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Advances in Microbial Physiology

E M Fozo, E A Rucks
In order to survive environmental stressors, including those induced by growth in the human host, bacterial pathogens will adjust their membrane physiology accordingly. These physiological changes also include the use of host-derived lipids to alter their own membranes and feed central metabolic pathways. Within the host, the pathogen is exposed to many stressful stimuli. A resulting adaptation is for pathogens to scavenge the host environment for readily available lipid sources. The pathogen takes advantage of these host-derived lipids to increase or decrease the rigidity of their own membranes, to provide themselves with valuable precursors to feed central metabolic pathways, or to impact host signalling and processes...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
C Verde, D Giordano, C M Bellas, G di Prisco, A M Anesio
The large diversity of marine microorganisms harboured by oceans plays an important role in planet sustainability by driving globally important biogeochemical cycles; all primary and most secondary production in the oceans is performed by microorganisms. The largest part of the planet is covered by cold environments; consequently, cold-adapted microorganisms have crucial functional roles in globally important environmental processes and biogeochemical cycles cold-adapted extremophiles are a remarkable model to shed light on the molecular basis of survival at low temperature...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
W W Navarre
The H-NS family of DNA-binding proteins is the subject of intense study due to its important roles in the regulation of horizontally acquired genes critical for virulence, antibiotic resistance, and metabolism. Xenogeneic silencing proteins, typified by the H-NS protein of Escherichia coli, specifically target and downregulate expression from AT-rich genes by selectively recognizing specific structural features unique to the AT-rich minor groove. In doing so, these proteins facilitate bacterial evolution; enabling these cells to engage in horizontal gene transfer while buffering potential any detrimental fitness consequences that may result from it...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
J Szewczyk, J-F Collet
Bacterial lipoproteins are a very diverse group of proteins characterized by the presence of an N-terminal lipid moiety that serves as a membrane anchor. Lipoproteins have a wide variety of crucial functions, ranging from envelope biogenesis to stress response. In Gram-negative bacteria, lipoproteins can be targeted to various destinations in the cell, including the periplasmic side of the cytoplasmic or outer membrane, the cell surface or the external milieu. The sorting mechanisms have been studied in detail in Escherichia coli, but exceptions to the rules established in this model bacterium exist in other bacteria...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
Robert K Poole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
F Sargent
In Escherichia coli, hydrogen metabolism plays a prominent role in anaerobic physiology. The genome contains the capability to produce and assemble up to four [NiFe]-hydrogenases, each of which are known, or predicted, to contribute to different aspects of cellular metabolism. In recent years, there have been major advances in the understanding of the structure, function, and roles of the E. coli [NiFe]-hydrogenases. The membrane-bound, periplasmically oriented, respiratory Hyd-1 isoenzyme has become one of the most important paradigm systems for understanding an important class of oxygen-tolerant enzymes, as well as providing key information on the mechanism of hydrogen activation per se...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
M J Torres, J Simon, G Rowley, E J Bedmar, D J Richardson, A J Gates, M J Delgado
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) with substantial global warming potential and also contributes to ozone depletion through photochemical nitric oxide (NO) production in the stratosphere. The negative effects of N2O on climate and stratospheric ozone make N2O mitigation an international challenge. More than 60% of global N2O emissions are emitted from agricultural soils mainly due to the application of synthetic nitrogen-containing fertilizers. Thus, mitigation strategies must be developed which increase (or at least do not negatively impact) on agricultural efficiency whilst decrease the levels of N2O released...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
H J C T Wessels, N M de Almeida, B Kartal, J T Keltjens
Electron transport phosphorylation is the central mechanism for most prokaryotic species to harvest energy released in the respiration of their substrates as ATP. Microorganisms have evolved incredible variations on this principle, most of these we perhaps do not know, considering that only a fraction of the microbial richness is known. Besides these variations, microbial species may show substantial versatility in using respiratory systems. In connection herewith, regulatory mechanisms control the expression of these respiratory enzyme systems and their assembly at the translational and posttranslational levels, to optimally accommodate changes in the supply of their energy substrates...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
A González, E Sevilla, M T Bes, M L Peleato, M F Fillat
Iron-containing metalloproteins are the main cornerstones for efficient electron transport in biological systems. The abundance and diversity of iron-dependent proteins in cyanobacteria makes those organisms highly dependent of this micronutrient. To cope with iron imbalance, cyanobacteria have developed a survey of adaptation strategies that are strongly related to the regulation of photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and other central electron transfer pathways. Furthermore, either in its ferrous form or as a component of the haem group, iron plays a crucial role as regulatory signalling molecule that directly or indirectly modulates the composition and efficiency of cyanobacterial redox reactions...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
G Unden, S Wörner, C Monzel
