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Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

K Cieślak, D Kowalczyk, K Szymański, E Hallmann-Szelińska, L B Brydak
Influenza is an infectious disease that is a common cause of infection among children. The main reason for it is the extremely low percentage of vaccinated people in Poland. In the 2016/2017 epidemic season more than 3,000 tests from children up to age 14 were examined. The dominance of subtype A/H3N2/ (40.9%) was confirmed. The evaluation was stratified by three age groups (0-4, 5-9, and 10-14 years), which revealed significant differences. The highest number of samples was available in the 0-4 years group...
August 17, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Carola Millan, Juan F Vivanco, Isabel M Benjumeda-Wijnhoven, Suncica Bjelica, Juan F Santibanez
In orthopedic medicine, a feasible reconstruction of bone structures remains one of the main challenges both for healthcare and for improvement of patients' quality of life. There is a growing interest in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) medical application, due to their multilineage differentiation potential, and tissue engineering integration to improve bone repair and regeneration. In this review we will describe the main characteristics of MSCs, such as osteogenesis, immunomodulation and antibacterial properties, key parameters to consider during bone repair strategies...
August 14, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
A Vinhas, M T Rodrigues, M E Gomes
Tendon injuries are frequent and are responsible for substantial morbidity both in sports and in the workplace. Despite the endogenous mechanisms of tendon repair and regeneration, tendon healing upon injury is slow and often insufficient to restore complete biomechanics functionality.Inflammation has a pivotal role in tendon healing and failed healing responses contribute to the progression of tendinopathies. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved are poorly understood requiring further insights...
August 8, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jiarong Feng, Lei He, Yuqian Li, Fei Xiao, Guang Hu
Pleckstrin homology (PH) domains form a large family of protein modules within membrane-targeting domains. PH domains can function as lipid-binding modules, and in particular bind with different specificities and affinities to phosphoinositides (PIs). Understanding the association of PH domains to PIs is critical for many aspects of cellular biology. Bioinformatics and computational modeling approaches have become standard tools to study the structure and dynamics of PH domains and PIs. In this review, recent advances in the binding specificity of PH domains and their interactions with PIs, using bioinformatics tools for the prediction of PIs binding sites, performing molecular dynamics simulations to study PH domains-PIs interactions, as well as the computational inhibitor design for PH domains guided signaling pathways have been discussed...
August 2, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Dandan Zhu, Celine Shuet Lin Kong, Julian A Gingold, Ruiying Zhao, Dung-Fang Lee
In 2006, Noble Prize laureate Shinya Yamanaka discovered that a set of transcription factors can reprogram terminally differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent stem cell state. Since then, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have come into the public spotlight. Amidst a growing field of promising clinical uses of iPSCs in recent years, cancer disease modeling has emerged as a particularly promising and rapidly translatable application of iPSCs. Technological advances in genome editing over the past few years have facilitated increasingly rapid progress in generation of iPSCs with clearly defined genetic backgrounds to complement existing patient-derived models...
August 2, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Bartłomiej Drop, Mariola Janiszewska, Agnieszka Barańska, Krzysztof Kanecki, Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Magdalena Bogdan
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common illness. An individualized approach to changes caused by a chronic disease includes specific activity resulting from cognitive-emotional predispositions. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of selected factors such as satisfaction with life, health self-assessment, duration of the illness, and the way of coping with disease on adaptive reactions in COPD patients. The study involved 109 COPD patients. The Adaptive Responses Inventory and the Satisfaction with Life Scale were used for the assessment of variables...
July 27, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Juliane Weiner, Konstanze Zieger, Jan Pippel, John T Heiker
Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) or SERPINA12 according to the serpin nomenclature was identified together with other genes and gene products that were specifically expressed or overexpressed in the intra-abdominal or visceral adipose tissue (AT) of the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rat. These rats spontaneously develop visceral obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and -glycemia, as well as hypertension and thus represent a well suited animal model of obesity and related metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes...
July 27, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Aysegul Atasoy-Zeybek, Gamze Torun Kose
Gene therapy provides a promising approach for regeneration and repair of injured bone. Application of gene therapy has displayed increased efficiency in various animal models and preclinical trials in comparison with traditional bone grafting methods. The objective of this review is to highlight fundamental principles of gene therapy strategies in bone tissue engineering and solutions of their current limitations for the healing of bone injury. Vector types are debated for the repair of defected site due to demonstration of constraints and applications of the protocols...
July 27, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yi Shuai, Yang Ma, Tao Guo, Liqiang Zhang, Rui Yang, Meng Qi, Wenjia Liu, Yan Jin
Dental stem cells are a minor population of mesenchymal stem cells existing in specialized dental tissues, such as dental pulp, periodontium, apical papilla, dental follicle and so forth. Standard methods have been established to isolate and identify these stem cells. Due to their differentiation potential, these mesenchymal stem cells are promising for tooth repair. Dental stem cells have been emerging to regenerated teeth and periodontal tissues, ascribe to their self-renewal, multipotency and tissue specific differentiation potential...
July 27, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Parisa Goodarzi, Bagher Larijani, Sepideh Alavi-Moghadam, Akram Tayanloo-Beik, Fereshteh Mohamadi-Jahani, Negar Ranjbaran, Moloud Payab, Khadijeh Falahzadeh, Maryamsadat Mousavi, Babak Arjmand
Wound healing is a complex process with the considerable burden on healthcare system. There are several cellular therapy methods that have been introduced to treat different types of wounds. Despite the advantages of cellular therapy, it is needed to overcome different limitations of this method such as; tumorigenicity and immune rejection. Accordingly, scientists have suggested cell-based vesicles and exosomes. Exosomes can promote proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis process in the wound environment...
