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Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213810/how-to-tackle-natural-focal-infections-from-risk-assessment-to-vaccination-strategies
#1
Luca Busani, Alexander E Platonov, Onder Ergonul, Giovanni Rezza
Natural focal diseases are caused by biological agents associated with specific landscapes. The natural focus of such diseases is defined as any natural ecosystem containing the pathogen's population as an essential component. In such context, the agent circulates independently on human presence, and humans may become accidentally infected through contact with vectors or reservoirs. Some viruses (i.e., tick-borne encephalitis and Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus) are paradigmatic examples of natural focal diseases...
February 18, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213809/the-correlation-between-biofilm-production-and-catheter-related-blood-stream-infections-sustained-by-candida-a-case-control-study
#2
Grazia Brunetti, Valeria Visconti, Maria Cristina Ghezzi, Alessandra Giordano, Giammarco Raponi
Biofilm forming capacity of yeasts colonizing the intravenous devices is considered a key factor involved in the pathogenesis of Candida catheter-related bloodstream infections (CCRBSI). The biofilm production of strains of Candida spp. isolated both from the CVC and from the blood of patients with CCRBSI was compared to that of strains isolated from patients not having CCRBSI. Results, expressed in terms of Biofilm Index (BI), revealed that biofilm-producing strains were isolated in the CCRBSI group with a frequency significantly higher than in the non-CCRBSI group (χ(2) = 4...
February 18, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213808/genotyping-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-dipodascus-capitatus-isolated-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-of-a-sicilian-hospital
#3
Teresa Fasciana, Mario Giuffrè, Cinzia Calà, Ingrid Anne Mandy Schierz, Giuseppe Aquilina, Giuseppa Pinello, Giuseppina Capra, Dario Lipari, Giovanni Corsello, Anna Giammanco
In August 2015, Dipodascus capitatus was isolated from two patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Nosocomial acquisition of the fungus was suspected and epidemiological studies were undertaken. The patients were simultaneously hospitalized, and the comparison of the two isolates by two independent molecular typing methods have confirmed clonal dissemination of a single strain of D. capitatus. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was useful for identifying the appropriated antifungal therapy in micafungin...
February 18, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197800/small-airway-obstruction-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-potential-parameters-for-early-detection
#4
Tomasz Piorunek, Magdalena Kostrzewska, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Marcin Mardas, Sławomir Michalak, Joanna Goździk-Spychalska, Halina Batura-Gabryel
The impulse oscillometry (IOS) is recognized as a complementary method to spirometry in the diagnostics of obstructive pulmonary disorders. The IOS enables to measure total respiratory resistance (R5) and proximal respiratory resistance (R20), with the R5-R20 difference reflecting small airway resistance. This study seeks to evaluate the usefulness of R5-R20, maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), and forced expiratory volume in 3 s/forced vital capacity ratio (FEV3/FVC), in the assessment of small airway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
February 15, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197799/the-activity-of-influenza-and-influenza-like-viruses-in-individuals-aged-over-14-in-the-2015-2016-influenza-season-in-poland
#5
D Kowalczyk, K Cieślak, K Szymański, L B Brydak
Infections in every epidemic season induced by respiratory viruses, especially by the influenza virus, are the cause of many illnesses and complications which often end in death. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of influenza and influenza-like viruses in individuals aged over of 14 in Poland during the 2015/2016 epidemic season. A total of 5070 specimens taken from patients were analyzed. The presence of the influenza virus was confirmed in 40.2% of cases, among which the subtype A/H1N1/pdm09 (62...
February 15, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190144/immunization-with-streptococcal-heme-binding-protein-shp-protects-mice-against-group-a-streptococcus-infection
#6
Xiaolan Zhang, Yingli Song, Yuanmeng Li, Minghui Cai, Yuan Meng, Hui Zhu
Streptococcal heme binding protein (Shp) is a surface protein of the heme acquisition system that is an essential iron nutrient in Group A Streptococcus (GAS). Here, we tested whether Shp immunization protects mice from subcutaneous infection. Mice were immunized subcutaneously with recombinant Shp and then challenged with GAS. The protective effects against GAS challenge were evaluated two weeks after the last immunization. Immunization with Shp elicited a robust IgG response, resulting in high anti-Shp IgG titers in the serum...
February 12, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190143/inhibition-of-urease-enzyme-production-and-some-other-virulence-factors-expression-in-proteus-mirabilis-by-n-acetyl-cysteine-and-dipropyl-disulphide
#7
Rehab Mahmoud Abdel-Baky, Mohamed Abdullah Ali, Gamal El-Din Ali A Abuo-Rahma, Neveen AbdelAziz
: Proteus mirabilis is one of the important pathogens that colonize the urinary tract and catheters resulting in various complications, such as blockage of the catheters and the formation of infective stones. PURPOSE: In this study we evaluated the effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and dipropyl disulphide on some virulence factors expressed by a Proteus mirabilis strain isolated from a catheterized patient. METHODS: Antibacterial activity of both compounds was determined by broth microdilution method...
