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Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052177/prognostic-value-of-osteoprotegerin-and-srankl-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-of-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
Wojciech Naumnik, I Płońska, M Ossolińska, J Nikliński, B Naumnik
Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble decoy receptor for receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (sRANKL). OPG promotes endothelial cell survival and neoangiogenesis. Dysregulation of the OPG/RANKL system has been detected in several tumors. In the present study, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of OPG and sRANKL assessment in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We measured the concentration of OPG and sRANKL in BALF of 44 NSCLC patients and 15 healthy volunteers taken as control subjects...
October 20, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039064/developments-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-expansion-and-gene-editing-technologies
#2
Dogacan Yucel, Fatih Kocabas
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are rare cells, which housed in the adult bone marrow. They maintain all types of differentiated blood cells throughout life. Due to limited availability of HSCs for transplantation, treatment of various inherited bone marrow disorders and anemia requires the development of HSC expansion and gene editing technologies. To this end, various studies addressed the use of cytokines and growth factors for HSC expansion. Major hurdle with these studies was found to be spontaneous differentiation of HSCs into different lineages during ex vivo procedure...
October 17, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030806/palliative-care-in-the-management-of-patients-with-advanced-heart-failure
#3
Susan E Lowey
Globally, there are 18-million individuals living with heart failure, a disease that is responsible for 12-15 million office visits and 6.5 million inpatient hospitalizations each year. As HF becomes advanced or end-stage, patients often live in a cycle of frequent transitions between care settings, and with unmet needs, including distress from inadequately managed symptoms. Prognostication in patients with heart failure can be challenging due to the unpredictable exacerbating-remitting illness trajectory that is associated with this progressive disease...
October 14, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983863/therapeutic-efficacy-of-mandibular-advancement-devices-in-patients-with-severe-sleep-apnea-a-preliminary-report
#4
M Wojda, Jolanta Kostrzewa-Janicka, P Bieleń, P Jurkowski, E Mierzwińska-Nastalska
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is defined as episodes of upper airway obstructions during sleep. The method of choice in conservative treatment of OSA is the use of devices that produce positive airway pressure (CPAP). In patients with mild-moderate form of OSA, intraoral mandibular advancement devices (MAD) are applied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of MAD in patients with severe OSA who were unable to use CPAP. In this preliminary study three patients from a group of 25 severe OSA sufferers who failed to use CPAP, were included...
October 6, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983862/proteomics-in-the-diagnosis-of-inborn-encephalopathies-of-unknown-origin-a-myth-or-reality
#5
Anna Kupniewska, Krystyna Szymanska, Urszula Demkow
Synaptopathy underlies a great variety of neurological or neurodevelopmental disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases and the highly complex neuropsychiatric syndromes. Standard diagnostic assays in the majority of synaptopathies are insufficient to make an appropriate and fast diagnosis, which has spurred a search for more accurate diagnostic methods using recent technological advances. As synaptopathy phenotypes strictly depend on genetics and environmental factors, the best way to approach these diseases is the investigation of entire sets of protein characteristics...
October 6, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980274/neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-a-biomarker-for-early-diagnosis-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-infants
#6
Grażyna Krzemień, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska, Dominika Adamczuk, Iwona Kotuła, Urszula Demkow, Agnieszka Szmigielska
Early diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) is challenging in infants due to unspecific symptoms, difficulty in urine collection and possible contamination. The aim of this study was to assesses the usefulness of serum and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (sNGAL and uNGAL, respectively) in the diagnosis of febrile and non-febrile UTI in infants. This prospective observational study enrolled 66 infants with the first episode of UTI and 18 healthy controls. At the time of enrollment, sNGAL, uNGAL, urinalysis, urine culture, white blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), procalcitonin (PCT), and serum creatinine (sCr) were assessed...
October 5, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980273/specialized-pain-clinics-in-primary-care-common-diagnoses-referral-patterns-and-clinical-outcomes-novel-pain-management-model
#7
Yacov Fogelman, Eli Carmeli, Amir Minerbi, Baruch Harash, Simon Vulfsons
An estimated 19% of the adult population in western countries lives with chronic pain. Pain management lies mainly within the primary care and community setting. We evaluated the outcome of a new model of secondary care clinics, conducted by primary care physicians with specialized training in pain medicine. Data on referral patterns, prevalence of pain diagnosis, and medication consumption were recorded at five secondary pain management clinics in the community setting. In total, 997 patients with pain attended 2,652 visits (average 2...
