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Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

E Hallmann-Szelińska, K Cieślak, D Kowalczyk, K Szymański, L B Brydak
The aim of the study was to determine the level of antibodies against hemagglutinin of influenza viruses in the sera of 1,050 patients stratified into 7 different age groups during the 2016/2017 epidemic season in Poland. The method consisted of using the hemagglutination inhibition test (HAI). The findings confirmed the presence of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies against the following influenza virus antigens: A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) pdm09, A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2), and B/Brisbane/60/2008. The level of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies differed across the age groups investigated, with the highest values in patients aged 10-14 years...
June 22, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Verena Liebers, Benjamin Kendzia, Heike Stubel, Gerda Borowitzki, Vitali Gering, Christian Monsé, Olaf Hagemeyer, Rolf Merget, Thomas Brüning, Monika Raulf
The whole-blood assay (WBA) with human fresh blood may provide insight into the features of an individual's innate immunity. To assess this, ex vivo cytokine release is measured after stimulation of whole blood with various stimuli, for instance, endotoxin in vitro. The aim of the present study was to evaluate WBA reproducibility with fresh blood using different calculation models. The blood was collected from 16 healthy volunteers on 6 different days. Ex vivo stimulation was performed in each individual's blood sample for 22 h, using different endotoxin concentrations...
June 22, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
D Kowalczyk, K Szymański, K Cieślak, E Hallmann-Szelińska, L B Brydak
Influenza viruses cause respiratory infections every epidemic season regardless of the patient's age. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of respiratory viruses in the epidemic season 2016/2017 in Poland, with particular emphasis on influenza viruses among people aged over 14. There were 2982 clinical samples taken from patients from four age groups: 15-25, 26-44, 45-64, and ≥ 65 years tested under the Sentinel and non-Sentinel surveillance programs. The presence of influenza viruses was confirmed in more than 40% of cases, the predominant type was influenza A virus unsubtyped, followed by subtype A/H3N2/...
June 20, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Tahir Farooq, Kanwal Rehman, Arruje Hameed, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is classified as an autoimmune disease which progressively results in the depletion of insulin-secreting β-cells. Consequently, the insulin secretion stops leading to hyperglycemic situations within the body. Under severe conditions, it also causes multi-organ diabetes-associated dysfunctionalities notably hypercoagulability, neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, and sometimes organ failures. The prevalence of this disease has been noticed about 3% that has highlighted the serious concerns for healthcare professionals around the globe...
June 13, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Monika Budnik, Jakub Kucharz, Paweł Wiechno, Tomasz Demkow, Janusz Kochanowski, Elżbieta Górska, Grzegorz Opolski
Cardiovascular complications are a significant problem in systemically treated cancer patients. One such complication is Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as Takotsubo syndrome. It is most frequently defined as a sudden and transient left or right ventricular systolic dysfunction; mimicking acute coronary syndrome, but without the associated changes in coronary arteries. Takotsubo syndrome is a relatively little known complication that appears in the course of oncological treatment, and its incidence has not yet been established...
June 9, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sevil Köse, Nilgün Yersal, Selin Önen, Petek Korkusuz
Recent advances require a dual evaluation of germ and somatic stem cell niches with a regenerative medicine perspective. For a better point of view of the niche concept, it is needed to compare the microenvironments of those niches in respect to several components. The cellular environment of spermatogonial stem cells' niche consists of Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, vascular endothelial cells, epididymal fat cells, peritubular myoid cells while hematopoietic stem cells have mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, megacaryocytes, macrophages, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes and adipocytes in their microenvironment...
June 8, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Tugce Aydin, Cansu Gurcan, Hadiseh Taheri, Açelya Yilmazer
Due to its extraordinary features such as large surface area, high electrical conductivity, chemical stability and mechanical properties, graphene attracts great interest in various fields of biomedical sciences including biosensors, cancer therapy, diagnosis and regenerative medicine. The use of graphene-based materials has been of great interest for the design of scaffolds that can promote neural tissue regeneration. Recent studies published over the last few years clearly show that graphene and graphene based materials promote adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of various cells including embryonic stem cells (ESC), neural stem cells (NSC), mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)...
