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Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888489/the-role-of-dna-methylation-in-hypertension
#1
Masashi Demura, Kiyofumi Saijoh
DNA methylation is the covalent modification of DNA that affects its function, without altering DNA sequences. Three important roles of DNA methylation include intrauterine programming, acquired predisposition, and transgenerational inheritance. A wide variety of factors can affect DNA methylation. Intrauterine programming involves drastic changes in DNA methylation patterns during cellular development and differentiation, which have a long-lasting effect on the predisposition of offspring. Influences from the mother, including maternal nutritional status, modify intrauterine epigenetic programming...
November 26, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888488/phaeochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma
#2
P T Kavinga Gunawardane, Ashley Grossman
Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas are relatively uncommon tumours which may be manifest in many ways, specifically as sustained or paroxysmal hypertension, episodes of palpitations, sweating, headache and anxiety, or increasingly as an incidental finding. Recent studies have shown that an increasing number are due to germline mutations. This review concentrates on the diagnosis, biochemistry and treatment of these fascinating tumours.
November 26, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873232/evidence-based-revised-view-of-the-pathophysiology-of-preeclampsia
#3
Asif Ahmed, Homira Rezai, Sophie Broadway-Stringer
Preeclampsia is a life-threatening vascular disorder of pregnancy due to a failing stressed placenta. Millions of women risk death to give birth each year and globally each year, almost 300,000 lose their life in this process and over 500,000 babies die as a consequence of preeclampsia. Despite decades of research, we lack pharmacological agents to treat it. Maternal endothelial oxidative stress is a central phenomenon responsible for the preeclampsia phenotype of high maternal blood pressure and proteinuria...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873231/atherosclerotic-renal-artery-stenosis
#4
Robert Schoepe, Stephen McQuillan, Debbie Valsan, Geoffrey Teehan
Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis is a form or peripheral arterial disease that tends to affect older subjects with hyperlipidemia, history of tobacco use, and who have other coexistent forms of vascular insufficiency. An abdominal bruit on physical exam can be a helpful clue. Slowly progressive, it can lead to critical narrowing of the renal arteries which creates a cascade of events such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone activation (RAAS), hypertension, acute pulmonary edema, and renal fibrosis. The hypertension is considered a secondary form and can even be resistant to multiple antihypertensives...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873230/hypertension-in-the-hemodialysis-patient
#5
Musab Hommos, Carrie Schinstock
Hypertension is common yet difficult to manage in the hemodialysis patients population. This chapter discusses various aspects of this problem including its prevalence, distinctive pathophysiology, methods of diagnosis and pharmacological and non pharmacological treatment approaches. The topic is relevant to any health care provider taking care of hemodialysis patients.
November 22, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873229/subclinical-kidney-damage-in-hypertensive-patients-a-renal-window-opened-on-the-cardiovascular-system-focus-on-microalbuminuria
#6
Giuseppe Mulè, Antonella Castiglia, Claudia Cusumano, Emilia Scaduto, Giulio Geraci, Dario Altieri, Epifanio Di Natale, Onofrio Cacciatore, Giovanni Cerasola, Santina Cottone
The kidney is one of the major target organs of hypertension.Kidney damage represents a frequent event in the course of hypertension and arterial hypertension is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD).ESRD has long been recognized as a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. However, over the past 20 years a large and consistent body of evidence has been produced suggesting that CV risk progressively increases as the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) declines and is already significantly elevated even in the earliest stages of renal damage...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873228/hypertension-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
Seyed Mehrdad Hamrahian, Bonita Falkner
Hypertension, a global public health problem, is currently the leading factor in the global burden of disease. It is the major modifiable risk factor for heart disease, stroke and kidney failure. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is both a common cause of hypertension and CKD is also a complication of uncontrolled hypertension. The interaction between hypertension and CKD is complex and increases the risk of adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes. This is particularly significant in the setting of resistant hypertension commonly seen in patient with CKD...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873227/the-relationship-between-aortic-root-size-and-hypertension-an-unsolved-conundrum
#8
Giuseppe Mulè, Emilio Nardi, Massimiliano Morreale, Antonella Castiglia, Giulio Geraci, Dario Altieri, Valentina Cacciatore, Margherita Schillaci, Francesco Vaccaro, Santina Cottone
Thoracic aortic aneurysms rupture and dissection are among the most devastating vascular diseases, being characterized by elevated mortality, despite improvements in diagnostic imaging and surgical techniques.An increased aortic root diameter (ARD) represents the main risk factor for thoracic aortic dissection and rupture and for aortic valve regurgitation.Even though arterial hypertension is commonly regarded as a predisposing condition for the development of thoracic aorta aneurysms, the role of blood pressure (BP) as determinant of aortic root enlargement is still controversial...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864806/pathophysiological-mechanisms-and-correlates-of-therapeutic-pharmacological-interventions-in-essential-arterial-hypertension
#9
Francesco Maranta, Roberto Spoladore, Gabriele Fragasso
Treating arterial hypertension (HT) remains a hard task. The hypertensive patient is often a subject with several comorbidities and metabolic abnormalities. Clinicians everyday have to choose the right drug for the single patient among the different classes of antihypertensives. Apart from lowering blood pressure, a main therapeutic target should be that of counteracting all the possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in HT itself and in existing/potential comorbidities. All the ancillary positive and negative effects of the administered drugs should be considered: in particular, since hypertensive patients are often glucose intolerant/diabetic, carrier of serum lipids disorder, have already developed atherosclerotic diseases and endothelial dysfunction, they should not be treated with drugs negatively interfering with these conditions but with molecules that, if possible, improve them...
