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Human Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387386/thinking-computationally-about-forensics-anthropological-perspectives-on-advancements-in-technologies-data-and-algorithms
#1
Bridget F B Algee-Hewitt, Jieun Kim, Cris E Hughes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387385/who-needs-data-i-ve-got-experience
#2
Dawnie Wolfe Steadman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387384/open-source-tools-for-dense-facial-tissue-depth-mapping-of-computed-tomography-models
#3
Terrie Simmons-Ehrhardt, Catyana Falsetti, Anthony B Falsetti, Christopher J Ehrhardt
Computed tomography (CT) scans provide anthropologists with a resource to generate three-dimensional (3D) digital skeletal material to expand quantification methods and build more standardized reference collections. The ability to visualize and manipulate the bone and skin of the face simultaneously in a 3D digital environment introduces a new way for forensic facial approximation practitioners to access and study the face. Craniofacial relationships can be quantified with landmarks or with surface-processing software that can quantify the geometric properties of the entire 3D facial surface...
January 2018: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387383/survey-and-insights-into-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-based-detection-and-documentation-of-clandestine-graves-and-human-remains
#4
Bryce Murray, Derek T Anderson, Daniel J Wescott, Robert Moorhead, Melissa F Anderson
Numerous biological and archaeological studies have demonstrated the legitimacy of remote sensing in anthropology. This article focuses on detecting and documenting terrestrial clandestine graves and surface remains (CGSR) of humans using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), sensors, and automatic processing algorithms. CGSR is a problem of complex decision making under uncertainty that requires the identification and intelligent reasoning about direct evidence of human remains and their environmental fingerprints...
January 2018: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387382/new-approaches-to-juvenile-age-estimation-in-forensics-application-of-transition-analysis-via-the-shackelford-et-al-method-to-a-diverse-modern-subadult-sample
#5
Kelly R Kamnikar, Nicholas P Herrmann, Amber M Plemons
Dental development is one of the most widely utilized and accurate methods available for estimating age in subadult skeletal remains. The timing of tooth growth and development is regulated by genetics and less affected by external factors, allowing reliable estimates of chronological age. Traditional methodology focuses on comparing tooth developmental scores to corresponding age charts. Using the Moorrees, Fanning, and Hunt (MFH) developmental scores, Shackelford and colleagues embed the dental development method in a statistical framework based on transition analysis...
January 2018: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387381/2018-outstanding-trainee-presentations-in-anthropological-genetics-awards-announced
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387380/typicality-and-predictive-distributions-in-discriminant-function-analysis
#7
Lyle W Konigsberg, Susan R Frankenberg
While discriminant function analysis is an inherently Bayesian method, researchers attempting to estimate ancestry in human skeletal samples often follow discriminant function analysis with the calculation of frequentist-based typicalities for assigning group membership. Such an approach is problematic because it fails to account for admixture and for variation in why individuals may be classified as outliers or nonmembers of particular groups. This article presents an argument and methodology for employing a fully Bayesian approach in discriminant function analysis applied to cases of ancestry estimation...
January 2018: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047322/who-we-are-and-how-we-got-here-ancient-dna-and-the-new-science-of-the-human-past-by-david-reich
#8
Jeffrey Long
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047321/a-novel-association-between-the-27-bp-deletion-and-538g-a-mutation-in-the-abcc11-gene
#9
Yusuke S Hori, Aiko Yamada, Norifumi Matsuda, Yusuke Ono, Dmytro Starenki, Nadiya Sosonkina, Koh-Ichiro Yoshiura, Norio Niikawa, Tohru Ohta
A single nucleotide polymorphism in the ABCC11 gene, 538G>A (rs17822931), is known to determine human ear wax type. The G/G and G/A genotypes correspond to the wet type, while the A/A genotype corresponds to the dry type. Another earwax determinant, a 27-bp deletion (Δ27) downstream from the rs17822931 site, is a rare variant that leads to the dry phenotype. In a previous report, we found an individual with the G allele who unexpectedly showed the dry type of earwax, leading to the identification of Δ27...
