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Human Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745250/genetic-differentiation-in-a-sample-from-northern-mexico-city-detected-by-hla-system-analysis-impact-in-the-study-of-population-immunogenetics
#1
Eva D Juárez Cortés, Miguel A Contreras Sieck, Agustín J Arriaga Perea, Rosa M Macías Medrano, Anaí Balbuena Jaime, Paola Everardo Martínez, Joaquín Zúñiga, Víctor Acuña Alonzo, Julio Granados, Rodrigo Barquera
The major histocompatibility complex is directly involved in the immune response, and thus the genes coding for its proteins are useful markers for the study of genetic diversity, susceptibility to disease (autoimmunity and infections), transplant medicine, and pharmacogenetics, among others. The polymorphism of the system also allows researchers to use it as a proxy for population genetics analysis, such as genetic admixture and genetic structure. In order to determine the immunogenetic characteristics of a sample from the northern part of Mexico City and to use them to analyze the genetic differentiation from other admixed populations, including those from previous studies of Mexico City population, we analyzed molecular typing results of donors and patients from the Histocompatibility Laboratory of the Central Blood Bank of the Centro Médico Nacional La Raza selected according to their geographic origin...
July 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745249/mitochondrial-dna-analysis-of-mazahua-and-otomi-indigenous-populations-from-estado-de-m%C3%A3-xico-suggests-a-distant-common-ancestry
#2
Angélica González-Oliver, Ernesto Garfias-Morales, David Glenn Smith, Mirsha Quinto-Sánchez
The indigenous Mazahua and Otomi have inhabited the same localities in Estado de México since pre-Columbian times. Their languages, Mazahua and Otomi, belong to the Oto-Manguean linguistic family, and although they share cultural traditions and a regional history that suggest close genetic relationships and common ancestry, the historical records concerning their origin are confusing. To understand the biological relationships between Mazahua and Otomi, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic variation...
July 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745248/social-identity-in-new-mexicans-of-spanish-speaking-descent-highlights-limitations-of-using-standardized-ethnic-terminology-in-research
#3
Keith Hunley, Heather Edgar, Meghan Healy, Carmen Mosley, Graciela S Cabana, Frankie West
In this study, we evaluated the extent to which regional history has shaped the social identity nomenclature in New Mexicans of Spanish-speaking descent (NMSD). We asked 507 NMSD to list the social-identity terms they used to describe themselves and their parents, and we examined the correspondence between these choices and family ties to the region, birthplace, and continental ancestry. NMSD frequently identified using the regional terms "Nuevomexicano/a" (15%) and "Spanish" (12%). These individuals reported family ties to the region that predate New Mexican statehood...
July 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745247/mitochondrial-dna-phylogenetic-information-and-the-reconstruction-of-human-population-history-the-south-american-case
#4
María Bárbara Postillone, S Ivan Perez
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences are becoming increasingly important in the study of human population history. Here, we explore the differences in the amount of information of different mtDNA regions and their utility for the reconstruction of South American population history. We analyzed six data sets comprising 259 mtDNA sequences from South America: Complete mtDNA, Coding, Control, hypervariable region I (HVRI), Control plus cytochrome b (cytb), and cytb plus 12S plus 16S. The amount of information in each data set was estimated employing several site-by-site and haplotype-based statistics, distances among sequences, neighbor-joining trees, distances among the estimated trees, Bayesian skyline plots, and phylogenetic informativeness profiles...
July 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745246/chaco-canyon-dig-unearths-ethical-concerns
#5
Katrina G Claw, Dorothy Lippert, Jessica Bardill, Anna Cordova, Keolu Fox, Joseph M Yracheta, Alyssa C Bader, Deborah A Bolnick, Ripan S Malhi, Kimberly TallBear, Nanibaa' A Garrison
The field of paleogenomics (the study of ancient genomes) is rapidly advancing, with more robust methods of isolating ancient DNA and increasing access to next-generation DNA sequencing technology. As these studies progress, many important ethical issues have emerged that should be considered when ancient Native American remains, whom we refer to as ancestors, are used in research. We highlight a 2017 article by Kennett et al., "Archaeogenomic evidence reveals prehistoric matrilineal dynasty," that brings to light several ethical issues that should be addressed in paleogenomics research...
