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Journal of Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615212/conserved-v%C3%AE-1-binding-geometry-in-a-setting-of-locus-disparate-phla-recognition-by-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-tcrs-insight-into-recognition-of-hiv-peptides-by-tcr
#1
Yi Shi, Ai Kawana-Tachikawa, Feng Gao, Jianxun Qi, Chuansheng Liu, Jia Gao, Hao Cheng, Takamasa Ueno, Aikichi Iwamoto, George F Gao
Given a limited set of TCR V genes which are used to create TCRs that are reactive to different ligands, such as MHC class I, MHC class II and MHC-like proteins (for example, MIC molecules and CD1 molecules), the Vδ1 segment can be rearranged with Dδ-Jδ-Cδ or Jα-Cα segments, to form classical γδTCR or uncommon αβTCR using a Vδ1 segment (δ/αβTCR). Here we have determined two complex structures of the δ/αβTCRs (S19-2 and TU55) bound to different locus-disparate MHCIs with HIV peptides (HLA-A*2402-Nef138-10 and HLA-B*3501-Pol448-9)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615211/vesicular-stomatitis-virus-pseudotyped-with-ebola-virus-glycoprotein-serves-as-a-protective-non-infectious-vaccine-against-ebola-virus-challenge-in-mice
#2
Nicholas J Lennemann, Andrew S Herbert, Rachel Brouillette, Bethany Rhein, Russell A Bakken, Katherine J Perschbacher, Ashley L Cooney, Catherine L Miller-Hunt, Patrick Ten Eyck, Julia Biggins, Gene Olinger, John M Dye, Wendy Maury
The recent Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic in West Africa demonstrates the potential for a significant public health burden caused by filoviral infections. No vaccine or antiviral is currently FDA-approved. To expand the vaccine options potentially available, we assessed protection conferred by an EBOV vaccine composed of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudovirions that lack native G glycoprotein (VSVΔG) and bear EBOV glycoprotein (GP). These pseudovirions mediate a single round of infection. Both single dose and prime/boost vaccination regimens protected mice against lethal challenge with mouse-adapted Ebola virus (ma-EBOV) in a dose-dependent manner...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615210/a-conserved-leucine-zipper-motif-in-gammaherpesvirus-orf52-is-critical-for-distinct-microtubule-rearrangements
#3
Matthew S Loftus, Nancy Verville, Dean H Kedes
Productive viral infection often depends on manipulation of the cytoskeleton. Herpesviruses, including Rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) and its close homolog the oncogenic human gammaherpesvirus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8), exploit microtubule-based retrograde transport to deliver their genomes to the nucleus. Subsequently, during the lytic phase of the life cycle, the maturing viral particles undergo orchestrated translocation to specialized regions within the cytoplasm, leading to tegumentation, secondary envelopment, and then egress...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615209/in-vitro-replication-of-chelonid-herpesvirus-5-in-organotypic-skin-cultures-from-hawaiian-green-turtles-chelonia-mydas
#4
Thierry M Work, Julie Dagenais, Tina M Weatherby, George H Balazs, Mathias Ackermann
Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a tumor disease of marine turtles associated with Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) that has historically been refractory to growth in tissue culture. Here, we show for the first time de novo formation of ChHV5-positive intranuclear inclusions in cultured green turtle cells, which is indicative for active lytic replication of the virus. The minimal requirements to achieve lytic replication in cultured cells included 1) either in-vitro culturing of ChHV5-positive tumor biopsies (plugs) or organotypic cultures (rafts) consisting of ChHV5-positive turtle fibroblasts in collagen rafts seeded with turtle keratinocytes and 2) keratinocyte maturation induced by raising raft or biopsy cultures to the air-liquid interface...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615208/deficiency-of-the-nod-like-receptor-nlrc5-results-in-decreased-cd8-t-cell-function-and-impaired-viral-clearance
#5
