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Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

Arkadiusz Lubas, Robert Ryczek, Artur Maliborski, Przemysław Dyrla, Longin Niemczyk, Stanisław Niemczyk
Renal perfusion, which depends on cardiac function, is a factor conditioning the work of kidneys. The objective of the study was to assess the influence of cardiac function, including left ventricular contractility and relaxation, on renal cortical perfusion in patients with hypertension and chronic kidney disease treated pharmacologically. There were 63 patients (7 F and 56 M; aged 56 ± 14) with hypertension and stable chronic kidney disease enrolled into the study. Serum cystatin C, with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), echocardiography with speckle tracking imaging and the calculation of global longitudinal strain (GLS), diameter of vena cava inferior (VCI), and an ultrasound dynamic tissue perfusion measurement of the renal cortex were performed...
December 4, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Tomoko Hirano, Masa H Sato
The integrity of cellular membranes is maintained not only by structural phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, but also by regulatory phospholipids, phosphatidylinositol phosphates (phosphoinositides). Although phosphoinositides constitute minor membrane phospholipids, they exert a wide variety of regulatory functions in all eukaryotic cells. They act as key markers of membrane surfaces that determine the biological integrity of cellular compartments to recruit various phosphoinositide-binding proteins...
November 30, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Stanisław B Nowak, Andrzej Jopkiewicz, Paweł Tomaszewski
The maximum rate of O2 uptake (V̇O2 max) is one of the most important positive indicators of health. While the V̇O2 max decreases with age, reducing the capacity for physical effort, it can be considerably upregulated through optimal environmental interventions, including systematic physical activity. This study seeks to determine variations in the cardiorespiratory function, estimated from the level of V̇O2 max, in 798 employed men aged 20-59, according to biological (age, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and limb muscle strength and agility) and social (place of residence, education, occupation, economic status, and smoking) predictors...
November 30, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Joshua G Pemberton, Tamas Balla
Within eukaryotic cells, biochemical reactions need to be organized on the surface of membrane compartments that use distinct lipid constituents to dynamically modulate the functions of integral proteins or influence the selective recruitment of peripheral membrane effectors. As a result of these complex interactions, a variety of human pathologies can be traced back to improper communication between proteins and membrane surfaces; either due to mutations that directly alter protein structure or as a result of changes in membrane lipid composition...
November 28, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
M J Corby, Valerica Raicu, David N Frick
This review discusses new developments in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy and its application to cellular receptors. The method is based on the kinetic theory of FRET, which can be used to predict FRET not only in dimers, but also higher order oligomers of donor and acceptor fluorophores. Models based on such FRET predictions can be fit to observed FRET efficiency histograms (also called FRET spectrograms) and used to estimate intracellular binding constants, free energy values, and stoichiometries...
November 24, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
David Richards, Joe Swift, Lu Shin Wong, Stephen M Richardson
An extensive number of cell-matrix interaction studies have identified matrix stiffness as a potent regulator of cellular properties and behaviours. Perhaps most notably, matrix stiffness has been demonstrated to regulate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) phenotype and lineage commitment. Given the therapeutic potential for MSCs in regenerative medicine, significant efforts have been made to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in stiffness regulation. These efforts have predominantly focused on using stiffness-defined polyacrylamide (PA) hydrogels to culture cells in 2D and have enabled elucidation of a number of mechano-sensitive signalling pathways...
November 20, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
M Duda-Sikula, B Mroczek, A Szewczyk, D Kurpas
Coordinated healthcare paradigm addressing the biopsychosocial spheres of patients seems advantageous for the management of chronic diseases. The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of unmet needs on pro-health behavior in chronic respiratory diseases and to recognize the factors that help identify the unmet needs. The patients were asked to complete the Camberwell Assessment of Needs Inventory and the Health Behavior Inventory. The study group consisted of 171 adult patients with chronic respiratory diseases...
