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Radiologic Clinics of North America

Jeffrey P Kanne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Joanna E Kusmirek, Maria Daniela Martin, Jeffrey P Kanne
Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a heterogeneous group of diffuse lung diseases characterized by distinct clinicopathologic entities with the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) being the most common. The pattern of UIP can be seen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) as well as in secondary causes, most commonly in connective tissue diseases. IPF is usually progressive and associated with a very poor prognosis, and newer therapies pose a risk of serious complications; therefore, diagnostic certainty is crucial...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Brent P Little, Phuong-Anh T Duong
Imaging of the large airways is key to the diagnosis and management of a wide variety of congenital, infectious, malignant, and inflammatory diseases. Involvement can be focal, regional, or diffuse, and abnormalities can take the form of masses, thickening, narrowing, enlargement, or a combination of patterns. Recognition of the typical morphologies, locations, and distributions of large airways disease is central to an accurate imaging differential diagnosis.
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Abigail V Berniker, Travis S Henry
Small airways disease, or bronchiolitis, encompasses many conditions that result in bronchiolar inflammation and/or fibrosis. Bronchioles are distal airways within secondary pulmonary lobules that are only visible on imaging when abnormal. High-resolution computed tomography plays an important role in diagnosing small airways disease. The predominant direct high-resolution computed tomography sign of bronchiolitis includes centrilobular nodules, whereas air trapping is the main indirect finding. This article reviews bronchiolar anatomy, discusses the differential diagnosis for cellular and constrictive bronchiolitis with a focus on key imaging features, and discusses how to distinguish important mimics...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Melissa Price, Matthew D Gilman, Brett W Carter, Bradley S Sabloff, Mylene T Truong, Carol C Wu
Eosinophilic lung diseases encompass a broad range of conditions wherein patients present with pulmonary opacities and eosinophilia of the serum, pulmonary tissue, or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Many of these entities can be idiopathic or are secondary to parasitic infection, exposure to drugs, toxins, or radiation. These diseases exhibit a wide range of imaging findings, including consolidation, ground-glass opacities, nodules, and masses. Diagnoses often require bronchoalveolar lavage and/or biopsy to confirm respiratory eosinophilia and to exclude other entities, such as infection or malignancy...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Christopher J François, Mark L Schiebler
Multimodality, noninvasive imaging is increasingly used in the identification and management of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Chest radiography, ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy, and Doppler echocardiography are frequently the initial studies used to evaluate patients suspected of having PH. However, their ability to evaluate the right ventricle (RV) and pulmonary vasculature is limited. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are increasingly used to identify causes of PH and assess the effect of PH on RV function...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Brett M Elicker, Kirk T Jones, David M Naeger, James A Frank
Acute lung injury (ALI) is the clinical syndrome associated with histopathologic diffuse alveolar damage. It is a common cause of acute respiratory symptoms and admission to the intensive care unit. Diagnosis of ALI is typically based on clinical and radiographic criteria; however, because these criteria can be nonspecific, diagnostic uncertainty is common. A multidisciplinary approach that synthesizes clinical, imaging, and pathologic data can ensure an accurate diagnosis. Radiologists must be aware of the radiographic and computed tomographic findings of ALI and its mimics...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Shamseldeen Mahmoud, Subha Ghosh, Carol Farver, Jason Lempel, Joseph Azok, Rahul D Renapurkar
Pulmonary vasculitis is a relatively uncommon disorder, usually manifesting as part of systemic vasculitis. Imaging, specifically computed tomography, is often performed in the initial diagnostic workup. Although the findings in vasculitis can be nonspecific, they can provide important clues in the diagnosis, and guide the clinical team toward the right diagnosis. Radiologists must have knowledge of common and uncommon imaging findings in various vasculitides. Also, radiologists should be able to integrate the clinical presentation and laboratory test findings together with imaging features, so as to provide a meaningful differential diagnosis...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Jay Champlin, Rachael Edwards, Sudhakar Pipavath
Occupational lung diseases span a variety of pulmonary disorders caused by inhalation of dusts or chemical antigens in a vocational setting. Included in these are the classic mineral pneumoconioses of silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, and asbestos-related diseases as well as many immune-mediated and airway-centric diseases, and new and emerging disorders. Although some of these have characteristic imaging appearances, a multidisciplinary approach with focus on occupational exposure history is essential to proper diagnosis...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Paul G Thacker, Sara O Vargas, Martha P Fishman, Alicia M Casey, Edward Y Lee
Childhood interstitial lung disease represents a rare and heterogeneous group of diseases that can result in significant morbidity and mortality, some leading to death during infancy. CT is the imaging test of choice. Although many CT findings are nonspecific and a definitive diagnosis usually cannot be reached by CT alone, the interpreting radiologist is instrumental in defining disease extent and refining the diagnosis. Chest CTs are of key importance in guiding site selection for lung biopsy and for following disease progression and response to treatment...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Seth Kligerman, Teri J Franks, Jeffrey R Galvin
