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Radiologic Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890191/skull-base-imaging-in-the-era-of-minimal-access-surgery
#1
EDITORIAL
Nafi Aygun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890190/imaging-of-the-sella-and-parasellar-region
#2
REVIEW
John L Go, Anandh G Rajamohan
The sella and parasellar region, found between the anterior and central skull base, represents the central aspect of the skull base. Given the location of the pituitary gland in this location, small lesions in this location may have major physiologic effects on the human body. This article reviews the anatomy, development, and pathologic processes that may involve this region.
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890189/diplopia-what-to-double-check-in-radiographic-imaging-of-double-vision
#3
REVIEW
Claudia F E Kirsch, Karen Black
When patients see double with both eyes open, known as "binocular diplopia," this may be a harbinger of underlying life-threatening causes. This article presents pertinent anatomy, critical abnormality, and radiographic features that should be double checked for in diplopia. Key areas requiring a double check using the acronym VISION include Vascular, Infectious and Inflammatory, the Scalp for giant cell arteritis, Sphenoid and Skull base in trauma, Increased intracranial pressure (pseudotumor cerebri), Onset of new headaches or psychosis, and Neoplasm...
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890188/imaging-of-the-central-skull-base
#4
REVIEW
Lindsey M Conley, C Douglas Phillips
The skull base is a complex bony and soft tissue interface that is divided anatomically into compartments. This article will focus specifically on the central skull base, which has a complex embryologic development and anatomy. Multiple entities from notochord remnants, neoplasm, infection, and other abnormalities may occur, and imaging is critical for depicting skull base pathology.
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890187/imaging-of-paranasal-sinuses-and-anterior-skull-base-and-relevant-anatomic-variations
#5
REVIEW
Estushi Iida, Yoshimi Anzai
This article reviews the normal anatomy and variants of the anterior skull base and sinonasal cavities that are relevant to endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery. Radiologists should be aware of sinonasal anatomy that can be impediments to surgical access and increase risk of vascular or cranial nerve injury during surgery. Imaging features of the paranasal sinuses and anterior skull base pathologies are also discussed.
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890186/advanced-imaging-techniques-of-the-skull-base
#6
REVIEW
Elliot Dickerson, Ashok Srinivasan
Although conventional imaging can depict the anatomy of the head and neck with exquisite detail, it often falls short in its ability to characterize tissue physiology and abnormality; this is especially seen in the posttherapy setting where benign posttreatment changes and recurrent tumors can show intense postcontrast enhancement and similar features on conventional imaging. Advanced imaging can evaluate tissue physiology and, along with conventional imaging, provide a more accurate assessment of the skull base...
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890185/high-resolution-three-dimensional-mr-imaging-of-the-skull-base-compartments-boundaries-and-critical-structures
#7
REVIEW
Ari Meir Blitz, Nafi Aygun, Daniel A Herzka, Masaru Ishii, Gary L Gallia
High-resolution 3D MRI of the skull base allows for a more detailed and accurate assessment of normal anatomic structures as well as the location and extent of skull base pathologies than has previously been possible. This article describes the techniques employed for high-resolution skull base MRI including pre- and post-contrast constructive interference in the steady state (CISS) imaging and their utility for evaluation of the many small structures of the skull base, focusing on those regions and concepts most pertinent to localization of cranial nerve palsies and in providing pre-operative guidance and post-operative assessment...
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890184/imaging-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-rhinorrhea-and-otorrhea
#8
REVIEW
Mahati Reddy, Kristen Baugnon
As the obesity epidemic grows in the United States, rhinorrhea and otorrhea from spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks secondary to untreated idiopathic intracranial hypertension are increasing in prevalence. CSF rhinorrhea and otorrhea should also be carefully evaluated in posttraumatic and postsurgical settings, because untreated CSF leaks often have serious consequences. The work-up, diagnosis, and characterization of a CSF leak can be complex, often requiring a multimodality approach to optimize surgical planning...
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890183/imaging-evaluation-and-treatment-of-vascular-lesions-at-the-skull-base
#9
REVIEW
Gaurav Jindal, Timothy Miller, Prashant Raghavan, Dheeraj Gandhi
A wide range of congenital and acquired vascular entities may occur in the skull base. Although some are diagnosed incidentally and merit no treatment, others may require surgical or image-guided endovascular or percutaneous approaches for management. The complex anatomy of the skull base can make diagnosis challenging. A combination of computed tomography scans and MR imaging, and catheter angiography may be required for diagnosis and mapping. Endovascular treatment plays an important part in many of the acquired vascular lesions, such as vascular neoplasms and traumatic dissections/aneurysms...
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890182/imaging-of-perineural-spread-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#10
REVIEW
David Badger, Nafi Aygun
Perineural spread (PNS) of tumor is a recognized pattern of metastasis occurring in the head and neck. Imaging plays a critical role in identifying PNS for adequate staging and treatment planning. Understanding the major branches and pathways of cranial nerves V and VII, key anatomic landmarks, interconnections between these nerves, and pearls and pitfalls of PNS imaging can aid in early detection, appropriate therapy, and the best possible chance for cure.
