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Journal of Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424289/disruption-of-mda5-mediated-innate-immune-responses-by-the-3c-proteins-of-coxsackievirus-a16-coxsackievirus-a6-and-enterovirus-d68
#1
Yajuan Rui, Jiaming Su, Hong Wang, Junliang Chang, Shaohua Wang, Wenwen Zheng, Yong Cai, Wei Wei, James T Gordy, Richard Markham, Wei Kong, Wenyan Zhang, Xiao-Fang Yu
Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), A6 (CV-A6), and enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) belong to the Picornaviridae family and are major causes of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and pediatric respiratory disease worldwide. The biological characteristics of these viruses, especially their interplay with the host innate immune system, have not been well investigated. In this study, we discovered that the 3C(pro) proteins from CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 bind MDA5 and inhibit its interaction with MAVS. Consequently, MDA5-triggered type I IFN signaling in the RLR pathway was blocked by CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 3C(pro) Furthermore, CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 3C(pro) all cleave TAK1, resulting in inhibition of NF-κB activation, a host response also critical for toll-like receptor (TLR) mediated signaling...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424288/virion-associated-vpr-alleviates-a-post-integration-block-to-hiv-1-infection-of-dendritic-cells
#2
Caitlin M Miller, Hisashi Akiyama, Luis M Agosto, Ann Emery, Chelsea R Ettinger, Ronald I Swamstrom, Andrew J Henderson, Suryaram Gummuluru
Viral protein R (Vpr) is an HIV-1 accessory protein whose function remains poorly understood. In this report, we sought to determine the requirement of Vpr in facilitating HIV-1 infection of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs), one of the first cells to encounter virus in the peripheral mucosal tissues. We characterize in this report a significant restriction to Vpr-deficient virus replication and spread in MDDCs alone and in cell-to-cell spread in MDDC - CD4(+) T cell co-cultures. This restriction to HIV-1 replication in MDDCs was observed in a single round of virus replication and was rescued by expression of Vpr in trans in the incoming virion...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424287/protective-efficacy-of-formaldehyde-inactivated-whole-virus-vaccine-and-antivirals-in-a-murine-model-of-coxsackievirus-a10-infection
#3
Zhenjie Zhang, Zhaopeng Dong, Juan Li, Michael J Carr, Dongming Zhuang, Jianxing Wang, Yawei Zhang, Shujun Ding, Yigang Tong, Dong Li, Weifeng Shi
Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) is one of the major pathogens associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). CVA10 infection can cause herpangina and viral pneumonia, which can be complicated by severe neurological sequelae. Morbidity and mortality of CVA10-associated HFMD has been increasing in recent years, particularly in the pan-Pacific region. There are limited studies however on the pathogenesis and immunology of CVA10-associated HFMD infections, and few antiviral drugs or vaccines have been reported...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424286/subtype-specific-differences-in-gag-protease-driven-replication-capacity-are-consistent-with-inter-subtype-differences-in-hiv-1-disease-progression
#4
Marion W Kiguoya, Jaclyn K Mann, Denis Chopera, Kamini Gounder, Guinevere Q Lee, Peter W Hunt, Jeffrey N Martin, T Blake Ball, Joshua Kimani, Zabrina L Brumme, Mark A Brockman, Thumbi Ndung'u
There are marked differences in the spread and prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes worldwide, and differences in clinical progression have been reported. However, the biological reasons underlying these differences are unknown. Gag-protease is essential for HIV-1 replication and Gag-protease-driven replication capacity has previously been correlated with disease progression. We show that Gag-protease replication capacity correlates significantly with that of whole isolates (r=0.51; p=0.04), indicating that Gag-protease is a significant contributor to viral replication capacity...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424285/equine-arteritis-virus-has-specific-tropism-for-stromal-cells-and-cd8-t-and-cd21-b-lymphocytes-but-not-glandular-epithelium-at-the-primary-site-of-persistent-infection-in-the-stallion-reproductive-tract
#5
Mariano Carossino, Alan T Loynachan, Igor F Canisso, R Frank Cook, Juliana R Campos, Bora Nam, Yun Young Go, Edward L Squires, Mats H T Troedsson, Thomas Swerczek, Fabio Del Piero, Ernest Bailey, Peter J Timoney, Udeni B R Balasuriya
