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Laboratory Animals

Tânia Martins, Ana Valentim, Nuno Pereira, Luis Marques Antunes
The number of fish used in research has increased in the last decades. Anaesthesia is required when fish must be held immobile and it is crucial to promote fish welfare, because these vertebrates can show signs of stress and/or pain during handling, transport, tagging, sampling and invasive procedures. The use of an inadequate anaesthetic protocol can compromise not only the welfare of the fish, but also the reliability of the research results. Thus, the development of suitable anaesthetic regimes for each fish species is important...
December 4, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Junghoon Yu, Jinkyoo Moon, Joonyoung Jang, Jee In Choi, Jooeun Jung, Sunyoung Hwang, MinYoung Kim
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide, and its incidence is increasing. To overcome impairment from stroke, translational research for developing new therapeutic technologies has been conducted and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in rat is the representative model. Since recovery from neurological impairment in contralateral limbs caused by brain damage is the major goal of treatment, behavioral tests that assess the relevant function are used. To determine therapeutic effect, obtaining reliable results of behavioral assessment is a prerequisite...
November 27, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Luca Bellini, Giulia Maria De Benedictis
Few reports evaluate the clinical effects of opioids in sheep during experimental surgical procedures. Catecholamine-mediated haemodynamic changes resulting from surgical noxious stimulation are blunted by opioids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three opioid-based analgesic protocols in avoiding a 20% increase in heart rate (HR) and/or mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) during experimental intervertebral disk nucleotomy in sheep. Eighteen female Brogna sheep were anaesthetized with propofol and maintained with a fixed end-tidal isoflurane concentration of 1...
November 27, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Alexandra Kopić, Karima Benamara, Maria Schuster, Peter Leidenmühler, Alexander Bauer, Helmut Glantschnig, Werner Höllriegl
Genetically engineered mouse models are used to investigate beneficial treatment in haemophilia by comparison with wild-type mice. It has been recognized that wild-type and haemophilic mice of different genetic backgrounds show different bleeding phenotypes. We assessed ex-vivo coagulation parameters in nine wild-type substrains of 129S1/Sv, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice applying thromboelastography (TEG), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT) and fibrinogen levels. The comprehensive ex-vivo data are discussed in view of results from a tail-tip bleeding assay...
November 12, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Gabrielle C Musk, Helen Kershaw, Bulang He
Fifty-four pigs ( Sus scrofa, Large White cross) from a commercial pig farm were anaesthetised over a six-year period from October 2011. The procedural stages included initial instrumentation for intra-operative monitoring, laparoscopic nephrectomy, preparation of the kidney graft, orthotopic auto-transplantation by either a laparoscopic approach or an open surgical approach, and ligation of the contralateral ureter. During the evolution and establishment of this pig model multiple refinements were introduced: (1) a heat pad was changed to a circulating warm air blanket; (2) routine administration of anticholinesterase and antimuscarinic drugs for reversal of neuromuscular blockade; (3) a technique for urethral catheterisation was developed; (4) ultrasound guidance for placement of a central venous line was learned; (5) intravenous infusions of morphine and ketamine were instituted for a more stable and balanced anaesthetic protocol; and (6) post-operative monitoring was performed by two technical staff for at least the first six hours after extubation of the trachea...
October 22, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Penny S Reynolds, Jacquelyn McCarter, Christopher Sweeney, Bassem M Mohammed, Donald F Brophy, Bernard Fisher, Erika J Martin, Ramesh Natarajan
Poor quality data in preclinical trials can result from inconsistent and unstandardized experimental processes. Unpredictable pre-intervention variability generates unreliable data, biases outcomes and results in needless waste of animals and resources. We applied Define-Measure-Analyse-Improve-Control (DMAIC) quality improvement processes to pilot development of a swine model of trauma, haemorrhagic shock and coagulopathy. The goal was to reduce variability through protocol standardization and error reduction...
