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World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics

Hans Konrad Biesalski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Christina Tewes-Gradl, Andreas Bluethner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Laura M Lamberti, Christa L Fischer Walker, Robert E Black
Zinc is a key micronutrient of particular importance during childhood and pregnancy. Zinc deficiency has been linked to increased infection and stunting among children and is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and preterm delivery. Targeted interventions have the potential to alleviate the adverse effects of zinc deficiency via therapeutic and preventive supplementation, fortification and biofortification, but implementation is challenging. A growing number of low- and middle- income countries have introduced national policies for zinc treatment of diarrhea among children under 5 years in response to mounting evidence of reduced episode duration and severity as well as reduced incidence in the ensuing months, but coverage remains low in the absence of effective scale-up efforts...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Michael B Zimmermann
Iodine requirements are increased ≥50% during pregnancy. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy can cause maternal and fetal hypothyroidism and impair neurological development of the fetus. The consequences depend upon the timing and severity of the hypothyroidism; the most severe manifestation is cretinism. In iodine-deficient areas, controlled studies have demonstrated that iodine supplementation before or during early pregnancy eliminates new cases of cretinism, increases birth weight, reduces rates of perinatal and infant mortality and generally increases developmental scores in young children by 10-20%...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Lindsay H Allen
Micronutrient (MN) interventions have a very positive effect on public health and have been a major focus of nutrition research and policy for over 3 decades. Most MN policies are established by the World Health Organization based on available evidence from well-designed trials. These include recommendations on iron + folic acid supplements for pregnancy, high-dose vitamin A supplementation for children <5 years, multiple MN supplementation in young children, food fortification, and universal salt iodization...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
John Hoddinott, Stuart Gillespie, Sivan Yosef
In this chapter, we clarify what is meant by public-private partnerships (PPPs), provide examples of both successful and less successful PPPs and describe some broad lessons. We see scope for PPPs that would reduce aspects of undernutrition. However, this optimism comes with significant caveats. First, while there would appear to be a large body of evidence on this topic, closer examination shows that there are few independent, rigorous assessments of the impact of commercial sector engagement in nutrition...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Patrick N Stoney, Peter McCaffery
Vitamin A is essential for many physiological processes and is particularly crucial during early life, when vitamin A deficiency increases mortality through elevated rates of infection. This deadly aspect of vitamin A deficiency masks other effects that, while not lethal, may nevertheless cause significant issues if vitamin A insufficiency reoccurs during later childhood or in the adult. One such effect is on the brain. Vitamin A is essential for several regions of the brain, and this chapter focuses on two regions: the hippocampus, needed for learning and memory, and the hypothalamus, necessary to maintain the body's internal physiological balance...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Manfred Eggersdorfer, Julia K Bird
Multi-stakeholder partnerships are important facilitators of improving nutrition in developing countries to achieve the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. Often, the role of industry is challenged and questions are raised as to the ethics of involving for-profit companies in humanitarian projects. The Second International Conference on Nutrition placed great emphasis on the role of the private sector, including industry, in multi-stakeholder partnerships to reduce hunger and malnutrition. Governments have to establish regulatory frameworks and institutions to guarantee fair competition and invest in infrastructure that makes investments for private companies attractive, eventually leading to economic growth...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Veronika Scherbaum, M Leila Srour
Breastfeeding has an important role in the prevention of different forms of childhood malnutrition, including wasting, stunting, over- and underweight and micronutrient deficiencies. This chapter reviews research that demonstrates how improved breastfeeding rates have the potential to improve childhood nutrition, with associated impacts on infectious and noninfectious disease prevention. The unique composition of breastmilk, the importance of breastfeeding in infectious disease prevention, the iron status of breastfed infants, and breastfeeding's protective effect on overweight and obesity are discussed based on currently available research...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Jörg Spieldenner
Iron deficiency, one of the most widespread nutritional disorders, affects millions of people in emerging economies and, increasingly, in industrialized countries. Due to the high iron requirements during growth and development, infants and young children are among those most severely affected by iron deficiency. Iron deficiency that occurs during the critical phases of early life development has long-lasting health consequences that are reflected in increased risk of disease, reduced economic productivity and premature death, underscoring the importance of infants and young children as a key target group for addressing iron deficiency...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Gudrun Keding
