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Human Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047322/who-we-are-and-how-we-got-here-ancient-dna-and-the-new-science-of-the-human-past-by-david-reich
#1
Jeffrey Long
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047321/a-novel-association-between-the-27-bp-deletion-and-538g-a-mutation-in-the-abcc11-gene
#2
Yusuke S Hori, Aiko Yamada, Norifumi Matsuda, Yusuke Ono, Dmytro Starenki, Nadiya Sosonkina, Koh-Ichiro Yoshiura, Norio Niikawa, Tohru Ohta
A single nucleotide polymorphism in the ABCC11 gene, 538G>A (rs17822931), is known to determine human ear wax type. The G/G and G/A genotypes correspond to the wet type, while the A/A genotype corresponds to the dry type. Another earwax determinant, a 27-bp deletion (Δ27) downstream from the rs17822931 site, is a rare variant that leads to the dry phenotype. In a previous report, we found an individual with the G allele who unexpectedly showed the dry type of earwax, leading to the identification of Δ27...
October 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047320/2018-outstanding-trainee-presentations-in-anthropological-genetics-awards-announced
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047318/evaluating-nubian-population-structure-from-cranial-nonmetric-traits-gene-flow-genetic-drift-and-population-history-of-the-nubian-nile-valley
#4
Kanya Godde, Richard L Jantz
Paleolithic archaeological and skeletal remains from the Nile Valley have yielded a complex picture of life along the river. Sociocultural and sociopolitical events during this time frame shaped population structure, while gene flow and genetic drift further developed it. In this study, we took a population genetics approach to modeling Nubian biological relationships in an effort to describe how an accumulation of events formed Nubian population structure. A variety of Nubian samples were utilized, spanning the Mesolithic-Christian time periods and geographically from just above the first through the third cataracts...
October 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047317/genetic-structure-of-the-western-and-eastern-african-sahel-savannah-belt-and-the-role-of-nomadic-pastoralists-as-inferred-from-the-variation-of-d-loop-mitochondrial-dna-sequences
#5
Martina Čížková, Pavel Munclinger, Mame Yoro Diallo, Iva Kulichová, Mohammed G Mokhtar, Alioune Dème, Luísa Pereira, Viktor Černý
The objective of this study was to provide deeper knowledge of the maternal genetic structure and demographic history of the human populations of the Sahel/Savannah belt, the extensive region lying between the Sahara and tropical rainforests, spanning from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea coast. The study aimed to confirm or disconfirm archaeological and linguistic data indicating that the region's populations underwent diversification as a result of the spread of agropastoral food-producing subsistence lifestyles, over time dividing the region into separate areas of nomadic pastoralism, on the one hand, and sedentary farming, on the other...
October 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745250/genetic-differentiation-in-a-sample-from-northern-mexico-city-detected-by-hla-system-analysis-impact-in-the-study-of-population-immunogenetics
#6
Eva D Juárez Cortés, Miguel A Contreras Sieck, Agustín J Arriaga Perea, Rosa M Macías Medrano, Anaí Balbuena Jaime, Paola Everardo Martínez, Joaquín Zúñiga, Víctor Acuña Alonzo, Julio Granados, Rodrigo Barquera
The major histocompatibility complex is directly involved in the immune response, and thus the genes coding for its proteins are useful markers for the study of genetic diversity, susceptibility to disease (autoimmunity and infections), transplant medicine, and pharmacogenetics, among others. The polymorphism of the system also allows researchers to use it as a proxy for population genetics analysis, such as genetic admixture and genetic structure. In order to determine the immunogenetic characteristics of a sample from the northern part of Mexico City and to use them to analyze the genetic differentiation from other admixed populations, including those from previous studies of Mexico City population, we analyzed molecular typing results of donors and patients from the Histocompatibility Laboratory of the Central Blood Bank of the Centro Médico Nacional La Raza selected according to their geographic origin...