June 8, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Evren Erten, Yavuz Emre Arslan
Thanks to novel approaches and emerging technologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have made a great effort to regenerate damaged tissue or organ with no donor needed. The approaches involve two fundamental components: bioengineered scaffolds and stem cells. Bioengineered scaffolds which can also be enriched with bioactive molecules such as cytokines, growth factors, and so on have been fabricated using a wide range of synthetically or naturally derived biodegradable and biocompatible polymers...
June 7, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jarosław Krzywański, Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Tomasz Mikulski, Hubert Krysztofiak, Andrzej Pokrywka, Krzysztof Kanecki, Ernest Kuchar, Lidia Brydak
Being frequent travelers, the elite athletes are advised to undergo an influenza vaccination. The aim of the study was to describe the antibody response to repeated trivalent, inactivated, split influenza vaccine, of different antigenic content, recommended for the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere, administered to sportsmen before the Olympic Games in Brasil in 2016. Fourteen athletes were included in the study. For both A/California/7/209/pdm09 A/H1N1/ antigen and A/Switzerland/971593/2013/A/H3N2/ antigen, higher seroconversion rates were obtained after the first than the second vaccination (10...
June 7, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Moloud Payab, Parisa Goodarzi, Najmeh Foroughi Heravani, Mahdieh Hadavandkhani, Zeinab Zarei, Khadijeh Falahzadeh, Bagher Larijani, Fakher Rahim, Babak Arjmand
Obesity as a worldwide growing challenge is determined by abnormal fat deposition, which may damage general health. Weight loss and control of related risk factors like type2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome is an important concern in obesity management. Different therapeutic approaches such as lifestyle change, medications, and surgery are introduced for obesity treatment. Despite of gaining partially desirable results, the problem is remained unsolved. Therefore, finding a new approach that can overcome previous limitations is very attractive for both researchers and clinicians...
June 7, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Selami Demirci, John F Tisdale
Derivation of functional and mature red blood cells (RBCs) with adult globin expression from renewable source such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is of importance from the clinical point of view. Definitive RBC generation can only be succeeded through production of true hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). There has been a great effort to obtain definitive engraftable HSCs from iPSCs but the results were mostly unsatisfactory due to low, short-term and linage-biased engraftment in mouse models. Moreover, ex vivo differentiation approaches ended up with RBCs with mostly embryonic and fetal globin expression...
June 7, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Parisa Goodarzi, Sepideh Alavi-Moghadam, Masoumeh Sarvari, Akram Tayanloo Beik, Khadijeh Falahzadeh, Hamidreza Aghayan, Moloud Payab, Bagher Larijani, Kambiz Gilany, Fakher Rahim, Hossein Adibi, Babak Arjmand
Skin as the outer layer covers the body. Wounds can affect this vital organ negatively and disrupt its functions. Wound healing as a biological process is initiated immediately after an injury. This process consists of three stages: inflammation, proliferation, remodeling. Generally, these three stages occur continuously and timely. However, some factors such as infection, obesity and diabetes mellitus can interfere with these stages and impede the normal healing process which results in chronic wounds. Financial burden on both patients and health care systems, negative biologic effect on the patient's general health status and reduction in quality of life are a number of issues which make chronic wounds as a considerable challenge...