November 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864805/endocrine-hypertension-a-practical-approach
#10
REVIEW
Joseph M Pappachan, Harit N Buch
Elevated blood pressure resulting from few endocrine disorders (endocrine hypertension) accounts for a high proportion of cases of secondary hypertension. Although some features may be suggestive, many cases of endocrine hypertension remain silent until worked up for the disease. A majority of cases result from primary aldosteronism. Other conditions that can cause endocrine hypertension are: congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Liddle syndrome, pheochromocytomas, Cushing's syndrome, acromegaly, thyroid diseases, primary hyperparathyroidism and iatrogenic hormone manipulation...
November 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864804/activity-of-norspermidine-on-bacterial-biofilms-of-multidrug-resistant-clinical-isolates-associated-with-persistent-extremity-wound-infections
#11
Anthony P Cardile, Ronald L Woodbury, Carlos J Sanchez, Sandra C Becerra, Rebecca A Garcia, Katrin Mende, Joseph C Wenke, Kevin S Akers
Biofilm formation is a major virulence factor for numerous pathogenic bacteria and is cited as a central event in the pathogenesis of chronic human infections, which is in large part due to excessive extracellular matrix secretion and metabolic changes that occur within the biofilm rendering them highly tolerant to antimicrobial treatments. Polyamines, including norspermidine, play central roles in bacterial biofilm development, but have also recently been shown to inhibit biofilm formation in select strains of various pathogenic bacteria...
November 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864803/enabling-rapid-response-to-the-2014-2016-ebola-epidemic-the-experience-and-the-results-of-the-national-institute-for-infectious-diseases-lazzaro-spallanzani
#12
Emanuele Nicastri, Concetta Castilletti, Mirella Biava, Francesco Maria Fusco, Nicola Petrosillo, Vincenzo Puro, Francesco Nicola Lauria, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Antonino Di Caro, Giuseppe Ippolito
The unprecedented epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa highlighted the need for stronger systems for disease surveillance, response, and prevention worldwide. Tackling an epidemic event today requires a broader view, not only limited to medical management of the patients, but which also includes heroic efforts by clinicians and public health personnel.Since its foundation in 1936, INMI has been devoted to the prevention, diagnosis and care for infectious diseases. In 2009, INMI became a WHO collaborative center for clinical care, diagnosis, response and training on Highly Infectious Diseases...
November 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864802/secreted-phospholipase-a2-type-iia-spla2-iia-activates-integrins-in-an-allosteric-manner
#13
Yoshikazu Takada, Masaaki Fujita
Secreted phospholipase A2 type IIA (sPLA2-IIA) is a well-established pro-inflammatory protein and has been a major target for drug discovery. However, the mechanism of its signaling action has not been fully understood. We previously found that sPLA2-IIA binds to integrins αvβ3 and α4β1 in human and that this interaction plays a role in sPLA2-IIA's signaling action. Our recent studies found that sPLA2-IIA activates integrins in an allosteric manner through direct binding to a newly identified binding site of integrins (site 2), which is distinct from the classical RGD-binding site (site 1)...
