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Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050878/antibacterial-bioactive-glass-s53p4-for-chronic-bone-infections-a-multinational-study
#1
Nina Lindfors, Jan Geurts, Lorenzo Drago, J J Arts, Vesa Juutilainen, Pekka Hyvönen, Arnold Suda, Aloj Domenico, Stefano Artiaco, Chingiz Alizadeh, Adrian Brychcy, Jertzy Bialecki, Carlo Romano
Osteomyelitis is an infectious process in bone that occasionally leads to bone destruction. Traditionally, the surgical treatment procedure is performed in combination with systemic and local antibiotics as a two-stage procedure that uses autograft or allograft bone for filling of the cavitary defect. Bioactive glass (BAG-S53P4) is a bone substitute with proven antibacterial and bone bonding properties.One hundred and sixteen patients who had verified chronic osteomyelitis was treated using BAG-S53P4 as part of the treatment...
January 4, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039665/the-relationship-between-burnout-syndrome-among-the-medical-staff-and-work-conditions-in-the-polish-healthcare-system
#2
Alicja Głębocka
Psychologists emphasize that people employed in social service organizations are vulnerable to chronic stress and burnout syndrome caused by a close and unsatisfied interpersonal relationship. However, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a feeling of diminished personal accomplishment can be attributed to other external factors. One of them is poor living and occupational conditions. According to a report by OECD, the healthcare system in Poland is the worst among the member countries. The aim of the present study was to define the relationship between occupational burnout and the rating of the Polish healthcare system among the medical staff...
December 31, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039664/influenza-and-influenza-like-viruses-in-children-in-the-epidemic-season-2015-2016-in-poland
#3
K Cieślak, K Szymański, D Kowalczyk, L B Brydak
Influenza is an infectious disease caused by influenza A and B viruses. Children are the group which is the most exposed to influenza and influenza-like infections. They are considered as carriers of influenza infections in the population. In the epidemic season 2015/2016 more than 8000 samples were tested, of which over 30 % specimens were collected from patients aged 0-14 years. In 42.3 % cases the influenza or influenza-like viruses were confirmed. The most common subtype was A/H1N1/pdm09. Analysis of positive specimens was categorized into three smaller groups 0-4, 5-9, 10-14...
December 31, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039663/whooping-cough-in-adults-a-series-of-severe-cases
#4
Katarzyna Zycinska, M Cieplak, M Chmielewska, A Nitsch-Osuch, A Klaczkow, M Hadzik-Blaszczyk, Z Kur, K A Wardyn
Bordetella pertussis is a gram-negative aerobic coccobacillus causing contagious respiratory tract disease called whooping cough. The virulence factors consist of pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, fimbriae, lipooligosaccharide, and adenylate cyclase toxin. The disease causes a worldwide threat to public health despite a high vaccination coverage. The course of whooping cough in adults is frequently atypical, causing difficulty in diagnosis. In this report we present five patients hospitalized with Bordetella pertussis infection manifesting atypical and severe symptoms...
December 31, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035582/endothelial-dysfunction-and-hypertension
#5
Dildar Konukoglu, Hafize Uzun
In the past, endothelium was thought to be only a mechanical barrier. Today, endothelium is known to be a tissue regulating vascular tone, cell growth and the interaction between the leukocytes, thrombocytes and the vessel wall. It also synthesizes growth factors and thrombo-regulatory molecules and responds to physical and chemical signals. Even though the term "endothelial dysfunction" is generally used for deterioration of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation; the term also includes the abnormalities between endothelium and leukocytes, thrombocytes and regulatory molecules and conditions resulting in aberrant endothelium activation...
December 30, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032327/emerging-zika-virus-infection-a-rapidly-evolving-situation
#6
Bordi Licia, Avsic-Zupanc Tatjana, Lalle Eleonora, Vairo Francesco, Capobianchi Maria Rosaria, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, firstly identified in Uganda and responsible for sporadic human cases in Africa and Asia until recently, when large outbreak occurred in Pacific Ocean and the Americas. Since the main vectors during its spread outside of Africa have been Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, which are widely distributed all over the world, there is urgent need for a coordinated response for prevention and spread of ZIKV epidemics.Despite clinical manifestation of Zika virus infection are usually mild and self limiting, there are reports suggesting, during the recent epidemic, an association of ZIKV infection with severe consequences, including fetal/newborn microcephaly, due to vertical in utero transmission, autoimmune-neurological presentations including cranial nerve dysfunction, and Guillain-Barré Syndrome in adults...
