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Annual Review of Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934592/getting-nervous-an-evolutionary-overhaul-for-communication
#1
Frederique Varoqueaux, Dirk Fasshauer
The evolution of a nervous system as a control system of the body's functions is a key innovation of animals. Its fundamental units are neurons, highly specialized cells dedicated to fast cell-cell communication. Neurons pass signals to other neurons, muscle cells, or gland cells at specialized junctions, the synapses, where transmitters are released from vesicles in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion to activate receptors in the membrane of the target cell. Reconstructing the origins of neuronal communication out of a more simple process remains a central challenge in biology...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934591/combining-traditional-mutagenesis-with-new-high-throughput-sequencing-and-genome-editing-to-reveal-hidden-variation-in-polyploid-wheat
#2
Cristobal Uauy, Brande B H Wulff, Jorge Dubcovsky
Induced mutations have been used to generate novel variation for breeding purposes since the early 1900s. However, the combination of this old technology with the new capabilities of high-throughput sequencing has resulted in powerful reverse genetic approaches in polyploid crops. Sequencing genomes or exomes of large mutant populations can generate extensive databases of mutations for most genes. These mutant collections, together with genome editing, are being used in polyploid species to combine mutations in all copies of a gene (homoeologs), and to expose phenotypic variation that was previously hidden by functional redundancy among homoeologs...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178821/mosaicism-in-cutaneous-disorders
#3
Young H Lim, Zoe Moscato, Keith A Choate
Genetic mosaicism arises when a zygote harbors two or more distinct genotypes, typically due to de novo, somatic mutation during embryogenesis. The clinical manifestations largely depend on the differentiation status of the mutated cell; earlier mutations target pluripotent cells and generate more widespread disease affecting multiple organ systems. If gonadal tissue is spared-as in somatic genomic mosaicism-the mutation and its effects are limited to the proband, whereas mosaicism also affecting the gametes, such as germline or gonosomal mosaicism, is transmissible...
November 27, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178820/nucleases-acting-at-stalled-forks-how-to-reboot-the-replication-program-with-a-few-shortcuts
#4
Philippe Pasero, Alessandro Vindigni
In a lifetime, a human being synthesizes approximately 2×1016 meters of DNA, a distance that corresponds to 130,000 times the distance between the Earth and the Sun. This daunting task is executed by thousands of replication forks, which progress along the chromosomes and frequently stall when they encounter DNA lesions, unusual DNA structures, RNA polymerases, or tightly-bound protein complexes. To complete DNA synthesis before the onset of mitosis, eukaryotic cells have evolved complex mechanisms to process and restart arrested forks through the coordinated action of multiple nucleases, topoisomerases, and helicases...
November 27, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178819/mas-related-g-protein-coupled-receptors-and-the-biology-of-itch-sensation
#5
James Meixiong, Xinzhong Dong
Chronic, persistent itch is a devastating symptom that causes much suffering. In recent years, there has been great progress made in understanding the molecules, cells, and circuits underlying itch sensation. Once thought to be carried by pain-sensing neurons, itch is now believed to be capable of being transmitted by dedicated sensory labeled lines. Members of the Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor (Mrgpr) family demarcate an itch-specific labeled line in the peripheral nervous system. In the spinal cord, the expression of other proteins identifies additional populations of itch-dedicated sensory neurons...
November 27, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178818/transcriptional-regulation-in-archaea-from-individual-genes-to-global-regulatory-networks
#6
Mar Martinez-Pastor, Peter D Tonner, Cynthia L Darnell, Amy K Schmid
Archaea are major contributors to biogeochemical cycles, possess unique metabolic capabilities, and resist extreme stress. To regulate the expression of genes encoding these unique programs, archaeal cells use gene regulatory networks (GRNs) composed of transcription factor proteins and their target genes. Recent developments in genetics, genomics, and computational methods used with archaeal model organisms have enabled the mapping and prediction of global GRN structures. Experimental tests of these predictions have revealed the dynamical function of GRNs in response to environmental variation...
November 27, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178817/conditional-degrons-for-controlling-protein-expression-at-the-protein-level
#7
Toyoaki Natsume, Masato T Kanemaki
The conditional depletion of a protein of interest (POI) is useful not only for loss-of-function studies, but also for the modulation of biological pathways. Technologies that work at the level of DNA, mRNA, and protein are available for temporal protein depletion. Compared with technologies targeting the pretranslation steps, direct protein depletion (or protein knockdown approaches) is advantageous in terms of specificity, reversibility, and time required for depletion, which can be achieved by fusing a POI with a protein domain called a degron that induces rapid proteolysis of the fusion protein...