February 12, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181198/influence-of-socioeconomic-and-anthropometric-factors-on-respiratory-function-in-female-university-students
#8
D Nowakowski, K Kliś, M Żurawiecka, A Dubrowski, Iwona Wronka
The purpose of this study was to evaluate lung function in healthy young female university students and to seek the relation of lung function to socioeconomic and anthropometric indices. The methodology consisted of spirometry tests, anthropometric measures and a questionnaire conducted in November of 2015 among 152 female university students. At first, lung function was analyzed for any relationship with socioeconomic factors and smoking. The results of a multi-factor analysis of variance demonstrate significant differences in the FEV1/FVC ratio depending on the general socioeconomic status...
February 9, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181197/circulation-of-antibodies-against-influenza-virus-hemagglutinins-in-the-2014-2015-epidemic-season-in-poland
#9
D Kowalczyk, K Szymański, K Cieślak, L B Brydak
The aim of this study was to determine the level of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies in the serum of people in different age-groups during the 2014/2015 epidemic influenza season in Poland. A total of 1050 sera were tested. The level of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies was determined using the hemagglutinin inhibition test. The results provided information on the incidence of circulating A/California/7/2009(H1N1)pdm09, A/Texas/50/2012(H3N2), and B/Massachusetts/2/2012 viruses. The level of antibodies against influenza differed between age-groups...
February 9, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181196/association-of-estrogen-related-traits-with-allergic-rhinitis
#10
Katarzyna Kliś, Iwona Wronka
Estrogen's role in allergic diseases has recently been of considerable interest. The present article seeks to determine the relationship between estrogen-dependent traits and allergic rhinitis. The following traits were considered: digit ratio, age at menarche, regularity of menstrual cycles, and the waist to hip ratio. The study consisted of surveys and measurement data collected from 768 female university undergraduates. One hundred and sixty eight undergraduates (21.9%) had been diagnosed with allergic rhinitis...
February 9, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181195/co-infection-with-influenza-viruses-and-influenza-like-virus-during-the-2015-2016-epidemic-season
#11
Karol Szymański, K Cieślak, D Kowalczyk, L B Brydak
Concerning viral infection of the respiratory system, a single virus can cause a variety of clinical symptoms and the same set of symptoms can be caused by different viruses. Moreover, infection is often caused by a combination of viruses acting at the same time. The present study demonstrates, using multiplex RT-PCR and real-time qRT-PCR, that in the 2015/2016 influenza season, co-infections were confirmed in patients aged 1 month to 90 years. We found 73 co-infections involving influenza viruses, 17 involving influenza viruses and influenza-like viruses, and six involving influenza-like viruses...
February 9, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138938/the-sentinel-system-as-the-main-influenza-surveillance-tool
#12
Katarzyna Cieślak, D Kowalczyk, K Szymański, L B Brydak
Poland has implemented the influenza surveillance system called Sentinel as of 2004. The system consists of both epidemiological and virological surveillance. It is an important tool for monitoring the situation in the entire country, coordinated by the National Influenza Center situated at the National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene (NIPH-NIH) in Warsaw, Poland. In the 2015/2016 epidemic season, more than 1600 samples were tested in the Sentinel System, of which 38.6% were positive...
January 31, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132133/stress-response-brain-noradrenergic-system-and-cognition
#13
Pawel J Winklewski, Marek Radkowski, Magdalena Wszedybyl-Winklewska, Urszula Demkow
Locus coeruleus is a critical component of the brain noradrenergic system. The brain noradrenergic system provides the neural substrate for the architecture supporting the interaction with, and navigation through, an external world complexity. Changes in locus coeruleus tonic and phasic activity and the interplay between norepinephrine and α1- and α2-adrenoceptors in the prefrontal cortex are the key elements of this sophisticated architecture. In this narrative review we discuss how the brain noradrenergic system is affected by increased exposure to corticotropin-releasing hormone triggered by stress response...
January 29, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132132/impaired-vascular-function-in-sarcoidosis-patients
#14
I Tuleta, D Skowasch, L Biener, C Pizarro, R Schueler, G Nickenig, N Schahab, C Schaefer, S Pingel
A common feature of sarcoidosis and atherosclerosis is a chronic systemic inflammatory reaction. Our hypothesis was that sarcoidosis may negatively influence the vessel status. We addressed the issue by examining preatherosclerotic vascular alternations using an ultrasound-based speckle-tracking method in 72 sarcoidosis patients and 15 matched controls. To find potential factors which may have a deleterious influence on arterial performance, different subgroups of sarcoidosis, such as sarcoidosis with or without cortisone therapy, pulmonary sarcoidosis in early and advanced stages, pulmonary sarcoidosis alone or combined with extrapulmonary sarcoidosis, and sarcoidosis with or without elevated blood levels of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)/soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R) were investigated...