December 29, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032326/prioritization-of-high-consequence-viruses-to-improve-european-laboratory-preparedness-for-cross-border-health-threats
#7
Carla Nisii, Roland Grunow, Andreas Brave, Giuseppe Ippolito, Daniela Jacob, Pontus Jureen, Barbara Bartolini, Antonino Di Caro
Highly infectious diseases can spread rapidly across borders through travel or trade, and international coordination is essential to a prompt and efficient response by public health laboratories. Therefore, developing strategies to identify priorities for a rational allocation of resources for research and surveillance has been the focus of a large body of research in recent years. This paper describes the activities and the strategy used by a European-wide consortium funded by the European Commission, named EMERGE (Efficient response to highly dangerous and emerging pathogens at EU level), for the selection of high-threat pathogens with cross-border potential that will become the focus of its preparedness activities...
December 29, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004307/the-potential-of-social-media-and-internet-based-data-in-preventing-and-fighting-infectious-diseases-from-internet-to-twitter
#8
Khaled Al-Surimi, Mohammed Khalifa, Salwa Bahkali, Ashraf El-Metwally, Mowafa Househ
Health threats due to infectious diseases used to be a major public health concerns around the globe till mid of twentieth century when effective public health interventions helped in eradicating a number of infectious diseases around the world. Over the past 15 years, there has been a rise in the number of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases being reported such as the Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2002, HINI in 2009, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012, Ebola in 2014, and Zika in 2016...
December 22, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000141/particulate-matter-in-the-air-of-the-underground-chamber-complex-of-the-wieliczka-salt-mine-health-resort
#9
Wioletta Rogula-Kozłowska, Magdalena Kostrzon, Patrycja Rogula-Kopiec, Artur J Badyda
This study evaluates the mass concentration and chemical composition of particulate matter (PM), collected in the chamber complex of the underground health resort located in the Wieliczka Salt Mine in southern Poland. Physical and chemical properties of PM were examined from the standpoint of their possible connection with therapeutic effects of the subterranean air in the mine. We found that in three underground spots we measured the average concentration of PM did not exceed 30 μg/m(3). Chemical composition of PM was dominated by sodium chloride, making up 88 % of its mass, on average...
December 21, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981434/novel-pathophysiological-mechanisms-in-hypertension
#10
Rohan Samson, Andrew Lee, Sean Lawless, Robert Hsu, Gary Sander
Hypertension is the most common disease affecting humans and imparts a significant cardiovascular and renal risk to patients. Extensive research over the past few decades has enhanced our understanding of the underlying mechanisms in hypertension. However, in most instances, the cause of hypertension in a given patient continues to remain elusive. Nevertheless, achieving aggressive blood pressure goals significantly reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as demonstrated in the recently concluded SPRINT trial...
December 16, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981433/ambulatory-blood-pressure-monitoring-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hypertension
#11
Md Shahidul Islam
Clinicians should take initiatives to establish ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) services in their own practice, or to ensure that they have access to such services elsewhere. Whenever possible, ABPM should be performed in suitable cases, where it is likely to deliver clinically useful information for making a correct diagnosis, or for tailoring the anti-hypertensive treatment regimen for each individual patient. ABPM is clinically useful, among others, for identifying people with "masked normotension", "masked hypertension", "sleep-time hypertension", and "reduced decline of sleep-time blood pressure"...
December 16, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966111/concha-bullosa-in-paleoanthropological-material
#12
Aleksandra Gawlikowska-Sroka, J Szczurowski, B Kwiatkowska, P Konczewski, E Dzieciołowska-Baran, M Donotek, A Walecka, D Nowakowski
Concha bullosa is a variant of the sinonasal anatomy in which the middle nasal turbinate contains pneumatized cells, which leads to turbinate enlargement. The reason for concha bullosa formation is unclear, but the variant is seen in up to half the modern population and it may predispose to paranasal sinusitis. The variant has hitherto featured little in paleopathology. Therefore, in the present study we seek to determine the presence of concha bullosa, with the coexisting hypertrophy of the middle turbinate and signs of sinusitis or other pathology of the paranasal complex, in a population living in Tomersdorf-Toporow in the Upper Lausatia, a historical region in Germany and Poland, presently Zgorzelec County in the Lower Silesian voivodeship, at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth century...
December 14, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966110/antibiotic-treatment-of-hospitalized-patients-with-pneumonia-complicated-by-clostridium-difficile-infection
#13
K Zycinska, M Chmielewska, B Lenartowicz, M Hadzik-Blaszczyk, M Cieplak, Z Kur, R Krupa, K A Wardyn
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common gastrointestinal complication after antimicrobial treatment. It is estimated that CDI after pneumonia treatment is connected with a higher mortality than other causes of hospitalization. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the kind of antibiotic used for pneumonia treatment and mortality from post-pneumonia CDI. We addressed the issue by examining retrospectively the records of 217 patients who met the diagnostic criteria of CDI...
