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Advances in Microbial Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30262111/antibiotic-lethality-and-membrane-bioenergetics
#1
Martin I Voskuil, Christopher R Covey, Nicholas D Walter
A growing body of research suggests bacterial metabolism and membrane bioenergetics affect the lethality of a broad spectrum of antibiotics. Electrochemical gradients spanning energy-transducing membranes are the foundation of the chemiosmotic hypothesis and are essential for life; accordingly, their dysfunction appears to be a critical factor in bacterial death. Proton flux across energy-transducing membranes is central for cellular homeostasis as vectorial proton translocation generates a proton motive force used for ATP synthesis, pH homeostasis, and maintenance of solute gradients...
2018: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30262110/nitric-oxide-stress-as-a-metabolic-flux
#2
Mark P Brynildsen
Nitric oxide (NO) is an antimicrobial metabolite produced by immune cells to prohibit infection. Due to its reactivity, NO has numerous reaction routes available to it in biological systems with some leading to cellular damage and others producing innocuous compounds. Pathogens have evolved resistance mechanisms toward NO, and many of these take the form of enzymes that chemically passivate the molecule. In essence, bacteria have channeled NO flux toward useful or harmless compounds, and away from pathways that damage cellular components...
2018: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30262109/biotechnological-applications-of-bioactive-peptides-from-marine-sources
#3
Daniela Giordano, Maria Costantini, Daniela Coppola, Chiara Lauritano, Laura Núñez Pons, Nadia Ruocco, Guido di Prisco, Adrianna Ianora, Cinzia Verde
This review is an overview on marine bioactive peptides with promising activities for the development of alternative drugs to fight human pathologies. In particular, we focus on potentially prolific producers of peptides in microorganisms, including sponge-associated bacteria and marine photoautotrophs such as microalgae and cyanobacteria. Microorganisms are still poorly explored for drug discovery, even if they are highly metabolically plastic and potentially amenable to culturing. This offers the possibility of obtaining a continuous source of bioactive compounds to satisfy the challenging demands of pharmaceutical industries...
2018: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30262108/novel-antibacterials-alternatives-to-traditional-antibiotics
#4
Jonathan W Betts, Michael Hornsey, Roberto M La Ragione
With the advent of the global antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis, our arsenal of effective antibiotics is diminishing. The widespread use and misuse of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine, compounded by the lack of novel classes of antibiotic in the pharmaceutical pipeline, has left a hole in our antibiotic armamentarium. Thus, alternatives to traditional antibiotics are being investigated, including two major groups of antibacterial agents, which have been extensively studied, phytochemicals and metals...
2018: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30262107/host-derived-nitric-oxide-and-its-antibacterial-effects-in-the-urinary-tract
#5
Lovisa Svensson, Mirjana Poljakovic, Isak Demirel, Charlotte Sahlberg, Katarina Persson
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans, and the majority are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). The rising antibiotic resistance among UPEC and the frequent failure of antibiotics to effectively treat recurrent UTI and catheter-associated UTI motivate research on alternative ways of managing UTI. Abundant evidence indicates that the toxic radical nitric oxide (NO), formed by activation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase, plays an important role in host defence to bacterial infections, including UTI...
2018: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778218/preface
#6
EDITORIAL
Robert K Poole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778217/the-inflammasome-regulation-of-nitric-oxide-and-antimicrobial-host-defence
#7
Rajalaksmy A Ramachandran, Christopher Lupfer, Hasan Zaki
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signalling molecule that plays diverse physiological functions including antimicrobial host defence. During microbial infection, NO is synthesized by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), which is expressed by host immune cells through the recognition of microbial pattern molecules. Therefore, sensing pathogens or their pattern molecules by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are located at the cell surface, endosomal and phagosomal compartment, or in the cytosol, is key in inducing iNOS and eliciting antimicrobial host defence...
