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Journal of Virology

T N Figueira, L M Palermo, A S Veiga, D Huey, C A Alabi, N C Santos, J C Welsch, C Mathieu, B Horvat, S Niewiesk, A Moscona, M A R B Castanho, M Porotto
: Measles virus (MV) infection is undergoing resurgence and remains one of the leading causes of death among young children worldwide despite the availability of an effective measles vaccine. MV infects its target cells by coordinated action of the MV hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) envelope glycoproteins; upon receptor engagement by H, the pre-fusion F undergoes a structural transition, extending and inserting into the target cell membrane and then re-folding into a post-fusion structure that fuses the viral and cell membranes...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Virology
Kazuya Shirato, Kazuhiko Kanou, Miyuki Kawase, Shutoku Matsuyama
: Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), a causative agent of the common cold, enters host cells via two distinct pathways: one is mediated by cell surface proteases, particularly transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and the other by endosomal cathepsin L. Thus, specific inhibitors of these proteases block virus infection. However, it is unclear which of these pathways is actually utilized by HCoV-229E in the human respiratory tract. Here, we examined the mechanism of cell entry used by a pseudotyped virus bearing the HCoV-229E spike (S) protein in the presence/absence of protease inhibitors...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Virology
Eric R Weiss, Galit Alter, Javier Gordon Ogembo, Jennifer L Henderson, Barbara Tabak, Yasin Bakiş, Mohan Somasundaran, Manuel Garber, Liisa Selin, Katherine Luzuriaga
: The Epstein Barr virus (EBV) gp350 glycoprotein interacts with the cellular receptor to mediate viral entry and is thought to be the major target for neutralizing antibodies. To better understand the role of EBV-specific antibodies in the control of viral replication and evolution of sequence diversity, we measured EBV gp350-specific antibody responses and sequenced the gp350 gene in samples obtained from individuals experiencing primary EBV infection (acute infectious mononucleosis; AIM) and again 6 months later (convalescence, CONV)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Virology
Xuefeng Deng, Peng Xu, Wei Zou, Weiran Shen, Jianxin Peng, Kaiyu Liu, John F Engelhardt, Ziying Yan, Jianming Qiu
: Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), an emerging human pathogenic respiratory virus, is a member of the genus Bocaparvovirus of the Parvoviridae family. In human airway epithelia air-liquid interface (HAE-ALI) cultures, HBoV1 infection initiates a DNA damage response (DDR), activating all three phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PI3KKs): ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs. In this context, activation of PI3KKs is a requirement for amplification of the HBoV1 genome (PLoS Pathog., 2016; 12:e1005399), and HBoV1 replicates only in terminally differentiated, non-dividing cells...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Virology
Ashley Sobel Leonard, Micah T McClain, Gavin J D Smith, David Wentworth, Rebecca A Halpin, Xudong Lin, Amy Ransier, Timothy B Stockwell, Suman Das, Anthony S Gilbert, Robert Lambkin-Williams, Geoffrey S Ginsburg, Christopher W Woods, Katia Koelle
: Knowledge of influenza evolution at the point of transmission and at the intra-host level remains limited, particularly for human hosts. Here, we analyze a unique viral dataset of next-generation sequencing (NGS) samples generated from a human influenza challenge study wherein 17 healthy subjects were inoculated with egg-passaged virus. Nasal wash samples collected from 7 of these subjects were successfully deep sequenced. From these, we characterized changes in the subjects' viral populations during infection and identified differences between the virus in these samples and the viral stock used to inoculate the subjects...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Jonathon D Brzezinski, Roland Felkner, Apexa Modi, Mengdan Liu, Monica J Roth
: The p12 protein of murine leukemia virus (MLV) Gag is associated with the preintegration complex (PIC), and mutants of p12 (PM14) exhibit defects in nuclear entry/retention. Mutants of the phosphorylated serine-61 also have reported defects in the early life cycle. Here we show that a phosphorylated peptide motif derived from human papillomavirus 8 (HPV 8), the E2 hinge region240-255, can functionally replace the main phosphorylated motif of MLV p12 and can rescue the viral titer of a lethal p12-PM14 mutant...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Meihui Xu, Roland Züst, Ying Xiu Toh, Jennifer M Pfaff, Kristen M Kahle, Edgar Davidson, Benjamin J Doranz, Sumathy Velumani, Farhana Tukijan, Cheng-I Wang, Katja Fink
Half of the world's population is exposed to the risk of dengue virus infection. Although a vaccine for dengue is now available in a few countries, its reported overall efficacy of about 60% is not ideal. Protective immune correlates following natural dengue infection remain undefined, which makes it difficult to predict the efficacy of new vaccines. In this study, we address the protective capacity of dengue-specific antibodies that are produced by plasmablasts a few days after natural secondary infection...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Xiangjie Sun, Hui Zeng, Amrita Kumar, Jessica A Belser, Taronna R Maines, Terrence M Tumpey
