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Laboratory Animals

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April 2018: Laboratory Animals
Mark Deurinck, Stefanie Schindler, Philippe Bugnon, Isabelle Desbaillets, Gisèle Ferrand, Marcel Gyger, Maike Heimann, Stefanie Wyss, Stephan Zeiter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Laboratory Animals
Beat M Riederer, Paulin Jirkof, Arieh Bomzon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Laboratory Animals
David Smith, David Anderson, Anne-Dominique Degryse, Carla Bol, Ana Criado, Alessia Ferrara, Nuno Henrique Franco, Istvan Gyertyan, Jose M Orellana, Grete Ostergaard, Orsolya Varga, Hanna-Marja Voipio
Directive 2010/63/EU introduced requirements for the classification of the severity of procedures to be applied during the project authorisation process to use animals in scientific procedures and also to report actual severity experienced by each animal used in such procedures. These requirements offer opportunities during the design, conduct and reporting of procedures to consider the adverse effects of procedures and how these can be reduced to minimize the welfare consequences for the animals. Better recording and reporting of adverse effects should also help in highlighting priorities for refinement of future similar procedures and benchmarking good practice...
February 2018: Laboratory Animals
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Laboratory Animals
Freja Lea Lüthje, Kerstin Skovgaard, Henrik Elvang Jensen, Louise Kruse Jensen
Pigs are used with increased frequency to model different kinds of orthopedic surgical conditions. In order to show the full potential of porcine models in orthopedic research, it is therefore required to examine the expression of bone regulatory genes in pigs affected by orthopedic surgery and compare it to the expression in humans and mice as mice, are one of the most applied animal species in orthopedics today. In the present study, the local molecular response to drilling of a tibial implant cavity, and the subsequent insertion of a steel implant was examined in a porcine model...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Nobuyuki Nosaka, Timothy R Crother, Shuang Chen, Moshe Arditi, Kenichi Shimada
Endotracheal tube (ETT) management is an essential technique in handling mice with mechanical ventilators. Malposition into bronchi causes not only lethal complications for them but also less efficient mechanical ventilation. However, in general, it is difficult to know whether the ETT is placed with appropriate depth into the trachea of mice. We measured the distance from incisors to the bifurcation of trachea of multiple mice, and created a new estimation formula to obtain the suitable ETT length for mice with a body weight range from 17 g to 25 g: length (mm) = 0...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Tina Nitezki, Nadja Schulz, Stephanie Krämer
Concerning standardization of laboratory animal husbandry, only exiguous changes of habitat can potentially influence animal physiology or results of behavioral tests. Routinely, mice chow is dyed when different types of diets are dispensed. Given the fact that the dye itself has no effects on food odor or flavor, we wanted to test the hypothesis that the color of chow has an impact on food uptake in mice. Twelve-week-old male mice of different strains (C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, C3H/HeJ, BALB/cJ; n = 12/strain) were single-housed in PhenoMaster® cages...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Stanley E Lazic
Underpowered experiments have three problems: true effects are harder to detect, the true effects that are detected tend to have inflated effect sizes and as power decreases so does the probability that a statistically significant result represents a true effect. Many biology experiments are underpowered and recent calls to change the traditional 0.05 significance threshold to a more stringent value of 0.005 will further reduce the power of the average experiment. Increasing power by increasing the sample size is often the only option considered, but more samples increases costs, makes the experiment harder to conduct and is contrary to the 3Rs principles for animal research...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Mario Arenillas, Ignacio A Gomez de Segura
Alfaxalone is a neuroactive steroid used as a general anaesthetic in several species including dogs, cats, rabbits and ferrets. It has a wide margin of safety and a similar anaesthetic profile to propofol. To increase its aqueous solubility, a new formulation with cyclodextrins has been marketed recently. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anaesthetic effect of several doses of alfaxalone alone, considering differences between sexes, and alfaxalone combined with dexmedetomidine and fentanyl in the rat administered by the intraperitoneal route...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Jean-Francois Lafond, Annick Landry
Sprague-Dawley rats are amongst the most widely used animals in biomedical research and malignant lymphoma has long been known to be a frequent neoplasm in these animals. A 9-month-old male control Sprague-Dawley rat from a toxicity study showed gelatinous material in the cranial cavity and dark, thickened cerebral meninges at necropsy. At microscopic evaluation of the temporal bone, neoplastic lymphocytes were seen invading several structures of the middle ear. The neoplastic cells appeared to extend from the marrow of the temporal bone, covered the dorsal part of the tympanic cavity wall, and surrounded and infiltrated the base of the tensor tympani muscle as well as the chorda tympani branch of the facial nerve...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Gabrielle C Musk, Matthew W Kemp
Short-term anaesthesia of the pregnant ewe may be required for caesarean delivery of a preterm foetus within a research protocol. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the acid-base and haematological status of the ewe and foetus at the time of surgical delivery by collecting maternal and foetal arterial blood samples. Fifteen date-mated singleton-pregnant merino cross ewes at 122.0 (±0.5) days of gestation were anaesthetised with a combination of midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) and ketamine (10 mg/kg) by intravenous injection...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Rachel Reed, Michele Barletta, Janet Grimes, Jennifer Mumaw, Hea Jin Park, Steeve Giguère, Michael Azain, Xi Fang, Jane Quandt