July 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745249/mitochondrial-dna-analysis-of-mazahua-and-otomi-indigenous-populations-from-estado-de-m%C3%A3-xico-suggests-a-distant-common-ancestry
#7
Angélica González-Oliver, Ernesto Garfias-Morales, David Glenn Smith, Mirsha Quinto-Sánchez
The indigenous Mazahua and Otomi have inhabited the same localities in Estado de México since pre-Columbian times. Their languages, Mazahua and Otomi, belong to the Oto-Manguean linguistic family, and although they share cultural traditions and a regional history that suggest close genetic relationships and common ancestry, the historical records concerning their origin are confusing. To understand the biological relationships between Mazahua and Otomi, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic variation...
July 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745248/social-identity-in-new-mexicans-of-spanish-speaking-descent-highlights-limitations-of-using-standardized-ethnic-terminology-in-research
#8
Keith Hunley, Heather Edgar, Meghan Healy, Carmen Mosley, Graciela S Cabana, Frankie West
In this study, we evaluated the extent to which regional history has shaped the social identity nomenclature in New Mexicans of Spanish-speaking descent (NMSD). We asked 507 NMSD to list the social-identity terms they used to describe themselves and their parents, and we examined the correspondence between these choices and family ties to the region, birthplace, and continental ancestry. NMSD frequently identified using the regional terms "Nuevomexicano/a" (15%) and "Spanish" (12%). These individuals reported family ties to the region that predate New Mexican statehood...
July 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745247/mitochondrial-dna-phylogenetic-information-and-the-reconstruction-of-human-population-history-the-south-american-case
#9
María Bárbara Postillone, S Ivan Perez
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences are becoming increasingly important in the study of human population history. Here, we explore the differences in the amount of information of different mtDNA regions and their utility for the reconstruction of South American population history. We analyzed six data sets comprising 259 mtDNA sequences from South America: Complete mtDNA, Coding, Control, hypervariable region I (HVRI), Control plus cytochrome b (cytb), and cytb plus 12S plus 16S. The amount of information in each data set was estimated employing several site-by-site and haplotype-based statistics, distances among sequences, neighbor-joining trees, distances among the estimated trees, Bayesian skyline plots, and phylogenetic informativeness profiles...
July 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745246/chaco-canyon-dig-unearths-ethical-concerns
#10
Katrina G Claw, Dorothy Lippert, Jessica Bardill, Anna Cordova, Keolu Fox, Joseph M Yracheta, Alyssa C Bader, Deborah A Bolnick, Ripan S Malhi, Kimberly TallBear, Nanibaa' A Garrison
The field of paleogenomics (the study of ancient genomes) is rapidly advancing, with more robust methods of isolating ancient DNA and increasing access to next-generation DNA sequencing technology. As these studies progress, many important ethical issues have emerged that should be considered when ancient Native American remains, whom we refer to as ancestors, are used in research. We highlight a 2017 article by Kennett et al., "Archaeogenomic evidence reveals prehistoric matrilineal dynasty," that brings to light several ethical issues that should be addressed in paleogenomics research...
July 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299967/2017-outstanding-trainee-presentations-in-anthropological-genetics-awards-announced
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299966/ancient-dna-investigation-of-a-medieval-german-cemetery-confirms-long-term-stability-of-ccr5-%C3%AE-32-allele-frequencies-in-central-europe
#12
Abigail Bouwman, Natallia Shved, Gülfirde Akgül, Frank Rühli, Christina Warinner
The CCR5-Δ32 mutation present in European populations is among the most prominently debated cases of recent positive selection in humans. This allele, a 32-bp deletion that renders the T-cell CCR5 receptor nonfunctional, has important epidemiological and public health significance, as homozygous carriers are resistant to several HIV strains. However, although the function of this allele in preventing HIV infection is now well described, its human evolutionary origin is poorly understood. Initial attempts to determine the emergence of the CCR5-Δ32 allele pointed to selection during the 14th-century Black Death pandemic; however, subsequent analyses suggest that the allele rose in frequency more than 5,000 years ago, possibly through drift...