Christopher R Lupfer, Kate L Stokes, Teneema Kuriakose, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Pathogen recognition receptors are vital components of the immune system. Engagement of these receptors is important not only for instigation of innate immune responses to invading pathogens but also for initiating the adaptive immune response. Members of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family of pathogen recognition receptors have important roles in orchestrating this response. The NLR family member, NLRC5 regulates major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) expression during various types of infections, but its role in immunity to influenza A virus (IAV) is not well studied...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615207/allosteric-hiv-1-integrase-inhibitors-lead-to-premature-degradation-of-the-viral-rna-genome-and-integrase-in-target-cells
#6
Michaela K Madison, Dana Q Lawson, Jennifer Elliott, Ayşe Naz Ozantürk, Pratibha C Koneru, Dana Townsend, Manel Errando, Mamuka Kvaratskhelia, Sebla B Kutluay
Recent evidence indicates that inhibition of HIV-1 integrase (IN) binding to the viral RNA genome by allosteric integrase inhibitors (ALLINIs) or through mutations within IN yields aberrant particles, in which the viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs) are eccentrically localized outside the capsid lattice. These particles are non-infectious and blocked at an early reverse transcription stage in target cells. However, the basis of this reverse transcription defect is unknown. Here we show that the viral RNA genome and IN from ALLINI-treated virions are prematurely degraded in target cells, whereas reverse transcriptase remains active and stably associated with the capsid lattice...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615206/plasticity-and-epitope-exposure-of-the-hiv-1-envelope-trimer
#7
Rebecca L R Powell, Maxim Totrov, Vincenza Itri, Xiaomei Liu, Alisa Fox, Susan Zolla-Pazner
We recently showed that mutations in the HIV-1 Envelope (Env) destabilize the V3 loop, rendering neutralization-resistant viruses sensitive to V3-directed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Here we investigated the propagation of this effect on other Env epitopes, with special emphasis on V2 loop exposure. Wildtype JR-FL and 19 mutant JR-FL pseudoviruses were tested for neutralization sensitivity to 21 mAbs specific for epitopes in V2, the CD4 binding site (CD4bs), and the CD4-induced (CD4i) region. Certain glycan mutants, mutations in the gp120 hydrophobic core, and mutations in residues involved in intra-protomer interactions exposed epitopes in the V2i region (overlays the α4β7 integrin binding site) and the V3 crown, suggesting a general destabilization of the distal region of the trimer apex...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615205/intrasubtype-b-hiv-1-superinfection-correlates-with-delayed-neutralizing-antibody-response
#8
Gabriel A Wagner, Elise Landais, Gemma Caballero, Pham Phung, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Pascal Poignard, Douglas D Richman, Susan J Little, Davey M Smith
Understanding whether the neutralizing antibody (NAb) response impacts HIV-1 superinfection and how superinfection subsequently modulates the NAb response can help clarify correlates of protection from HIV exposures, and better delineate pathways of NAb development. We examined associations between the development of NAb and the occurrence of superinfection in a well-characterized, antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive, primary infection cohort of men who have sex with men. Deep sequencing was applied to blood plasma samples from the cohort to detect cases of superinfection...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615204/human-cytomegalovirus-ie2-protein-disturbs-brain-development-by-dysregulating-neural-stem-cell-maintenance-and-the-polarization-of-migrating-neurons
#9
Dasol Han, Sung-Hyun Byun, Juwan Kim, Mookwang Kwon, Samuel J Pleasure, Jin-Hyun Ahn, Keejung Yoon
Despite the high incidence of severe defects in the central nervous system caused by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) congenital infection, the mechanism of HCMV neuropathogenesis and the roles of individual viral genes have not yet been fully determined. In this study, we show that the immediate-early 2 (IE2) protein may play a key role in HCMV-caused neurodevelopmental disorders. IE2-transduced neural progenitor cells gave rise to neurospheres with a lower frequency and produced smaller neurospheres than control cells in vitro, indicating reduction of self-renewal and expansion of neural progenitors by IE2...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615203/phosphorylation-of-serine-225-in-hepatitis-c-virus-ns5a-regulates-protein-protein-interactions
#10
Niluka Goonawardane, Anna Gebhardt, Christopher Bartlett, Andreas Pichlmair, Mark Harris
