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Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647926/importance-of-gold-guidelines-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
J Sadlonova, D Osinova, E Rozborilova, O Osina, E Novakova, V Sadlonova
In December 2011, a major revision of GOLD 2011 guidelines was published based on the evidence-based medicine. The goal of GOLD 2011 is to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the patient's health, and the risk of future events; all of which eventually guide therapy. A combined COPD assessment according to GOLD 2011 considers the patient's level of symptoms, spirometry abnormalities, risk of exacerbation, and the presence of comorbidities. GOLD 2011 stratifies patients into four basic groups labeled A, B, C, and D...
June 25, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647925/psychobehavioral-effects-of-meditation
#2
Mieczyslaw Pokorski, Anna Suchorzynska
Meditation is an increasingly popular psychobehavioral therapy. Various meditation techniques in use make it hard to objectively scrutinize the psychological benefits. Therefore, in this study we set out to examine the effects of two fundamentally different meditative techniques, Zazen, 'seated meditation', in which the body and mind are calmed, and Tai Chi, 'meditation in motion', based on energetic martial art performance. The aim was to compare the effects of both techniques on personality structure, emotional intelligence, mood, and coping with stress...
June 25, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643234/body-mass-disorders-in-healthy-short-children-and-in-children-with-growth-hormone-deficiency
#3
Paweł Tomaszewski, Katarzyna Milde, Anna Majcher, Beata Pyrżak, Gul Tiryaki-Sonmez, Brad J Schoenfeld
The aim of the study was to determine the degree of adiposity and the incidence of body mass disorders, including abdominal obesity, in healthy short children and children with growth hormone deficiency. The study included 134 short children (height < 10th percentile) aged 7-15. In this cohort there were 63 (31 boys and 32 girls) children without diagnosed hormonal disorders and 71 patients (35 boys and 36 girls) with growth hormone deficiency. Basic somatic features were assessed and the study participants were categorized according to the percentage of body fat (%FAT), body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)...
June 23, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639251/regulation-of-the-extracellular-serpina5-protein-c-inhibitor-penetration-through-cellular-membranes
#4
Felix C Wahlmüller, Hanjiang Yang, Margareta Furtmüller, Margarethe Geiger
It is generally accepted that the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane is impermeable for proteins and peptides and that these molecules require special mechanisms for their transport from the extra- to the intracellular space. Recently there is increasing evidence that certain proteins/peptides can also directly cross the phospholipid membrane. SERPINA5 (protein C inhibitor) is a secreted protease inhibitor with broad protease reactivity and wide tissue distribution. It binds glycosaminoglycans and certain phospoholipids, which can modulate its inhibitory activity...
June 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639250/regulation-of-nephrin-phosphorylation-in-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-injury
#5
Benoit Denhez, Pedro Geraldes
Diabetes is the leading cause of microalbuminuria and end-stage renal failure in industrial countries. Disruption of the filtration barrier, seen in almost all nephrotic diseases and diabetes, is the result of the loss or effacement of the podocyte foot process, notably damage of proteins within the slit diaphragm such as nephrin. For many years, nephrin has been viewed as a structural component of the slit diaphragm. It is now well recognized that nephrin contains several tyrosine residues in its cytoplasmic domain, which influences the development of glomerular injury...
June 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639249/histone-post-translational-modifications-and-nucleosome-organisation-in-transcriptional-regulation-some-open-questions
#6
Josefa Castillo, Gerardo López-Rodas, Luis Franco
The organisation of chromatin is first discussed to conclude that nucleosomes play both structural and transcription-regulatory roles. The presence of nucleosomes makes difficult the access of transcriptional factors to their target sequences and the action of RNA polymerases. The histone post-translational modifications and nucleosome remodelling are first discussed, from a historical point of view, as mechanisms to remove the obstacles imposed by chromatin structure to transcription. Instead of reviewing the state of the art of the whole field, this review is centred on some open questions...
June 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639248/p2x-receptor-activation
#7
Toshimitsu Kawate
Extracellular ATP-gated P2X receptors are trimeric non-selective cation channels important for many physiological events including immune response and neural transmission. These receptors belong to a unique class of ligand-gated ion channels composed of only six transmembrane helices and a relatively small extracellular domain that harbors three ATP-binding pockets. The crystal structures of P2X receptors, including the recent P2X3 structures representing three different stages of the gating cycle, have provided a compelling structural foundation for understanding how this class of ligand-gated ion channels function...
