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Laboratory Animals

Ana L Gomes, Stuart Gilchrist, Veerle Kersemans, Marcus Westcott, Sean Smart
In vivo optical imaging enables detection and quantification of light-emitting compounds from the whole body in small animals such as the mouse, but it typically requires the use of anaesthetics for subject immobilisation due to long exposure times. Excessively deep anaesthesia can result in unacceptably compromised physiology, whilst excessively light anaesthesia can result in animals waking up. Here we report a respiratory monitoring setup for an in vivo bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging device which simultaneously allows real-time adaptive control of anaesthesia depth in multiple animals to (i) potentially increase the consistency between animals, (ii) ensure animals are maintained within minimally intrusive, adequate anaesthetic plane and (iii) provide a valuable refinement strategy for a common challenge within animal-based research...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Avishag Tuval, Liora Las, Yael Shilo-Benjamini
Egyptian fruit bats are increasingly used as model animals in neuroscience research. Our aim was to characterize suitable injectable anaesthesia for this species, possibly replacing inhalant anaesthesia, thus minimizing occupational health hazards. Eight bats were randomly assigned by a crossover design for subcutaneously administered combinations of medetomidine-midazolam with: saline (MM-Sal), ketamine (MM-Ket), fentanyl (MM-Fen), morphine (MM-Mor), or butorphanol (MM-But). The anaesthetic depth and vital signs were monitored at baseline and every 10 min until bats recovered...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Pece Kocovski, Phuc T Dang, Claretta S D'Souza, Christopher E Stamper, Matthew W Hale, Jacqueline M Orian
Oral gavage is commonly used in pre-clinical drug evaluation, but is potentially aversive and may induce behavioral effects independent of compounds under investigation. This study examined the combined effects of repeated oral gavage and disease induction on anxiety-like behavior in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis. The C57BL/6J and NOD/ShiLtJ EAE variants were exposed to sham-EAE induction or untreated control conditions, and either daily oral gavage or home cage conditions...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Aitor Gallastegui, James Cheung, Teresa Southard, Kelly R Hume
In vivo micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging allows longitudinal studies of pulmonary neoplasms in genetically engineered mouse models. Respiratory gating increases the accuracy of lung tumor measurements but lengthens anesthesia time in animals that may be at increased risk for complications. We hypothesized that semiautomated, volumetric, and linear tumor measurements performed in micro-CT images from non-gated scans would have correlation with histological findings. Primary lung tumors were induced in eight FVB mice with two transgenes (FVB/N-Tg(tetO-Kras2)12Hev/J; FVB...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Sebastian T Müller, Annekathrin M Keiler, Kristin Kräker, Oliver Zierau, Ricardo Bernhardt
Bone protection and metabolism are directly linked to estrogen levels, but exercise is also considered to have bone protective effects. Reduced estrogen levels lead to a variety of disorders, for example, bone loss and reduced movement drive. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of estrogen on individual voluntary exercise motivation and bone protection. We investigated sham operated, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized with estrogen supplemented Wistar rats (20 weeks old) either with or without access to exercise wheels...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Bret R Tallent, L Matthew Law, Rachel K Rowe, Jonathan Lifshitz
Aggression in mice often results in injury leading to unplanned euthanasia or the initiation of protocols to isolate animals, thereby increasing research costs and straining resources. Here, we tested if adding a partial cage divider into existing mouse cages affected aggressive-like behavior in group-housed male mice (18 mice; 3 per cage). Mice were randomly assigned to one of two groups upon arrival to the vivarium: (1) standard cage; (2) cage with a partial cage divider. Behavioral observation over 12 hours were conducted at day one, two, and seven after receipt at the facility in order to assess aggression during the course of establishing dominance hierarchies...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
R Boot, W Nicklas, H Christensen
Pasteurellosis is a well-recognized disease with similar pathology in all laboratory rodent species. Pasteurella pneumotropica is the most frequently mentioned member of the Pasteurellaceae isolated from mice and rats. Numerous other Pasteurellaceae taxa have been obtained from mice, rats, and other rodent species. Recently, rodent Pasteurellaceae have been submitted to comprehensive genetic and phenotypic (polyphasic) taxonomic studies. As a result they are now classed within six validly published new genera, namely Cricetibacter, Mesocricetibacter, Mannheimia, Muribacter, Necropsobacter, and Rodentibacter...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Patrocinio Vergara Esteras, Adria Smith, Cynthia Pekow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Ellis J Powell, Sara Charley, Adeline N Boettcher, Lisa Varley, Justin Brown, Martine Schroyen, Malavika K Adur, Susan Dekkers, Dean Isaacson, Mary Sauer, Joan Cunnick, N Matthew Ellinwood, Jason W Ross, Jack Cm Dekkers, Christopher K Tuggle
