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Human Biology

Ripan S Malhi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Human Biology
John E Pattison
There have been a number of previous estimates of human inbreeding for Britons of British descent in Britain, each generally for different social classes, geographical regions, and/or time periods. In this study I attempted to collect all relevant published studies and combine these disparate results into an integrated whole for all of Britain. This was achieved by combining weighted means of the percentage of consanguineous marriages (f%) reported in these earlier studies: weighted according to the number of records each author examined, the proportion of social classes or geographic regions covered by the records, and the "merit" of their individual research methodologies...
October 2016: Human Biology
Magdalena Resano, Daniela Zanetti, Esther M Esteban, Pedro Moral
Bahía Blanca is an urban city in a historically and geographically strategic location for the mixture of different populations in Argentina. In the present study, 10 Alu elements from the X chromosome are analyzed to characterize the genetic composition of the city's population, to compare it with other worldwide populations, and to explore the usefulness of X-chromosome markers for human population genetics purposes. In the Bahía Blanca sample, 7 of 10 Alu insertion frequencies are polymorphic. X-chromosome Alu results in Bahía Blanca are compared with eight different populations from Africa, Europe, and America...
October 2016: Human Biology
David Tarkhnishvili, Alexander Gavashelishvili, Marine Murtskhvaladze, Ardashel Latsuzbaia
The analyses of 15 autosomal and 23 Y-chromosome DNA single-tandem-repeat loci in five rural populations from the Caucasus (four ethnically Georgian and one ethnically Armenian) indicated that two Georgian populations, one from the west and the other from the east of the Greater Caucasus Mountains, were both patrilineally and autosomally most differentiated from each other, and the other populations of Georgians and Armenians held an intermediate position between those two. This pattern may be due to human dispersal from two distinct glacial refugia in the last glacial period and the early Holocene, followed by less gene flow among the populations from the Greater Caucasus than among those from the rest of the Caucasus, where the populations have undergone substantial admixture in historical time...
October 2016: Human Biology
Cris E Hughes, Mary P Rogers, Amanda C Owings, Barbara Petzelt, Joycelynn Mitchell, Harold Harry, Theresa Williams, Dena Goldberg, Damian Labuda, David Glenn Smith, Jerome S Cybulski, Ripan S Malhi
This study presents genetic data for nine Native American populations from northern North America. Analyses of genetic variation focus on the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Using mitochondrial, Y chromosomal, and autosomal DNA variants, we aimed to more closely address the relationships of geography and language with present genetic diversity among the regional PNW Native American populations. Patterns of genetic diversity exhibited by the three genetic systems were consistent with our hypotheses: genetic variation was more strongly explained by geographic proximity than by linguistic structure...
October 2016: Human Biology
Serkan Doğan, Adna Ašić, Gulsen Doğan, Larisa Besic, Damir Marjanovic
In a study of the Bosnian-Herzegovinian (B&H) population, Y-chromosome marker frequencies for 100 individuals, generated using the PowerPlex Y23 kit, were used to perform Y-chromosome haplogroup assignment via Whit Athey's Haplogroup Predictor. This algorithm determines Y-chromosome haplogroups from Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) data using a Bayesian probability-based approach. The most frequent haplogroup appeared to be I2a, with a prevalence of 49%, followed by R1a and E1b1b, each accounting for 17% of all haplogroups within the population...
July 2016: Human Biology
Luis Gómez-Pérez, Miguel A Alfonso-Sánchez, José E Dipierri, José A Peña
This study explores potential signals of microdifferentiation in the gene pool of three high-altitude populations from Jujuy province in northwest Argentina using highly polymorphic markers. These human communities are characterized by extreme living conditions and very low population densities owing to considerable height above sea level and steep orography. A set of autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) located at chromosome 6 (6p21.3) was typed in samples from Quebrada Baja (∼2,500 m), Quebrada Alta (∼3,300 m), and Puna (> 3,500 m)...
July 2016: Human Biology
Gerhard P Shipley, Diana A Taylor, Antoine D R N'Yeurt, Anand Tyagi, Geetanjali Tiwari, Alan J Redd
We present the most comprehensive genetic characterization to date of five Fijian island populations: Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Kadavu, the Lau Islands, and Rotuma, including nonrecombinant Y (NRY) chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes and haplogroups. As a whole, Fijians are genetically intermediate between Melanesians and Polynesians, but the individual Fijian island populations exhibit significant genetic structure reflecting different settlement experiences in which the Rotumans and the Lau Islanders were more influenced by Polynesians, and the other Fijian island populations were more influenced by Melanesians...
July 2016: Human Biology
Keith L Hunley, Graciela S Cabana
Geneticists have argued that the linear decay in within-population genetic diversity with increasing geographic distance from East Africa is best explained by a phylogenetic process of repeated founder effects, growth, and isolation. However, this serial founder effect (SFE) process has not yet been adequately vetted against other evolutionary processes that may also affect geospatial patterns of diversity. Additionally, studies of the SFE process have been largely based on a limited 52-population sample. Here, we assess the effects of founder effect, admixture, and localized gene flow processes on patterns of global and regional diversity using a published data set of 645 autosomal microsatellite genotypes from 5,415 individuals in 248 widespread populations...