November 27, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961025/generation-and-evolution-of-neural-cell-types-and-circuits-insights-from-the-drosophila-visual-system
#8
Michael Perry, Nikos Konstantinides, Filipe Pinto-Teixeira, Claude Desplan
The Drosophila visual system has become a premier model for probing how neural diversity is generated during development. Recent work has provided deeper insight into the elaborate mechanisms that control the range of types and numbers of neurons produced, which neurons survive, and how they interact. These processes drive visual function and influence behavioral preferences. Other studies are beginning to provide insight into how neuronal diversity evolved in insects by adding new cell types and modifying neural circuits...
November 27, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934590/the-relationship-between-the-human-genome-and-microbiome-comes-into-view
#9
Julia K Goodrich, Emily R Davenport, Andrew G Clark, Ruth E Ley
The body's microbiome, composed of microbial cells that number in the trillions, is involved in human health and disease in ways that are just starting to emerge. The microbiome is assembled at birth, develops with its host, and is greatly influenced by environmental factors such as diet and other exposures. Recently, a role for human genetic variation has emerged as also influential in accounting for interpersonal differences in microbiomes. Thus, human genes may influence health directly or by promoting a beneficial microbiome...
November 27, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853922/origin-and-evolution-of-the-universal-genetic-code
#10
Eugene V Koonin, Artem S Novozhilov
The standard genetic code (SGC) is virtually universal among extant life forms. Although many deviations from the universal code exist, particularly in organelles and prokaryotes with small genomes, they are limited in scope and obviously secondary. The universality of the code likely results from the combination of a frozen accident, i.e., the deleterious effect of codon reassignment in the SGC, and the inhibitory effect of changes in the code on horizontal gene transfer. The structure of the SGC is nonrandom and ensures high robustness of the code to mutational and translational errors...
November 27, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934594/noncoding-rnas-in-polycomb-and-trithorax-regulation-a-quantitative-perspective
#11
Leonie Ringrose
The question of how noncoding RNAs are involved in Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) regulation has been on an extraordinary journey over the last three decades. Favored models have risen and fallen, and healthy debates have swept back and forth. The field has recently reached a critical mass of compelling data that throws light on several previously unresolved issues. The time is ripe for a fruitful combination of these findings with two other long-running avenues of research, namely the biochemical properties of the PcG/TrxG system and the application of theoretical mathematical models toward an understanding of the system's regulatory properties...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934593/big-lessons-from-little-yeast-budding-and-fission-yeast-centrosome-structure-duplication-and-function
#12
Ann M Cavanaugh, Sue L Jaspersen
Centrosomes are a functionally conserved feature of eukaryotic cells that play an important role in cell division. The conserved γ-tubulin complex organizes spindle and astral microtubules, which, in turn, separate replicated chromosomes accurately into daughter cells. Like DNA, centrosomes are duplicated once each cell cycle. Although in some cell types it is possible for cell division to occur in the absence of centrosomes, these divisions typically result in defects in chromosome number and stability. In singlecelled organisms such as fungi, centrosomes [known as spindle pole bodies (SPBs)] are essential for cell division...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892639/genetic-networks-in-plant-vascular-development
#13
Raili Ruonala, Donghwi Ko, Ykä Helariutta
Understanding the development of vascular tissues in plants is crucial because the evolution of vasculature enabled plants to thrive on land. Various systems and approaches have been used to advance our knowledge about the genetic regulation of vasculature development, from the scale of single genes to networks. In this review, we provide a perspective on the major approaches used in studying plant vascular development, and we cover the mechanisms and genetic networks underlying vascular tissue specification, patterning, and differentiation...
September 11, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876981/genetic-and-structural-analyses-of-rrnpp-intercellular-peptide-signaling-of-gram-positive-bacteria
#14
Matthew B Neiditch, Glenn C Capodagli, Gerd Prehna, Michael J Federle
Bacteria use diffusible chemical messengers, termed pheromones, to coordinate gene expression and behavior among cells in a community by a process known as quorum sensing. Pheromones of many gram-positive bac, such as Bacillus and Streptococcus, are small, linear peptides secreted from cells and subsequently detected by sensory receptors such as those belonging to the large family ofRRNPP proteins. These proteins are cytoplasmic pheromone receptors sharing a structurally similar pheromone-binding domain that functions allosterically to regulate receptor activity...
