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Laboratory Animals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178895/repetitive-urine-and-blood-sampling-in-neonatal-and-weaned-piglets-for-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-modelling-in-drug-discovery-a-pilot-study
#1
Elke Gasthuys, Stijn Schauvliege, Thomas van Bergen, Joske Millecam, Ilaria Cerasoli, Ann Martens, Frank Gasthuys, Tim Vandecasteele, Pieter Cornillie, Wim Van den Broeck, Filip Boyen, Siska Croubels, Mathias Devreese
Piglets are considered to be suitable animal models for predicting the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of test drugs for potential use in the paediatric population. Such PK/PD studies require multiple blood and urine samplings. The goal of the present study was to determine a suitable blood collection strategy applicable in the youngest age categories of six days, four weeks and eight weeks of age, as well as a urine collection technique for male piglets in the same age categories. Blood was collected either by a surgically-placed jugular vein catheter (six days old [ n = 4] and four weeks old [ n = 2] piglets) or by direct venepuncture of the jugular vein (four weeks old [ n = 2] and eight weeks old [ n = 4] piglets)...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173734/philip-nicholas-o-donoghue
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166693/revitalizing-genetically-modified-mouse-strains-using-frozen-thawed-sperm-after-up-to-192%C3%A2-h-of-refrigerated-epididymis-transportation
#3
Gonzalo Moreno-Del Val, Patricia Muñoz-Robledano
In the scientific interchange of genetically-modified mouse strains the transportation of refrigerated epididymis has several advantages over the transportation of live animals, especially with regard to the 3R (replacement, reduction and refinement) principles. The major limiting factor is the duration of the transportation. Previous reports have shown that sperm collected from transported epididymis maintained their fertility for around 72 h, but there are no published data with longer transportation times, and this window of time may be too short, especially for international shipments and where locations are not well connected...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134018/caloric-restriction-in-grouped-rats-aggregate-influence-on-behavioural-and-hormonal-data
#4
Mikel Moneo, Jesús Martín Zúñiga, Ignacio Morón
The majority of studies in short- and middle-term caloric restriction (CR) have been primarily focused on physiological parameters, improvements in aging, modulation of oxidative stress, and long-term negative effects on cognitive functions. However, single-housing associated with CR may pose many logistical problems. Thus, it is necessary to study the effects of CR under conditions in which animals are group-housed. The aims of this study were to (i) observe the possible differences in the proportion of the weights and social behaviour under ad libitum and CR (at 70%) conditions; (ii) examine the eventual inequalities in the proportion of the weights and social behaviour (the time spent eating under the feeder as an indicator of dominance and empathy, and the number of 'pushes' as an indicator of aggressiveness) in sibling and non-sibling rats under CR conditions; and (iii) compare the concentrations of corticosterone (stress biomarker) in serum under ad libitum and CR conditions...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100137/corrigendum
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932686/computed-tomography-based-survey-of-the-vascular-anatomy-of-the-juvenile-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig
#6
J Siefert, K H Hillebrandt, M Kluge, D Geisel, P Podrabsky, T Denecke, M Nösser, J Gassner, A Reutzel-Selke, B Strücker, M H Morgul, S Guel-Klein, J K Unger, A Reske, J Pratschke, I M Sauer, N Raschzok
Over the past 50 years, image-guided procedures have been established for a wide range of applications. The development and clinical translation of new treatment regimens necessitate the availability of suitable animal models. The juvenile Göttingen minipig presents a favourable profile as a model for human infants. However, no information can be found regarding the vascular system of juvenile minipigs in the literature. Such information is imperative for planning the accessibility of target structures by catheterization...
December 8, 2016: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932685/longitudinal-micro-computed-tomography-monitoring-of-progressive-liver-regeneration-in-a-mouse-model-of-partial-hepatectomy
#7
Olga M Will, Timo Damm, Graeme M Campbell, Witigo von Schönfells, Yahya Açil, Marcus Will, Athena Chalaris-Rissmann, Mustafa Ayna, Claudia Drucker, Claus-Christian Glüer
The partial hepatectomy (PH) model is widely used to study liver regeneration. Currently, the extent of regeneration is analyzed by measuring the weight of the liver post-mortem or by magnetic resonance imaging. In this study we aimed to determine whether liver volume gain can be accurately measured using micro-computed tomography (microCT). Approximately 42% of the liver was removed by ligation in C57BL/6 N mice. Mice were divided into two study groups. In group 1 conventional characterization of liver hyperplasia was performed by weighing the liver post-mortem...
December 8, 2016: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932684/standardizing-the-microbiota-of-fish-used-in-research
#8
REVIEW
I N Vatsos
Little attention has been paid to the effects of fish microbiotas on the reproducibility and comparability of fish studies so far. Extrinsic and intrinsic factors, such as water quality, environmental microbial populations, diet, host genetic profile, gender, age and stress status, affect fish microbiotas and create significant inter- and intra-species variations. Fish microbiotas play critical roles in many key aspects of host physiology, such as protection against pathogens, digestion and development of the digestive tract and the local immune system...