July 2016: Human Biology
José Edgardo Dipierri, Emma Laura Alfaro Gomez, Alvaro Rodríguez-Larralde, Virginia Ramallo
When migrating, people carry their cultural and genetic history, changing both the transmitting and the receiving populations. This phenomenon changes the structure of the population of a country. The question is how to analyze the impact on the border region. A demographic and geopolitical analysis of borders requires an interdisciplinary approach. An isonymic analysis can be a useful tool. Surnames are part of cultural history, sociocultural features transmitted from ancestors to their descendants through a vertical mechanism similar to that of genetic inheritance...
July 2016: Human Biology
Mirna Isabel Ochoa-Lugo, María de Lourdes Muñoz, Gerardo Pérez-Ramírez, Kristine G Beaty, Mauro López-Armenta, Javiera Cervini-Silva, Miguel Moreno-Galeana, Adrián Martínez Meza, Eduardo Ramos, Michael H Crawford, Arturo Romano-Pacheco
Maya civilization developed in Mesoamerica and encompassed the Yucatan Peninsula, Guatemala, Belize, part of the Mexican states of Tabasco and Chiapas, and the western parts of Honduras and El Salvador. This civilization persisted approximately 3,000 years and was one of the most advanced of its time, possessing the only known full writing system at the time, as well as art, sophisticated architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. This civilization reached the apex of its power and influence during the Preclassic period, from 2000 BCE to 250 CE...
April 2016: Human Biology
Fabiana L Lopes, Liping Hou, Angelica B W Boldt, Layla Kassem, Veronica M Alves, Antonio E Nardi, Francis J McMahon
Large-scale genotyping and next-generation sequencing techniques have allowed great advances in the field of molecular genetics. Numerous common variants of low impact have been associated with many complex human traits and diseases, such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although they may exert a greater impact on risk, few rare disease variants have been found, owing to the greatly increased sample sizes that are typically necessary to demonstrate association with rarer variants. One alternative strategy is to study isolated populations, where historical bottlenecks reduce genetic diversity and some otherwise rare variants may drift to higher frequencies...
April 2016: Human Biology
Michael H Crawford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Human Biology
Kristine G Beaty, M J Mosher, Michael H Crawford, Phillip Melton
Over the last 35 years, researchers from the Laboratory of Biological Anthropology at the University of Kansas have been working with Mennonite communities to better understand evolutionary patterns of fission-fusion in relationship to their genetic history and population structure. In this study, short tandem repeat (STR) markers from the nonrecombining region of the Y chromosome (NRY) provided increased resolution of the molecular population structure for these groups. NRY is known to be informative for determining paternal genetic ancestral patterns in recently derived human populations...
April 2016: Human Biology
M J Mosher, P E Melton, P Stapleton, M S Schanfield, M H Crawford
DNA methylation is the most widely studied of epigenetic mechanisms, with environmental effects recorded through patterned attachments of methyl groups along the DNA that are capable of modifying gene expression without altering the DNA sequencing. The degree to which these patterns of DNA methylation are heritable, the expected range of normality across populations, and the phenotypic relevance of pattern variation remain unclear. Genes regulating metabolic pathways appear to be vulnerable to ongoing nutritional programming over the life course, as dietary nutrients are significant environmental determinants of DNA methylation, supplying both the methyl groups and energy to generate the methylation process...
April 2016: Human Biology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Human Biology
Norberto F Baldi, Michael H Crawford
The Rama are a coastal population from southern Nicaragua who in large part were able to resist, at least for a time, the cultural changes and social reorganization brought on by colonial and modern influences. Historical information leaves the Rama origins and biological relationships with nearby extinct and extant groups ambiguous. The objective of this study was to examine the internal genetic microdifferentiation based on the first hypervariable region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of approximately 20% of the population, and to expand the few available historical and anthropological data on the Rama by exploring the effects of cultural practices and historical events on genetic structure, providing an integrative perspective on the Rama genetic history...
April 2016: Human Biology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Human Biology
Katherine Spradley, Kyra E Stull, Joseph T Hefner
Research by economists suggests that recent Mexican migrants are better educated and have higher socioeconomic status (SES) than previous migrants. Because factors associated with higher SES and improved education can lead to positive secular changes in overall body form, secular changes in the craniofacial complex were analyzed within a recent migrant group from Mexico. The Mexican group represents individuals in the act of migration, not yet influenced by the American environment, and thus can serve as a starting point for future studies of secular change in this population group...
January 2016: Human Biology
Sandra Cridlin
Osteometric measurements of the femur are consistently used to estimate stature, sex, and race in constructing demographic profiles. The presence of positive or negative changes in the size of the maximum vertical diameter of the femoral head could potentially affect the validity of such profiles. Additionally, changes in femoral head size may be an indicator of the socioeconomic status, health, and nutrition of a population over periods of time. Two large data sets consisting of white male and white female femoral vertical head diameter measurements with birth years spanning 1841-1990 are used in this study...
January 2016: Human Biology
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