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Human Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737582/smbe-satellite-meeting-on-the-genetics-of-admixed-populations
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737581/craniofacial-secular-change-in-recent-mexican-migrants
#2
Katherine Spradley, Kyra E Stull, Joseph T Hefner
Research by economists suggests that recent Mexican migrants are better educated and have higher socioeconomic status (SES) than previous migrants. Because factors associated with higher SES and improved education can lead to positive secular changes in overall body form, secular changes in the craniofacial complex were analyzed within a recent migrant group from Mexico. The Mexican group represents individuals in the act of migration, not yet influenced by the American environment, and thus can serve as a starting point for future studies of secular change in this population group...
January 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737580/piecewise-regression-analysis-of-secular-change-in-the-maximum-femoral-vertical-head-diameter-of-american-white-males-and-females
#3
Sandra Cridlin
Osteometric measurements of the femur are consistently used to estimate stature, sex, and race in constructing demographic profiles. The presence of positive or negative changes in the size of the maximum vertical diameter of the femoral head could potentially affect the validity of such profiles. Additionally, changes in femoral head size may be an indicator of the socioeconomic status, health, and nutrition of a population over periods of time. Two large data sets consisting of white male and white female femoral vertical head diameter measurements with birth years spanning 1841-1990 are used in this study...
January 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737579/secular-change-in-the-femur-diaphyseal-biomechanical-properties-of-american-whites
#4
Daniel J Wescott, Lauren Rockhold Zephro
Over the past two centuries there have been documented secular changes in stature, weight, body proportions, and skeletal maturation rates in the United States. These changes along with a more sedentary lifestyle are likely reflected in femur morphology. Here we examine secular changes in diaphyseal cross-sectional size, shape, area, robusticity, and rigidity at midshaft and subtrochanteric of the femur using 395 adult white females and males from the United States born between the 1850s and the 1970s. The effect of secular change was controlled for an age effect...
January 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737578/the-effect-of-novel-environments-on-modern-american-skeletons
#5
Natalie R Langley, Richard L Jantz, Stephen D Ousley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737577/secular-changes-in-the-postcranial-skeleton-of-american-whites
#6
Richard L Jantz, Lee Meadows Jantz, Joanne L Devlin
Secular change in height has been extensively investigated, but size and shape of the postcranial skeleton much less so. The availability of large, documented collections of nineteenth- and twentieth-century skeletons makes it possible to examine changes in skeletal structure over the past 150 years. We examined secular changes in long bone lengths and proportions, their allometric relationship to stature, and crosssectional properties of long bone shafts. Bone measurements and stature were organized into 10-year birth cohorts, ranging from 1840 to 1989...
January 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737576/changes-in-clavicle-length-and-maturation-in-americans-1840-1980
#7
Natalie R Langley, Sandra Cridlin
Secular changes refer to short-term biological changes ostensibly due to environmental factors. Two well-documented secular trends in many populations are earlier age of menarche and increasing stature. This study synthesizes data on maximum clavicle length and fusion of the medial epiphysis in 1840-1980 American birth cohorts to provide a comprehensive assessment of developmental and morphological change in the clavicle. Clavicles from the Hamann-Todd Human Osteological Collection (n = 354), McKern and Stewart Korean War males (n = 341), Forensic Anthropology Data Bank (n = 1,239), and the McCormick Clavicle Collection (n = 1,137) were used in the analysis...
January 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737575/the-remarkable-change-in-euro-american-cranial-shape-and-size
#8
Richard L Jantz, Lee Meadows Jantz
Secular changes in stature, weight, or other components of the body that can be obtained from historical records have been extensively studied. Cranial change has been central to anthropology for more than a century, but the focus has normally been on change measured in centuries or millennia. Cranial change measured in decades, normally considered to result from plastic response to the environment, has been less studied. This article reports on change in cranial vault dimensions in white Americans. Variables were glabello-occipital length (GOL), basion-bregma height (BBH), basion-nasion length (BNL), maximum cranial breadth (XCB), and biauricular breadth (AUB)...
January 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737574/an-examination-of-the-differential-effects-of-the-modern-epidemiological-transition-on-cranial-morphology-in-the-united-states-and-portugal
#9
Katherine E Weisensee, Richard L Jantz
This research examines the pattern of secular change in the cranial morphology of two populations experiencing the epidemiological transition associated with decreased mortality rates in children, followed by declines in infant mortality and subsequent increases in adult longevity. The two samples examined in this study come from US and Portuguese individuals. The epidemiological transition occurred at different times in the United States and Portugal, with Portugal entering into the transition later than the United States...
