcinoma, which are classified by the lesion with the highest level T descriptor, and the number of lesions is indicated. Knowledge of these changes is important in the appropriate clinical staging of patients with lung cancer...
May 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
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