October 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047320/2018-outstanding-trainee-presentations-in-anthropological-genetics-awards-announced
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047318/evaluating-nubian-population-structure-from-cranial-nonmetric-traits-gene-flow-genetic-drift-and-population-history-of-the-nubian-nile-valley
#11
Kanya Godde, Richard L Jantz
Paleolithic archaeological and skeletal remains from the Nile Valley have yielded a complex picture of life along the river. Sociocultural and sociopolitical events during this time frame shaped population structure, while gene flow and genetic drift further developed it. In this study, we took a population genetics approach to modeling Nubian biological relationships in an effort to describe how an accumulation of events formed Nubian population structure. A variety of Nubian samples were utilized, spanning the Mesolithic-Christian time periods and geographically from just above the first through the third cataracts...
October 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047317/genetic-structure-of-the-western-and-eastern-african-sahel-savannah-belt-and-the-role-of-nomadic-pastoralists-as-inferred-from-the-variation-of-d-loop-mitochondrial-dna-sequences
#12
Martina Čížková, Pavel Munclinger, Mame Yoro Diallo, Iva Kulichová, Mohammed G Mokhtar, Alioune Dème, Luísa Pereira, Viktor Černý
The objective of this study was to provide deeper knowledge of the maternal genetic structure and demographic history of the human populations of the Sahel/Savannah belt, the extensive region lying between the Sahara and tropical rainforests, spanning from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea coast. The study aimed to confirm or disconfirm archaeological and linguistic data indicating that the region's populations underwent diversification as a result of the spread of agropastoral food-producing subsistence lifestyles, over time dividing the region into separate areas of nomadic pastoralism, on the one hand, and sedentary farming, on the other...
October 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745250/genetic-differentiation-in-a-sample-from-northern-mexico-city-detected-by-hla-system-analysis-impact-in-the-study-of-population-immunogenetics
#13
Eva D Juárez Cortés, Miguel A Contreras Sieck, Agustín J Arriaga Perea, Rosa M Macías Medrano, Anaí Balbuena Jaime, Paola Everardo Martínez, Joaquín Zúñiga, Víctor Acuña Alonzo, Julio Granados, Rodrigo Barquera
The major histocompatibility complex is directly involved in the immune response, and thus the genes coding for its proteins are useful markers for the study of genetic diversity, susceptibility to disease (autoimmunity and infections), transplant medicine, and pharmacogenetics, among others. The polymorphism of the system also allows researchers to use it as a proxy for population genetics analysis, such as genetic admixture and genetic structure. In order to determine the immunogenetic characteristics of a sample from the northern part of Mexico City and to use them to analyze the genetic differentiation from other admixed populations, including those from previous studies of Mexico City population, we analyzed molecular typing results of donors and patients from the Histocompatibility Laboratory of the Central Blood Bank of the Centro Médico Nacional La Raza selected according to their geographic origin...
July 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745249/mitochondrial-dna-analysis-of-mazahua-and-otomi-indigenous-populations-from-estado-de-m%C3%A3-xico-suggests-a-distant-common-ancestry
#14
Angélica González-Oliver, Ernesto Garfias-Morales, David Glenn Smith, Mirsha Quinto-Sánchez
The indigenous Mazahua and Otomi have inhabited the same localities in Estado de México since pre-Columbian times. Their languages, Mazahua and Otomi, belong to the Oto-Manguean linguistic family, and although they share cultural traditions and a regional history that suggest close genetic relationships and common ancestry, the historical records concerning their origin are confusing. To understand the biological relationships between Mazahua and Otomi, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic variation...