July 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299967/2017-outstanding-trainee-presentations-in-anthropological-genetics-awards-announced
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299966/ancient-dna-investigation-of-a-medieval-german-cemetery-confirms-long-term-stability-of-ccr5-%C3%AE-32-allele-frequencies-in-central-europe
#7
Abigail Bouwman, Natallia Shved, Gülfirde Akgül, Frank Rühli, Christina Warinner
The CCR5-Δ32 mutation present in European populations is among the most prominently debated cases of recent positive selection in humans. This allele, a 32-bp deletion that renders the T-cell CCR5 receptor nonfunctional, has important epidemiological and public health significance, as homozygous carriers are resistant to several HIV strains. However, although the function of this allele in preventing HIV infection is now well described, its human evolutionary origin is poorly understood. Initial attempts to determine the emergence of the CCR5-Δ32 allele pointed to selection during the 14th-century Black Death pandemic; however, subsequent analyses suggest that the allele rose in frequency more than 5,000 years ago, possibly through drift...
April 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299965/the-multiple-histories-of-western-asia-perspectives-from-ancient-and-modern-genomes
#8
Recep Ozgur Taskent, Omer Gokcumen
Western Asia lies at the heart of the Old World, in the midst of Africa, Asia, and Europe. As such, this region has been populated and repopulated by myriad peoples, starting with the first migrants from Africa. All evidence points to Western Asia for the beginnings of sedentary life, and indeed, first the villages and later the cities of this land remain as archaeological wonders, revealing complex histories of multiple peoples and their interactions. With the wondrous breakthroughs in genomic studies, we now have the power to look at these histories with a truly quantitative lens...
April 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299964/a-mainly-circum-mediterranean-origin-for-west-eurasian-and-north-african-mtdnas-in-puerto-rico-with-strong-contributions-from-the-canary-islands-and-west-africa
#9
Héctor J Díaz-Zabala, María A Nieves-Colón, Juan C Martínez-Cruzado
Maternal lineages of West Eurasian and North African origin account for 11.5% of total mitochondrial ancestry in Puerto Rico. Historical sources suggest that this ancestry arrived mostly from European migrations that took place during the four centuries of the Spanish colonization of Puerto Rico. This study analyzed 101 mitochondrial control region sequences and diagnostic coding region variants from a sample set randomly and systematically selected using a census-based sampling frame to be representative of the Puerto Rican population, with the goal of defining West Eurasian-North African maternal clades and estimating their possible geographical origin...
April 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299963/extending-genome-wide-association-study-results-to-test-classic-anthropological-hypotheses-human-third-molar-agenesis-and-the-probable-mutation-effect
#10
Adrijana Vukelic, Jacob A Cohen, Alexis P Sullivan, George H Perry
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identifies regions of the genome that likely affect the variable state of a phenotype of interest. These regions can then be studied with population genetic methods to make inferences about the evolutionary history of the trait. There are increasing opportunities to use GWAS results-even from clinically motivated studies-for tests of classic anthropological hypotheses. One such example, presented here as a case study for this approach, involves tooth development variation related to dental crowding...
April 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285971/leveraging-multiple-populations-across-time-helps-define-accurate-models-of-human-evolution-a-reanalysis-of-the-lactase-persistence-adaptation
#11
Chenling Xu Antelope, Davide Marnetto, Fergal Casey, Emilia Huerta-Sanchez
Access to a geographically diverse set of modern human samples from the present time and from ancient remains, combined with archaic hominin samples, provides an unprecedented level of resolution to study both human history and adaptation. The amount and quality of ancient human data continue to improve and enable tracking the trajectory of genetic variation over time. These data have the potential to help us redefine or generate new hypotheses of how human evolution occurred and to revise previous conjectures...