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) is a phosphoprotein that plays key, yet poorly defined, roles in both virus genome replication and virion assembly/release. It has been proposed that differential phosphorylation could act as a switch to regulate the various functions of NS5A, however the mechanistic details of the role of this post-translational modification in the virus life cycle remains obscure. We previously reported (Ross-Thriepland et al, 2015) a role for phosphorylation at serine 225 (S225) of NS5A in the regulation of JFH-1 (genotype 2a) genome replication...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615202/follicular-regulatory-t-cells-are-highly-permissive-to-r5-tropic-hiv-1
#11
Shannon M Miller, Brodie Miles, Kejun Guo, Joy Folkvord, Amie L Meditz, Martin D McCarter, David N Levy, Samantha MaWhinney, Mario L Santiago, Elizabeth Connick
Follicular regulatory T cells (TFR) are a subset of CD4+ T cells in secondary lymphoid follicles. TFR were previously included in the follicular helper T cell (TFH) subset, which are highly permissive to HIV-1. The permissivity of TFR to HIV-1 is unknown. We find TFR are more permissive than TFH to R5-tropic HIV-1 ex vivo TFR expressed more CCR5 and CD4, and supported higher frequencies of viral fusion. Differences in Ki67 expression correlated with HIV-1 replication. Inhibiting cellular proliferation reduced Ki67 expression and HIV-1 replication...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615201/the-latency-associated-nuclear-antigen-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-inhibits-expression-of-sumo-sentrin-specific-peptidase-6-to-facilitate-latency-establishment
#12
Xiaoxi Lin, Rui Sun, Fang Zhang, Yuan Gao, Lianghua Bin, Ke Lan
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), belonging to γ-herpesviridae, typically displays two different phases in its lifecycle, the latent phase and the lytic phase. Latent-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), the primary viral product during latency, has been reported to bind to a series of cellular gene promoters to modulate gene transcription. To systemically elucidate the cellular genes regulated by LANA, we identified genome-wide LANA binding sites by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with sequencing (ChIP-seq)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615200/kallikrein-related-peptidase-5-contributes-to-h3n2-influenza-virus-infection-in-human-lungs
#13
Melia Magnen, Fabien Gueugnon, Antoine Guillon, Thomas Baranek, Virginie C Thibault, Agnès Petit-Courty, Simon J de Veer, Jonathan Harris, Alison A Humbles, Mustapha Si-Tahar, Yves Courty
The HA (hemagglutinin) of influenza virus must be activated by proteolysis before the virus can become infectious. Previous studies have indicated that HA cleavage is driven by membrane-bound or extracellular serine proteases in the respiratory tract. However, there is still uncertainty as to which proteases are critical for activating the HA of seasonal influenza A viruses (IAV) in humans. This study focuses on human KLK1 and KLK5, two of the 15 serine proteases known as the kallikrein-related peptidases (KLK)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615199/impaired-downregulation-of-nkg2d-ligands-by-nef-protein-from-elite-controllers-sensitizes-hiv-1-infected-cells-to-adcc
#14
Nirmin Alsahafi, Jonathan Richard, Jérémie Prévost, Mathieu Coutu, Nathalie Brassard, Matthew S Parsons, Daniel E Kaufmann, Mark Brockman, Andrés Finzi
HIV-1 Nef clones isolated from a rare subset of HIV-1-infected elite controllers (EC), with the ability to suppress viral load to undetectable levels in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, are unable to fully downregulate CD4 from the plasma membrane of CD4+ T cells. Residual CD4 left at the plasma membrane allows Env-CD4 interaction, which leads to increased exposure of Env CD4-induced epitopes and increases susceptibility of infected cells to antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). ADCC is mediated largely by natural killer (NK) cells, which control their activation status through the cumulative signals received through activating and inhibitory receptors...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615198/polymorphic-nature-of-htlv-1-particle-cores-as-revealed-through-characterization-of-a-chronically-infected-cell-line
#15
Morgan E Meissner, Luiza Mendonça, Wei Zhang, Louis M Mansky