July 27, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Gabriela D Colpo, Laura Stertz, Breno S Dinz, Antonio L Teixeira
Mood disorders are heterogeneous conditions characterized by complex genetics, unclear pathophysiology, and variable symptomatology. Currently, there is no biomarker for the diagnosis or prognosis of mood disorders, and the treatments are of limited efficacy in a significant proportion of patients. Furthermore, the disease models are not able to recapitulate their complexity. In this scenario, stem cells may have different applications in mood disorders. Circulating stem cells may be regarded as potential biomarkers...
July 27, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Rachel A Sabol, Annie C Bowles, Alexandra Côté, Rachel Wise, Nicholas Pashos, Bruce A Bunnell
Adipose stem cells (ASCs) have gained attention in the fields of stem cells regenerative medicine due to their multifaceted therapeutic capabilities. Promising preclinical evidence of ASCs has supported the substantial interest in the use of these cells as therapy for human disease. ASCs are an adult stem cell resident in adipose tissue with the potential to differentiation along mesenchymal lineages. They also are known to be recruited to sites of inflammation where they exhibit strong immunomodulatory capabilities to promote wound healing and regeneration...
July 27, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Weronika Bystrzycka, Sandra Sieczkowska, Aneta Manda-Handzlik, Joanna Rogulska, Aneta Moskalik, Urszula Demkow, Olga Ciepiela
The first line of immune defense against pathogens is neutrophils. They use three major antimicrobial mechanisms: phagocytosis, degranulation, and release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are structures which consist of nuclear DNA conjugated with antibacterial proteins. They are formed to entrap and kill pathogens. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of Escherichia coli (E. coli), Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P...
July 27, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
K Szymański, D Kowalczyk, K Cieślak, E Hallmann-Szelińska, L B Brydak
The 2016/2017 epidemic season was characterized by a lower number of diagnostically tested samples of the nasal and throat swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, compared with the preceding season. The predominant influenza subtype found was A/H3N2/, which was notably diagnosed in patients over 25 years of age. This subtype was also often diagnosed in older people of 65+ years, which is in line with the risk assessment prepared by the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) at the beginning of the season...
July 27, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sabine Conrad, Kathrin Weber, Ulrich Walliser, Florian Geburek, Thomas Skutella
In adults the healing tendon generates fibrovascular scar tissue and recovers never histologically, mechanically, and functionally which leads to chronic and to degenerative diseases. In this review, the processes and mechanisms of tendon development and fetal regeneration in comparison to adult defect repair and degeneration are discussed in relation to regenerative therapeutic options. We focused on the application of stem cells, growth factors, transcription factors, and gene therapy in tendon injury therapies in order to intervene the scarring process and to induce functional regeneration of the lesioned tissue...
July 25, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Bilgesu Genc, Hemdem Rodi Bozan, Sermin Genc, Kursad Genc
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). It is characterized by demyelination and neuronal loss that is induced by attack of autoreactive T cells to the myelin sheath and endogenous remyelination failure, eventually leading to functional neurological disability. Although recent evidence suggests that MS relapses are induced by environmental and exogenous triggers such as viral infections in a genetic background, its very complex pathogenesis is not completely understood...
July 24, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ernest Kuchar, Kamila Ludwikowska, Leszek Szenborn, Adam Antczak, Agnieszka Mastalerz-Migas, Aneta Nitsch-Osuch
For the past 10 years, influenza vaccination coverage rate in Poland remains at a low 3% threshold. This low rate may be related to the unsatisfactory knowledge of vaccination, influenza, and misperception of health risks in the general population. To examine these issues, we used an online questionnaire consisting of 12 closed questions. The basic knowledge on influenza and vaccination was examined. The questionnaire was completed by 1669 persons, mostly young women. Generally, 73% of respondents passed the threshold of 70% correct answers, but important gaps in their knowledge were identified concerning the persons at risk of developing the infection (7...
July 12, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
A Wrotek, M Czajkowska, E Zawłocka, T Jackowska
Children under 2 years of age may receive antiviral therapy when influenza is suspected. Signs of influenza are frequently unclear and testing is indicated. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of clinical signs and the rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) in diagnosing influenza and in choosing the appropriate treatment. In the 2015-2016 influenza season, 89 children under 2 years of age (56.7% of 157 children diagnosed with influenza) were hospitalized. There were 74 RIDT and 70 reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) performed for the purpose of diagnosis, either test per child...
July 12, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Krzysztof Kanecki, Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Paweł Gorynski, Patryk Tarka, Magdalena Bogdan, Piotr Tyszko
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a form of vasculitis that affects small- and medium-sized vessels in many organs. The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiology of GPA in Poland in 2011-2015, including the incidence and prevalence rates. The authors conducted a retrospective, population-based study, using hospital discharge records with GPA diagnosis. GPA incidence was estimated on the basis of the data from the Polish hospital morbidity study carried out by the National Institute of Public Health...
July 4, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
K Cieślak, K Szymański, D Kowalczyk, E Hallmann-Szelińska, L B Brydak
The influenza Sentinel surveillance system is a source of valuable data about the dynamics of epidemic seasons in Poland. During the epidemic season 2016/2017, more than 1,000 samples were examined, of which 48% were positive for influenza diagnosis. The predominance of influenza A/H3N2/ was confirmed. Influenza B viruses were noted in only 1% of the samples tested. After the analysis in age groups, the highest number of positive samples was observed in the group of 26-44 years. Infections caused by influenza-like viruses were confirmed only in 3% of cases...
June 29, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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