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Radiologic Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126224/genitourinary-imaging-an-update
#1
EDITORIAL
Andrew B Rosenkrantz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126223/the-evidence-for-and-against-corticosteroid-prophylaxis-in-at-risk-patients
#2
REVIEW
Matthew S Davenport, Richard H Cohan
Corticosteroid prophylaxis is commonly used for the prevention of allergiclike reactions to iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast material in patients at highest risk of an allergiclike reaction. However, it has only a weak mitigating effect on allergiclike reactions, probably does not affect the severity of subsequent reactions, and does not prevent all reactions. Breakthrough reactions occur, are usually the same severity as the index reaction, and can occasionally be life threatening. Premedication of inpatients is likely associated with substantial cost and harm because of hospital length-of-stay prolongation; these indirect effects may exceed the benefits of premedication in this population...
March 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126222/diffusion-weighted-genitourinary-imaging
#3
REVIEW
Martin H Maurer, Kirsi Hannele Härmä, Harriet Thoeny
This review article aims to provide an overview on of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MR imaging) in the urogenital tract. Compared with conventional cross-sectional imaging methods, the additional value of DW-MR imaging in the detection and further characterization of benign and malignant lesions of the kidneys, bladder, prostate, and pelvic lymph nodes is discussed as well as the role of DW-MR imaging in the evaluation of treatment response.
March 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126221/dual-energy-computed-tomography-in-genitourinary-imaging
#4
REVIEW
Achille Mileto, Daniele Marin
Reignited by innovations in scanner engineering and software design, dual-energy computed tomography (CT) has come back into the clinical radiology arena in the last decade. Possibilities for noninvasive in vivo characterization of genitourinary disease, especially for renal stones and renal masses, have become the pinnacle offerings of dual-energy CT for body imaging in clinical practice. This article renders a state-of-the-art review on clinical applications of dual-energy CT in genitourinary imaging.
March 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126220/image-guided-renal-interventions
#5
REVIEW
Sharath K Bhagavatula, Paul B Shyn
Image-guided renal biopsies have an increasing role in clinical practice. Renal mass and renal parenchymal biopsy indications, techniques, and other clinical considerations are reviewed in this article. Image-guided renal mass ablation shows significant promise and increasing clinical utility as more studies demonstrate its safety and efficacy. Renal mass ablation indications, techniques, and other considerations are also reviewed.
March 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126219/imaging-of-the-pediatric-urinary-system
#6
REVIEW
Ellen M Chung, Karl A Soderlund, Kimberly E Fagen
Recent advances in pediatric urinary tract imaging include development of alternative imaging methods without use of ionizing radiation; evolving understanding of the relationship of urinary tract infection, vesicoureteral reflux, and renal scarring, including the important role of dysfunctional voiding; development of a consensus nomenclature and risk-based classification for fetal and antenatal urinary tract dilation; advances in the understanding of sporadic and inherited renal cystic disease; and a proposed modification of the Bosniak criteria for distinguishing complex renal cysts from cystic renal tumors in children...
March 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126218/imaging-genitourinary-trauma
#7
REVIEW
Bari Dane, Alexander B Baxter, Mark P Bernstein
Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has become a critical tool in the evaluation of the trauma patient. MDCT can quickly and accurately assess trauma patients for renal, ureteral, and bladder injuries. Moreover, CT guides clinical management triaging patients to those requiring discharge, observation, angioembolization, and surgery. Recognition of urinary tract trauma on initial scan acquisition should prompt delayed excretory phase imaging to identify urine leaks. Urethral and testicular trauma are imaged with retrograde urethrography and sonography, respectively...
March 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126217/prostate-mr-imaging-an-update
#8
REVIEW
Hiram Shaish, Samir S Taneja, Andrew B Rosenkrantz
Improvements in prostate MR imaging techniques and the introduction of MR imaging-targeted biopsies have had central roles in prostate cancer (PCa) management. The role of MR imaging has progressed from largely staging patients with biopsy-proven PCa to detecting, characterizing, and guiding the biopsy of suspected PCa. These diagnostic advances, combined with improved therapeutic interventions, have led to a more sophisticated and individually tailored approach to patients' unique PCa profile. This review discusses the MR imaging, a standardized reporting scheme, and the role of fusion-targeted prostate biopsy...
March 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126216/practical-approach-to-adrenal-imaging
#9
REVIEW
Khaled M Elsayes, Sally Emad-Eldin, Ajaykumar C Morani, Corey T Jensen
Various pathologies can affect the adrenal gland. Noninvasive cross-sectional imaging is used for evaluating adrenal masses. Accurate diagnosis of adrenal lesions is critical, especially in cancer patients; the presence of adrenal metastasis changes prognosis and treatment. Characterization of adrenal lesions predominantly relies on morphologic and physiologic features to enable correct diagnosis and management. Key diagnostic features to differentiate benign and malignant adrenal lesions include presence/absence of intracytoplasmic lipid, fat cells, hemorrhage, calcification, or necrosis and locoregional and distant disease; enhancement pattern and washout values; and lesion size and stability...