July 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745248/social-identity-in-new-mexicans-of-spanish-speaking-descent-highlights-limitations-of-using-standardized-ethnic-terminology-in-research
#15
Keith Hunley, Heather Edgar, Meghan Healy, Carmen Mosley, Graciela S Cabana, Frankie West
In this study, we evaluated the extent to which regional history has shaped the social identity nomenclature in New Mexicans of Spanish-speaking descent (NMSD). We asked 507 NMSD to list the social-identity terms they used to describe themselves and their parents, and we examined the correspondence between these choices and family ties to the region, birthplace, and continental ancestry. NMSD frequently identified using the regional terms "Nuevomexicano/a" (15%) and "Spanish" (12%). These individuals reported family ties to the region that predate New Mexican statehood...
July 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745247/mitochondrial-dna-phylogenetic-information-and-the-reconstruction-of-human-population-history-the-south-american-case
#16
María Bárbara Postillone, S Ivan Perez
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences are becoming increasingly important in the study of human population history. Here, we explore the differences in the amount of information of different mtDNA regions and their utility for the reconstruction of South American population history. We analyzed six data sets comprising 259 mtDNA sequences from South America: Complete mtDNA, Coding, Control, hypervariable region I (HVRI), Control plus cytochrome b (cytb), and cytb plus 12S plus 16S. The amount of information in each data set was estimated employing several site-by-site and haplotype-based statistics, distances among sequences, neighbor-joining trees, distances among the estimated trees, Bayesian skyline plots, and phylogenetic informativeness profiles...
July 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745246/chaco-canyon-dig-unearths-ethical-concerns
#17
Katrina G Claw, Dorothy Lippert, Jessica Bardill, Anna Cordova, Keolu Fox, Joseph M Yracheta, Alyssa C Bader, Deborah A Bolnick, Ripan S Malhi, Kimberly TallBear, Nanibaa' A Garrison
The field of paleogenomics (the study of ancient genomes) is rapidly advancing, with more robust methods of isolating ancient DNA and increasing access to next-generation DNA sequencing technology. As these studies progress, many important ethical issues have emerged that should be considered when ancient Native American remains, whom we refer to as ancestors, are used in research. We highlight a 2017 article by Kennett et al., "Archaeogenomic evidence reveals prehistoric matrilineal dynasty," that brings to light several ethical issues that should be addressed in paleogenomics research...
July 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299967/2017-outstanding-trainee-presentations-in-anthropological-genetics-awards-announced
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299966/ancient-dna-investigation-of-a-medieval-german-cemetery-confirms-long-term-stability-of-ccr5-%C3%AE-32-allele-frequencies-in-central-europe
#19
Abigail Bouwman, Natallia Shved, Gülfirde Akgül, Frank Rühli, Christina Warinner
The CCR5-Δ32 mutation present in European populations is among the most prominently debated cases of recent positive selection in humans. This allele, a 32-bp deletion that renders the T-cell CCR5 receptor nonfunctional, has important epidemiological and public health significance, as homozygous carriers are resistant to several HIV strains. However, although the function of this allele in preventing HIV infection is now well described, its human evolutionary origin is poorly understood. Initial attempts to determine the emergence of the CCR5-Δ32 allele pointed to selection during the 14th-century Black Death pandemic; however, subsequent analyses suggest that the allele rose in frequency more than 5,000 years ago, possibly through drift...
April 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299965/the-multiple-histories-of-western-asia-perspectives-from-ancient-and-modern-genomes
#20
REVIEW
Recep Ozgur Taskent, Omer Gokcumen
Western Asia lies at the heart of the Old World, in the midst of Africa, Asia, and Europe. As such, this region has been populated and repopulated by myriad peoples, starting with the first migrants from Africa. All evidence points to Western Asia for the beginnings of sedentary life, and indeed, first the villages and later the cities of this land remain as archaeological wonders, revealing complex histories of multiple peoples and their interactions. With the wondrous breakthroughs in genomic studies, we now have the power to look at these histories with a truly quantitative lens...
April 2017: Human Biology
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