October 9, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Tina Nitezki, Burkhard Kleuser, Stephanie Krämer
This case report addresses the problem of underreporting negative results and adverse side effects in animal testing. We present our findings regarding a hyperphagic mouse model associated with unforeseen high mortality. The results outline the necessity of reporting detailed information in the literature to avoid duplication. Obese mouse models are essential in the study of obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. An experimental model of obesity can be induced by the administration of gold thioglucose (GTG)...
October 5, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Jamie Ahloy-Dallaire, Jon D Klein, Jerry K Davis, Joseph P Garner
Routine health assessment of laboratory rodents can be improved using automated home cage monitoring. Continuous, non-stressful, objective assessment of rodents unaware that they are being watched, including during their active dark period, reveals behavioural and physiological changes otherwise invisible to human caretakers. We developed an automated feeder that tracks feed intake, body weight, and physical appearance of individual radio frequency identification-tagged mice in social home cages. Here, we experimentally induce illness via lipopolysaccharide challenge and show that this automated tracking apparatus reveals sickness behaviour (reduced food intake) as early as 2-4 hours after lipopolysaccharide injection, whereas human observers conducting routine health checks fail to detect a significant difference between sick mice and saline-injected controls...
October 4, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Helen Gray, Alexander Thiele, Candy Rowe
Rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta) used in behavioural neuroscience are often required to complete cognitively complex tasks, for which a high level of motivation is essential. To induce motivation, researchers may implement fluid-restriction protocols, whereby freely available water is limited, such that fluid can be used as a reward in the laboratory. A variety of different rewards and schedules are used, but there exists a lack of data assessing their effectiveness. In this study, we aimed to quantify fluid preference in rhesus macaques and to use these preferences to compare the motivational quality of different reward schedules: the monkey's previous reward (i...
October 3, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Elina Akalestou, Laurent Genser, Francesco Villa, Ioannis Christakis, Shilpa Chokshi, Roger Williams, Francesco Rubino
Gastric bypass surgery, an operation that restricts the stomach and bypasses the duodenum and part of the jejunum, results in major improvement or remission of type 2 diabetes. Duodenual-jejunal bypass was developed by one of the authors (FR) as an experimental, stomach-sparing variant of gastric bypass surgery to investigate weight-independent mechanisms of surgical control of diabetes. Duodenual-jejunal bypass has been shown to improve various aspects of glucose homeostasis in rodents and in humans, thus providing an experimental model for investigating mechanisms of action of surgery and elusive aspects of gastrointestinal physiology...
September 18, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Sergi Vila
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Laboratory Animals
Bettina Kränzlin, Nicole Linklater
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Laboratory Animals
J-P Mocho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Laboratory Animals
Caroline Johner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Laboratory Animals
Jean-Philippe Mocho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Laboratory Animals
Beat M Riederer, Gavin E Jarvis, Paulin Jirkof
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Laboratory Animals
Janet Rodgers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Laboratory Animals
Gabrielle C Musk, Matthew W Kemp
Short-term anaesthesia of the pregnant ewe may be required for caesarean delivery of a preterm foetus within a research protocol. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the acid-base and haematological status of the ewe and foetus at the time of surgical delivery by collecting maternal and foetal arterial blood samples. Fifteen date-mated singleton-pregnant merino cross ewes at 122.0 (±0.5) days of gestation were anaesthetised with a combination of midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) and ketamine (10 mg/kg) by intravenous injection...
October 2018: Laboratory Animals
Rachel Reed, Michele Barletta, Janet Grimes, Jennifer Mumaw, Hea Jin Park, Steeve Giguère, Michael Azain, Xi Fang, Jane Quandt
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of an oscillometric blood pressure monitor in anesthetized pigs. Invasive blood pressure (IBP) and noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurements were taken using a DRE Waveline Pro multiparameter monitor at four different time points in 17 pigs undergoing injectable anesthesia. NIBP measurements were taken on both the thoracic and pelvic limbs. Bland Altman analysis was used to assess agreement between methods and a linear mixed-effects model was used to evaluate the effect of cuff position and blood pressure on bias...
October 2018: Laboratory Animals
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