March 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126215/imaging-of-cystic-renal-masses
#10
REVIEW
Nicole M Hindman
This article provides an updated review on the imaging evaluation of cystic renal masses with focus on the Bosniak classification system, discusses current imaging techniques for evaluating these lesions, reviews benign and malignant etiologies of cystic renal masses, describes pitfalls in the evaluation of these lesions, and discusses current and future directions in the management of cystic renal masses.
March 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126214/imaging-of-solid-renal-masses
#11
REVIEW
Fernando U Kay, Ivan Pedrosa
Detection of solid renal masses has increased, although it has not resulted in significant mortality reduction from renal cell carcinoma. Efforts for improved lesion characterization have been pursued and incorporated in management algorithms, in order to distinguish clinically significant tumors from favorable or benign conditions. Concurrently, imaging methods have produced evidence supporting their role as useful tools not only in lesion detection but also characterization. In addition, newer modalities, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, and advanced applications of MR imaging, are being investigated...
March 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126213/upper-and-lower-tract-urothelial-imaging-using-computed-tomography-urography
#12
REVIEW
Siva P Raman, Elliot K Fishman
Computed tomography (CT) urography is the best noninvasive method of evaluating the upper urinary tract for urothelial malignancies. However, the utility of CT urography is heavily contingent on the use of proper image acquisition protocols. This article focuses on the appropriate protocols for optimizing CT urography acquisitions, including contrast administration and the timing of imaging acquisitions, as well as the use of ancillary techniques to increase collecting system distention. In addition, imaging findings are discussed that should raise concern for urothelial carcinoma at each of the 3 segments of the urinary tract: the intrarenal collecting systems, ureters, and bladder...
March 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126212/imaging-in-urolithiasis
#13
REVIEW
William R Masch, Kevin C Cronin, Dushyant V Sahani, Avinash Kambadakone
Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of urolithiasis as well as its pre-treatment planning and post-treatment follow-up. Proper imaging technique is essential to provide appropriate clinical care to affected patients. This article reviews the clinically relevant imaging findings most likely to influence management decisions.
March 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890191/skull-base-imaging-in-the-era-of-minimal-access-surgery
#14
EDITORIAL
Nafi Aygun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890190/imaging-of-the-sella-and-parasellar-region
#15
REVIEW
John L Go, Anandh G Rajamohan
The sella and parasellar region, found between the anterior and central skull base, represents the central aspect of the skull base. Given the location of the pituitary gland in this location, small lesions in this location may have major physiologic effects on the human body. This article reviews the anatomy, development, and pathologic processes that may involve this region.
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890189/diplopia-what-to-double-check-in-radiographic-imaging-of-double-vision
#16
REVIEW
Claudia F E Kirsch, Karen Black
When patients see double with both eyes open, known as "binocular diplopia," this may be a harbinger of underlying life-threatening causes. This article presents pertinent anatomy, critical abnormality, and radiographic features that should be double checked for in diplopia. Key areas requiring a double check using the acronym VISION include Vascular, Infectious and Inflammatory, the Scalp for giant cell arteritis, Sphenoid and Skull base in trauma, Increased intracranial pressure (pseudotumor cerebri), Onset of new headaches or psychosis, and Neoplasm...
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890188/imaging-of-the-central-skull-base
#17
REVIEW
Lindsey M Conley, C Douglas Phillips
The skull base is a complex bony and soft tissue interface that is divided anatomically into compartments. This article will focus specifically on the central skull base, which has a complex embryologic development and anatomy. Multiple entities from notochord remnants, neoplasm, infection, and other abnormalities may occur, and imaging is critical for depicting skull base pathology.
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890187/imaging-of-paranasal-sinuses-and-anterior-skull-base-and-relevant-anatomic-variations
#18
REVIEW
Estushi Iida, Yoshimi Anzai
This article reviews the normal anatomy and variants of the anterior skull base and sinonasal cavities that are relevant to endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery. Radiologists should be aware of sinonasal anatomy that can be impediments to surgical access and increase risk of vascular or cranial nerve injury during surgery. Imaging features of the paranasal sinuses and anterior skull base pathologies are also discussed.
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890186/advanced-imaging-techniques-of-the-skull-base
#19
REVIEW
Elliot Dickerson, Ashok Srinivasan
Although conventional imaging can depict the anatomy of the head and neck with exquisite detail, it often falls short in its ability to characterize tissue physiology and abnormality; this is especially seen in the posttherapy setting where benign posttreatment changes and recurrent tumors can show intense postcontrast enhancement and similar features on conventional imaging. Advanced imaging can evaluate tissue physiology and, along with conventional imaging, provide a more accurate assessment of the skull base...
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890185/high-resolution-three-dimensional-mr-imaging-of-the-skull-base-compartments-boundaries-and-critical-structures
#20
REVIEW
Ari Meir Blitz, Nafi Aygun, Daniel A Herzka, Masaru Ishii, Gary L Gallia
High-resolution 3D MRI of the skull base allows for a more detailed and accurate assessment of normal anatomic structures as well as the location and extent of skull base pathologies than has previously been possible. This article describes the techniques employed for high-resolution skull base MRI including pre- and post-contrast constructive interference in the steady state (CISS) imaging and their utility for evaluation of the many small structures of the skull base, focusing on those regions and concepts most pertinent to localization of cranial nerve palsies and in providing pre-operative guidance and post-operative assessment...
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
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