June 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639247/p2y1-receptors-properties-and-functional-activities
#8
Jolanta Barańska, Rafał Czajkowski, Paweł Pomorski
In this chapter we try to show a comprehensive image of current knowledge of structure, activity and physiological role of the P2Y1 purinergic receptor. The structure, distribution and changes in the expression of this receptor are summarized, as well as the mechanism of its signaling activity by the intracellular calcium mobilization. We try to show the connection between the components of its G protein activation and cellular or physiological effects, starting from changes in protein phosphorylation patterns and ending with such remote effects as receptor-mediated apoptosis...
June 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639246/atp-gated-p2x3-receptors-are-specialised-sensors-of-the-extracellular-environment
#9
Elsa Fabbretti
P2X3 receptors are ion channels expressed by autonomic and sensory nerves and specialised in transducing extracellular ATP signals. Structural data, together with functional and biochemical studies, suggest that conformational changes of P2X3 receptors upon agonist binding influence downstream intracellular molecular mechanisms relevant for neuronal responses. Activity of P2X3 receptors is implicated in pain, itch, asthma, cardiovascular dysfunction and other pathologies. The study of these receptors has therefore a large potential in the field of drug development and interdisciplinary efforts could clarify molecular mechanisms controlling P2X3 receptor function in different physiological or pathological contexts...
June 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639245/biofilm-forming-ability-and-clonality-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-strains-isolated-from-urine-samples-and-urinary-catheters-in-different-european-hospitals
#10
Claudia Vuotto, Filipa Grosso, Francesca Longo, Maria Pia Balice, Mariana Carvalho de Barros, Luisa Peixe, Gianfranco Donelli
OBJECTIVE: Biofilm formation has been associated with the persistence of Acinetobacter baumannii in hospital settings and its propensity to cause infection. We investigated the adhesion ability and clonality of 128 A. baumannii isolates recovered from urine and urinary catheters of patients admitted to 5 European hospitals during 1991-2013. METHODS: Isolates identification was confirmed by rpoB sequencing and by the presence of blaOXA-51. The presence of carbapenemases was detected by PCR...
June 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639244/veterinary-public-health-in-italy-from-healthy-animals-to-healthy-food-contribution-to-improve-economy-in-developing-countries
#11
Margherita Cacaci, Rossella Colomba Lelli
The role of the veterinarian as a public health officer is intrinsic to the history and the culture of veterinary organization in Italy. The Veterinary service being part of the Health administration since the birth of the Italian State in the XIX Century. In the second half of the last century the birth of the Italian National Health Service confirmed that the function of the Italian veterinary service was to analyze and reduce the risks for the human population connected to the relationship man-animal-environment, animal health, food safety and security...
June 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623484/identification-of-mycobacterium-species-by-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry
#12
M Neuschlova, M Vladarova, J Kompanikova, V Sadlonova, E Novakova
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry enables to identify microorganisms by comparison of the protein content with reference spectra in the database. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of phenotypic identification of mycobacteria by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in laboratory practice. Seventy five isolates of mycobacteria were identified by molecular and phenotypic method, and the results were compared by MALDI-TOF. For MALDI-TOF, material was processed according to the Bruker Daltonics protocol and Mycobacterial Library database version 2...
June 17, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601926/antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-oral-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates-compared-to-isolates-from-hospitalized-patients-and-food
#13
Annette Carola Anderson, Huria Andisha, Elmar Hellwig, Daniel Jonas, Kirstin Vach, Ali Al-Ahmad
Enterococcus faecalis, a commensal of the intestinal tract of humans and animals is of great significance as leading opportunistic pathogen, and also prevalent in oral diseases, such as endodontic infections, as well as the healthy oral cavity. To investigate the potential of oral E. faecalis to constitute a reservoir of antibiotic resistance, isolates from supragingival plaque/saliva and from endodontic infections were screened regarding their resistance to selected antibiotics in comparison to nosocomial and food isolates...