2018: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778216/nitric-oxide-signalling-in-yeast
#8
Rika I Astuti, Ryo Nasuno, Hiroshi Takagi
Nitric oxide (NO) is a cellular signalling molecule widely conserved among organisms, including microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and fungi, and higher eukaryotes such as plants and mammals. NO is mainly produced by the activities of NO synthase (NOS) or nitrite reductase (NIR). There are several NO detoxification systems, including NO dioxygenase (NOD) and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). NO homeostasis, based on the balance between NO synthesis and degradation, is important for regulating its physiological functions, since an excess of NO causes nitrosative stress due to the high reactivity of NO and NO-derived compounds...
2018: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778215/anaerobic-bacterial-response-to-nitrosative-stress
#9
Jeffrey A Cole
This chapter provides an overview of current knowledge of how anaerobic bacteria protect themselves against nitrosative stress. Nitric oxide (NO) is the primary source of this stress. Aerobically its removal is an oxidative process, whereas reduction is required anaerobically. Mechanisms required to protect aerobic and anaerobic bacteria are therefore different. Several themes recur in the review. First, how gene expression is regulated often provides clues to the physiological function of the gene products...
2018: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778214/emerging-roles-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-bacterial-physiology
#10
Elizabeth H Hutfless, Sujata S Chaudhari, Vinai C Thomas
Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent inhibitor of diverse cellular processes in bacteria. Therefore, it was surprising to discover that several bacterial species, primarily Gram-positive organisms, harboured a gene encoding nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Recent attempts to characterize bacterial NOS (bNOS) have resulted in the discovery of structural features that may allow it to function as a NO dioxygenase and produce nitrate in addition to NO. Consistent with this characterization, investigations into the biological function of bNOS have also emphasized a role for NOS-dependent nitrate and nitrite production in aerobic and microaerobic respiration...
2018: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778213/nitric-oxide-an-old-molecule-with-noble-functions-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biology
#11
Masanori Toyofuku, Sang-Sun Yoon
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium, is characterized by its versatility that enables persistent survival under adverse conditions. It can grow on diverse energy sources and readily acquire resistance to antimicrobial agents. As an opportunistic human pathogen, it also causes chronic infections inside the anaerobic mucus airways of cystic fibrosis patients. As a strict respirer, P. aeruginosa can grow by anaerobic nitrate ( [Formula: see text] ) respiration. Nitric oxide (NO) produced as an intermediate during anaerobic respiration exerts many important effects on the biological characteristics of P...
2018: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778212/reactive-cysteine-persulphides-occurrence-biosynthesis-antioxidant-activity-methodologies-and-bacterial-persulphide-signalling
#12
Tomohiro Sawa, Katsuhiko Ono, Hiroyasu Tsutsuki, Tianli Zhang, Tomoaki Ida, Motohiro Nishida, Takaaki Akaike
Cysteine hydropersulphide (CysSSH) is a cysteine derivative having one additional sulphur atom bound to a cysteinyl thiol group. Recent advances in the development of analytical methods for detection and quantification of persulphides and polysulphides have revealed the biological presence, in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, of hydropersulphides in diverse forms such as CysSSH, homocysteine hydropersulphide, glutathione hydropersulphide, bacillithiol hydropersulphide, coenzyme A hydropersulphide, and protein hydropersulphides...