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of an oscillometric blood pressure monitor in anesthetized pigs. Invasive blood pressure (IBP) and noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurements were taken using a DRE Waveline Pro multiparameter monitor at four different time points in 17 pigs undergoing injectable anesthesia. NIBP measurements were taken on both the thoracic and pelvic limbs. Bland Altman analysis was used to assess agreement between methods and a linear mixed-effects model was used to evaluate the effect of cuff position and blood pressure on bias...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Sally A Sharpe, Donna Smyth, Anthony McIntyre, Fergus Gleeson, Mike J Dennis
Until validated correlates of protection are identified, animal models remain the only way to test the efficacy of the new vaccines and drugs urgently needed to fight the global epidemic caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Non-human primates (NHP) offer the most relevant models of human tuberculosis (TB) and are central to the development process for new interventions. Efficacy evaluations are dependent on the capability of the test model to discriminate improved outcomes between treated groups after experimental exposure to M...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Robert M Taylor, Philip R Miller, Parwana Ebrahimi, Ronen Polsky, Justin T Baca
Interstitial fluid (ISF) has recently garnered interest as a biological fluid that could be used as an alternate to blood for biomedical applications, diagnosis, and therapy. ISF extraction techniques are promising because they are less invasive and less painful than venipuncture. ISF is an alternative, incompletely characterized source of physiological data. Here, we describe a novel method of ISF extraction in rats, using microneedle arrays, which provides volumes of ISF that are sufficient for downstream analysis techniques such as proteomics, genomics, and extracellular vesicle purification and analysis...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Jelle Vandersteene, Edward Baert, Stijn Schauvliege, Kimberley Vandevelde, Frank Dewaele, Filip De Somer, Dirk Van Roost
The ventriculosinus shunt is a promising treatment for hydrocephalus. Currently, different shunt techniques exist, and it is not clear whether one is preferable. This pilot study reports on a non-hydrocephalic goat model (Saanen breed) that provides opportunities to evaluate and optimize several aspects of the ventriculosinus shunt technique. Analysis of the coagulation properties of 14 goats by a viscoelastic coagulation monitor showed that goats have a hypercoagulable state compared to humans. This property can be partially counteracted by antiplatelet drugs...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Ana L Gomes, Stuart Gilchrist, Veerle Kersemans, Marcus Westcott, Sean Smart
In vivo optical imaging enables detection and quantification of light-emitting compounds from the whole body in small animals such as the mouse, but it typically requires the use of anaesthetics for subject immobilisation due to long exposure times. Excessively deep anaesthesia can result in unacceptably compromised physiology, whilst excessively light anaesthesia can result in animals waking up. Here we report a respiratory monitoring setup for an in vivo bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging device which simultaneously allows real-time adaptive control of anaesthesia depth in multiple animals to (i) potentially increase the consistency between animals, (ii) ensure animals are maintained within minimally intrusive, adequate anaesthetic plane and (iii) provide a valuable refinement strategy for a common challenge within animal-based research...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Avishag Tuval, Liora Las, Yael Shilo-Benjamini
Egyptian fruit bats are increasingly used as model animals in neuroscience research. Our aim was to characterize suitable injectable anaesthesia for this species, possibly replacing inhalant anaesthesia, thus minimizing occupational health hazards. Eight bats were randomly assigned by a crossover design for subcutaneously administered combinations of medetomidine-midazolam with: saline (MM-Sal), ketamine (MM-Ket), fentanyl (MM-Fen), morphine (MM-Mor), or butorphanol (MM-But). The anaesthetic depth and vital signs were monitored at baseline and every 10 min until bats recovered...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Pece Kocovski, Phuc T Dang, Claretta S D'Souza, Christopher E Stamper, Matthew W Hale, Jacqueline M Orian
Oral gavage is commonly used in pre-clinical drug evaluation, but is potentially aversive and may induce behavioral effects independent of compounds under investigation. This study examined the combined effects of repeated oral gavage and disease induction on anxiety-like behavior in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis. The C57BL/6J and NOD/ShiLtJ EAE variants were exposed to sham-EAE induction or untreated control conditions, and either daily oral gavage or home cage conditions...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Aitor Gallastegui, James Cheung, Teresa Southard, Kelly R Hume
In vivo micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging allows longitudinal studies of pulmonary neoplasms in genetically engineered mouse models. Respiratory gating increases the accuracy of lung tumor measurements but lengthens anesthesia time in animals that may be at increased risk for complications. We hypothesized that semiautomated, volumetric, and linear tumor measurements performed in micro-CT images from non-gated scans would have correlation with histological findings. Primary lung tumors were induced in eight FVB mice with two transgenes (FVB/N-Tg(tetO-Kras2)12Hev/J; FVB...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
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