The direct toxicity of cigarette smoke and the body's subsequent response to this lung injury leads to a wide array of pathologic manifestations and disease states that lead to both reversible and irreversible injury to the large airways, small airways, alveolar walls, and alveolar spaces. These include emphysema, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, respiratory bronchiolitis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis. Although these various forms of injury have different pathologic and imaging manifestations, they are all part of the spectrum of smoking-related diffuse parenchymal lung disease...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Andrea L Magee, Steven M Montner, Aliya Husain, Ayodeji Adegunsoye, Rekha Vij, Jonathan H Chung
The management of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) depends on early identification of the disease process, which is complicated by its nonspecific clinical presentation in addition to variable and diverse laboratory and radiologic findings. HP is the result of exposure and sensitization to myriad aerosolized antigens. HP develops in the minority of antigenic exposures, and conversely has been documented in patients with no identifiable exposure, complicating the diagnostic algorithm significantly. Prompt diagnosis and early intervention are critical in slowing the progression of irreversible parenchymal damage, and additionally in preserving the quality of life of affected patients...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Jitesh Ahuja, Deepika Arora, Jeffrey P Kanne, Travis S Henry, J David Godwin
Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by circulating autoantibodies and autoimmune-mediated organ damage. Common CTDs with lung manifestations are rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma or systemic sclerosis, Sjögren syndrome, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosis, mixed connective tissue disease, and undifferentiated connective tissue disease. The most common histopathologic patterns of CTD-related interstitial lung disease are nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, usual interstitial pneumonia, organizing pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Adam C Zoga, Johannes B Roedl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Bethany U Casagranda, Peter C Thurlow
Return-to-play (RTP) predictions focus on how long it takes an athlete to return to their full athletic activity after sustaining an injury. This article focuses on the role of imaging and the radiologist in RTP predictions for the most common and controversial injuries affecting athletes.
September 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Jana M Crain, Jean-Pierre Phancao
During the advent of artificial turf and flexible footwear in football, turf toe was initially coined and described as a 1st metatarsophalangeal joint sprain injury. In the classic setting of hyperextension of the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint, turf toe is an injury to its plantar capsuloligamentous complex. Advances in MR imaging and knowledge of the complex 1st metatarsophalangeal joint help pinpoint the injured plantar structures as well as assess severity and chronicity of the injury. Detailed analysis of turf toe should highlight the best conservative and surgical options for injured athletes to reach optimal recovery...
September 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Yu-Ching Lin, John Y Kwon, Mohammad Ghorbanhoseini, Jim S Wu
Flatfoot deformity is a common disorder of the foot and ankle and is caused by loss of the hindfoot arch. Radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with the anatomy and the imaging criteria used to assess injury to the supporting structures. Radiographs and computed tomography are most useful in characterizing the degree of osseous deformity and ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are most useful in the evaluation of the supporting soft tissue structures. Treatment depends on the clinical symptoms and involves restoring the normal biomechanics of the hindfoot arch through strengthening exercises, foot/ankle orthotics, and surgery...
September 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Daniel M Walz
This article reviews the normal and abnormal postoperative imaging appearance of frequently performed surgical procedures of the meniscus, articular cartilage, and ligaments. Imaging algorithms and protocols are discussed with particular attention to MR imaging techniques. Attention is paid to surgical procedures and the expected postoperative appearance as well to commonly identified recurrent and residual disorders and surgical complications.
September 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Adam C Zoga, Tarek M Hegazi, Johannes B Roedl
The imager's role in diagnosing prearthritic hip syndromes has increased significantly in the past 10 years. As surgical and nonsurgical treatment algorithms for mechanical syndromes including femoroacetabular impingement and acetabular dysplasia have evolved, clinicians have grown increasingly dependent on radiography, MR imaging, MR arthrography, and even computed tomography to confirm diagnoses and support the need for potential intervention. Musculoskeletal radiologists should help referrers navigate available imaging options and protocols, while using both clinical information and imaging findings to arrive at a diagnosis that adds value to the treatment plan...
September 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Jeffrey A Belair, Tarek M Hegazi, Johannes B Roedl, Adam C Zoga, Imran M Omar
The core, or central musculoskeletal system of the torso, is essential for participating in sports and other physical activities. Core injuries are commonly encountered in athletes and active individuals. The importance of the midline pubic plate and rectus abdominis-adductor aponeurosis for core stability and function is discussed in the literature. This review article examines other important core injuries remote from the pubic symphysis, relevant clinical features, and preferred approaches to imaging. Several specific syndromes encountered in the core are reviewed...
September 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
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