: A role for pulmonary endothelial cells in the orchestration of cytokine production and leukocyte recruitment during influenza virus infection, leading to severe lung damage, has been recently identified. As the mechanistic pathway for this ability is not fully known, we extended previous studies on influenza virus tropism in cultured human pulmonary endothelial cells. Here, we found that a subset of avian influenza viruses, including potentially pandemic H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2 viruses, could infect human pulmonary endothelial cells (HULEC) with high efficiency compared to human H1N1 or H3N2 viruses...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Anmol Chandele, Jaturong Sewatanon, Sivaram Gunisetty, Mohit Singla, Nattawat Onlamoon, Rama S Akondy, Haydn Thomas Kissick, Kaustuv Nayak, Elluri Seetharami Reddy, Haroon Kalam, Dhiraj Kumar, Anil Verma, HareKrushna Panda, Siyu Wang, Nasikarn Angkasekwinai, Kovit Pattanapanyasat, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Guruprasad R Medigeshi, Rakesh Lodha, Sushil Kabra, Rafi Ahmed, Kaja Murali-Krishna
: Epidemiological studies suggest that India has the largest number of dengue virus infected cases world-wide. However, there is minimal information about the immunological responses in these patients. CD8 T cells are important in dengue because they have been implicated in both protection and immunopathology. Here we provide a detailed analysis of HLA-DR(+)CD38(+) and HLA-DR(-)CD38(+) effector CD8 T- cell subsets in dengue-patients from India and Thailand. Both CD8 T cell subsets expanded and expressed markers indicative of antigen-driven proliferation; tissue-homing and cytotoxic effector functions with the HLA-DR(+)CD38(+) subset being the most striking in these effector qualities...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Bingling Yun, Yao Zhang, Yongzhen Liu, Xiaolu Guan, Yongqiang Wang, Xiaole Qi, Hongyu Cui, Changjun Liu, Yanping Zhang, Honglei Gao, Li Gao, Kai Li, Yulong Gao, Xiaomei Wang
: The entry of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) into host cells initially requires the fusion of viral and cell membranes, which is exclusively mediated by fusion (F) protein. Proteolysis of aMPV F protein by endogenous proteases of host cells allows F protein to induce membrane fusion; however, these proteases have not been identified. Here, we provide the first evidence that the transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS12 facilitates the cleavage of subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F protein. We found that overexpression of TMPRSS12 enhanced aMPV/B F protein cleavage, F protein fusogenicity, and viral replication...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Jonathon D Brzezinski, Apexa Modi, Mengdan Liu, Monica J Roth
: Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) p12, encoded within Gag, binds the viral preintegration complex (PIC) to the mitotic chromatin. This acts to anchor the viral PIC in the nucleus as the nuclear envelope reforms post-mitosis. Mutations within the p12 C-terminus (p12 PM13-15) block early stages in viral replication. Within the p12 PM13 region (p12 60PSPMA65), our studies indicated that chromatin tethering is not detected when the wild type p12 protein (M63) was expressed as a GFP fusion, however, constructs bearing p12-I63 were tethered...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Karen P Coss, Snezana Vasiljevic, Laura K Pritchard, Stefanie A Krumm, Molly Glaze, Sharon Madzorera, Penny L Moore, Max Crispin, Katie J Doores
: The HIV envelope (Env) is extensively modified with host-derived N-linked glycans. The high density of glycosylation on the viral spike limits enzymatic processing resulting in numerous under-processed oligomannose-type glycans. This extensive glycosylation not only shields conserved regions of the protein from the immune system but also act as targets for HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). In response to the host immune system, the HIV glycan shield is constantly evolving through mutations affecting both the positions and frequencies of potential N-linked glycans (PNGSs)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Constantin Brinkmann, Inga Nehlmeier, Kerstin Walendy-Gnirß, Julia Nehls, Mariana González Hernández, Markus Hoffmann, Xiangguo Qiu, Ayato Takada, Michael Schindler, Stefan Pöhlmann
: The glycoprotein of Ebola virus (EBOV-GP), a member of the Filoviridae family, facilitates viral entry into target cells. In addition, EBOV-GP antagonizes the antiviral activity of the host cell protein tetherin, which may otherwise restrict EBOV-release from infected cells. However, it is unclear how EBOV-GP antagonizes tetherin and it is unknown whether the GP of Lloviu virus (LLOV), a filovirus found in dead bats in Northern Spain, also counteracts tetherin. Here, we show that LLOV-GP antagonizes tetherin, indicating that tetherin may not impede LLOV spread in human cells...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Daniel Luque, Carlos P Mata, Fernando González-Camacho, José M González, Josué Gómez-Blanco, Carlos Alfonso, Germán Rivas, Wendy M Havens, Satoko Kanematsu, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A Ghabrial, Benes L Trus, Joséa R Castón
