journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Journal of Virology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931691/vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-c-virus-variable-transmission-bottleneck-and-evidence-of-mid-gestation-in-utero-infection
#1
Sébastien Fauteux-Daniel, Ariane Larouche, Virginie Calderon, Jonathan Boulais, Chanel Béland, Doris G Ransy, Marc Boucher, Valérie Lamarre, Normand Lapointe, Isabelle Boucoiran, Armelle Le Campion, Hugo Soudeyns
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth. However, the timing and precise biologic mechanisms that are involved in this process are incompletely understood, as are the determinants that influence transmission of particular HCV variants. Here we report results of a longitudinal assessment of HCV quasispecies diversity and composition in 5 cases of vertical HCV transmission, including 3 women coinfected with HIV-1. The population structure of HCV variant spectra based on E2 envelope gene sequences (nucleotide positions 1491-1787), including hypervariable regions 1 and 2, was characterized using next-generation sequencing and median joining network analysis...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931690/conformational-changes-in-the-5-end-of-the-hiv-1-genome-dependent-on-the-debranching-enzyme-dbr1-during-early-stages-of-infection
#2
Alvaro E Galvis, Hugh E Fisher, Hung Fan, David Camerini
Previous studies in our laboratory showed that the RNA debranching enzyme (DBR1) is not required for early steps in HIV cDNA formation, but is necessary for synthesis of intermediate and late cDNA products. To further characterize this effect, we evaluated the topology of the 5' end of the HIV-1 RNA genome during early infection with and without inhibition of DBR1 synthesis. Cells were transfected with DBR1 shRNA followed 48 hours later by infection with an HIV-1 derived vector containing an RNase H deficient reverse transcriptase...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931689/vaccination-with-recombinant-parainfluenza-virus-5-expressing-neuraminidase-protects-against-homologous-and-heterologous-influenza-virus-challenge
#3
Alaina J Mooney, Jon D Gabbard, Zhuo Li, Daniel A Dlugolenski, Scott K Johnson, Ralph A Tripp, Biao He, S Mark Tompkins
Seasonal human influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality annually, and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) along with other emerging influenzas continue to pose pandemic threats. Vaccination is considered the most effective measure for controlling influenza; however, current strategies rely on a precise vaccine match with currently circulating virus strains for efficacy, requiring constant surveillance and regular development of matched vaccines. Current vaccines focus on eliciting specific antibody responses against the hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein; however, the diversity of HAs across species and antigenic drift of circulating strains enables evasion of virus-inhibiting antibody responses, resulting in vaccine failure...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931688/a-selective-bottleneck-shapes-the-evolutionary-mutant-spectra-of-enterovirus-a71-during-viral-dissemination-in-humans
#4
Sheng-Wen Huang, Yi-Hui Huang, Huey-Pin Tsai, Pin-Hwa Kuo, Shih-Min Wang, Ching-Chuan Liu, Jen-Ren Wang
RNA viruses accumulate mutations to rapidly adapt to environmental changes. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes various clinical manifestations with occasional severe neurological complications. However, the mechanism by which EV-A71 evolves within the human body is unclear. Utilizing deep sequencing and haplotype analyses of viruses from various tissues of an autopsy patient, we sought to define the evolutionary pathway by which enterovirus A71 evolves fitness for invading the central nervous system in humans...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931687/a-dna-vaccine-that-targets-hemagglutinin-to-antigen-presenting-cells-protects-mice-against-h7-influenza
#5
Tor Kristian Andersen, Fan Zhou, Rebecca Cox, Bjarne Bogen, Gunnveig Grødeland
Zoonotic influenza H7 viral infections have a case fatality rate of about 40%. Currently no or limited human to human spread has occurred, but we may be facing a severe pandemic threat if the virus acquires the ability to transmit between humans. Novel vaccines that can be rapidly produced for global distribution are urgently needed, and DNA vaccines may be the only type of vaccine that allows for the speed necessary to quench an emerging pandemic. Here, we have constructed DNA vaccines encoding the hemagglutinin (HA) from influenza A/chicken/Italy/13474/99 (H7N1)...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931686/host-noncoding-retrotransposons-induced-by-dna-viruses-a-sine-of-infection