June 2, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Parisa Goodarzi, Khadijeh Falahzadeh, Mehran Nematizadeh, Parham Farazandeh, Moloud Payab, Bagher Larijani, Akram Tayanloo Beik, Babak Arjmand
The fundamental skin role is to supply a supportive barrier to protect body against harmful agents and injuries. Three layers of skin including epidermis, dermis and hypodermis form a sophisticated tissue composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) mainly made of collagens and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) as a scaffold, different cell types such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts and functional cells embedded in the ECM. When the skin is injured, depends on its severity, the majority of mentioned components are recruited to wound regeneration...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Weijie Peng, Pallab Datta, Yang Wu, Madhuri Dey, Bugra Ayan, Amer Dababneh, Ibrahim T Ozbolat
Three-dimensional (3D) organoids have shown advantages in cell culture over traditional two-dimensional (2D) culture, and have great potential in various applications of tissue engineering. However, there are limitations in current organoid fabrication technologies, such as uncontrolled size, poor reproductively, and inadequate complexity of organoids. In this chapter, we present the existing techniques and discuss the major challenges for 3D organoid biofabrication. Future perspectives on organoid bioprinting are also discussed, where bioprinting technologies are expected to make a major contribution in organoid fabrication, such as realizing mass production and constructing complex heterotypic tissues, and thus further advance the translational application of organoids in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine as well drug testing and pharmaceutics...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Benedetta Amato, Maria Vitale, Maria Teresa Capucchio, Michele Fiasconaro, Elisabetta Gerace, Roberto Puleio, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo Presti
During a routine abattoir inspection of pig carcasses and control activities of hunted wildlife in 2013, 118 large white pigs Sus scrofa domesticus, 474 Nebrodi black pigs and 135 wild boars Sus scrofa scrofa were submitted to anatomopathological examination to evaluate the presence of tuberculosis-like lesions. Localized and generalized granulomatous lesions were detected with a prevalence of about 25% in large white pigs, 13% in Nebrodi black pigs and 8.15% in wild boars. Localized lesions involved mainly the submandibular lymph nodes, but when the disease was spread throughout the body, the inner organs and, also, in some cases, udders and/or bones were injured...
May 31, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sho Takatori, Taisuke Tomita
The AP180 N-terminal homology (ANTH) and Epsin N-terminal homology (ENTH) domains are crucially involved in membrane budding processes. All the ANTH/ENTH-containing proteins share the phosphoinositide-binding activity and can interact with clathrin or its related proteins via multiple binding motifs. Their function also include promotion of clathrin assembly, induction of membrane curvature, and recruitment of various effector proteins, such as those involved in membrane fission. Furthermore, they play a role in the sorting of specific cargo proteins, thereby enabling the cargos to be accurately transported and function at their appropriate locations...
May 18, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
C Randall Harrell, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Crissy Fellabaum, Aleksandar Arsenijevic, Valentin Djonov, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Vladislav Volarevic
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were, due to their immunomodulatory and pro-angiogenic characteristics, extensively explored as new therapeutic agents in cell-based therapy of uveitis, glaucoma, retinal and ocular surface diseases.Since it was recently revealed that exosomes play an important role in biological functions of MSCs, herewith we summarized current knowledge about the morphology, structure, phenotype and functional characteristics of MSC-derived exosomes emphasizing their therapeutic potential in the treatment of eye diseases...
May 18, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Maryam Rahmati, Cristian Pablo Pennisi, Ali Mobasheri, Masoud Mozafari
Stem cell-based therapies, harnessing the ability of stem cells to regenerate damaged or diseased tissues, are under wide-ranging consideration for regenerative medicine applications. However, limitations concerning poor cell persistence and engraftment upon cell transplantation still remain. During the recent years, several types of biomaterials have been investigated to control the fate of the transplanted stem cells, aiming to increase their therapeutic efficiency. In the present chapter we focus on the general properties of some of these biomaterials, which include polymers, ceramics, and nano-biomaterials...
May 17, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Haitham Salem, Gabriela D Colpo, Antonio L Teixeira
To date, there is no definitive treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The realm of stem cells is very promising in regenerative medicine, particularly for neurodegenerative diseases. Various types of stem cells have been used in preclinical/clinical trials for AD aiming the development of an elusive disease modifying therapy. Over the last decade, much knowledge has been gained in this field regarding types of cells, routes and timing of administration, and outcomes of stem cells-based strategies for AD. In this chapter, we will trace the state of art and the challenges facing the use of stem cells in AD...
May 17, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Samaneh Hosseini, Leila Taghiyar, Fatemeh Safari, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad
A major research challenge is to develop therapeutics that assist with healing damaged tissues and organs because the human body has limited ability to restore the majority of these tissues and organs to their original state. Tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine (RM) promises to offer efficient therapeutic biological strategies that use mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs possess the capability for self-renewal, multilineage differentiation, and immunomodulatory properties that make them attractive for clinical applications...
May 17, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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