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Radiologic Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601184/practical-pediatric-imaging
#1
EDITORIAL
Edward Y Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601183/spectrum-of-syndromic-disorders-associated-with-pediatric-tumors-evolving-role-of-practical-imaging-assessment
#2
REVIEW
Shreya Sood, Anastasia L Hryhorczuk, Julia Rissmiller, Edward Y Lee
Although pediatric tumors are largely sporadic in cause, continued advancements in science have elucidated a growing body of tumors that are associated with syndromes. Early identification of these syndromic disorders associated with developing tumors can alter the course of disease and potentially save lives. Medical imaging has a pivotal role in screening surveillance, diagnosis, and management of these tumors. Understanding characteristic manifestations of these syndromes is important to optimize image utilization...
July 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601182/practical-imaging-evaluation-of-foreign-bodies-in-children-an-update
#3
REVIEW
Bernard F Laya, Ricardo Restrepo, Edward Y Lee
Foreign bodies (FBs) may be unintentionally ingested, inhaled, or inserted into a body cavity or tissue, or may be due to traumatic or iatrogenic injury. They are frequently detected in clinical practice and emergency rooms. Early detection and prompt management are mandatory to avoid severe and life-threatening complications. Imaging plays an important role in confirming the presence and characterization of the FB, and its relationship with any affected organs. This article reviews commonly encountered FBs with regard to incidence, risk factors, mechanisms of entry, clinical presentation, associated complications, and typical imaging appearance in children...
July 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601181/practical-indication-based-pediatric-nuclear-medicine-studies-update-and-review
#4
REVIEW
Neha S Kwatra, Asha Sarma, Edward Y Lee
Pediatric nuclear medicine imaging presents unique challenges and requires a thorough understanding of the patients' developmental stages and physiology to optimize study protocols. This article provides an overview of the current practice of diagnostic pediatric nuclear medicine, including the common clinical applications and imaging protocol considerations.
July 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601180/musculoskeletal-traumatic-injuries-in-children-characteristic-imaging-findings-and-mimickers
#5
REVIEW
Victor M Ho-Fung, Matthew A Zapala, Edward Y Lee
Musculoskeletal traumatic injuries in children demonstrate characteristic imaging findings. The physis is the most susceptible structure to traumatic injury. The periosteum in children plays a key role in rapid bone healing and stability. The main complications of fractures in children are premature physeal closure, potential limb length discrepancy, and angular deformities. Understanding the normal bone growth, healing, and complications of pediatric fractures is crucial for appropriate imaging diagnosis. This article discusses currently available imaging modalities with up-to-date techniques, underlying mechanisms, and characteristic imaging findings of musculoskeletal traumatic injuries and mimickers encountered in daily clinical practice...
July 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601179/pediatric-urinary-system-neoplasms-an-overview-and-update
#6
REVIEW
Michael George, Jeannette M Perez-Rosello, Ali Yikilmaz, Edward Y Lee
Pediatric urinary system neoplasms are a diverse group of tumors that frequently overlap in their clinical and radiologic features. By contrast, the histopathologic classification and treatment of these entities have become increasingly refined, resulting in improved outcomes, with the overall survival of Wilms tumors now exceeding 90%. Significantly, many contemporary protocols rely on radiologic diagnosis in the absence of tissue confirmation. This review article provides up-to-date clinical, epidemiologic, and imaging findings of pediatric urinary system neoplasms and their mimics frequently encountered in daily clinical practice...
July 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601178/pediatric-hepatobiliary-neoplasms-an-overview-and-update
#7
REVIEW
Ali Yikilmaz, Michael George, Edward Y Lee
Recent developments regarding the treatment of pediatric liver tumors have significantly improved patient care. Stimulated by collaboration between international pediatric groups, advances have been made in surgical techniques, transplantation options, and chemotherapy schemas. In light of this progress, clear understanding of the state-of-the-art imaging evaluation of hepatobiliary tumors has become even more integral to the effective management of children with hepatic neoplasms. The unique imaging features of hepatic neoplasms in the pediatric population, when coupled with supportive demographic data and laboratory findings, can lead to accurate diagnosis and proper treatment of hepatobiliary tumors...