All three types of malnutrition - underweight, overweight and micronutrient deficiency - are experienced in countries undergoing a nutrition transition, and they can occur in parallel in one community or even one household. To combat this triple burden of malnutrition, a combination of different strategies will be necessary, including a focus on food-based strategies that promote the consumption of a wide range of foods across nutritionally distinct food groups. In addition to a literature review, data from our own nutrition studies in both Tanzania and Kenya are presented in this paper...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Bernhard Walter
Around 800 million people worldwide are still starving. Around 2 billion are somehow able to allay their hunger yet remain malnourished because their food does not contain sufficient nutrients. There are many reasons for this: for people living in poverty and precarious conditions, the priority is to fill their stomach, and the quality of food seems less important. Since the 1960s, global food production has been focused on increasing yield, not food quality. Mass-produced convenience food with high fat and carbohydrate contents but containing few nutrients is on the rise and - as a result of price wars - often replaces healthier locally grown products...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Craig Gundersen
Food insecurity is a leading nutrition-related health care issue in the USA due to the magnitude of the problem (almost 50 million Americans are food insecure) and its association with a wide array of negative health and other outcomes. Alongside this interest in the USA, there has also been growing interest in Canada. In contrast, food insecurity has received less attention in Europe. Nevertheless, there is both direct and indirect evidence that food insecurity and its attendant consequences are present in Europe...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Sweta Banerjee
In India, a rights-based approach has been used to address large-scale malnutrition, including both micro- and macro-level nutrition deficiencies. Stunting, which is an intergenerational chronic consequence of malnutrition, is especially widespread in India (38% among children under 5 years old). To tackle this problem, the government of India has designed interventions for the first 1,000 days, a critical period of the life cycle, through a number of community-based programs to fulfill the rights to food and life...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Saskia J M Osendarp, Marion L Roche
Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
David Collison
This chapter presents evidence of a relationship between child mortality data and socio-economic factors in relatively wealthy nations. The original study on child mortality that is reported here, which first appeared in a UK medical journal, was undertaken in a school of business by academics with accounting and finance backgrounds. The rationale explaining why academics from such disciplines were drawn to investigate these issues is given in the first part of the chapter. The findings related to child mortality data were identified as a special case of a wide range of social and health indicators that are systematically related to the different organisational approaches of capitalist societies...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Carl Pray, Samuel Ledermann
In Africa and South Asia, where nutrition insecurity is severe, two of the most prominent production technologies are genetically modified (GM) crops and certified organic agriculture. We analyze the potential impact pathways from agricultural production to nutrition. Our review of data and the literature reveals increasing farm-level income from cash crop production as the main pathway by which organic agriculture and GM agriculture improve nutrition. Potential secondary pathways include reduced prices of important food crops like maize due to GM maize production and increased food production using organic technology...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Nicole Darmon, Anne Lacroix, Laurent Muller, Bernard Ruffieux
Unhealthy eating is more prevalent among women and people with a low socioeconomic status. Policies that affect the price of food have been proposed to improve diet quality. The study's objective was to compare the impact of food price policies on the nutritional quality of food baskets chosen by low-income and medium-income women. Experimental economics was used to simulate a fruit and vegetable subsidy and a mixed policy subsidizing healthy products and taxing unhealthy ones. Food classification was based on the Score of Nutritional Adequacy of Individual Foods, Score of Nutrients to Be Limited nutrient profiling system...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Mathilde Kersting, Ute Alexy, Susanne Schürmann
The adequacy of a diet is usually evaluated based on nutrient intake. As people eat foods but not nutrients, food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) are needed. To evaluate dietary habits in infants and young children, the following stepwise approach is suggested: (1) develop country-specific FBDG to identify the potential of common nonfortified foods to ensure adequate nutrient intake and (2) examine potential 'critical' dietary patterns if main food groups are excluded, such as in vegetarian diets or if a family's precarious social status leads to food constraints...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
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