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890181/imaging-of-vascular-compression-syndromes
#11
REVIEW
Joseph H Donahue, David A Ornan, Sugoto Mukherjee
Trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, vestibulocochlear neuralgia and glossopharyngeal neuralgia represent the most common neurovascular compression syndromes. Repeated vascular pulsations at the vulnerable transitional zone of the individual cranial nerves lead to focal axonal injury and demyelination. High-resolution 3-D T2-weighted MR imaging is essential in detecting and mapping neurovascular compression for directed therapy. Knowledge of the specific nerve root exit, the transitional zones, and the adjacent vasculature is critical in proper management...
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890180/imaging-of-the-posterior-skull-base
#12
REVIEW
Joici Job, Barton F Branstetter
The posterior skull base can be involved by a variety of pathologic processes. They can be broadly classified as: traumatic, neoplastic, vascular, and inflammatory. Pathology in the posterior skull base usually involves the lower cranial nerves, either as a source of pathology or a secondary source of symptoms. This review will categorize pathology arising in the posterior skull base and describe how it affects the skull base itself and surrounding structures.
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890179/expanded-endonasal-endoscopic-approaches-to-the-skull-base-for-the-radiologist
#13
REVIEW
Christopher R Roxbury, Masaru Ishii, Ari Meir Blitz, Douglas D Reh, Gary L Gallia
The cranial base is a complex 3-D region that contains critical neurovascular structures. Pathologies affecting this region represent some of the most challenging lesions to manage due to difficulty with access and risk of significant postoperative morbidity. With the development of expanded endonasal endoscopic approaches, skull base surgeons use the nose and paranasal sinuses as a corridor to access selected ventral skull base lesions. This review discusses high-resolution imaging in the evaluation of patients with skull base lesions considered for endonasal endoscopic surgery, summarizes various expanded endonasal endoscopic approaches, and provides examples of commonly used expanded endonasal endoscopic procedures...
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719985/diffuse-white-stuff-in-the-lungs-challenges-and-advances
#14
Jeffrey P Kanne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719984/imaging-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#15
Joanna E Kusmirek, Maria Daniela Martin, Jeffrey P Kanne
Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a heterogeneous group of diffuse lung diseases characterized by distinct clinicopathologic entities with the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) being the most common. The pattern of UIP can be seen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) as well as in secondary causes, most commonly in connective tissue diseases. IPF is usually progressive and associated with a very poor prognosis, and newer therapies pose a risk of serious complications; therefore, diagnostic certainty is crucial...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719983/imaging-of-diseases-of-the-large-airways
#16
Brent P Little, Phuong-Anh T Duong
Imaging of the large airways is key to the diagnosis and management of a wide variety of congenital, infectious, malignant, and inflammatory diseases. Involvement can be focal, regional, or diffuse, and abnormalities can take the form of masses, thickening, narrowing, enlargement, or a combination of patterns. Recognition of the typical morphologies, locations, and distributions of large airways disease is central to an accurate imaging differential diagnosis.
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719982/imaging-of-small-airways-diseases
#17
Abigail V Berniker, Travis S Henry
Small airways disease, or bronchiolitis, encompasses many conditions that result in bronchiolar inflammation and/or fibrosis. Bronchioles are distal airways within secondary pulmonary lobules that are only visible on imaging when abnormal. High-resolution computed tomography plays an important role in diagnosing small airways disease. The predominant direct high-resolution computed tomography sign of bronchiolitis includes centrilobular nodules, whereas air trapping is the main indirect finding. This article reviews bronchiolar anatomy, discusses the differential diagnosis for cellular and constrictive bronchiolitis with a focus on key imaging features, and discusses how to distinguish important mimics...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719981/imaging-of-eosinophilic-lung-diseases
#18
Melissa Price, Matthew D Gilman, Brett W Carter, Bradley S Sabloff, Mylene T Truong, Carol C Wu
Eosinophilic lung diseases encompass a broad range of conditions wherein patients present with pulmonary opacities and eosinophilia of the serum, pulmonary tissue, or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Many of these entities can be idiopathic or are secondary to parasitic infection, exposure to drugs, toxins, or radiation. These diseases exhibit a wide range of imaging findings, including consolidation, ground-glass opacities, nodules, and masses. Diagnoses often require bronchoalveolar lavage and/or biopsy to confirm respiratory eosinophilia and to exclude other entities, such as infection or malignancy...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719980/imaging-of-pulmonary-hypertension
#19
Christopher J Fran├žois, Mark L Schiebler
Multimodality, noninvasive imaging is increasingly used in the identification and management of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Chest radiography, ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy, and Doppler echocardiography are frequently the initial studies used to evaluate patients suspected of having PH. However, their ability to evaluate the right ventricle (RV) and pulmonary vasculature is limited. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are increasingly used to identify causes of PH and assess the effect of PH on RV function...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719979/imaging-of-acute-lung-injury
#20
Brett M Elicker, Kirk T Jones, David M Naeger, James A Frank
Acute lung injury (ALI) is the clinical syndrome associated with histopathologic diffuse alveolar damage. It is a common cause of acute respiratory symptoms and admission to the intensive care unit. Diagnosis of ALI is typically based on clinical and radiographic criteria; however, because these criteria can be nonspecific, diagnostic uncertainty is common. A multidisciplinary approach that synthesizes clinical, imaging, and pathologic data can ensure an accurate diagnosis. Radiologists must be aware of the radiographic and computed tomographic findings of ALI and its mimics...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
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