: Most dsRNA viruses are transcribed and replicated in a specialized icosahedral capsid with a T=1 lattice consisting of 60 asymmetric capsid protein (CP) dimers. These capsids help to organize the viral genome and replicative complex(es). They also act as molecular sieves that isolate the virus genome from host defense mechanisms and allow the passage of nucleotides and viral transcripts. Rosellinia necatrix quadrivirus 1 (RnQV1), the type species of family Quadriviridae, is a dsRNA fungal virus with a multipartite genome consisting of four monocistronic segments (segments 1-4)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Yu Okubo, Hiroaki Uchida, Aika Wakata, Takuma Suzuki, Tomoko Shibata, Hitomi Ikeda, Miki Yamaguchi, Justus B Cohen, Joseph C Glorioso, Mitsuo Tagaya, Hirofumi Hamada, Hideaki Tahara
: Membrane fusion, which is the key process for both initial cell entry and subsequent lateral spread of herpes simplex virus (HSV), requires the four envelope glycoproteins gB, gD, gH, and gL. Syncytial mutations, predominantly mapped to the gB and gK genes, confer hyperfusogenicity on HSV and cause multinucleated giant cells, termed syncytia. Here, we asked whether interaction of gD with a cognate entry receptor remains indispensable for initiating membrane fusion of syncytial strains...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Fabian Elgner, Huimei Ren, Regina Medvedev, Daniela Ploen, Kiyoshi Himmelsbach, Klaus Boller, Eberhard Hildt
BACKGROUND: HCV particles are described as lipoviroparticles which are released similar to VLDLs. However, the release mechanism is still poorly understood; the canonical ERGIC pathway as well as the endosome-dependent release has been proposed. Recently, also the role of exosomes in the transmission of HCV has been reported. Only a minor fraction of the de novo synthesized lipoviroparticles are finally released by the infected cell. METHODS: To investigate the relevance of MVBs for viral morphogenesis and release, the MVB inhibitor U18666A was used...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Xunqing Jiang, Max Totrov, Wei Li, Jared M Sampson, Constance Williams, Hong Lu, Xueling Wu, Shan Lu, Shixia Wang, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Xiang-Peng Kong
: The V1V2 region of HIV-1 gp120 harbors a major vulnerable site targeted by a group of broadly neutralizing mAbs such as PG9 through strand-strand recognition. However, this epitope region is structurally polymorphic, as it can also form a helical conformation recognized by RV144 vaccine-induced mAb CH58. This structural polymorphism is a potential mechanism for masking the V1V2 vulnerable site. Designing immunogens that can induce conformation-specific Ab responses may lead to vaccines targeting this vulnerable site...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Shengbin Li, Joy M Folkvord, Eva G Rakasz, Hadia M Abdelaal, Reece K Wagstaff, Katalin J Kovacs, Hyeon O Kim, Ryoko Sawahata, Samantha MaWhinney, David Masopust, Elizabeth Connick, Pamela J Skinner
: HIV- and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific CD8(+) T cells are typically largely excluded from lymphoid B cell follicles where HIV- and SIV-producing cells are most highly concentrated, indicating that B cell follicles are somewhat of an immune privileged site. To gain insights into virus-specific follicular CD8(+) T cells, we determined the location and phenotype of follicular SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in situ, the local relationship of these cells to Foxp3(+) cells, and effects of CD8 depletion on levels of follicular SIV-producing cells in chronically SIV infected rhesus macaques...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Zixiang Zhu, Guoqing Wang, Fan Yang, Weijun Cao, Ruoqing Mao, Xiaoli Du, Xiangle Zhang, Chuntian Li, Dan Li, Keshan Zhang, Hongbing Shu, Xiangtao Liu, Haixue Zheng
: The role of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-infected cells remains unknown. Herein, we showed that RIG-I inhibits FMDV replication in host cells. FMDV infection increased the transcription of RIG-I, while it decreased RIG-I protein expression. A detailed analysis revealed that FMDV leader proteinase (L(pro)), as well as 3C proteinase (3C(pro)) and 2B protein, decreased RIG-I protein expression. L(pro) and 3C(pro) are viral proteinases that can cleave various host proteins and are responsible for several of the viral polyprotein cleavages...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
M A G Rabbani, Michael Ribaudo, Ju-Tao Guo, Sailen Barik
: A major arm of cellular innate immunity is type I interferon (IFN), represented by IFN-α and IFN-β. Type I IFN transcriptionally induces a large number of cellular genes, collectively known as IFN-Stimulated Genes or ISGs, which act as antivirals. The IFIT (interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats)-family proteins constitute a major subclass of ISG, and are characterized by multiple tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs). Here, we have interrogated IFIT proteins for their ability to inhibit the growth of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3), a nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family and major cause of respiratory disease in children...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
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