November 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864801/high-prevalence-of-human-herpesvirus-8-infection-in-diabetes-type-2-patients-and-detection-of-a-new-virus-subtype
#14
Enrica Piras, Maria A Madeddu, Giuseppina Palmieri, Fabrizio Angius, Pierpaolo Contini, Raffaello Pompei, Angela Ingianni
The prevalence of Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) DNA and antiviral antibodies in Diabetes type 2 (DM2) and control subjects was studied, in order to confirm a possible link between DM2 and HHV8 infection. The HHV8-DNA from diabetic patients was typed for detecting possible genomic differences with known HHV8 reference viruses.DM2 patients and healthy controls were examined for the presence of HHV8 DNA into the peripheral blood lymphocytes. Both anti-lytic and latent phase antibodies were detected in HHV8 positive and negative diabetic patients, as well in a number of controls...
November 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864800/resistant-hypertension
#15
Debbie Valsan, Umber Burhan, Geoffrey Teehan
Conservatively, ten million people in the USA alone may suffer from RH and may be similarly prevalent elsewhere. Given the strong linear correlation between hypertension and cardiovascular outcomes, better control is paramount. We favor a multi-pronged approach. It may not suffice to address this by pharmacologic means only. Careful attention to modifiable risk factors, particularly sodium intake, adhering to a proper diet (i.e. DASH), and avoiding agents, i.e. non-steroidals, that can elevate the blood pressure, is key...
November 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864799/primordial-prevention-of-cardiometabolic-risk-in-childhood
#16
Meryem A Tanrikulu, Mehmet Agirbasli, Gerald Berenson
Fetal life and childhood are important in the development of cardiometabolic risk and later clinical disease of atherosclerosis, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Molecular and environmental conditions leading to cardiometabolic risk in early life bring us a challenge to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies to reduce cardiovascular (CV) risk in children and later disease. It is important that prevention strategies begin at an early age to reduce future CV morbidity and mortality. Pioneering work from longitudinal studies such as Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS), the Finnish Youth Study and other programs provide an awareness of the need for public and health services to begin primordial prevention...
November 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815930/unique-considerations-when-managing-hypertension-in-the-transplant-patient
#17
Donald Mitema, Carrie Schinstock
For the select fortunate recipients of organ transplants, transplantation affords the rare opportunity for a new life. Given the scarcity of organs for transplantation, it is imperative that the health of transplant recipients be optimized in order to fully benefit from this gift of life. Unfortunately, hypertension is highly prevalent in the transplant population and it is considered a major cardiovascular risk factor contributing to mortality and morbidity in this population. In this chapter, we expound on the epidemiology, unique pathophysiology, evaluation, and management of hypertension as it pertains to the solid organ transplant recipient...
November 5, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815929/challenges-in-the-management-of-hypertension-in-older-populations
#18
Lisa Pont, Tariq Alhawassi
The prevalence of hypertension increases with age making it a significant health concern for older persons. Aging involves a range of physiological changes such as increases in arterial stiffness, widening pulse pressure, changes in renin and aldosterone levels, decreases in renal salt excretion, declining in renal function, changes in the autonomic nervous system sensitivity and function and changes to endothelial function all of which may not only affect blood pressure but may also affect individual response to pharmacotherapy used to manage hypertension and prevent end organ damage and other complications associated with poor blood pressure control...
November 5, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815928/mechanisms-of-bacterial-colonization-of-implants-and-host-response
#19
Christof Wagner, G Maria Hänsch
The review focuses on the current knowledge and the most pertinent hypotheses regarding the local host immune response as the key factor for the pathogenesis of implant-associated infections. Although bacterial biofilms have long been recognized as causative agents, the link between the infection and the devastating inflammatory response, particularly the localized tissue destruction and bone degradation is less well understood. Understanding these consequences of infection, however, is of utmost importance, because suppressing inflammation and preventing bone destruction could be a novel, alternative therapeutic option in cases when eradicating the infections fails...
November 5, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815927/renal-denervation
#20
Mohammed Awais Hameed, Indranil Dasgupta
Sympathetic nervous system over-activity is closely linked with elevation of systemic blood pressure. Both animal and human studies suggest renal sympathetic nerves play an important role in this respect. Historically, modulation of sympathetic activity has been used to treat hypertension. More recently, catheter based renal sympathetic denervation was introduced for the management of treatment resistant hypertension. Sound physiological principles and surgical precedent underpin renal denervation as a therapy for treatment of resistant hypertension...
November 5, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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