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has a global impact on the equine industry being the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory, systemic, and reproductive disease of equids. A distinctive feature of EAV infection is that it establishes long-term persistent infection in 10 to 70% of infected stallions (carriers). In these stallions, EAV is only detectable in the reproductive tract and viral persistence occurs despite the presence of high serum neutralizing antibodies. Carrier stallions constitute the natural reservoir of the virus as they continuously shed EAV in their semen...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424284/a-novel-type-of-polyhedral-viruses-infecting-hyperthermophilic-archaea
#6
Ying Liu, Sonoko Ishino, Yoshizumi Ishino, Gérard Pehau-Arnaudet, Mart Krupovic, David Prangishvili
Encapsidation of genetic material into polyhedral particles is one of the most common structural solutions employed by viruses infecting hosts in all three domains of life. Here, we describe a new virus of hyperthermophilic archaea, Sulfolobus polyhedral virus 1 (SPV1), which condenses its circular double-stranded DNA genome in a manner not previously observed for other known virus. The genome complexed with virion proteins is wound up sinusoidally into a spherical coil which is surrounded by an envelope and further encased by an outer polyhedral capsid apparently composed of the 20 kDa virion protein...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424283/simian-immunodeficiency-virus-targeting-of-cxcr3-cd4-t-cells-in-secondary-lymphoid-organs-is-associated-with-robust-cxcl10-expression-in-monocyte-macrophage-subsets
#7
Masayuki Fujino, Hirotaka Sato, Tomotaka Okamura, Akihiko Uda, Satoshi Takeda, Nursarat Ahmed, Shigeyuki Shichino, Teiichiro Shiino, Yohei Saito, Satoru Watanabe, Chie Sugimoto, Marcelo Kuroda, Manabu Ato, Yoshiyuki Nagai, Shuji Izumo, Kouji Matsushima, Masaaki Miyazawa, Aftab A Ansari, Francois Villinger, Kazuyasu Mori
Glycosylation of Env defines pathogenic properties of SIV. We previously demonstrated that pathogenic SIVmac239 and live-attenuated, quintuple deglycosylated Env mutant (Δ5G) target CD4(+) T cells residing in different tissues during acute infection. SIVmac239 and Δ5G preferentially infected distinct CD4(+) T cells in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) and within the lamina propria of the small intestine, respectively (C. Sugimoto et al., J Virol 86:9323-9336, 2012). Herein, we studied the host responses relevant to SIV targeting of CXCR3(+)CCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells in SLOs...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424282/formation-of-a-viral-replication-focus-in-sulfolobus-cells-infected-by-the-rudivirus-sirv2
#8
Laura Martínez-Alvarez, Ling Deng, Xu Peng
Viral factories are compartmentalized centres for viral replication and assembly in infected eukaryotic cells. Here, we report the formation of a replication focus by the prototypical archaeal virus SIRV2 in the model archaeon Sulfolobus. This rod-shaped virus belongs to the viral family rudiviridae, carrying linear dsDNA genomes, which are very common in geothermal environments. We demonstrate that SIRV2 DNA synthesis is confined to a focus near the periphery of infected cells. Moreover, viral and cellular replication proteins are recruited to, and concentrated in, the viral replication focus...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424281/distinct-roles-of-vaccinia-virus-nf-kb-inhibitor-proteins-a52-b15-and-k7-in-the-immune-response
#9
Mauro Di Pilato, Ernesto Mejías-Pérez, Carlos Oscar S Sorzano, Mariano Esteban
Poxviruses use a complex strategy to escape immune control, by expressing immunomodulatory proteins that could limit their use as vaccine vectors. To test the role of poxvirus NF-κB pathway inhibitors A52, B15 and K7 in immunity, we deleted their genes in a NYVAC vaccinia virus strain that expresses HIV-1 clade C antigens. After infection of mice, ablation of A52R, B15R and K7R increased dendritic cell, natural killer cell and neutrophil migration as well as chemokine/cytokine expression. Revertant viruses for these genes confirmed their role in inhibiting the innate immune system...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424280/the-major-envelope-glycoprotein-of-murid-herpesvirus-4-promotes-sexual-transmission
#10
Caroline Zeippen, Justine Javaux, Xue Xiao, Marina Ledecq, Jan Mast, Frédéric Farnir, Alain Vanderplasschen, Philip Stevenson, Laurent Gillet
Gammaherpesviruses are important human and animal pathogens. Infection control has proved difficult because the key process of transmission is ill-understood. Murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), a gammaherpesvirus of mice, transmits sexually. We show that this depends on the major virion envelope glycoprotein, gp150. Gp150 is redundant for host entry and, in vitro, it regulates rather than promotes cell binding. We show that gp150-deficient MuHV-4 reaches and replicates normally in the female genital tract after nasal infection, but is poorly released from vaginal epithelial cells and fails to pass from the female to the male genital tract during sexual contact...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424279/phosphorylation-induces-structural-changes-in-the-autographa-californica-nucleopolyhedrovirus-p10-protein
