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Journal of Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232191/natural-secretory-immunoglobulins-promote-enteric-viral-infections
#1
Holly Turula, Juliana Bragazzi Cunha, Bernardo A Mainou, Sadeesh K Ramakrishnan, Carol A Wilke, Mariam B Gonzalez-Hernandez, Alexandra Pry, Julianne Fava, Christine M Bassis, Jacob Edelman, Yatrik M Shah, Blaise Corthesy, Bethany B Moore, Christiane E Wobus
Noroviruses are enteric pathogens causing significant morbidity, mortality and economic losses worldwide. Secretory immunoglobulins (SIg) are a first line of mucosal defense against enteric pathogens. They are secreted into the intestinal lumen via the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), where they bind to antigens. However, whether natural SIg protect against norovirus infection remains unknown. To determine if natural SIg alter murine norovirus (MNV) pathogenesis, we infected pIgR knockout (KO) mice, which lack SIg in mucosal secretions...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232190/characterisation-of-antibody-interactions-with-the-g-protein-of-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-indiana-strain-and-other-vesiculovirus-g-proteins
#2
Altar M Munis, Maha Tijani, Mark Hassall, Giada Mattiuzzo, Mary K Collins, Yasuhiro Takeuchi
Vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana strain G protein (VSVind.G) is the most commonly used envelope glycoprotein to pseudotype lentiviral vectors (LV) for experimental and clinical applications. Recently, G proteins derived from other vesiculoviruses (VesG), for example Cocal virus, have been proposed as alternative LV envelopes with possible advantages compared to VSVind.G. Well-characterised antibodies that recognise VesG will be useful for vesiculovirus research, development of G protein-containing advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), and deployment of VSVind-based vaccine vectors...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232189/sindbis-virus-infection-causes-cell-death-by-nsp2-induced-transcriptional-shutoff-or-by-nsp3-dependent-translational-shutoff
#3
Ivan Akhrymuk, Ilya Frolov, Elena I Frolova
Sindbis virus (SINV) is a representative member of the Alphavirus genus in Togaviridae family. The hallmark of SINV replication in vertebrate cells is a rapid development of the cytopathic effect (CPE), which usually occurs within 24 h post infection. Mechanistic understanding of CPE might lead to development of new prophylactic vaccines and therapeutic means against alphavirus infections. However, development of noncytopathic SINV variants and those of other Old World alphaviruses was always highly inefficient and usually resulted in selection of mutants demonstrating poor replication of the viral genome and transcription of subgenomic RNA...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232188/host-enzymes-heparanase-and-cathepsin-l-promote-herpes-simplex-virus-2-release-from-cells
#4
James Hopkins, Tejabhiram Yadavalli, Alex M Agelidis, Deepak Shukla
Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) can productively infect many different cell types of human and non-human origin. Here we demonstrate interconnected roles for two host enzymes, heparanase (HPSE) and cathepsin L in HSV-2 release from cells. In vaginal epithelial cells HSV-2 causes heparan sulfate shedding and upregulation in HPSE levels during the productive phase of infection. We also noted increased levels of cathepsin L and show that regulation of HPSE by cathepsin L via cleavage of HPSE proenzyme is important for infection...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232187/toll-like-receptor-7-and-9-agonists-improve-hepatitis-c-virus-replication-and-infectivity-inhibition-by-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells
#5
B Dominguez-Molina, K Machmach, C Perales, L Tarancon-Diez, I Gallego, J Shedon, M Leal, E Domingo, E Ruiz-Mateos
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are innate immune cells with high antiviral activity triggered by Toll like receptor (TLR)-7 and -9 stimulation. Moreover, they are important mediators between innate and adaptive immunity. Although nowadays there is available an effective therapeutic arsenal against hepatitis C virus (HCV), a protective vaccine is not available. We have analyzed the pDCs response to HCV infection in a HCV-Huh7.5 virus-cell system, which allows completing the virus infectious cycle. pDCs were cocultured following human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aldrithiol-2 inactivated (AT-2) (TLR-7 agonist) and CpG (TLR-9 agonist) stimulation...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232186/nss-protein-of-sandfly-fever-sicilian-phlebovirus-counteracts-interferon-induction-by-masking-the-dna-binding-domain-of-interferon-regulatory-factor-3