#6
Jessica M Tucker, Britt A Glaunsinger
Our genomes are dominated by repetitive elements. The majority of these elements derive from retrotransposons, which expand throughout the genome through a process of reverse transcription and integration. Short interspersed nuclear elements, or SINEs, are an abundant class of retrotransposons that are transcribed by RNA polymerase III, thus generating exclusively noncoding RNA (ncRNA) that must hijack the machinery required for their transposition. SINE loci are generally transcriptionally repressed in somatic cells, but can be robustly induced upon infection with multiple DNA viruses...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931685/p21-restricts-hiv-1-in-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-through-the-reduction-of-dntp-biosynthesis-and-regulation-of-samhd1-antiviral-activity
#7
Jose Carlos Valle-Casuso, Awatef Allouch, Annie David, Gina M Lenzi, Lydia Studdard, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, Michaela Müller-Trutwin, Baek Kim, Gianfranco Pancino, Asier Sáez-Cirión
HIV-1 infection of non-cycling cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs), is impaired due to limited availability of dNTPs, which are needed for HIV-1 reverse transcription. The levels of dNTPs are tightly regulated during cell cycle and depend on the balance between dNTPs biosynthesis and degradation. SAMHD1 potently blocks HIV-1 replication in DCs, although the underlying mechanism is still unclear. SAMHD1 has been reported to be able to degrade dNTPs and viral nucleic acids, which may both hamper HIV-1 reverse transcription...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931684/zika-virus-encoding-non-glycosylated-envelope-protein-is-attenuated-and-defective-in-neuroinvasion
#8
Arun S Annamalai, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R Sahoo, Ezhumalai Muthukrishnan, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, David Steffen, Hiep L X Vu, Gustavo Delhon, Fernando A Osorio, Thomas M Petro, Shi-Hua Xiang, Asit K Pattnaik
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, responsible for sporadic outbreaks of mild and febrile illness in Africa and Asia, re-emerged in the last decade causing serious human diseases including microcephaly, congenital malformations, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Although genomic and phylogenetic analyses suggest that genetic evolution may have led to enhanced virulence of ZIKV, experimental evidence supporting the role of specific genetic changes in virulence is currently outstanding. One sequence motif, VNDT, containing an N-linked glycosylation site in the envelope (E) protein, is polymorphic, being absent in many of the African isolates while present in all isolates from the recent outbreaks...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931683/caenorhabditis-elegans-as-an-emerging-model-for-virus-host-interactions
#9
Don B Gammon
Since 1999, Caenorhabditis elegans has been extensively used to study microbe-host interactions due to its simple culture, genetic tractability, and susceptibility to numerous bacterial and fungal pathogens. In contrast, virus studies have been hampered by a lack of convenient virus infection models in nematodes. The recent discovery of a natural viral pathogen of C. elegans and development of diverse artificial infection models are providing new opportunities to explore virus-host interplay in this powerful model organism...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931682/susceptibility-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-type-k-to-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors
#10
Rafael A Contreras-Galindo, Derek Dube, Koh Fujinaga, Mark H Kaplan, David M Markovitz
Human Endogenous Retroviruses make up 8% of the human genome. The HERV-K HML-2 (HK2) family contains proviruses that are the most recent entrants into the human germline and are transcriptionally active. In HIV-1 infection and cancer, HK2 genes produce retroviral particles that appear to be infectious, yet the replication capacity of these viruses and potential pathogenicity has been difficult to ascertain. In this report, we screened the efficacy of commercially available reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) at inhibiting the enzymatic activity of the HK2 RT and HK2 genomic replication...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931681/insights-into-the-impact-of-cd8-immune-modulation-on-hiv-evolutionary-dynamics-in-distinct-anatomical-compartments-using-siv-infected-macaque-models-of-aids-progression