#11
Farheen Raza, Joanna F McGouran, Benedikt M Kessler, Robert D Possee, Linda A King
Baculoviruses encode a variety of auxiliary proteins that are not essential for viral replication but provide them with a selective advantage in nature. P10 is a 10 kDa auxiliary protein produced in the very-late phase of gene transcription by Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). The P10 protein forms cytoskeletal-like structures in the host cell that associate with microtubules varying from filamentous forms in the cytoplasm to aggregated peri-nuclear tubules that form a cage-like structure around the nucleus...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404855/genome-wide-screening-uncovers-the-significance-of-n-sulfation-of-heparan-sulfate-as-a-host-cell-factor-for-chikungunya-virus-infection
#12
Atsushi Tanaka, Uranan Tumkosit, Shota Nakamura, Daisuke Motooka, Natsuko Kishishita, Thongkoon Priengprom, Areerat Sa-Ngasang, Taroh Kinoshita, Naokazu Takeda, Yusuke Maeda
The molecular mechanisms underlying chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection are poorly characterized. In this study, we analyzed the host factors involved in CHIKV infection using genome-wide screening. Human haploid HAP1 cells, into which an exon-trapping vector was introduced, were challenged with a vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype bearing the CHIKV E3-E1 envelope proteins. Analysis of genes enriched in the cells resistant to the pseudotyped virus infection unveiled a critical role of N-sulfation of heparan sulfate (HS) for the infectivity of a clinically isolated CHIKV Thai #16856 strain to HAP1 cells...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404854/autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-disrupts-adaptive-immune-responses-during-rebound-shiv-viremia
#13
Daniel B Reeves, Christopher W Peterson, Hans-Peter Kiem, Joshua T Schiffer
Primary HIV-1 infection induces a virus-specific adaptive/cytolytic immune response that impacts plasma viral load setpoint and rate of progression to AIDS. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppresses plasma viremia to undetectable levels that rebound upon cART treatment interruption. Following cART withdrawal, the memory component of the virus-specific adaptive immune response may improve viral control compared to primary infection. Here, using primary infection and treatment interruption data from macaques infected with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), we observe lower peak viral load but unchanged viral setpoint during viral rebound...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404853/herpes-virus-entry-mediator-hvem-and-ocular-herpes-infection-more-than-meets-the-eye
#14
Rebecca G Edwards, Richard Longnecker
As its name suggests, the host receptor herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) facilitates herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry through interactions with a viral envelope glycoprotein. HVEM also bridges several signaling networks, binding ligands from both tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamilies with diverse, and often opposing, outcomes. While HVEM was first identified as a viral entry receptor for HSV, it is only recently that HVEM has emerged as an important host factor in immunopathogenesis of ocular HSV type 1 (HSV-1) infection...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404852/attachment-and-post-attachment-receptors-important-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-cell-to-cell-transmission
#15
Huahao Fan, Luhua Qiao, Kyung-Don Kang, Junfen Fan, Wensheng Wei, Guangxiang Luo
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection requires multiple receptors for its attachment and entry to the cell. Our previous studies found that human syndecan-1 (SDC-1), SDC-2, and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 1 (TIM-1) are HCV attachment receptors. Other cell surface molecules such as CD81, CLDN1, OCLN, SR-BI, and LDLR mainly function at post-attachment steps, which are considered post-attachment receptors. The underlying molecular mechanisms of different receptors in HCV cell-free and cell-to-cell transmission remain elusive...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404851/membrane-penetration-by-bacterial-viruses
#16
Jingwei Xu, Ye Xiang
The bacteriophage ϕ29 infects gram-positive Bacillus subtilis with a short non-contractile tail. Recent studies have shown that the ϕ29 tail protein gp9 forms a hexameric tube with six long loops of membrane-active peptides blocking in the tube at the distal end of the tail. The long loops exit upon genome release and form a membrane pore for passage of the genome. The membrane penetration mechanism of the ϕ29 tail might be common among tailed bacteriophages.