#6
Jennifer Deborah Wuerth, Matthias Habjan, Julia Wulle, Giulio Superti-Furga, Andreas Pichlmair, Friedemann Weber
Sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) is one of the most widespread and frequent members of the genus Phlebovirus (order Bunyavirales , family Phenuiviridae ) infecting humans. Being transmitted by Phlebotomus sandflies, SFSV causes a self-limiting acute, often incapacitating febrile disease ("sandfly fever", "pappataci fever" or "dog disease") that is known at least since the beginning of the 20th century. We show that, similar to other pathogenic phleboviruses, SFSV suppresses the induction of the antiviral type I interferon (IFN) system in an NSs-dependent manner...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232185/structure-guided-identification-of-a-non-human-morbillivirus-with-zoonotic-potential
#7
Nurshariza Abdullah, James T Kelly, Stephen C Graham, Jamie Birch, Daniel Gonçalves-Carneiro, Tim Mitchell, Robin N Thompson, Katrina A Lythgoe, Nicola Logan, Margaret J Hosie, Vassiliy N Bavro, Brian J Willett, Michael P Heaton, Dalan Bailey
Morbilliviruses infect a broad range of mammalian hosts including ruminants, carnivores and humans. The recent eradication of rinderpest virus (RPV), as well as active campaigns for the human-specific measles virus (MeV), have raised significant concerns that the remaining morbilliviruses may emerge in so-called vacated ecological niches. Seeking to assess the zoonotic-potential of non-human morbilliviruses within human populations we identified that peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) - the small ruminant morbillivirus - is restricted at the point of entry into human cells due to deficient interactions with human SLAMF1 - the immune cell receptor for morbilliviruses...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232184/robust-human-and-murine-hepatocyte-culture-models-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-replication
#8
Luhua Qiao, Jianhua Sui, Guangxiang Luo
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of chronic liver diseases including hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV research has been hampered by the lack of robust cell culture and small animal models of HBV infection. The discovery of sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) as an HBV receptor has been a landmark advance in HBV research in recent years. Ectopic expression of NTCP in nonpermissive HepG2, Huh7, and AML12 cell lines confers HBV susceptibility. However, HBV replication in these human and murine hepatocytes cell lines appeared suboptimal...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232183/t5-exonuclease-hydrolysis-of-hepatitis-b-virus-replicative-intermediates-allows-reliable-quantification-and-fast-drug-efficacy-testing-of-covalently-closed-circular-dna-by-pcr
#9
Bingqian Qu, Yi Ni, Florian A Lempp, Florian W R Vondran, Stephan Urban
Chronic infection with the human Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a major health problem. Virus persistence requires the establishment and maintenance of covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA, the episomal virus template in the nucleus of infected hepatocytes. Compared to replicative DNA intermediates (relaxed circular (rc) DNA), copy numbers of cccDNA in infected hepatocytes are low. Accordingly, accurate analyses of cccDNA require enrichment of nuclear fractions and southern blotting or selective qPCR methods allowing discrimination of cccDNA and rcDNA...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232182/cellular-protein-kinase-d-modulators-play-a-role-during-multiple-steps-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-egress
#10
Élisabeth Roussel, Roger Lippé
The assembly of new herpes simplex virus type 1 particles takes place in the nucleus. These particles then travel across the two nuclear membranes and acquire a final envelope from a cellular compartment. The contribution of the cell to the release of the virus is, however, little known. We previously demonstrated using a synchronized infection that the host protein kinase D and diacylglycerol, a lipid that recruits the kinase to the TGN, promote the release of the virus from that compartment. Given the role this cellular protein plays in the herpes simplex virus type 1 life cycle and the many molecules that modulate its activity, we aimed to determine to what extent this virus utilizes the protein kinase D pathway during a non-synchronized infection...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232181/redundant-late-domain-functions-of-tandem-vp2-ypx-3-l-motifs-in-nonlytic-cellular-egress-of-quasi-enveloped-hepatitis-a-virus