July 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601177/neonatal-gastrointestinal-emergencies-step-by-step-approach
#8
REVIEW
A Luana Stanescu, Mark C Liszewski, Edward Y Lee, Grace S Phillips
Neonatal gastrointestinal emergencies are caused by a diverse set of primarily congenital entities that may affect the upper or lower gastrointestinal tracts, and occasionally both. Although a diagnosis can sometimes be made on prenatal imaging, more commonly patients present after birth and require prompt diagnosis to facilitate timely treatment. Imaging plays a central role in the accurate diagnosis of these entities and typically consists of an initial abdominal series followed by either an upper gastrointestinal series or contrast enema...
July 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601176/cyanotic-congenital-heart-disease-essential-primer-for-the-practicing-radiologist
#9
REVIEW
Evan J Zucker, Jeffrey L Koning, Edward Y Lee
The cyanotic congenital heart diseases are a rare and heterogeneous group of disorders, often requiring urgent neonatal management. Although echocardiography is the mainstay for imaging, continued technological advances have expanded the role for computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, helping to limit invasive cardiac catheterization. In this article, the authors review the broad spectrum of cyanotic congenital heart disease, focusing on the utility of advanced noninvasive imaging modalities while highlighting key clinical features and management considerations...
July 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601175/pediatric-thoracic-anatomic-variants-what-radiologists-need-to-know
#10
REVIEW
Abbey J Winant, Joo Cho, Tahiya Salem Alyafei, Edward Y Lee
Anatomic variants are common incidental findings in pediatric chest imaging and can be mistaken for true underlying pathology, sometimes resulting in unnecessary additional imaging evaluation or invasive procedures. Clear understanding of the imaging characteristics and clinical significance of anatomic thoracic variants is important for accurate diagnosis and avoidance of unnecessary intervention. This article provides an up-to-date review of anatomic variants in the pediatric chest to increase knowledge and aide in timely, correct diagnosis...
July 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601174/thoracic-neoplasms-in-children-contemporary-perspectives-and-imaging-assessment
#11
REVIEW
Matthew A Zapala, Victor M Ho-Fung, Edward Y Lee
This article focuses on commonly encountered primary lung, airway, mediastinal, and chest wall neoplasms that occur in the pediatric population. Although primary pediatric thoracic neoplasms are rare, imaging is critical in their diagnostic work-up. An overview of the latest imaging techniques specific to evaluate these pediatric thoracic neoplasms is presented across the spectrum of modalities from radiography to PET/MR imaging. In addition, the characteristic imaging appearances of these pediatric primary thoracic neoplasms are discussed with an emphasis on what the radiologist needs to know in routine clinical practice...
July 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601173/children-with-cough-and-fever-up-to-date-imaging-evaluation-and-management
#12
REVIEW
Gary R Schooler, Joseph T Davis, Victoria M Parente, Edward Y Lee
Cough and fever in infants and children are frequent but nonspecific symptoms. Several usual differential diagnoses are under consideration and imaging is often necessary to help arrive at an accurate diagnosis and ensure proper management. A broad spectrum of underlying disorders may be present. Radiologists must remain cognizant of the potential for immune dysfunction and underlying structural abnormalities. A clear understanding of up-to-date imaging evaluation recommendations and characteristic imaging features can assist radiologists and clinicians in arriving at the most accurate diagnosis in a timely manner and help ensure proper management and necessary follow-up imaging assessment...