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404850/stress-hormones-epinephrine-and-corticosterone-selectively-modulate-hsv-1-and-hsv-2-productive-infection-in-adult-sympathetic-but-not-sensory-neurons
#17
Angela M Ives, Andrea S Bertke
Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) infect and establish latency in peripheral neurons, from which they can reactivate to cause recurrent disease throughout the life of the host. Stress is associated with exacerbation of clinical symptoms and induction of recurrences in humans and animal models. The viruses preferentially replicate and establish latency in different subtypes of sensory neurons, as well as in neurons of the autonomic nervous system that are highly responsive to stress hormones. To determine if stress-related hormones modulate productive HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection within sensory and autonomic neurons, we analyzed viral DNA and production of viral progeny after treatment of primary adult murine neuronal cultures with the stress hormones epinephrine and corticosterone...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404849/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-mosquito-c6-36-cells-reveals-host-proteins-involved-in-zika-virus-infection
#18
Qi-Lin Xin, Cheng-Lin Deng, Xi Chen, Jun Wang, Shao-Bo Wang, Wei Wang, Fei Deng, Bo Zhang, Gengfu Xiao, Lei-Ke Zhang
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae During replication processes, flavivirus will manipulate host cell systems to facilitate their replication, while the host cells will activate antiviral responses. Identification of host proteins involved in flavivirus replication process may lead to the discovery of antiviral targets. Mosquito Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are epidemiologically important vectors for ZIKV, and effective restrictions of ZIKV replication in mosquitoes will be vital in controlling the spread of virus...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404848/unique-structural-features-of-influenza-h15-ha
#19
Netanel Tzarum, Ryan McBride, Corwin M Nycholat, James C Paulson, Ian A Wilson
Influenza A H15 viruses are members of a subgroup (H7-H10-H15) of group 2 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes that include H7N9 and H10N8 viruses that were isolated from humans during 2013. The isolation of avian H15 viruses is, however, quite rare, and until recently, geographically restricted to wild shorebirds and waterfowl in Australia. The HAs of H15 viruses contain an insertion in the 150-loop of the receptor-binding site common to this subgroup and a unique insertion in the 260-loop compared to any other subtype...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404847/characterization-of-pre-f-gcn4t-a-modified-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fusion-protein-stabilized-in-a-non-cleaved-pre-fusion-conformation
#20
Normand Blais, Martin Gagné, Yoshitomo Hamuro, Patrick Rheault, Martine Boyer, Ann-Muriel Steff, Guy Baudoux, Vincent Dewar, Josée Demers, Jean-Louis Ruelle, Denis Martin
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) fusion protein (F) is considered a major target of the neutralizing antibody response to hRSV. This glycoprotein undergoes a major structural shift from pre- (pre-F) to post-fusion (post-F) state at the time of virus-host cell membrane fusion. Recent evidences suggest that the pre-F state may be a superior target for neutralizing antibodies than post-F. Therefore, for vaccine purposes, we have designed and characterized a recombinant hRSV F protein, called Pre-F-GCN4t, stabilized in a pre-F conformation...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
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