#11
Brittany Rife Magalis, David J Nolan, Patrick Autissier, Tricia H Burdo, Kenneth C Williams, Marco Salemi
A thorough understanding of the role of HIV intra-host evolution in AIDS pathogenesis has been limited by the need for longitudinally sampled viral sequences from the vast target space within the host, which are often difficult to obtain from human subjects. CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) provide an increasingly utilized model of pathogenesis due to similar clinical manifestations as HIV-1 infection and AIDS progression, as well as characteristic rapid disease onset...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931680/molecular-evolution-of-herpes-simplex-virus-2-complete-genomes-comparison-between-primary-and-recurrent-infections
#12
Miguel A Minaya, Travis Jensen, Johannes Goll, Maria Korom, Sree H Datla, Robert B Belshe, Lynda A Morrison
Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and -2 are large, double-stranded DNA viruses that cause lifelong persistent infections characterized by periods of quiescence and recurrent disease. How HSV evolves within an infected individual experiencing multiple episodes of reactivation over time is not known. We determined genome sequences of viruses isolated from two subjects in the Herpevac Trial for Women who experienced primary HSV-2 genital disease and compared them with sequences of viruses isolated from the subsequent fifth or sixth episode of recurrent disease in the same individuals...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931679/pathogenic-correlates-of-the-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv-associated-b-cell-dysfunction
#13
Egidio Brocca-Cofano, David Kuhrt, Basile Siewe, Cuiling Xu, George S Haret-Richter, Jodi Craigo, Celia Labranche, David C Montefiori, Alan Landay, Cristian Apetrei, Ivona Pandrea
We compared and contrasted pathogenic (pigtailed macaques-PTMs) and nonpathogenic (African green monkeys-AGMs) SIVsab infections to assess the significance of the B-cell dysfunction observed in SIV/HIV infection. We report that the loss of B cells is specifically associated with the pathogenic SIV infection, while in the nonpathogenic natural hosts B cells rapidly increase in both LNs and intestine. SIV-associated B-cell dysfunction associated to the pathogenic SIV infection is characterized by loss of naïve B cells; loss of resting memory B cells due to their redistribution to the gut; increases of the activated B cells and circulating tissue-like memory B cells and expansion of the B regulatory cells...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931678/ikk%C3%AE-mimetic-peptides-block-the-resistance-to-apoptosis-associated-with-kshv-infection
#14
Louise C Briggs, A W Edith Chan, Christopher A Davis, Nicholas Whitelock, Hajira A Hotiana, Mehdi Baratchian, Claire Bagnéris, David L Selwood, Mary K Collins, Tracey E Barrett
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a lymphogenic disorder associated with KSHV infection. Key to the survival and proliferation of PEL is the canonical NF-kB pathway that becomes constitutively activated following overexpression of the viral oncoprotein ks-vFLIP. This arises from its capacity to form a complex with the modulatory subunit of the IKK kinase, IKKγ (or NEMO) resulting in the overproduction of proteins that promote cellular survival and prevent apoptosis; both of which are important drivers of tumourigenesis...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931677/structurally-guided-removal-of-deisgylase-biochemical-activity-from-papain-like-protease-originating-from-the-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#15
Courtney M Daczkowski, Octavia Goodwin, John V Dzimianski, Jonathan J Farhat, Scott D Pegan
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging human pathogen that is the causative agent for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). With MERS outbreaks resulting in over 35% fatalities and now spread to 27 countries, MERS-CoV poses a significant on-going threat to global human health. As part of its viral genome, MERS-CoV encodes for a papain-like protease (PLpro) that has been observed to act as a deubiquitinase and deISGylase to antagonize IFN-I immune pathways. This activity is in addition to its viral polypeptide cleavage function...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931676/protective-humoral-immunity-in-the-cns-requires-peripheral-cd19-dependent-germinal-center-formation-following-coronavirus-encephalomyelitis