December 8, 2016: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932683/survival-of-bacteria-of-laboratory-animal-origin-on-cage-bedding-and-inactivation-by-hydrogen-peroxide-vapour
#9
Laurentiu Benga, W Peter M Benten, Eva Engelhardt, Christina Gougoula, Roland Schulze-Röbbecke, Martin Sager
This study aims to determine the ability of laboratory animal bacteria to resist desiccation and inactivation by hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) on paper bedding pieces. Bedding pieces were saturated with bacterial suspensions in water or 2% (w/v) bovine serum albumin (BSA) in water, and held in a mouse facility. Viable counts showed variable survival rates over time for the bacterial species used ([Pasteurella] pneumotropica, Muribacter muris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter redioresistens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella hinzii, Enterococcus faecalis, β-haemolytic Streptococcus spp...
December 8, 2016: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932682/preliminary-assessment-of-midazolam-fentanyl-and-fluanisone-combination-for-the-sedation-of-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#10
Henri G M J Bertrand, Charlotte F Sandersen, Paul A Flecknell
This study was undertaken to assess the suitability of fentanyl/fluanisone ('Hypnorm', VetaPharma; 0.315 mg/mL of fentanyl citrate and 10 mg/mL of fluanisone) alone or combined with midazolam in rhesus macaques. Fifteen rhesus macaques requiring sedation for veterinary procedures received an intramuscular (IM) dose range of Hypnorm from 0.01 mL/kg to 0.3 mL/kg either alone or combined with 0.5 mg/kg of midazolam. To reverse the sedation, flumazenil in combination with either naloxone, buprenorphine or butorphanol was administered intravenously (IV) or IM...
December 8, 2016: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145819/xiv-congreso-nacional-de-secal-las-palmas-de-gran-canaria-islas-canarias-espa%C3%A3-a-junio-2017
#11
José Luis Martín-Barrasa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27368710/echocardiographic-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-ketamine-in-chinchillas-chinchilla-lanigera
#12
Grayson A Doss, Christoph Mans, Rebecca L Stepien
Alpha2-agonist anesthetic combinations are often used in rodent anesthesia but no information about their effects on cardiac function in chinchillas exists. The purpose of this study was to utilize echocardiography to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of dexmedetomidine-ketamine anesthesia in chinchillas. Echocardiographic examinations were performed in eight adult chinchillas under manual restraint and following dexmedetomidine (0.015 mg/kg) and ketamine (4 mg/kg) administration. Dexmedetomidine-ketamine anesthesia resulted in a significantly decreased heart rate, fractional shortening, cardiac output, and flow velocity across the aortic and pulmonic valves, and significantly increased left ventricular internal diameter in systole...
February 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27098142/refinement-of-a-model-of-repeated-cerebrospinal-fluid-collection-in-conscious-rats
#13
Eva Maria Amen, Muriel Brecheisen, Lisa Sach-Peltason, Alessandra Bergadano
The cannulation of the cisterna magna in rats for in vivo sampling of cerebrospinal fluid serves as a valuable model for studying the delivery of new drugs into the central nervous system or disease models. It offers the advantages of repeated sampling without anesthesia-induced bias and using animals as their own controls. An established model was retrospectively reviewed for the outcomes and it was hypothesized that by refining the method, i.e. by (1) implementing pathophysiological-based anesthesia and analgesia, (2) using state-of-the-art peri-operative monitoring and supportive care, (3) increasing stability of the cement-cannula assembly, and (4) selecting a more adaptable animal strain, the outcome in using the model - quantified by peri-operative mortality, survival time and stability of the implant - could be improved and could enhance animal welfare...
February 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26994106/a-less-invasive-method-for-orthotopic-injection-of-breast-cancer-cells-into-the-mouse-mammary-gland
#14
Luz E Tavera-Mendoza, Myles Brown
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer diagnosed in women, and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women in North America. The use of laboratory mice in research is an essential tool for the study of breast cancer biology and for pre-clinical therapeutic development. While subcutaneous flank injections of cancer cells are widely used for studying breast cancer biology and for exploring novel therapies, orthotopic xenografting of tumors into the mouse mammary gland allow for the study of breast cancers in a biologically relevant microenvironment...
February 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26985009/phenoworld-addressing-animal-welfare-in-a-new-paradigm-to-house-and-assess-rat-behaviour
#15
Magda J Castelhano-Carlos, Vera Baumans, Nuno Sousa
The use of animals is essential in biomedical research. The laboratory environment where the animals are housed has a major impact on them throughout their lives and influences the outcome of animal experiments. Therefore, there has been an increased effort in the refinement of laboratory housing conditions which is explicitly reflected in international regulations and recommendations. Since housing conditions affect behaviour and brain function as well as well-being, the validation of an animal model or paradigm to study the brain and central nervous system disorders is not complete without an evaluation of its implication on animal welfare...