2018: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760324/the-role-of-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-in-metal-phytoremediation
#13
REVIEW
Zhaoyu Kong, Bernard R Glick
Phytoremediation is a promising technology that uses plants and their associated microbes to clean up contaminants from the environment. In recent years, phytoremediation assisted by plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) has been highly touted for cleaning up toxic metals from soil. PGPB include rhizospheric bacteria, endophytic bacteria and the bacteria that facilitate phytoremediation by other means. This review provides information about the traits and mechanisms possessed by PGPB that improve plant metal tolerance and growth, and illustrate mechanisms responsible for plant metal accumulation/translocation in plants...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760323/haem-based-sensors-of-o-2-lessons-and-perspectives
#14
REVIEW
Eduardo H S Sousa, Marie-Alda Gilles-Gonzalez
Haem-based sensors have emerged during the last 15 years as being a large family of proteins that occur in all kingdoms of life. These sensors are responsible mainly for detecting binding of O2 , CO and NO and reporting the ligation status to an output domain with an enzymatic or macromolecule-binding property. A myriad of biological functions have been associated with these sensors, which are involved in vasodilation, bacterial symbiosis, chemotaxis and biofilm formation, among others. Here, we critically review several bacterial systems for O2 sensing that are extensively studied in many respects, focusing on the lessons that are important to advance the field...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760322/cytochrome-bd-and-gaseous-ligands-in-bacterial-physiology
#15
REVIEW
Elena Forte, Vitaliy B Borisov, João B Vicente, Alessandro Giuffrè
Cytochrome bd is a unique prokaryotic respiratory terminal oxidase that does not belong to the extensively investigated family of haem-copper oxidases (HCOs). The enzyme catalyses the four-electron reduction of O2 to 2H2 O, using quinols as physiological reducing substrates. The reaction is electrogenic and cytochrome bd therefore sustains bacterial energy metabolism by contributing to maintain the transmembrane proton motive force required for ATP synthesis. As compared to HCOs, cytochrome bd displays several distinctive features in terms of (i) metal composition (it lacks Cu and harbours a d-type haem in addition to two haems b), (ii) overall three-dimensional structure, that only recently has been solved, and arrangement of the redox cofactors, (iii) lesser energetic efficiency (it is not a proton pump), (iv) higher O2 affinity, (v) higher resistance to inhibitors such as cyanide, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) and (vi) ability to efficiently metabolize potentially toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species like hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and peroxynitrite (ONOO- )...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760321/mechanism-and-role-of-globin-coupled-sensor-signalling
#16
REVIEW
Johnnie A Walker, Shannon Rivera, Emily E Weinert
The discovery of the globin-coupled sensor (GCS) family of haem proteins has provided new insights into signalling proteins and pathways by which organisms sense and respond to changing oxygen levels. GCS proteins consist of a sensor globin domain linked to a variety of output domains, suggesting roles in controlling numerous cellular pathways, and behaviours in response to changing oxygen concentration. Members of this family of proteins have been identified in the genomes of numerous organisms and characterization of GCS with output domains, including methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins, kinases, and diguanylate cyclases, have yielded an understanding of the mechanism by which oxygen controls activity of GCS protein output domains, as well as downstream proteins and pathways regulated by GCS signalling...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760320/the-microbiology-of-ruthenium-complexes
#17
REVIEW
Hannah M Southam, Jonathan A Butler, Jonathan A Chapman, Robert K Poole
Ruthenium is seldom mentioned in microbiology texts, due to the fact that this metal has no known, essential roles in biological systems, nor is it generally considered toxic. Since the fortuitous discovery of cisplatin, first as an antimicrobial agent and then later employed widely as an anticancer agent, complexes of other platinum group metals, such as ruthenium, have attracted interest for their medicinal properties. Here, we review at length how ruthenium complexes have been investigated as potential antimicrobial, antiparasitic and chemotherapeutic agents, in addition to their long and well-established roles as biological stains and inhibitors of calcium channels...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528653/preface
#18
EDITORIAL
Robert K Poole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528652/nutritional-immunity-and-fungal-pathogenesis-the-struggle-for-micronutrients-at-the-host-pathogen-interface
#19
Dhara Malavia, Aaron Crawford, Duncan Wilson
All living organisms require certain micronutrients such as iron, zinc, manganese and copper for cellular function and growth. For human pathogens however, the maintenance of metal ion homeostasis is particularly challenging. This is because the mammalian host actively enforces extremes of micronutrient availability on potential microbial invaders-processes collectively termed nutritional immunity. The role of iron sequestration in controlling microbial infections is well established and, more recently, the importance of other metals including zinc, manganese and copper has been recognised...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528651/manganese-in-marine-microbiology
#20
Colleen M Hansel
The importance of manganese in the physiology of marine microbes, the biogeochemistry of the ocean and the health of microbial communities of past and present is emerging. Manganese is distributed widely throughout the global ocean, taking the form of an essential antioxidant (Mn(2+)), a potent oxidant (Mn(3+)) and strong adsorbent (Mn oxides) sequestering disproportionately high levels of trace metals and nutrients in comparison to the surrounding seawater. Manganese is, in fact, linked to nearly all other elemental cycles and intricately involved in the health, metabolism and function of the ocean's microbiome...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
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