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Advances in Microbial Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760324/the-role-of-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-in-metal-phytoremediation
#1
Zhaoyu Kong, Bernard R Glick
Phytoremediation is a promising technology that uses plants and their associated microbes to clean up contaminants from the environment. In recent years, phytoremediation assisted by plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) has been highly touted for cleaning up toxic metals from soil. PGPB include rhizospheric bacteria, endophytic bacteria and the bacteria that facilitate phytoremediation by other means. This review provides information about the traits and mechanisms possessed by PGPB that improve plant metal tolerance and growth, and illustrate mechanisms responsible for plant metal accumulation/translocation in plants...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760323/haem-based-sensors-of-o2-lessons-and-perspectives
#2
Eduardo H S Sousa, Marie-Alda Gilles-Gonzalez
Haem-based sensors have emerged during the last 15 years as being a large family of proteins that occur in all kingdoms of life. These sensors are responsible mainly for detecting binding of O2, CO and NO and reporting the ligation status to an output domain with an enzymatic or macromolecule-binding property. A myriad of biological functions have been associated with these sensors, which are involved in vasodilation, bacterial symbiosis, chemotaxis and biofilm formation, among others. Here, we critically review several bacterial systems for O2 sensing that are extensively studied in many respects, focusing on the lessons that are important to advance the field...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760322/cytochrome-bd-and-gaseous-ligands-in-bacterial-physiology
#3
Elena Forte, Vitaliy B Borisov, João B Vicente, Alessandro Giuffrè
Cytochrome bd is a unique prokaryotic respiratory terminal oxidase that does not belong to the extensively investigated family of haem-copper oxidases (HCOs). The enzyme catalyses the four-electron reduction of O2 to 2H2O, using quinols as physiological reducing substrates. The reaction is electrogenic and cytochrome bd therefore sustains bacterial energy metabolism by contributing to maintain the transmembrane proton motive force required for ATP synthesis. As compared to HCOs, cytochrome bd displays several distinctive features in terms of (i) metal composition (it lacks Cu and harbours a d-type haem in addition to two haems b), (ii) overall three-dimensional structure, that only recently has been solved, and arrangement of the redox cofactors, (iii) lesser energetic efficiency (it is not a proton pump), (iv) higher O2 affinity, (v) higher resistance to inhibitors such as cyanide, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and (vi) ability to efficiently metabolize potentially toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760321/mechanism-and-role-of-globin-coupled-sensor-signalling
#4
Johnnie A Walker, Shannon Rivera, Emily E Weinert
The discovery of the globin-coupled sensor (GCS) family of haem proteins has provided new insights into signalling proteins and pathways by which organisms sense and respond to changing oxygen levels. GCS proteins consist of a sensor globin domain linked to a variety of output domains, suggesting roles in controlling numerous cellular pathways, and behaviours in response to changing oxygen concentration. Members of this family of proteins have been identified in the genomes of numerous organisms and characterization of GCS with output domains, including methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins, kinases, and diguanylate cyclases, have yielded an understanding of the mechanism by which oxygen controls activity of GCS protein output domains, as well as downstream proteins and pathways regulated by GCS signalling...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760320/the-microbiology-of-ruthenium-complexes
#5
Hannah M Southam, Jonathan A Butler, Jonathan A Chapman, Robert K Poole
Ruthenium is seldom mentioned in microbiology texts, due to the fact that this metal has no known, essential roles in biological systems, nor is it generally considered toxic. Since the fortuitous discovery of cisplatin, first as an antimicrobial agent and then later employed widely as an anticancer agent, complexes of other platinum group metals, such as ruthenium, have attracted interest for their medicinal properties. Here, we review at length how ruthenium complexes have been investigated as potential antimicrobial, antiparasitic and chemotherapeutic agents, in addition to their long and well-established roles as biological stains and inhibitors of calcium channels...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528653/preface
#6
EDITORIAL
Robert K Poole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528652/nutritional-immunity-and-fungal-pathogenesis-the-struggle-for-micronutrients-at-the-host-pathogen-interface
#7
Dhara Malavia, Aaron Crawford, Duncan Wilson