November 20, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Przemysław Dyrla, Jerzy Gil, Stanisław Niemczyk, Marek Saracyn, Krzysztof Kosik, Sebastian Czarkowski, Arkadiusz Lubas
The study aimed to determine the usefulness of the elastography in the diagnosis of malignancy of solid pancreatic tumors. There were 123 patients (F/M; 51/72, aged 62 ± 14) enrolled into the study with the diagnosis of pancreatic masses. Malignant pancreatic adenocarcinoma was identified in 78 patients and an inflammatory mass corresponding to chronic pancreatitis in the remaining 45 patients. The mass elasticity of a tumor (A-elasticity) and a reference zone (B-elasticity) and the B/A strain ratio were measured...
November 16, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Maria Eugenia Butini, Mercedes Gonzalez Moreno, Magdalena Czuban, Anna Koliszak, Tamta Tkhilaishvili, Andrej Trampuz, Mariagrazia Di Luca
Most antimicrobials currently used in the clinical practice are tested as growth inhibitors against free-floating microorganisms in a liquid suspension, rather than against sessile cells constituting biofilms. Hence, reliable, fast, and reproducible methods for assessing biofilm susceptibility to antimicrobials are strongly needed. Isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) is a nondestructive sensitive technique that allows for the real-time monitoring of microbial viability in the presence or absence of antimicrobial compounds...
November 13, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Mario Estévez-Báez, Claudia Carricarte-Naranjo, Javier Denis Jas-García, Evelyn Rodríguez-Ríos, Calixto Machado, Julio Montes-Brown, Gerry Leisman, Adam Schiavi, Andrés Machado-García, Claudia Sánchez Luaces, Eduardo Arrufat Pié
Key autonomic functions are in continuous development during adolescence which can be assessed using the heart rate variability (HRV). However, the influence of different demographic and physiological factors on HRV indices has not been fully explored in adolescents. In this study we aimed to assess the effect of age, gender, and heart rate on HRV indices in two age groups of healthy adolescents (age ranges, 13-16 and 17-20 years) and two groups of healthy young adults (21-24 and 25-30 years). We addressed the issue using 5-min ECG recordings performed in the sitting position in 255 male and female participants...
November 10, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Burcu Talug, Zeynep Tokcaer-Keskin
The reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has raised extreme hope among both scientists and society by means of development of personalized and regenerative medicine. The field of stem cell research has been accelerating with a drastic speed afterwards and many iPSC lines has been produced for understanding the mechanisms of many debilitating diseases which arise in a variety of organ systems. In this review article we try to focus on the current research regarding the use of iPSCs in both disease modeling and regeneration...
November 10, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Samir El Qaidi, Miaomiao Wu, Congrui Zhu, Philip R Hardwidge
Bacteria deliver virulence proteins termed 'effectors' to counteract host innate immunity. Protein-protein interactions within the host cell ultimately subvert the generation of an inflammatory response to the infecting pathogen. Here we briefly describe a subset of T3SS effectors produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Citrobacter rodentium, and Salmonella enterica that inhibit innate immune pathways. These effectors are interesting for structural and mechanistic reasons, as well as for their potential utility in being engineered to treat human autoimmune disorders associated with perturbations in NF-κB signaling...
November 10, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Maryam Rahmati, Cristian Pablo Pennisi, Emma Budd, Ali Mobasheri, Masoud Mozafari
Biomaterials are key components in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications, with the intended purpose of reducing the burden of disease and enhancing the quality of life of a large number of patients. The success of many regenerative medicine strategies, such as cell-based therapies, artificial organs, and engineered living tissues, is highly dependent on the ability to design or produce suitable biomaterials that can support and guide cells during tissue healing and remodelling processes...
November 8, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Anna Jagielska, Olga Tronina, Krzysztof Jankowski, Aleksandra Kozłowska, Katarzyna Okręglicka, Paweł Jagielski, Magdalena Durlik, Piotr Pruszczyk, Aneta Nitsch-Osuch
This study seeks to evaluate the metabolic parameters such as body mass index (BMI), percentage of total body fat percentage (%BF), blood glucose, homeostatic index for quantification of insulin resistance and beta-cell function (HOMA-IR), sleep efficiency, and physical activity in liver transplant patients. The study group consisted of 24 male and 18 female patients, which enabled the inter-gender comparison. We found that a majority of patients had exceeded the norms for BMI and %BF. The excessive weight was distinctly accentuated in male patients...