December 14, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966109/renal-ultrasound-and-doppler-sonography-in-hypertension-an-update
#14
Maria Boddi
Ultrasound (US) allows the non-invasive evaluation of morphological changes of kidney structure (by means of B-Mode) and patterns of renal and extrarenal vascularization (by means of color-Doppler and contrast-enhanced US). In hypertensive subjects it offers a relevant contribution to the diagnosis of early renal damage, acute or chronic nephropathies and nephrovascular disease. However, morphological changes are often detected late and non-specific and in recent years evidence has increased regarding the clinical relevance of renal resistive index (RRI) for the study of vascular and renal parenchymal renal abnormalities...
December 14, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966108/membrane-fusion-and-infection-of-the-influenza-hemagglutinin
#15
Sean T Smrt, Justin L Lorieau
The influenza virus is a major health concern associated with an estimated 5000 to 30,000 deaths every year (Reed et al. 2015) and a significant economic impact with the development of treatments, vaccinations and research (Molinari et al. 2007). The entirety of the influenza genome is comprised of only eleven coding genes. An enormous degree of variation in non-conserved regions leads to significant challenges in the development of inclusive inhibitors for treatment. The fusion peptide domain of the influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) is a promising candidate for treatment since it is one of the most highly conserved sequences in the influenza genome (Heiny et al...
December 14, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966107/the-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-a-continuing-risk-to-global-health-security
#16
Esam I Azhar, Simone Lanini, Giuseppe Ippolito, Alimuddin Zumla
Two new zoonotic coronaviruses causing disease in humans (Zumla et al. 2015a; Hui and Zumla 2015; Peiris et al. 2003; Yu et al. 2014) have been the focus of international attention for the past 14 years due to their epidemic potential; (1) The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (Peiris et al. 2003) first discovered in China in 2001 caused a major global epidemic of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). (2) The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a new corona virus isolated for the first time in a patients who died of severe lower respiratory tract infection in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) in June 2012 (Zaki et al...
December 14, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957711/the-role-of-beta-blockers-in-the-treatment-of-hypertension
#17
John M Cruickshank
IMPORTANCE: Two major guide-line committees (JNC-8 and NICE UK) have dropped beta-blockers as first-line therapy in the treatment of hypertension. Also, recent meta-analyses (that do not take age into account) have concluded that beta-blockers are inappropriate first-line agents in the treatment of hypertension. This review seeks to shed some light on the "rights and wrongs" of such actions and conclusions. OBJECTIVES: Because the pathophysiology of primary/essential hypertension differs in elderly and younger subjects, the latter being closely linked to obesity and increased sympathetic nerve activity, the author sought to clarify the efficacy of beta-blockers in the younger/middle-aged group in reducing the risk of death, and cardiovascular end-points...
December 13, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957710/recent-advances-in-the-genetics-of-hypertension
#18
Loo Keat Wei, Anthony Au, Lai Kuan Teh, Huey Shi Lye
Hypertension is a silent killer worldwide, caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Until now, genetic and genomic association studies of hypertension are reporting different degree of association on hypertension. Hence, it is essential to gather all the available information on the reported genetic loci and to determine if any biomarker(s) is/are significantly associated with hypertension. Current review concluded the potential biomarkers for hypertension, with regards to electrolytes and fluids transport as well as sodium/potassium ions homeostasis, which are supported by the results of case-controls and meta-analyses...
December 13, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957709/reduction-of-chemically-stable-multibonds-nitrogenase-like-biosynthesis-of-tetrapyrroles
#19
Gunhild Layer, Joern Krausze, Jürgen Moser
The sophisticated biochemistry of nitrogenase plays a fundamental role for the biosynthesis of tetrapyrrole molecules, acting as key components of photosynthesis and methanogenesis. Three nitrogenase-like metalloenzymes have been characterized to date. Synthesis of chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls involves the reduction of the C17-C18 double bond of the conjugated ring system of protochlorophyllide which is catalyzed by the multi-subunit enzyme dark operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR). Subsequently, biosynthesis of all bacteriochlorophylls requires the reduction of the C7-C8 double bond by a second nitrogenase-like enzyme termed chlorophyllide oxidoreductase (COR)...
December 13, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957708/hypertension-in-pregnancy
#20
Roopa Malik, Viral Kumar
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy remain an unresolved and unpreventable problem in obstetrics. They remain one of the leading member of deadly triad causing maternal mortality, the other two being hemorrhage and sepsis which are preventable. The incidence of hypertensive disorders worldwide is 12 %. We have discussed various terminologies used to describe hypertension during pregnancy, risk factors, etiopathogenesis, pathophysiology, management guidelines, complications and long term consequences of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in this chapter...
December 13, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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