All living organisms require certain micronutrients such as iron, zinc, manganese and copper for cellular function and growth. For human pathogens however, the maintenance of metal ion homeostasis is particularly challenging. This is because the mammalian host actively enforces extremes of micronutrient availability on potential microbial invaders-processes collectively termed nutritional immunity. The role of iron sequestration in controlling microbial infections is well established and, more recently, the importance of other metals including zinc, manganese and copper has been recognised...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528651/manganese-in-marine-microbiology
#8
Colleen M Hansel
The importance of manganese in the physiology of marine microbes, the biogeochemistry of the ocean and the health of microbial communities of past and present is emerging. Manganese is distributed widely throughout the global ocean, taking the form of an essential antioxidant (Mn(2+)), a potent oxidant (Mn(3+)) and strong adsorbent (Mn oxides) sequestering disproportionately high levels of trace metals and nutrients in comparison to the surrounding seawater. Manganese is, in fact, linked to nearly all other elemental cycles and intricately involved in the health, metabolism and function of the ocean's microbiome...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528650/the-role-of-intermetal-competition-and-mis-metalation-in-metal-toxicity
#9
Anna Barwinska-Sendra, Kevin J Waldron
The metals manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc are essential for almost all bacteria, but their precise metal requirements vary by species, by ecological niche and by growth condition. Bacteria thus must acquire each of these essential elements in sufficient quantity to satisfy their cellular demand, but in excess these same elements are toxic. Metal toxicity has been exploited by humanity for centuries, and by the mammalian immune system for far longer, yet the mechanisms by which these elements cause toxicity to bacteria are not fully understood...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528649/metal-resistance-and-its-association-with-antibiotic-resistance
#10
Chandan Pal, Karishma Asiani, Sankalp Arya, Christopher Rensing, Dov J Stekel, D G Joakim Larsson, Jon L Hobman
Antibiotic resistance is recognised as a major global threat to public health by the World Health Organization. Currently, several hundred thousand deaths yearly can be attributed to infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The major driver for the development of antibiotic resistance is considered to be the use, misuse and overuse of antibiotics in humans and animals. Nonantibiotic compounds, such as antibacterial biocides and metals, may also contribute to the promotion of antibiotic resistance through co-selection...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528648/copper-and-antibiotics-discovery-modes-of-action-and-opportunities-for-medicinal-applications
#11
Alex G Dalecki, Cameron L Crawford, Frank Wolschendorf
Copper is a ubiquitous element in the environment as well as living organisms, with its redox capabilities and complexation potential making it indispensable for many cellular functions. However, these same properties can be highly detrimental to prokaryotes and eukaryotes when not properly controlled, damaging many biomolecules including DNA, lipids, and proteins. To restrict free copper concentrations, all bacteria have developed mechanisms of resistance, sequestering and effluxing labile copper to minimize its deleterious effects...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528647/transition-metal-homeostasis-in-streptococcus-pyogenes-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#12
Andrew G Turner, Cheryl-Lynn Y Ong, Mark J Walker, Karrera Y Djoko, Alastair G McEwan
Trace metals such as Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu are essential for various biological functions including proper innate immune function. The host immune system has complicated and coordinated mechanisms in place to either starve and/or overload invading pathogens with various metals to combat the infection. Here, we discuss the roles of Fe, Mn and Zn in terms of nutritional immunity, and also the roles of Cu and Zn in metal overload in relation to the physiology and pathogenesis of two human streptococcal species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528646/metal-based-combinations-that-target-protein-synthesis-by-fungi
#13
Cindy Vallières, Simon V Avery
A wide range of fungicides (or antifungals) are used in agriculture and medicine, with activities against a spectrum of fungal pathogens. Unfortunately, the evolution of fungicide resistance has become a major issue. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new antifungal treatments. Certain metals have been used for decades as efficient fungicides in agriculture. However, concerns over metal toxicity have escalated over this time. Recent studies have revealed that metals like copper and chromate can impair functions required for the fidelity of protein synthesis in fungi...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528645/bacterial-haemoprotein-sensors-of-no-h-nox-and-nosp