September 6, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876980/the-genetics-of-plant-metabolism
#15
Alisdair R Fernie, Takayuki Tohge
Plant metabolic studies have traditionally focused on the role and regulation of the enzymes catalyzing key reactions within specific pathways. Within the past 20 years, reverse genetic approaches have allowed direct determination of the effects of the deficiency, or surplus, of a given protein on the biochemistry of a plant. In parallel, top-down approaches have also been taken, which rely on screening broad, natural genetic diversity for metabolic diversity. Here, we compare and contrast the various strategies that have been adopted to enhance our understanding of the natural diversity of metabolism...
September 6, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853926/genetics-and-evolution-of-social-behavior-in-insects
#16
Chelsea A Weitekamp, Romain Libbrecht, Laurent Keller
The study of insect social behavior has offered tremendous insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating behavioral and phenotypic plasticity. Genomic applications to the study of eusocial insect species, in particular, have led to several hypotheses for the processes underlying the molecular evolution of behavior. Advances in understanding the genetic control of social organization have also been made, suggesting an important role for supergenes in the evolution of divergent behavioral phenotypes. Intensive study of social phenotypes across species has revealed that behavior and caste are controlled by an interaction between genetic and environmentally mediated effects and, further, that gene expression and regulation mediate plastic responses to environmental signals...
August 30, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853925/sex-determination-in-the-mammalian-germline
#17
Cassy Spiller, Peter Koopman, Josephine Bowles
Sexual reproduction crucially depends on the production of sperm in males and oocytes in females. Both types of gamete arise from the same precursor, the germ cells. We review the events that characterize the development of germ cells during fetal life as they commit to, and prepare for, oogenesis or spermatogenesis. In females, fetal germ cells enter meiosis, whereas in males they delay meiosis and instead lose pluripotency, activate an irreversible program of prospermatogonial differentiation, and temporarily cease dividing...
August 30, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853924/regulation-by-3-untranslated-regions
#18
Christine Mayr
3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) are the noncoding parts of mRNAs. Compared to yeast, in humans, median 3'-UTR length has expanded approximately tenfold alongside an increased generation of alternative 3'-UTR isoforms. In contrast, the number of coding genes, as well as coding region length, has remained similar. This suggests an important role for 3'-UTRs in the biology of higher organisms. 3'-UTRs are best known to regulate diverse fates of mRNAs, including degradation, translation, and localization, but they can also function like long noncoding or small RNAs, as has been shown for whole 3'-UTRs as well as for cleaved fragments...
August 30, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853923/the-yeast-genomes-in-three-dimensions-mechanisms-and-functions
#19
Ken-Ichi Noma
The three-dimensional (3D) genome structure is highly ordered by a hierarchy of organizing events ranging from enhancer-promoter or gene-gene contacts to chromosomal territorial arrangement. It is becoming clear that the cohesin and condensin complexes are key molecular machines that organize the 3D genome structure. These complexes are highly conserved from simple systems, e.g., yeast cells, to the much more complex human system. Therefore, knowledge from the budding and fission yeast systems illuminates highly conserved molecular mechanisms of how cohesin and condensin establish the functional 3D genome structures...
August 30, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853921/human-genetic-determinants-of-viral-diseases
#20
Adam D Kenney, James A Dowdle, Leonia Bozzacco, Temet M McMichael, Corine St Gelais, Amanda R Panfil, Yan Sun, Larry S Schlesinger, Matthew Z Anderson, Patrick L Green, Carolina B López, Brad R Rosenberg, Li Wu, Jacob S Yount
Much progress has been made in the identification of specific human gene variants that contribute to enhanced susceptibility or resistance to viral diseases. Herein we review multiple discoveries made with genome-wide or candidate gene approaches that have revealed significant insights into virus-host interactions. Genetic factors that have been identified include genes encoding virus receptors, receptor-modifying enzymes, and a wide variety of innate and adaptive immunity-related proteins. We discuss a range of pathogenic viruses, including influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human T cell leukemia virus, human papilloma virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, herpes simplex virus, norovirus, rotavirus, parvovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus...
August 30, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
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