October 5, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980272/pathogenesis-clinical-features-and-treatment-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#8
Núria Alonso, Pedro Moliner, Dídac Mauricio
Patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1D and T2D) show an increased incidence of heart failure (HF) even after adjustment for well established risk factors for HF such as hypertension and ischaemic heart disease. The resulting specific form of cardiomyopathy is known as diabetic cardiomyopathy" (DCM). Pathogenetic mechanisms underlying DCM are likely to be multifactorial, from altered myocardial metabolism (hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, increased circulating fatty acids and trglycerides) to microvascular disease, autonomic neuropathy, and altered myocardial structure with fibrosis...
October 5, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980271/the-evolution-of-mhealth-solutions-for-heart-failure-management
#9
Evanthia E Tripoliti, Georgia S Karanasiou, Fanis G Kalatzis, Katerina K Naka, Dimitrios I Fotiadis
In the last decade, the uptake of information and communication technologies and the advent of mobile internet resulted in improved connectivity and penetrated different fields of application. In particular, the adoption of the mobile devices is expected to reform the provision and delivery of healthcare, overcoming geographical, temporal, and other organizational limitations. mHealth solutions are able to provide meaningful clinical information allowing effective and efficient management of chronic diseases, such as heart failure...
October 5, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956314/new-insights-in-cardiac-calcium-handling-and-excitation-contraction-coupling
#10
Jessica Gambardella, Bruno Trimarco, Guido Iaccarino, Gaetano Santulli
Excitation-contraction (EC) coupling denotes the conversion of electric stimulus in mechanic output in contractile cells. Several studies have demonstrated that calcium (Ca(2+)) plays a pivotal role in this process. Here we present a comprehensive and updated description of the main systems involved in cardiac Ca(2+) handling that ensure a functional EC coupling and their pathological alterations, mainly related to heart failure.
September 28, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936809/association-between-vitamin-d-and-carboxy-terminal-cross-linked-telopeptide-of-type-i-collagen-in-children-during-growth-hormone-replacement-therapy
#11
Ewelina Witkowska-Sędek, Anna Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Anna Kucharska, Urszula Demkow, Beata Pyrżak
Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) play a crucial role in the regulation of bone turnover. Adequate vitamin D status supports proper bone remodeling, leading to normal longitudinal bone growth and normal peak bone mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) in children and adolescents with growth hormone deficiency at baseline and during recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement therapy...
September 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905270/activities-of-lysosomal-enzymes-in-alloxan-induced-diabetes-in-the-mouse
#12
Bożena Witek, Danuta Rochon-Szmejchel, Iwona Stanisławska, Marek Łyp, Krzysztof Wróbel, Arkadiusz Zapała, Agnieszka Kamińska, Adam Kołątaj
The study investigated a panel of lysosomal enzymes in the liver and kidney tissues in alloxan-induced diabetes in the mouse. The mice were divided into six experimental groups receiving 10% alloxan at a dose of 50 and 75 mg/kg over a period of four, eight, and twelve days; each group was compared with controls receiving 0.9% NaCl. The findings were that diabetes induced by both doses of alloxan was accompanied by significant increases in the lysosomal activities of acid phosphatase and the glycosidases investigated: β-glucuronidase, β-galactosidase, β-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-hexosaminidase...
September 14, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933049/pragmatic-combination-of-available-diagnostic-tools-for-optimal-detection-of-intestinal-microsporidia
#13
Stuti Kaushik, Rumpa Saha, Shukla Das, V G Ramachandran, Ashish Goel
Diarrhea is a debilitating condition in HIV infected individuals and with the finding that almost 1/4 cases of diarrhea in HIV are due to microsporidia, there is a dire need to institute measures for its detection on a regular basis. Keeping this in mind the study aims to determine the burden of intestinal microsporidiosis in HIV seropositive patients presenting with and without diarrhea and to compare the ability of microscopy and PCR in its detection.The study group consisted of 120 patients divided into four groups HIV seropositive with/without diarrhea, and HIV seronegative with/without diarrhea...
September 13, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921447/structure-pharmacology-and-roles-in-physiology-of-the-p2y12-receptor
#14
Ivar von Kügelgen
P2Y receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for extracellular nucleotides. The platelet ADP-receptor which has been denominated P2Y12 receptor is an important target in pharmacotherapy. The receptor couples to Gαi2 mediating an inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation and additional downstream events including the activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Rap1b proteins. The nucleoside analogue ticagrelor and active metabolites of the thienopyridine compounds ticlopidine, clopidogrel and prasugrel block P2Y12 receptors and, thereby, inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation...