January 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737593/the-genetic-anthropologist-s-contribution-to-understanding-race-and-racial-health-disparities
#10
Abigail W Bigham, Amy Non
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737592/racial-experience-as-an-alternative-operationalization-of-race
#11
Jada Benn Torres, Gabriel A Torres Colón
The study of human variation is central to both social and biomedical sciences, but social and biomedical scientists diverge in how variation is theorized and operationalized. Race is especially problematic because it is a cultural concept that contains implicit and explicit understandings of how collective bodies differ. In this article, we propose an operationalization of race that addresses both racial experience and human biological diversity, placing them within the same ontological sphere. Furthermore, this approach can more effectively advance antiracist pedagogy and politics...
October 2015: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737591/case-study-on-ancestry-estimation-in-an-alaskan-native-family-identity-and-safeguards-against-reductionism
#12
Alyssa C Bader, Ripan S Malhi
Understanding the complexities of ancestry-related identity is a necessary component of ethically sound research related to the genetic ancestry of modern-day communities. This is especially true when working with indigenous populations, given the legal and social implications that genetic ancestry interpretations may have in these communities. This study employs a multicomponent approach to explore the intricacies of ancestry-related identity within one extended family with members who identify as Alaskan Native...
October 2015: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737590/a-general-model-of-the-relationship-between-the-apportionment-of-human-genetic-diversity-and-the-apportionment-of-human-phenotypic-diversity
#13
Michael D Edge, Noah A Rosenberg
Models that examine genetic differences between populations alongside a genotype-phenotype map can provide insight about phenotypic variation among groups. We generalize a simple model of a completely heritable, additive, selectively neutral quantitative trait to examine the relationship between single-locus genetic differentiation and phenotypic differentiation on quantitative traits. In agreement with similar efforts using different models, we show that the expected degree to which two groups differ on a neutral quantitative trait is not strongly affected by the number of genetic loci that influence the trait: neutral trait differences are expected to have a magnitude comparable to the genetic differences at a single neutral locus...
October 2015: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737589/index-to-volume-87
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737588/errata
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737587/2016-outstanding-trainee-presentations-in-anthropological-genetics-awards-announced
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737586/the-evolution-of-tanning-needs-its-day-in-the-sun
#17
Ellen E Quillen
Variation in human pigmentation has long been an area of interest in biological anthropology, with the advent of genetic technologies allowing deeper plumbing of its evolutionary history. Genome-wide scans of selection show that pigmentation genes have undergone some of the strongest selection in many geographically distant populations. A variety of hypotheses for the photoprotective effects of melanin have been developed, but these hypotheses, as well as genetic studies, focus nearly exclusively on constitutive (basal) pigmentation levels...
October 2015: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737585/2014-gabriel-w-lasker-award
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737584/combating-racial-health-disparities-through-medical-education-the-need-for-anthropological-and-genetic-perspectives-in-medical-training
#19
Deborah A Bolnick
Despite major public health initiatives, significant disparities persist among racially and ethnically defined groups in the prevalence of disease, access to medical care, quality of medical care, and health outcomes for common causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It is critical that we develop new and creative strategies to address such inequities; mitigate the social, environmental, institutional, and genetic determinants of poor health; and combat the persistence of racial profiling in clinical contexts that further exacerbates racial/ethnic health disparities...
October 2015: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737583/interaction-of-alu-polymorphisms-and-novel-measures-of-discrimination-in-association-with-blood-pressure-in-african-americans-living-in-tallahassee-florida
#20
Alexis C Boulter, Jacklyn Quinlan, Aida T Miró-Herrans, Laurel N Pearson, Nubiana L Todd, Clarence C Gravlee, Connie J Mulligan
African Americans are 40% more likely to be afflicted with hypertension than are non-Hispanic, white Americans, resulting in a 30% higher instance of mortality due to cardiovascular disease. There is debate about the relative contributions of genetic and sociocultural risk factors to the racial disparity in hypertension. We assayed three Alu insertion polymorphisms located in the ACE (angiotensin 1 converting enzyme), PLAT (plasminogen activator, tissue), and WNK1 (lysine deficient protein kinase 1) genes. We also estimated West African genetic ancestry and developed novel measures of perceived discrimination to create a biocultural model of blood pressure among African American adults in Tallahassee, Florida (n = 158)...
October 2015: Human Biology
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