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Radiologic Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157552/oral-and-maxillofacial-radiology
#1
EDITORIAL
Dania Tamimi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157551/fibro-osseous-and-other-lesions-of-bone-in-the-jaws
#2
REVIEW
Mansur Ahmad, Laurence Gaalaas
Fibroosseous lesions in the jaws have similar histologic and radiographic features. Despite their similarity, management varies significantly. In this article, common fibroosseous lesions and key radiographic features are described. Many of the fibroosseous lesions are diagnosed radiographically, without performing histologic examinations. For some of the fibroosseous lesions, for example, periapical osseous dysplasia, histologic examination is contraindicated. Cherubism and fibrous dysplasia have specific radiographic findings; these conditions can be diagnosed radiographically...
January 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157550/imaging-of-radiation-and-medication-related-osteonecrosis
#3
REVIEW
Sanjay M Mallya, Sotirios Tetradis
Osteonecrosis is the devitalization of bone and consequent lytic changes. In the jaws, osteonecrosis is a pathologic consequence of prior radiation therapy (osteoradionecrosis) or certain antiresorptive medications. Herein, we review the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of these lesions, and describe the spectrum of radiologic findings in these conditions, and highlight the similarities and differences between the imaging appearances of these 2 entities.
January 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157549/malignant-lesions-in-the-dentomaxillofacial-complex
#4
REVIEW
Susan M White
Malignancies in the maxillofacial region are rare but comprise a broad spectrum of lesions. Given the potential for malignancies to mimic dental/sinus/temporomandibular joint pathology or remain asymptomatic, the judicious radiologist will be familiar with the initial and unique malignant changes affecting the dentition, periodontium, and supporting osseous structures on conventional film, dental, and sinus imaging. This article is meant to serve as a complement to the many excellent texts dedicated to advanced imaging techniques for the staging of known malignancies...
January 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157548/imaging-of-benign-odontogenic-lesions
#5
REVIEW
William C Scarfe, Shiva Toghyani, Bruno Azevedo
Numerous benign cysts or solid tumors may present in the jaws. These arise from tooth-forming tissues in the dental alveolus or from nonodontogenic tissues in the basal bone of the mandible and maxilla. Radiologists provide 2 deliverables to assist in diagnosis and management: (1) appropriately formatted images demonstrating the location and extent of the lesion and (2) interpretive reports highlighting specific radiologic findings and an impression providing a radiologic differential diagnosis. This article provides guidance on essential image protocols for planning treatments, a radiologic differential diagnostic algorithm based on location and pattern recognition, and a summary of the main features of benign odontogenic lesions...
January 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157547/imaging-of-odontogenic-infections
#6
REVIEW
Shaza Mardini, Anita Gohel
Odontogenic infections represent a common clinical problem in patients of all ages. The presence of teeth enables the direct spread of inflammatory products from dental caries, trauma, and/or periodontal disease into the maxilla and mandible. The radiographic changes seen depend on the type and duration of the inflammatory process and host body response. Imaging plays a central role in identifying the source of infection and the extent of the disease spread and in detecting any complications. Many different imaging modalities can be used...
January 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157546/radiographic-evaluation-of-sleep-disordered-breathing
#7
REVIEW
Douglas D Steffy, Clarence S Tang
Sleep-disordered breathing and obstructive sleep apnea are becoming more prevalent in today's population. Management of these conditions can be difficult and this diagnosis is often overlooked by clinicians. An increased awareness and understanding of craniofacial structures and anatomic relationships can aid the clinician in identifying at-risk patients, and improve treatment outcomes. An airway review of 3-dimensional computed tomography imaging can identify (1) anatomic variations that contribute to obstructive airway complications, and (2) measurable dimensions to identify at risk patients...
January 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157545/temporomandibular-joint-imaging
#8
REVIEW
Dania Tamimi, Elnaz Jalali, David Hatcher
The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is an anatomically and biomechanically complex structure. Understanding how this structure grows and functions is essential to accurate radiographic evaluation. This article discusses the anatomy, function, and growth and development of the TMJ and how growth changes can affect the morphology of the craniofacial structures. Accordingly, the radiographic appearance of the entities that may alter the TMJ are discussed, including developmental, degenerative, inflammatory, and traumatic changes...
January 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157544/radiology-of-implant-dentistry
#9
REVIEW
Asma'a Abdurrahman Al-Ekrish
The article presents an overview of the goal of imaging at each stage of implant therapy and the usefulness and limitations of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in achieving those goals. Various MDCT protocols of use in implant imaging also are presented, with an emphasis on dose reduction and the use of iterative reconstruction techniques. Also discussed are options for viewing and analysis of CT images, issues related to appropriate image reformatting and interpretation, interactive treatment planning, and transfer of information from the images to the surgical field during implant surgery using surgical guides and CT-guided navigation systems...
January 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157543/oral-and-maxillofacial-anatomy
#10
REVIEW
Mitra Sadrameli, Mel Mupparapu
This article deals with identification and descriptions of intraoral and extraoral anatomy of the dental and maxillofacial structures. The anatomic landmarks are highlighted and described based on their radiographic appearance and their clinical significance is provided. Cone beam CT-based images are described in detail using the multiplanar reconstructions. The skull views are depicted via line diagrams in addition to their normal radiographic appearance to make identification of anatomic structures easier for clinicians...