#11
Olga González-López, Efraín E Rivera-Serrano, Fengyu Hu, Lucinda Hensley, Kevin L McKnight, Jingshan Ren, David I Stuart, Elizabeth E Fry, Stanley M Lemon
The quasi-envelopment of hepatitis A virus (HAV) capsids in exosome-like virions (eHAV) is an important but incompletely understood aspect of the hepatovirus life cycle. This process is driven by recruitment of newly assembled capsids to endosomal vesicles into which they bud to form multi-vesicular bodies with intraluminal vesicles that are later released at the plasma membrane as eHAV. The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) are key to this process, as is the ESCRT-III associated protein, ALIX, which also contributes to membrane budding of conventional enveloped viruses...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232180/attenuation-of-influenza-a-virus-disease-severity-by-viral-co-infection-in-a-mouse-model
#12
Andres J Gonzalez, Emmanuel C Ijezie, Onesmo B Balemba, Tanya A Miura
Influenza viruses and rhinoviruses are responsible for a large number of acute respiratory viral infections in human populations and are detected as co-pathogens within hosts. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that co-infection by rhinovirus and influenza virus may reduce disease severity and that they may also interfere with each other's spread within a host population. To determine how co-infection by these two unrelated respiratory viruses affects pathogenesis, we established a mouse model using a minor serogroup rhinovirus (RV1B) and mouse-adapted influenza A virus (PR8)...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232179/a-novel-chimeric-oncolytic-virus-vector-for-improved-safety-and-efficacy-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Sarah Abdullahi, Melanie Jäkel, Sabine J Behrend, Katja Steiger, Geoffrey Topping, Teresa Krabbe, Alessio Colombo, Volker Sandig, Tobias S Schiergens, Wolfgang E Thasler, Jens Werner, Stefan F Lichtenthaler, Roland M Schmid, Oliver Ebert, Jennifer Altomonte
Oncolytic viruses represent an exciting new aspect of the evolving field of cancer immunotherapy. We have engineered a novel hybrid vector comprising vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), named rVSV-NDV, wherein the VSV backbone is conserved, but its glycoprotein has been replaced by the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and the modified, hyperfusogenic fusion (F) envelope proteins of recombinant NDV. As opposed to wild-type VSV, which kills cells through a classical cytopathic effect, the recombinant virus is able to induce tumor-specific syncytia formation, allowing for efficient cell-to-cell spread of the virus and a rapid onset of immunogenic cell death...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232178/molecular-characterization-of-the-viroporin-function-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-non-structural-protein-2b
#14
D P Gladue, E Largo, I de la Arada, V M Aguilella, A Alcaraz, J L R Arrondo, L G Holinka, E Brocchi, E Ramirez-Medina, E A Vuono, K A Berggren, C Carrillo, J L Nieva, M V Borca
The non-structural protein 2B of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is comprised of a small hydrophobic, 154 amino acid protein. Structure-function analyses demonstrated that FMDV 2B is an ion channel forming protein. Infrared spectroscopy measurements using partially overlapping peptides that spanned regions between amino acids 28-147 demonstrated the adoption of helical conformations in two putative transmembrane regions between residues 60-78 and 119-147, and a third transmembrane region between residues 79-106, adopting a mainly extended structure...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209179/hepatitis-b-spliced-protein-hbsp-suppresses-fas-mediated-hepatocyte-apoptosis-via-activation-of-pi3k-akt-signaling
#15
Shu-Xiang Wu, Wan-Nan Chen, Zhen-Tang Jing, Wei Liu, Xin-Jian Lin, Xu Lin
Hepatitis B spliced protein (HBSP) is known to associate with viral persistence and pathogenesis, however, its biological and clinical significance remains poorly defined. Acquired resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis is thought as one of the major promotors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronicity and malignancy. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether HBSP could protect hepatocytes against Fas-initiated apoptosis. We showed here that HBSP mediated resistance of hepatoma cells or primary human hepatocytes (PHH) to agonistic anti-Fas antibody (CH11)- or FasL-induced apoptosis...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209178/type-i-interferon-signaling-prevents-hepatitis-b-virus-specific-t-cell-responses-by-reducing-antigen-expression