January 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285970/introgression-makes-waves-in-inferred-histories-of-effective-population-size
#12
John Hawks
Human populations have a complex history of introgression and of changing population size. Human genetic variation has been affected by both these processes, so inference of past population size depends upon the pattern of gene flow and introgression among past populations. One remarkable aspect of human population history as inferred from genetics is a consistent "wave" of larger effective population sizes, found in both African and non-African populations, that appears to reflect events prior to the last 100,000 years...
January 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285969/minutes-of-the-business-meeting-of-the-american-association-of-anthropological-genetics
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285968/evolution-function-and-deconstructing-histories-a-new-generation-of-anthropological-genetics
#14
Omer Gokcumen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285967/the-genomic-health-of-ancient-hominins
#15
Ali J Berens, Taylor L Cooper, Joseph Lachance
The genomes of ancient humans, Neandertals, and Denisovans contain many alleles that influence disease risks. Using genotypes at 3,180 disease-associated loci, we estimated the disease burden of 147 ancient genomes. After correcting for missing data, genetic risk scores (GRS) were generated for nine disease categories and the set of all combined diseases. We used these genetic risk scores to examine the effects of different types of subsistence, geography, and sample age on the number of risk alleles in each ancient genome...
January 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285966/infectious-disease-and-the-diversification-of-the-human-genome
#16
Jessica F Brinkworth
The human immune system is under great pathogen-mediated selective pressure. Divergent infectious disease pathogenesis across human populations combined with the overrepresentation of "immune genes" in genomic regions with signatures of positive selection suggests that pathogens have significantly altered the human genome. However, important features of the human immune system can confound searches for and interpretations of signatures of pathogen-mediated evolution. Immune system redundancy, immune gene pleiotropy, host ability to acquire immunity and alter the immune repertoire of offspring through "priming," and host microbiome complicate evolutionary interpretations of host-pathogen interactions...
January 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285965/admixture-and-ancestry-inference-from-ancient-and-modern-samples-through-measures-of-population-genetic-drift
#17
Alexandre M Harris, Michael DeGiorgio
Methods that leverage the information about population history contained within the increasingly abundant genetic sequences of extant and extinct hominid populations are diverse in form and versatile in application. Here, we review key methods recently developed to detect and quantify admixture and ancestry in modern human populations. We begin with an overview of the f- and D-statistics, covering their conceptual principles and important applications, as well as any extensions developed for them. We then cover a combination of more recent and more complex methods for admixture and ancestry inference, discussing tests for direct ancestry between two populations, quantification of admixture in large data sets, and determination of admixture dates...
January 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826324/2015-gabriel-w-lasker-award
#18
Ripan S Malhi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826323/an-attempt-to-integrate-previous-localized-estimates-of-human-inbreeding-for-the-whole-of-britain
#19
John E Pattison
There have been a number of previous estimates of human inbreeding for Britons of British descent in Britain, each generally for different social classes, geographical regions, and/or time periods. In this study I attempted to collect all relevant published studies and combine these disparate results into an integrated whole for all of Britain. This was achieved by combining weighted means of the percentage of consanguineous marriages (f%) reported in these earlier studies: weighted according to the number of records each author examined, the proportion of social classes or geographic regions covered by the records, and the "merit" of their individual research methodologies...
October 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826322/x-chromosome-alu-insertions-in-bah%C3%A3-a-blanca-argentina-assessment-of-population-information-from-varied-genetic-markers-and-usefulness-of-x-chromosome-markers-to-trace-sex-biased-parental-contributions
#20
Magdalena Resano, Daniela Zanetti, Esther M Esteban, Pedro Moral
Bahía Blanca is an urban city in a historically and geographically strategic location for the mixture of different populations in Argentina. In the present study, 10 Alu elements from the X chromosome are analyzed to characterize the genetic composition of the city's population, to compare it with other worldwide populations, and to explore the usefulness of X-chromosome markers for human population genetics purposes. In the Bahía Blanca sample, 7 of 10 Alu insertion frequencies are polymorphic. X-chromosome Alu results in Bahía Blanca are compared with eight different populations from Africa, Europe, and America...
October 2016: Human Biology
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