#16
Jeffrey R Atkinson, Cornelia C Bergmann
B cell subsets with phenotypes characteristic of naïve, non-isotype-switched, memory (Bmem), and antibody-secreting cells (ASC) accumulate in various models of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, including viral encephalomyelitis. During neurotropic coronavirus JHMV infection infiltration of protective ASC occurs after T cell mediated viral control, and is preceded by accumulation of non-isotype switched IgD(+) and IgM(+) B cells. However, the contribution of peripheral activation events in cervical lymph nodes (CLN) in driving humoral immune responses in the infected CNS is poorly defined...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931675/comparative-transcriptomics-highlights-the-role-of-the-ap1-transcription-factor-in-the-host-response-to-ebolavirus
#17
James W Wynne, Shawn Todd, Victoria Boyd, Mary Tachedjian, Reuben Klein, Brian Shiell, Megan Dearnley, Alexander J McAuley, Amanda P Woon, Anthony W Purcell, Glenn A Marsh, Michelle L Baker
Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus comprise two genera of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Despite considerable research efforts, the molecular events following Ebola virus (EBOV) infection are poorly understood. With the view of identifying host factors that underpin EBOV pathogenesis, we compared the transcriptomes of EBOV-infected human, pig and bat kidney cells using an RNAseq approach. Despite a significant difference in viral transcription/replication between the cell lines, all cells responded to EBOV infection through a robust induction of extracellular growth factors...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931674/natural-reassortants-between-potentially-zoonotic-avian-influenza-viruses-h5n1-and-h9n2-from-egypt-display-distinct-pathogenic-phenotypes-in-experimentally-infected-chickens-and-ferrets
#18
Mahmoud M Naguib, Reiner Ulrich, Elisa Kasbohm, Christine L P Eng, Donata Hoffmann, Christian Grund, Martin Beer, Timm C Harder
Co-circulation of zoonotic highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 and AIV of subtype H9N2 among poultry in Egypt for at least six years should render this country a hypothetical hotspot for the emergence of reassortant, phenotypically altered viruses, yet no reassortants have been detected in Egypt. The present investigations proved that reassortants between Egyptian H5N1 clade 2.2.1.2 and H9N2 of the G1-B lineage can be generated by co-amplification in embryonated chicken eggs. Reassortants were restricted to the H5N1 subtype and had acquired between two and all six of the internal segments of the H9N2 virus...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904203/three-conserved-regions-in-baculovirus-sulfhydryl-oxidase-p33-are-critical-for-enzymatic-activity-and-function
#19
Wenhua Kuang, Huanyu Zhang, Manli Wang, Ning-Yi Zhou, Fei Deng, Hualin Wang, Peng Gong, Zhihong Hu
Baculoviruses encode a conserved sulfhydryl oxidase P33, which is necessary for budded virus (BV) production and multi-nucleocapsid occlusion-derived virus (ODV) formation. Here, the structural and functional relationship of P33 was revealed by X-ray crystallography, site-directed mutagenesis, and functional analysis. Based on crystallographic characterization and structural analysis, a series of P33 mutants within three conserved regions, i.e. the active site, dimer interface, and the R127-E183 salt bridge, were constructed...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904202/discrete-dynamical-modeling-of-influenza-infection-suggests-age-dependent-differences-in-immunity
#20
Ericka Keef, Li Ang Zhang, David Swigon, Alisa Urbano, G Bard Ermentrout, Michael Matuszewski, Franklin R Toapanta, Ted M Ross, Robert S Parker, Gilles Clermont
Immunosenescence, an age-related decline in immune function, is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Older hosts exhibit delayed onset of immunity and prolonged inflammation after an infection, leading to excess damage and greater likelihood of death. Our study applies a rule-based model to infer which components of immune response are most changed in an aged host. Two groups of BALB/c mice (age 12-16 wks and 72-76 wks) were infected at 2 inocula: a survivable 50 PFU dose and a lethal 500 PFU dose...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
journal
journal
21700
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"