September 12, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889234/peripheral-arterial-tonometry-in-pulmonary-vasculitis
#15
A Falkowski, K A Wardyn, K Życińska
Vascular wall inflammation in primary vasculitides results in diminished vessel dilation and finally impaired blood flow, causing multiple organs dysfunction and ultimate damage. In granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), the inflammatory process concerns small and medium sized vessels and its pulmonary location is often predominant. The pivotal role in the development of that pathology plays vascular endothelium. Endothelial vasodilatory function strongly depends on the instant production and release of nitrogen oxide (NO), a potent local factor controlling vascular tonus...
September 10, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889233/adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-of-the-cavernous-sinus-otolaryngological-sequelae-of-therapy-case-report
#16
Edyta Dzięciołowska-Baran, Aleksandra Gawlikowska-Sroka
A 60-year-old woman, otherwise in a good health condition, was first admitted to the hospital with a year-long tingling sensations of the right half of the face, which gradually turned into severe neuralgia corresponding to maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3) branches of the right trigeminal nerve. MRI scans of the head revealed an unusual hyperplastic or inflammatory changes along the brain base, cavernous sinus extending toward the pterygopalatine fossa, and lateral pterygoid on the right side. Meningioma was suspected and neuralgia was treated conservatively...
September 10, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887790/polyspecificity-of-anti-lipid-a-antibodies-and-its-relevance-to-the-development-of-autoimmunity
#17
Omid Haji-Ghassemi, Susannah M L Gagnon, Sven Müller-Loennies, Stephen V Evans
The process of natural selection favours germ-line gene segments that encode CDRs that have the ability to recognize a range of structurally related antigens. This presents an immunological advantage to the host, as it can confer protection against a common pathogen and still cope with new or changing antigens. Cross-reactive and polyspecific antibodies also play a central role in autoimmune responses, and a link has been shown to exist between auto-reactive B cells and certain bacterial infections. Bacterial DNA, lipids, and carbohydrates have been implicated in the progression of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus...
September 9, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828732/coding-of-class-i-and-ii-aminoacyl-trna-synthetases
#18
Charles W Carter
The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and their cognate transfer RNAs translate the universal genetic code. The twenty canonical amino acids are sufficiently diverse to create a selective advantage for dividing amino acid activation between two distinct, apparently unrelated superfamilies of synthetases, Class I amino acids being generally larger and less polar, Class II amino acids smaller and more polar. Biochemical, bioinformatic, and protein engineering experiments support the hypothesis that the two Classes descended from opposite strands of the same ancestral gene...
August 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828731/pharmacological-properties-and-biological-functions-of-the-gpr17-receptor-a-potential-target-for-neuro-regenerative-medicine
#19
Marta Fumagalli, Davide Lecca, Giusy T Coppolino, Chiara Parravicini, Maria P Abbracchio
In 2006, cells heterologously expressing the "orphan" receptor GPR17 were shown to acquire responses to both uracil nucleotides and cysteinyl-leukotrienes, two families of signaling molecules accumulating in brain or heart as a result of hypoxic/traumatic injuries. In subsequent years, evidence of GPR17 key role in oligodendrogenesis and myelination has highlighted it as a "model receptor" for new therapies in demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases. The apparently contrasting evidence in the literature about the role of GPR17 in promoting or inhibiting myelination can be due to its transient expression in the intermediate stages of differentiation, exerting a pro-differentiating function in early oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and an inhibitory role in late stage maturing cells...
August 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815513/an-update-on-p2y13-receptor-signalling-and-function
#20
Raquel Pérez-Sen, Rosa Gómez-Villafuertes, Felipe Ortega, Javier Gualix, Esmerilda G Delicado, María Teresa Miras-Portugal
The distribution of nucleotide P2Y receptors across different tissues suggests that they fulfil key roles in a number of physiological and pathological conditions. P2Y13 is one of the latest P2Y receptors identified, a novel member of the Gi-coupled P2Y receptor subfamily that responds to ADP, together with P2Y12 and P2Y14. Pharmacological studies drew attention to this new ADP receptor, with a pharmacology that overlaps that of P2Y12 receptors but with unique features and roles. The P2RY12-14 genes all reside on human chromosome 3 at 3q25...
August 17, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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