February 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26946120/studying-skin-tumourigenesis-and-progression-in-immunocompetent-hairless-skh1-hr-mice-using-chronic-7-12-dimethylbenz-a-anthracene-topical-applications-to-develop-a-useful-experimental-skin-cancer-model
#16
Giju Thomas, Bastiaan Tuk, Ji-Ying Song, Hoa Truong, Hans C Gerritsen, Frank R de Gruijl, Henricus J C M Sterenborg
Previous studies have established that 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) can initiate skin tumourigenesis in conventional furred mouse models by acting on hair follicle stem cells. However, further cancer progression depends on repeated applications of tumour promoter agents. This study evaluated the timeline involved in skin tumourigenesis and progression in immunocompetent hairless SKH1-hr mice with dysfunctional hair follicles using only DMBA with no additional tumour promoter agents. The results showed that topical application of 30 µg (117 nmol) of DMBA over the back and flank regions of the mouse once a week and 15 µg (58...
February 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26946119/use-of-ultrasound-imaging-for-the-diagnosis-of-abnormal-uterine-bleeding-in-the-bonnet-macaque-macaca-radiata
#17
Uddhav K Chaudhari, M Imran, Dhananjay D Manjramkar, Siddhanath M Metkari, Nilesh P Sable, Dnyaneshwar S Gavhane, Rajendra R Katkam, Geetanjali Sachdeva, Meenakshi H Thakur, Sanjeeva D Kholkute
Ultrasound is a powerful, low-cost, non-invasive medical tool used by laboratory animal veterinarians for diagnostic imaging. Sonohysterography and transvaginal ultrasound are frequently used to assess uterine anomalies in women presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). In the present study, we have evaluated the abdominal ultrasound of bonnet monkeys ( n = 8) showing spontaneous ovulatory ( n = 5) and anovulatory ( n = 3) AUB. The ovulatory ( n = 5) macaques showed cyclic AUB for 7-8 days...
February 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26946118/evidence-for-the-absence-of-visceral-pain-in-c57bl6-n-mice-subjected-to-therapeutically-relevant-o3-o2-pneumoperitoneum
#18
Michael Bette, Volker Springmann, Annette Rossmann, Eberhard Weihe, Burkhard Schütz
Each different gas that is used to induce a pneumoperitoneum (PP) exhibits individual effects within the peritoneal cavity. This might include adverse effects such as pain and/or inflammatory reactions. The acute effects of ozonized oxygen (O3/O2), a highly oxidative gas mixture, after being insufflated into the peritoneal cavity are analysed in this study. Using the abdominal constriction response ('writhing') assay of chemical nociception in C57BL6/N mice, O3/O2-PP was found not to be associated with visible pain responses and did not alter the c-fos expression in the spinal cord...
February 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26763492/normal-ultrasonographic-images-of-reproductive-organs-of-female-japanese-quails-coturnix-coturnix-japonica-a-laboratory-animal-model
#19
Farzaneh Hosseini, Mohammad Hasan Mehraei Hamzekolaei, Abdol Karim Zamani Moghaddam, Hajar Arabha, Seyyed Sattar Tohidifar
Certain special biological characteristics of Japanese quails ( Coturnix coturnix japonica) could enable quicker and less expensive laboratory experiments than similar studies using mice or chickens. Moreover, due to some physiological similarities with humans, quails have been recognized as an ideal laboratory model for experiments in some fields such as immunology, endocrinology, and reproductive biology. The aim of this study was to acquire normal ultrasonographic images of reproductive organs of female Japanese quails in order to facilitate laboratory experiments on reproductive biology and to determine a non-invasive in-life alternative to carcass analysis...
February 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26763491/femoral-and-sciatic-nerve-blockades-and-incision-site-infiltration-in-rabbits-undergoing-stifle-joint-arthrotomy
#20
K Kluge, M P Larenza Menzies, H Kloeppel, S G Pearce, R Bettschart-Wolfensberger, A P N Kutter
This study was designed to determine whether perineural injections of local anaesthetics decreases intraoperative nociception and improves postoperative analgesia in New Zealand White rabbits undergoing experimental stifle arthrotomy. All animals were anaesthetized using isoflurane and received morphine intramuscularly. The sciatic and femoral nerves of the leg to be operated on were located using a nerve stimulator (1 Hz, 0.5 mA). Rabbits were assigned to a treatment group (LB; n = 12) or a placebo group (P; n = 12) in a randomized blinded fashion...
February 2017: Laboratory Animals
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