January 29, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050878/antibacterial-bioactive-glass-s53p4-for-chronic-bone-infections-a-multinational-study
#15
Nina Lindfors, Jan Geurts, Lorenzo Drago, J J Arts, Vesa Juutilainen, Pekka Hyvönen, Arnold Suda, Aloj Domenico, Stefano Artiaco, Chingiz Alizadeh, Adrian Brychcy, Jertzy Bialecki, Carlo Romano
Osteomyelitis is an infectious process in bone that occasionally leads to bone destruction. Traditionally, the surgical treatment procedure is performed in combination with systemic and local antibiotics as a two-stage procedure that uses autograft or allograft bone for filling of the cavitary defect. Bioactive glass (BAG-S53P4) is a bone substitute with proven antibacterial and bone bonding properties.One hundred and sixteen patients who had verified chronic osteomyelitis was treated using BAG-S53P4 as part of the treatment...
January 4, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039665/the-relationship-between-burnout-syndrome-among-the-medical-staff-and-work-conditions-in-the-polish-healthcare-system
#16
Alicja Głębocka
Psychologists emphasize that people employed in social service organizations are vulnerable to chronic stress and burnout syndrome caused by a close and unsatisfied interpersonal relationship. However, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a feeling of diminished personal accomplishment can be attributed to other external factors. One of them is poor living and occupational conditions. According to a report by OECD, the healthcare system in Poland is the worst among the member countries. The aim of the present study was to define the relationship between occupational burnout and the rating of the Polish healthcare system among the medical staff...
December 31, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039664/influenza-and-influenza-like-viruses-in-children-in-the-epidemic-season-2015-2016-in-poland
#17
K Cieślak, K Szymański, D Kowalczyk, L B Brydak
Influenza is an infectious disease caused by influenza A and B viruses. Children are the group which is the most exposed to influenza and influenza-like infections. They are considered as carriers of influenza infections in the population. In the epidemic season 2015/2016 more than 8000 samples were tested, of which over 30 % specimens were collected from patients aged 0-14 years. In 42.3 % cases the influenza or influenza-like viruses were confirmed. The most common subtype was A/H1N1/pdm09. Analysis of positive specimens was categorized into three smaller groups 0-4, 5-9, 10-14...
December 31, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039663/whooping-cough-in-adults-a-series-of-severe-cases
#18
Katarzyna Zycinska, M Cieplak, M Chmielewska, A Nitsch-Osuch, A Klaczkow, M Hadzik-Blaszczyk, Z Kur, K A Wardyn
Bordetella pertussis is a gram-negative aerobic coccobacillus causing contagious respiratory tract disease called whooping cough. The virulence factors consist of pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, fimbriae, lipooligosaccharide, and adenylate cyclase toxin. The disease causes a worldwide threat to public health despite a high vaccination coverage. The course of whooping cough in adults is frequently atypical, causing difficulty in diagnosis. In this report we present five patients hospitalized with Bordetella pertussis infection manifesting atypical and severe symptoms...
December 31, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035582/endothelial-dysfunction-and-hypertension
#19
Dildar Konukoglu, Hafize Uzun
In the past, endothelium was thought to be only a mechanical barrier. Today, endothelium is known to be a tissue regulating vascular tone, cell growth and the interaction between the leukocytes, thrombocytes and the vessel wall. It also synthesizes growth factors and thrombo-regulatory molecules and responds to physical and chemical signals. Even though the term "endothelial dysfunction" is generally used for deterioration of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation; the term also includes the abnormalities between endothelium and leukocytes, thrombocytes and regulatory molecules and conditions resulting in aberrant endothelium activation...
December 30, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032327/emerging-zika-virus-infection-a-rapidly-evolving-situation
#20
Bordi Licia, Avsic-Zupanc Tatjana, Lalle Eleonora, Vairo Francesco, Capobianchi Maria Rosaria, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, firstly identified in Uganda and responsible for sporadic human cases in Africa and Asia until recently, when large outbreak occurred in Pacific Ocean and the Americas. Since the main vectors during its spread outside of Africa have been Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, which are widely distributed all over the world, there is urgent need for a coordinated response for prevention and spread of ZIKV epidemics.Despite clinical manifestation of Zika virus infection are usually mild and self limiting, there are reports suggesting, during the recent epidemic, an association of ZIKV infection with severe consequences, including fetal/newborn microcephaly, due to vertical in utero transmission, autoimmune-neurological presentations including cranial nerve dysfunction, and Guillain-Barré Syndrome in adults...
December 29, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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