#16
Keigo Kawashima, Masanori Isogawa, Susumu Hamada-Tsutsumi, Ian Baudi, Satoru Saito, Atsushi Nakajima, Yasuhito Tanaka
Robust virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses are required for the clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, the factors that determine the magnitude of HBV-specific CD8+ T cell responses are poorly understood. To examine the impact of genetic variations of HBV on HBV-specific CD8+ T cell responses, we introduced three HBV clones (Aa, C22, D60) that express varying amounts of HBV antigens into the livers of C57BL/6 (B6) mice (H-2b) and B10.D2 mice (H-2d). In B6 mice, clone C22 barely induced HBV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and persisted the longest, while clone D60 elicited strong HBV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and was rapidly cleared...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209177/recombinant-infectious-bronchitis-viruses-expressing-chimaeric-spike-glycoproteins-induce-partial-protective-immunity-against-homologous-challenge-despite-limited-replication-in-vivo
#17
Samantha Ellis, Sarah Keep, Paul Britton, Sjaak de Wit, Erica Bickerton, Lonneke Vervelde
Vaccination regimes against Infectious bronchitis virus , which are based on a single virus serotype, often induce insufficient levels of cross-protection against serotypes and two or more antigenically diverse vaccines are used in attempt to provide broader protection. Amino acid differences in the surface protein, spike (S), in particular the S1 subunit, are associated with poor cross-protection. Here, homologous vaccination trials with recombinant IBVs, based on the apathogenic strain, BeauR, were conducted to elucidate the role of S1 in protection...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209176/hoil1-is-essential-for-the-induction-of-type-i-and-iii-interferons-by-mda5-and-regulates-persistent-murine-norovirus-infection
#18
Donna A MacDuff, Megan T Baldridge, Arwa M Qaqish, Timothy J Nice, Azad D Darbandi, Victoria L Hartley, Stefan T Peterson, Jonathan J Miner, Kazuhiro Iwai, Herbert W Virgin
The Linear Ubiquitin Chain Assembly Complex (LUBAC), composed of heme-oxidized IRP2 ubiquitin ligase-1 (HOIL1), HOIL-1-interacting protein (HOIP) and SHANK-associated RH-domain-interacting protein (SHARPIN), is a crucial regulator of multiple immune signaling pathways. In humans, HOIL1- or HOIP-deficiency is associated with an immune disorder involving auto-inflammation, immunodeficiency and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-like symptoms. During viral infection, LUBAC is reported to inhibit the induction of interferon (IFN) by the cytosolic RNA sensor, RIG-I...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209175/distribution-diversity-and-evolution-of-endogenous-retroviruses-in-perissodactyl-genomes
#19
Henan Zhu, Robert James Gifford, Pablo Ramiro Murcia
The evolution of mammalian genomes has been shaped by interactions with endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). In this study, we investigated the distribution and diversity of ERVs in the mammalian order Perissodactyla, with a view to understanding their impact on the evolution of modern equids (family Equidae). We characterize the major ERV lineages in the horse genome in terms of their genomic distribution, ancestral genome organization and time of activity. Our results show that subsequent to their ancestral divergence from rhinos and tapirs, equids acquired four novel ERV lineages...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209174/human-host-range-restriction-of-the-vaccinia-virus-c7-k1-double-deletion-mutant-is-mediated-by-an-atypical-mode-of-translation-inhibition
#20
Gilad Sivan, Shira G Glushakow-Smith, George C Katsafanas, Jeffrey L Americo, Bernard Moss
Replication of vaccinia virus in human cells depends on the viral C7 or K1 protein. A previous human genome-wide siRNA screen with a C7/K1 double deletion mutant revealed SAMD9 as a principal host-range restriction factor plus additional candidates including WDR6 and FTSJ1. To compare their abilities to restrict replication, the cellular genes were individually inactivated by CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis. The C7/K1 deletion mutant exhibited enhanced replication in each knock-out (KO) cell line but reached wild-type levels only in SAMD9 KO cells...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
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