July 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601172/respiratory-distress-in-neonates-underlying-causes-and-current-imaging-assessment
#13
REVIEW
Mark C Liszewski, A Luana Stanescu, Grace S Phillips, Edward Y Lee
The imaging evaluation of the neonate in respiratory distress has been described since the most early days of pediatric radiology but advances in diagnosis and treatment have changed the patient population presenting with these conditions and altered the imaging findings. In this article, the range of conditions that cause neonatal respiratory distress is depicted, including congenital lung malformations and lung disease in both preterm and full-term infants. An updated approach to the imaging of these conditions is reviewed, with a focus on changes that have resulted from advances in treatment and diagnosis...
July 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601171/a-practical-approach-to-supratentorial-brain-malformations-what-radiologists-should-know
#14
REVIEW
Edward Yang, Winnie C W Chu, Edward Y Lee
For general radiologists, congenital brain malformations pose substantial challenges in terms of recognition, description, and classification. This review describes a practical approach to imaging and classifying the most common supratentorial brain malformations. It begins with a discussion of embryology and optimal imaging technique and then summarizes distinguishing imaging features for several major categories of cerebral malformation, including holoprosencephaly, gray matter heterotopia, lissencephaly/pachygyria, focal cortical dysplasia, polymicrogyria, and cobblestone malformation...
July 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411683/breast-imaging
#15
EDITORIAL
Sarah M Friedewald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411682/update-on-preoperative-breast-localization
#16
REVIEW
Mary K Hayes
The radiologist plays an important role in detection, diagnosis, localization, pathologic correlation, and follow-up imaging of breast cancer. A successful breast surgical treatment program relies on the image guidance tools and skills of the radiologist and surgeon. This article reviews the evolving tools available for preoperative localization. Non-wire devices provide a safe, efficient, noninferior alternative to wire localization and can be placed 0 to 30 days before scheduled surgery. This technology may evolve to other longer-term, efficient, and cost-effective applications for patients who require neoadjuvant treatment or who have findings visible only at MR imaging...
May 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411681/breast-pet-mr-imaging
#17
REVIEW
Amy Melsaether, Linda Moy
Breast and whole-body PET/MR imaging is being used to detect local and metastatic disease and is being investigated for potential imaging biomarkers, which may eventually help personalize treatments and prognoses. This article provides an overview of breast and whole-body PET/MR exam techniques, summarizes PET and MR breast imaging for lesion detection, outlines investigations into multi-parametric breast PET/MR, looks at breast PET/MR in the setting of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, and reviews the pros and cons of whole-body PET/MR in the setting of metastatic or suspected metastatic breast cancer...
May 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411680/mr-imaging-future-imaging-techniques
#18
REVIEW
Lilian C Wang
Breast MR imaging is the most sensitive modality for breast cancer detection. This high sensitivity has led to widespread adoption of this technique, particularly in screening women at elevated risk for breast cancer. Despite its high sensitivity, standard breast MR imaging protocols are limited by moderate specificity and relative higher cost, longer examination time, longer interpretation time, and lower availability compared with mammography and ultrasound. As such, new techniques in MR imaging, including abbreviated breast MR imaging, pharmacokinetic modeling, and diffusion-weighted imaging, are active areas of research...
May 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411679/breast-mr-imaging-in-newly-diagnosed-breast-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Dipti Gupta, Laura Billadello
The role of breast MR imaging in preoperative evaluation of disease extent remains controversial. MR imaging increases detection of mammographically occult ipsilateral and contralateral disease, but the clinical impact of these incidental cancers in unknown. There are no randomized trials of recurrence or mortality as the primary end point. This missing evidence is needed before the role of extent of disease MR imaging can be outlined. There are specific clinical scenarios in which breast MR imaging plays a clear role...
May 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411678/implementation-of-whole-breast-screening-ultrasonography
#20
REVIEW
Melissa A Durand, Regina J Hooley
Whole-breast screening ultrasonography is being increasingly implemented in breast imaging centers because numerous studies have shown the benefit of supplemental screening for women with dense breasts and breast density notification laws are becoming more widespread. This article reviews the numerous considerations involved in integrating a screening ultrasonography program into a busy practice.
May 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
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