October 27, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Maciej Śmietanowski, Jarosław Wysocki, Jarosław Balcerzak, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jędrzejewska, Maryla Śmietanowska, Kazimierz Niemczyk
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a form of sleep disordered breathing. The key phenomena are multiple repetitive pauses or restriction of airflow in the airway, defined as apnea and hypopnea. This study was based on a retrospective analysis of the results of polysomnographic (PSG) recordings of 230 adult patients (62 women and 168 men), being evaluated for OSA. The mean age, body mass index (BMI), apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and pulse oximetry (SO2 nadir) of all patients were 50.4 ± 12.7 years, 30...
October 25, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
K Szymański, K Cieślak, D Kowalczyk, E Hallmann-Szelińska, L B Brydak
In Poland, influenza surveillance is conducted by 16 Provincial Sanitary Epidemiological Stations, headed by the Department of Influenza Research, National Influenza Center at the National Institute of Health - National Institute of Hygiene (NIPH-NIH). During the epidemic season 2016/2017, more than 4000 samples were tested for respiratory infections, with approximately 1800 positive results, the most of which were among patients over 65 years old. Most samples were tested in the Western Pomeranian province, but the greatest proportion of positively diagnosed influenza infections, amounting to 72...
October 25, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
W Naumnik, B Panek, M Ossolińska, B Naumnik
Progranulin is a growth and survival factor implicated in tumorigenesis and drug resistance. Several studies showed that progranulin is expressed in breast cancer tissue and inversely correlates with survival. B lymphocyte chemoattractant, also known as B cell-attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1), is a member of the CXC subtype of the chemokine superfamily. BCA-1 is critical for secondary lymphoid tissue development and navigation of lymphocytes within the microcompartments of the tissue. There are no data on the content of progranulin and BCA-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients...
October 25, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ewelina Witkowska-Sędek, Małgorzata Rumińska, Anna Majcher, Beata Pyrżak
Gender seems to be an important factor influencing the response to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy in GH-deficient adolescents and adults. The results of studies evaluating gender-specific response to rhGH therapy in prepubertal GH-deficient children are divergent. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gender on the growth and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) responses in 75 prepubertal GH-deficient children during the first 2 years of rhGH therapy. There were no baseline gender differences in age, bone age, anthropometrical parameters, and IGF-1 SDS for bone age...
October 19, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Marcin Gruszecki, Yurii Tkachenko, Jacek Kot, Marek Radkowski, Agnieszka Gruszecka, Krzysztof Basiński, Monika Waskow, Wojciech Guminski, Jacek Sein Anand, Jerzy Wtorek, Andrzej F Frydrychowski, Urszula Demkow, Pawel J Winklewski
The aim of the study was to assess blood pressure-subarachnoid space (BP-SAS) width coupling properties using time-frequency bispectral analysis based on wavelet transforms during handgrip and cold tests. The experiments were performed on a group of 16 healthy subjects (F/M; 7/9) of the mean age 27.2 ± 6.8 years and body mass index of 23.8 ± 4.1 kg/m2 . The sequence of challenges was first handgrip and then cold test. The handgrip challenge consisted of a 2-min strain, indicated by oral communication from the investigator, at 30% of maximum strength...
October 16, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Mieczyslaw Pokorski, Giovanni Barassi, Rosa G Bellomo, Loris Prosperi, Matteo Crudeli, Raoul Saggini
This review updates the knowledge on the use of bioprogressive philosophy in current rehabilitation paradigms, focusing on age-related ailments and antiaging strategies. It is a holistic approach that combines aspects of biology and function into the realm of rehabilitation therapy. The bioprogressive philosophy, with assistance of modern technological developments, such as microgravity-producing devices and techniques, enables personalized and targeted therapeutic approach that seems the most effective in rehabilitation and prevention of neuro-myo-sensory disorders that compromise the homeostatic body harmony, particularly in old age...
October 16, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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