January 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157542/alterations-in-tooth-structure-and-associated-systemic-conditions
#11
REVIEW
Farah Masood, Erika Benavides
A variety of factors can affect the normal development of tissues and may lead to variation in the normal compliment of teeth and development of alterations in the shape and size of teeth. These anomalies can be congenital, developmental, or acquired. Dental anomalies can present as isolated traits or be associated with systemic conditions and syndromes for which early diagnosis and genetic testing may result in better treatment outcomes and quality of life. Dentists play an essential role in the multidisciplinary management of these abnormalities...
January 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157541/imaging-of-dentoalveolar-and-jaw-trauma
#12
REVIEW
Reyhaneh Alimohammadi
Prior to the invention of cone beam CT, use of 2-D plain film imaging for trauma involving the mandible was common practice, with CT imaging opted for in cases of more complex situations, especially in the maxilla and related structures. Cone beam CT has emerged as a reasonable and reliable alternative considering radiation dosage, image quality, and comfort for the patient. This article presents an overview of the patterns of dental and maxillofacial fractures using conventional and advanced imaging techniques illustrated with multiple clinical examples selected from the author's oral and maxillofacial radiology practice database...
January 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157540/dental-anatomy-and-nomenclature-for-the-radiologist
#13
REVIEW
Mohammed Abbas Husain
Head and neck imaging studies frequently encompass the oral cavity and human dentition. Given the relatively wide prevalence of dental disease, the likelihood of detecting incidental dental pathology is high. This article provides an overview of dental terminology, anatomy, restorations, and associated computed tomography imaging artifacts necessary to more effectively interpret and communicate findings related to teeth.
January 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991568/imaging-and-cancer-screening
#14
EDITORIAL
Dushyant V Sahani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991567/imaging-and-screening-of-hereditary-cancer-syndromes
#15
REVIEW
Venkata S Katabathina, Christine O Menias, Srinivasa R Prasad
There is a wide spectrum of mendelian disorders that predispose patients to an increased risk of benign as well as malignant tumors. Hereditary cancer syndromes are characterized by the early onset of diverse, frequently advanced malignancies in specific organ systems in multiple family members, posing significant challenges to diagnosis and management. A better understanding of the genetic abnormalities and pathophysiology that underlie these disorders has led to contemporary paradigms to screen, allowing early diagnosis, and has improved targeted therapies to aid in management...
November 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991566/imaging-and-screening-of-cancer-of-the-small-bowel
#16
REVIEW
Jin Sil Kim, Seong Ho Park, Stephanie Hansel, Joel G Fletcher
Delayed diagnosis of small bowel cancers frequently occurs and may arise because of many factors, including low incidence of disease, difficult endoscopic access, lack of mucosal mass or abnormality, subtle radiologic features, and low index of clinical suspicion. As small bowel cancers are rare and their causes are largely unknown, routine population-based screening of asymptomatic patients to find precursor lesions or early cancers is ineffective. However, targeted screening/surveillance strategies are used in specific at-risk and symptomatic patient populations...
November 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991565/imaging-and-screening-of-thyroid-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Qian Li, Xueying Lin, Yuhong Shao, Feixiang Xiang, Anthony E Samir
Ultrasound is the first-line diagnostic tool for diagnosis of thyroid diseases. The low aggressiveness of many thyroid cancers coupled with high sensitivity of sonography can lead to cancer diagnosis and treatment with no effect on outcomes. Ultrasound is recognized as the most important driver of thyroid cancer overdiagnosis. Ultrasound should not be used as a general screening tool and should be reserved for patients at high risk of thyroid cancer and in the diagnostic management of incidentally discovered thyroid nodules...
November 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991564/imaging-and-screening-of-ovarian-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Kathryn P Lowry, Susanna I Lee
Ovarian cancer has a high mortality, attributed to its typically advanced stage at detection. Despite much effort to identify an effective approach for ovarian cancer screening, to date no screening test has proven to reduce ovarian cancer mortality. The natural history of ovarian cancer is reviewed as well as data from the largest trials of ovarian cancer screening. Currently, no North American society recommends routine ovarian cancer screening; some societies recommend consideration of screening with pelvic ultrasound and CA-125 in women at high risk, although its use in this setting is not supported by data demonstrating a mortality benefit...
November 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991563/imaging-and-screening-of-kidney-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Alberto Diaz de Leon, Ivan Pedrosa
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) exhibits a diverse and heterogeneous disease spectrum, but insight into its molecular biology has provided an improved understanding of potential risk factors, oncologic behavior, and imaging features. Computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging may allow the identification and preoperative subtyping of RCC and assessment of a response to various therapies. Active surveillance is a viable management option in some patients and has provided further insight into the natural history of RCC, including the favorable prognosis of cystic neoplasms...
November 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991562/imaging-and-screening-of-pancreatic-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Kristine S Burk, Grace C Lo, Michael S Gee, Dushyant V Sahani
Given the low disease prevalence of both exocrine and endocrine cancers in the general population, screening is not recommended. However, in as many as 25% of cases there is a precursor lesion or an identifiable genetic predisposition. For these patients at increased risk, screening with imaging is recommended. Multidetector computed tomography, MR imaging or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and endoscopic ultrasound examination can be used as screening modalities. Recent advances in dual energy CT and total body MR imaging have increased the suitability of these noninvasive modalities as first-line imaging screening options...
November 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
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