#14
Bezalel Bacon, Lisa-Marie Nisbett, Elizabeth Boon
Low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) modulate varied behaviours in bacteria including biofilm dispersal and quorum sensing-dependent light production. H-NOX (haem-nitric oxide/oxygen binding) is a haem-bound protein domain that has been shown to be involved in mediating these bacterial responses to NO in several organisms. However, many bacteria that respond to nanomolar concentrations of NO do not contain an annotated H-NOX domain. Nitric oxide sensing protein (NosP), a newly discovered bacterial NO-sensing haemoprotein, may fill this role...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720012/the-making-and-taking-of-lipids-the-role-of-bacterial-lipid-synthesis-and-the-harnessing-of-host-lipids-in-bacterial-pathogenesis
#15
REVIEW
E M Fozo, E A Rucks
In order to survive environmental stressors, including those induced by growth in the human host, bacterial pathogens will adjust their membrane physiology accordingly. These physiological changes also include the use of host-derived lipids to alter their own membranes and feed central metabolic pathways. Within the host, the pathogen is exposed to many stressful stimuli. A resulting adaptation is for pathogens to scavenge the host environment for readily available lipid sources. The pathogen takes advantage of these host-derived lipids to increase or decrease the rigidity of their own membranes, to provide themselves with valuable precursors to feed central metabolic pathways, or to impact host signalling and processes...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720011/polar-marine-microorganisms-and-climate-change
#16
REVIEW
C Verde, D Giordano, C M Bellas, G di Prisco, A M Anesio
The large diversity of marine microorganisms harboured by oceans plays an important role in planet sustainability by driving globally important biogeochemical cycles; all primary and most secondary production in the oceans is performed by microorganisms. The largest part of the planet is covered by cold environments; consequently, cold-adapted microorganisms have crucial functional roles in globally important environmental processes and biogeochemical cycles cold-adapted extremophiles are a remarkable model to shed light on the molecular basis of survival at low temperature...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720010/the-impact-of-gene-silencing-on-horizontal-gene-transfer-and-bacterial-evolution
#17
REVIEW
W W Navarre
The H-NS family of DNA-binding proteins is the subject of intense study due to its important roles in the regulation of horizontally acquired genes critical for virulence, antibiotic resistance, and metabolism. Xenogeneic silencing proteins, typified by the H-NS protein of Escherichia coli, specifically target and downregulate expression from AT-rich genes by selectively recognizing specific structural features unique to the AT-rich minor groove. In doing so, these proteins facilitate bacterial evolution; enabling these cells to engage in horizontal gene transfer while buffering potential any detrimental fitness consequences that may result from it...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720009/the-journey-of-lipoproteins-through-the-cell-one-birthplace-multiple-destinations
#18
REVIEW
J Szewczyk, J-F Collet
Bacterial lipoproteins are a very diverse group of proteins characterized by the presence of an N-terminal lipid moiety that serves as a membrane anchor. Lipoproteins have a wide variety of crucial functions, ranging from envelope biogenesis to stress response. In Gram-negative bacteria, lipoproteins can be targeted to various destinations in the cell, including the periplasmic side of the cytoplasmic or outer membrane, the cell surface or the external milieu. The sorting mechanisms have been studied in detail in Escherichia coli, but exceptions to the rules established in this model bacterium exist in other bacteria...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27134028/preface
#19
EDITORIAL
Robert K Poole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27134027/the-model-nife-hydrogenases-of-escherichia-coli
#20
REVIEW
F Sargent
In Escherichia coli, hydrogen metabolism plays a prominent role in anaerobic physiology. The genome contains the capability to produce and assemble up to four [NiFe]-hydrogenases, each of which are known, or predicted, to contribute to different aspects of cellular metabolism. In recent years, there have been major advances in the understanding of the structure, function, and roles of the E. coli [NiFe]-hydrogenases. The membrane-bound, periplasmically oriented, respiratory Hyd-1 isoenzyme has become one of the most important paradigm systems for understanding an important class of oxygen-tolerant enzymes, as well as providing key information on the mechanism of hydrogen activation per se...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
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