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HTLV-1 cell-to-cell transmission is dependent on the release of infectious virus particles into the virological synapse. HTLV-1 particle structure is still poorly understood, and previous studies have analyzed viruses produced by transformed lymphocytic cell lines chronically infected with HTLV-1, particularly the MT-2 cell line, which harbors truncated proviruses and expresses aberrant forms of the Gag protein...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615197/microtubule-regulation-and-function-during-virus-infection
#16
Mojgan H Naghavi, Derek Walsh
Microtubules (MTs) form a rapidly adaptable network of filaments that radiate throughout the cell. These dynamic arrays facilitate a wide range of cellular processes including the capture, transport and spatial organization of cargos and organelles, as well as changes in cell shape, polarity and motility. Nucleating from MT organizing centers including, but by no means limited to the centrosome, MTs undergo rapid transitions through phases of growth, pause and catastrophe, continuously exploring and adapting to the intracellular environment...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592544/time-sampled-population-sequencing-reveals-the-interplay-of-selection-and-genetic-drift-in-experimental-evolution-of-potato-virus-y
#17
Denis Kutnjak, Santiago F Elena, Maja Ravnikar
RNA viruses are one of the fastest evolving biological entities. Within their hosts, they exist as genetically diverse populations (i.e., viral mutant swarms), which are sculpted by different evolutionary mechanisms, such as mutation, natural selection and genetic drift, and also the interactions between genetic variants within the mutant swarms. To elucidate the mechanisms that modulate the population diversity of an important plant pathogenic virus, we performed evolution experiments with Potato virus Y (PVY) in potato genotypes that differ in their defense response against the virus...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592543/mapping-of-transcription-termination-within-the-s-segment-of-sfts-phlebovirus-facilitated-the-generation-of-nss-deletant-viruses
#18
Benjamin Brennan, Veronica V Rezelj, Richard M Elliott
SFTS phlebovirus (severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus; SFTSV) is an emerging tick-borne bunyavirus that was first reported in China in 2009. Here we report the generation of a recombinant SFTSV (rHB29NSsKO) that cannot express the viral non-structural protein (NSs) upon infection of cells in culture. We show that rHB29NSsKO replication kinetics are greater in interferon (IFN)-incompetent cells and that the virus is unable to suppress IFN induced in response to viral replication. The data confirm for the first time in the context of virus infection that NSs acts as a virally encoded IFN antagonist and that NSs is dispensable for virus replication...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592542/gender-parity-trends-for-invited-speakers-at-four-prominent-virology-conference-series
#19
Robert F Kalejta, Ann C Palmenberg
Scientific conferences are most beneficial to participants when they showcase significant new experimental developments, accurately summarize the current state of the field, and provide strong opportunities for collaborative networking. A top-notch slate of invited speakers, assembled by conference organizers or committees, is key to achieving these goals. The perceived underrepresentation of female speakers at prominent scientific meetings is currently a popular topic for discussion, but one that often lacks supportive data...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592541/dimerization-efficiency-of-canine-distemper-virus-matrix-protein-regulates-membrane-budding-activity
#20
Fanny Bringolf, Michael Herren, Marianne Wyss, Beatriz Vidondo, Johannes P Langedijk, Andreas Zurbriggen, Philippe Plattet
Paramyxoviruses rely on the matrix (M) protein to orchestrate viral assembly and budding at the plasma membrane. Although mechanistic details remain largely unknown, structural data suggested that M dimers and/or higher oligomers may facilitate membrane budding. To gain functional insights, we here employed a structure-guided mutagenesis approach to investigate the role of canine distemper virus (CDV) M protein self-assembly in membrane budding activity. Three six-alanine-scan (6A) block mutants, locating at strategic oligomeric positions, were initially designed...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Virology
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