June 11, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573446/echocardiographic-assessment-in-patients-with-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis
#14
Katarzyna Życińska, Anna Borowiec, Tadeusz M Zielonka, Tomasz Rusinowicz, Małgorzata Hadzik-Błaszczyk, Magda Cieplak, Kazimierz A Wardyn
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is one of the most common forms of systemic vasculitis, which usually involves the upper and lower respiratory tract, but it may affect also multiple organs. The aim of the study was an echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac involvement in GPA patients during remission. Eighty eight patients with GPA were evaluated in the study. The control group consisted of 40 age and sex-matched patients without a previous history of cardiovascular disease. We found that there were no differences between GPA and control groups regarding left atrial enlargement and interventricular septal hypertrophy...
June 2, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573445/cardiac-arrhythmias-in-patients-with-exacerbation-of-copd
#15
Tomasz Rusinowicz, Tadeusz M Zielonka, Katarzyna Zycinska
Supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias are common among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Multiple factors can contribute to the development of arrhythmias in patients with exacerbation of the disease, including: respiratory or heart failure, hypertension, coronary disease and also medications. In the present study we seek to determine the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias and risk factors among patients with exacerbation of COPD. The study was a retrospective evaluation of 2753 24-h Holter recordings of patients hospitalized in 2004-2016...
June 2, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573444/lung-lesions-during-fever-of-unknown-origin
#16
Renata Krupa, Tadeusz M Zielonka, Malgorzata Hadzik-Blaszczyk, Kazimierz A Wardyn, Katarzyna Zycinska
Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains one of the most difficult diagnostic challenges. The causes of FUO can be various diseases located in different organs. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and nature of pulmonary lesions during FUO. One hundred and sixty one patients with FUO participated in this prospective study. We performed a detailed comprehensive history, physical examination, and a wide spectrum of tests. The most common causes of FUO were infections (39%), autoimmune conditions (28%), and neoplasms (17%)...
June 2, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573443/indoor-exposure-to-volatile-organic-compounds-in-children-health-risk-assessment-in-the-context-of-physiological-development
#17
Radoslaw Czernych, Artur J Badyda, Grazyna Gałęzowska, Lidia Wolska, Pawel Zagożdżon
Indoor air quality is strongly affected by the contamination of ambient air and that related to building and finishing materials and to human activity. Poor ventilation of closed spaces facilitates retention of greater quantity of pollutants. Infants and children are at particular risk of exposure to indoor air pollutants as they undergo rapid physiological and biochemical changes and demonstrate activity patterns unlike those in adults. Health risk assessment in children should be carried out with regard to children-specific factors, since these factors may constitute a source of errors...
June 2, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573442/intensity-of-anxiety-and-depression-in-patients-with-lung-cancer-in-relation-to-quality-of-life
#18
Jacek Polański, Mariusz Chabowski, Anna Chudiak, Bartosz Uchmanowicz, Dariusz Janczak, Joanna Rosińczuk, Grzegorz Mazur
Psychological factors, such as the anxiety and depression, which often occur in patients with lung cancer might negatively influence their quality of life. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of anxiety and depression in lung cancer patients on quality of life. The study included 180 lung patients of the mean age of 62.7 ± 9.7 years. The following scales were employed in the study: Quality of Life Questionnaire QLQ-C30 and LC13 scale, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS). The overall score of quality of life measured by QLQ-C30 was 47...
June 2, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573441/sociodemographic-and-clinical-determinants-of-quality-of-life-of-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
Mariusz Chabowski, Jacek Polański, Grzegorz Mazur, Dariusz Janczak, Joanna Rosińczuk
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a serious health problem. Identifying factors affecting quality of life (QoL) may help modify risk factors and improve survival. The study included 180 patients treated for NSCLC in the Lower Silesian Center of Lung Diseases between January and December 2015. QoL was assessed with QLQ-C30 and QLQ-LC13 scales. General physical functioning was measured with the ECOG Performance Status scale. The clinical and sociodemographic data were retrieved from medical records. The influence of clinical and sociodemographic factors on QoL was examined...
June 2, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567615/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
Josef Yayan, Kurt Rasche, Angeliki Vlachou
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) often accompanies obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A causative connection of the two disease entities is uncertain. However, eliminating OSA improves the prognosis of CKD patients. In the present study we examined a possible relationship between OSA and CKD, and whether there would be a mutual enhancing interaction in the severity of the two diseases. The study was of a retrospective nature and encompassed 382 patients over the period of 1 January 2014-30 June 2015. The OSA diagnosis was supported by a polysomnographic examination in 363 (95...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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