April 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299965/the-multiple-histories-of-western-asia-perspectives-from-ancient-and-modern-genomes
#13
Recep Ozgur Taskent, Omer Gokcumen
Western Asia lies at the heart of the Old World, in the midst of Africa, Asia, and Europe. As such, this region has been populated and repopulated by myriad peoples, starting with the first migrants from Africa. All evidence points to Western Asia for the beginnings of sedentary life, and indeed, first the villages and later the cities of this land remain as archaeological wonders, revealing complex histories of multiple peoples and their interactions. With the wondrous breakthroughs in genomic studies, we now have the power to look at these histories with a truly quantitative lens...
April 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299964/a-mainly-circum-mediterranean-origin-for-west-eurasian-and-north-african-mtdnas-in-puerto-rico-with-strong-contributions-from-the-canary-islands-and-west-africa
#14
Héctor J Díaz-Zabala, María A Nieves-Colón, Juan C Martínez-Cruzado
Maternal lineages of West Eurasian and North African origin account for 11.5% of total mitochondrial ancestry in Puerto Rico. Historical sources suggest that this ancestry arrived mostly from European migrations that took place during the four centuries of the Spanish colonization of Puerto Rico. This study analyzed 101 mitochondrial control region sequences and diagnostic coding region variants from a sample set randomly and systematically selected using a census-based sampling frame to be representative of the Puerto Rican population, with the goal of defining West Eurasian-North African maternal clades and estimating their possible geographical origin...
April 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299963/extending-genome-wide-association-study-results-to-test-classic-anthropological-hypotheses-human-third-molar-agenesis-and-the-probable-mutation-effect
#15
Adrijana Vukelic, Jacob A Cohen, Alexis P Sullivan, George H Perry
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identifies regions of the genome that likely affect the variable state of a phenotype of interest. These regions can then be studied with population genetic methods to make inferences about the evolutionary history of the trait. There are increasing opportunities to use GWAS results-even from clinically motivated studies-for tests of classic anthropological hypotheses. One such example, presented here as a case study for this approach, involves tooth development variation related to dental crowding...
April 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285971/leveraging-multiple-populations-across-time-helps-define-accurate-models-of-human-evolution-a-reanalysis-of-the-lactase-persistence-adaptation
#16
Chenling Xu Antelope, Davide Marnetto, Fergal Casey, Emilia Huerta-Sanchez
Access to a geographically diverse set of modern human samples from the present time and from ancient remains, combined with archaic hominin samples, provides an unprecedented level of resolution to study both human history and adaptation. The amount and quality of ancient human data continue to improve and enable tracking the trajectory of genetic variation over time. These data have the potential to help us redefine or generate new hypotheses of how human evolution occurred and to revise previous conjectures...
January 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285970/introgression-makes-waves-in-inferred-histories-of-effective-population-size
#17
John Hawks
Human populations have a complex history of introgression and of changing population size. Human genetic variation has been affected by both these processes, so inference of past population size depends upon the pattern of gene flow and introgression among past populations. One remarkable aspect of human population history as inferred from genetics is a consistent "wave" of larger effective population sizes, found in both African and non-African populations, that appears to reflect events prior to the last 100,000 years...
January 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285969/minutes-of-the-business-meeting-of-the-american-association-of-anthropological-genetics
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285968/evolution-function-and-deconstructing-histories-a-new-generation-of-anthropological-genetics
#19
Omer Gokcumen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285967/the-genomic-health-of-ancient-hominins
#20
Ali J Berens, Taylor L Cooper, Joseph Lachance
The genomes of ancient humans, Neandertals, and Denisovans contain many alleles that influence disease risks. Using genotypes at 3,180 disease-associated loci, we estimated the disease burden of 147 ancient genomes. After correcting for missing data, genetic risk scores (GRS) were generated for nine disease categories and the set of all combined diseases. We used these genetic risk scores to examine the effects of different types of subsistence, geography, and sample age on the number of risk alleles in each ancient genome...
January 2017: Human Biology
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