Many membrane-bound sensor kinases require accessory proteins for function. The review describes functional control of membrane-bound sensors by transporters. The C4-dicarboxylate sensor kinase DcuS requires the aerobic or anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate transporters DctA or DcuB, respectively, for function and forms DctA/DcuS or DcuB/DcuS sensor complexes. Free DcuS is in the permanent (ligand independent) ON state. The DctA/DcuS and DcuB/DcuS complexes, on the other hand, control expression in response to C4-dicarboxylates...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
G F White, M J Edwards, L Gomez-Perez, D J Richardson, J N Butt, T A Clarke
The biochemical mechanisms by which microbes interact with extracellular soluble metal ions and insoluble redox-active minerals have been the focus of intense research over the last three decades. The process presents two challenges to the microorganism. Firstly, electrons have to be transported at the cell surface, which in Gram-negative bacteria presents an additional problem of electron transfer across the ~6nm of the outer membrane. Secondly, the electrons must be transferred to or from the terminal electron acceptors or donors...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
J Torregrosa-Crespo, R M Martínez-Espinosa, J Esclapez, V Bautista, C Pire, M Camacho, D J Richardson, M J Bonete
A number of species of Haloferax genus (halophilic archaea) are able to grow microaerobically or even anaerobically using different alternative electron acceptors such as fumarate, nitrate, chlorate, dimethyl sulphoxide, sulphide and/or trimethylamine. This metabolic capability is also shown by other species of the Halobacteriaceae and Haloferacaceae families (Archaea domain) and it has been mainly tested by physiological studies where cell growth is observed under anaerobic conditions in the presence of the mentioned compounds...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
R G Sawers, D Falke, M Fischer
Streptomyces species belong to the phylum Actinobacteria and can only grow with oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor. Like other members of this phylum, such as corynebacteria and mycobacteria, the aerobic respiratory chain lacks a soluble cytochrome c. It is therefore implicit that direct electron transfer between the cytochrome bc1 and the cytochrome aa3 oxidase complexes occurs. The complex developmental cycle of streptomycetes manifests itself in the production of spores, which germinate in the presence of oxygen into a substrate mycelium that greatly facilitates acquisition of nutrients necessary to support their saprophytic lifestyle in soils...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Advances in Microbial Physiology
David Lloyd, Catrin F Williams
O2 levels encountered in vivo in cells and tissues are almost always at least an order of magnitude less than atmospheric pO2 because of sensing, signalling and bioenergetic demand. Although deleterious reactions are minimized by protective mechanisms (residual toxic products scavenged and detoxified) ambient levels should be mimicked in experiments with whole organisms, their isolated organs, tissues or cells and also with cultures of cell lines. These are also important issues for microorganisms inhabiting low O2 niches within higher organisms and their cells...
2015: Advances in Microbial Physiology
Joke Donné, Sylvia Dewilde
Worldwide, infectious diseases are one of the leading causes of death among children. At least 65% of all infections are caused by the biofilm mode of bacterial growth. Bacteria colonise surfaces and grow as multicellular biofilm communities surrounded by a polymeric matrix as a common survival strategy. These sessile communities endow bacteria with high tolerance to antimicrobial agents and hence cause persistent and chronic bacterial infections, such as dental caries, periodontitis, otitis media, cystic fibrosis and pneumonia...
2015: Advances in Microbial Physiology
Eric A Johnson, Juliette T J Lecomte
In the last few years, advances in algal research have identified the participation of haemoglobins in nitrogen metabolism and the management of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species. This chapter summarises the state of knowledge concerning algal haemoglobins with a focus on the most widely used model system, namely, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Genetic, physiologic, structural, and chemical information is compiled to provide a framework for further studies.
2015: Advances in Microbial Physiology
Paolo Ascenzi, Alessandra di Masi, Loris Leboffe, Emanuela Frangipani, Marco Nardini, Cinzia Verde, Paolo Visca
Iron plays a key role in a wide range of metabolic and signalling functions representing an essential nutrient for almost all forms of life. However, the ferric form is hardly soluble, whereas the ferrous form is highly toxic. Thus, in biological fluids, most of the iron is sequestered in iron- or haem-binding proteins and the level of free iron is low, making haem and iron acquisition a challenge for pathogenic bacteria during infections. Although toxic to the host, free haem is a major and readily available source of iron for several pathogenic microorganisms...
2015: Advances in Microbial Physiology
Barry D Howes, Leonardo Boechi, Alberto Boffi, Dario E Estrin, Giulietta Smulevich
In this chapter, we will discuss the paradigmatic case of Thermobifida fusca (Tf-trHb) HbO in its ferrous and ferric states and its behaviour towards a battery of possible ligands. This choice was dictated by the fact that it has been one of the most extensively studied truncated haemoglobins, both in terms of spectroscopic and molecular dynamics studies. Tf-trHb typifies the structural properties of group II trHbs, as the active site is characterized by a highly polar distal environment in which TrpG8, TyrCD1, and TyrB10 provide three potential H-bond donors in the distal cavity capable of stabilizing the incoming ligands...
2015: Advances in Microbial Physiology
Michael A Hough, Colin R Andrew
Cytochromes c' are a group of class IIa cytochromes with pentacoordinate haem centres and are found in photosynthetic, denitrifying and methanotrophic bacteria. Their function remains unclear, although roles in nitric oxide (NO) trafficking during denitrification or in cellular defence against nitrosoative stress have been proposed. Cytochromes c' are typically dimeric with each c-type haem-containing monomer folding as a four-α-helix bundle. Their hydrophobic and crowded distal sites impose severe restrictions on the binding of distal ligands, including diatomic gases...
2015: Advances in Microbial Physiology
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