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is defined by the lack of an adaptive immune system. Mutations causing SCID are found naturally in humans, mice, horses, dogs, and recently in pigs, with the serendipitous discovery of the Iowa State University SCID pigs. As research models, SCID animals are naturally tolerant of xenotransplantation and offer valuable insight into research areas such as regenerative medicine, cancer therapy, as well as immune cell signaling mechanisms. Large-animal biomedical models, particularly pigs, are increasingly essential to advance the efficacy and safety of novel regenerative therapies on human disease...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Gracia U Musigazi, Stéphanie De Vleeschauwer, Raf Sciot, Eric Verbeken, Bart Depreitere
Tissue fixation methods are well established for rodents, but not for large animals. We present a simple technique for in situ brain perfusion fixation in a male porcine model, using cervical vessels for inflow and outflow and achieving a closed system. Thirty-four pigs, aged 4.7 ± 0.6 months and weighing 60.7 ± 10.9 kg, were anaesthetised and mechanically ventilated. The ipsilateral common carotid artery and external jugular vein were dissected and constituted the inflow and outflow access, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Balazs J Denes, Aikaterini Lagou, Domna Dorotheou, Stavros Kiliaridis
Rat molar eruption and occlusion data were compiled from several studies but several inconsistencies were found, rendering the planning of eruptional studies difficult and imprecise. Our aim was to measure eruption and occlusion days, as well as eruption velocity, in the upper and lower three molars from infancy to end of adolescence in the rat. A total of 19 male and female Wistar rats were scanned daily by micro-computed tomography (CT) from day 15 to 70. We measured the eruption of all maxillary and mandibular molars with reference points at the hard palate and mandibular canal at three stages: pre-emergent, pre-occlusal, and functional...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Michael Fw Festing
Scientists using laboratory animals are under increasing pressure to justify their sample sizes using a "power analysis". In this paper I review the three methods currently used to determine sample size: "tradition" or "common sense", the "resource equation" and the "power analysis". I explain how, using the "KISS" approach, scientists can make a provisional choice of sample size using any method, and then easily estimate the effect size likely to be detectable according to a power analysis. Should they want to be able to detect a smaller effect they can increase their provisional sample size and recalculate the effect size...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Sisse A Nørgaard, Fredrik W Sand, Dorte B Sørensen, Klas Sp Abelson, Henrik Søndergaard
The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse is a widely used model of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, it is a well-known issue that this model is challenged by high weight loss, which despite supportive measures often results in high euthanization rates. To overcome these issues, we hypothesized that supplementing STZ-induced diabetic mice with water-softened chow in addition to normal chow would reduce weight loss, lower the need for supportive treatment, and reduce the number of mice reaching the humane endpoint of 20% weight loss...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Beat M Riederer, Paulin Jirkof, Arieh Bomzon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Laboratory Animals
David Smith, David Anderson, Anne-Dominique Degryse, Carla Bol, Ana Criado, Alessia Ferrara, Nuno Henrique Franco, Istvan Gyertyan, Jose M Orellana, Grete Ostergaard, Orsolya Varga, Hanna-Marja Voipio
Directive 2010/63/EU introduced requirements for the classification of the severity of procedures to be applied during the project authorisation process to use animals in scientific procedures and also to report actual severity experienced by each animal used in such procedures. These requirements offer opportunities during the design, conduct and reporting of procedures to consider the adverse effects of procedures and how these can be reduced to minimize the welfare consequences for the animals. Better recording and reporting of adverse effects should also help in highlighting priorities for refinement of future similar procedures and benchmarking good practice...
February 2018: Laboratory Animals
Renata Snow, Christoph Mans, Helena Rylander
Chinchillas are popular as laboratory models and companion animals, and they can be affected by a variety of infectious and non-infectious neurological diseases. Little information is available on making a neurological diagnosis in this species, in part because the neurological examination has not been standardized in chinchillas and the expected physiological findings in healthy chinchillas have not been reported. In this study, a standardized neurological examination was performed on 30 clinically normal chinchillas...
December 2017: Laboratory Animals
Jennifer Freymann, Ping-Ping Tsai, Helge D Stelzer, Reinhard Mischke, Hansjoachim Hackbarth
The standard housing temperature in animal facilities is substantially below the lower critical temperature of mice. This does not only endanger animal welfare, it can also jeopardize scientific research as cold stress has a major impact on mouse physiology. There is some evidence that deep bedding, comparable to nesting material, can help mice to reduce heat loss. Whenever changes are applied to the cage environment, the potential impact on experimental results, including variation, needs to be assessed. An increased variation can result in a conflict between reduction and refinement, when more animals are needed for significance due to the housing design...
December 2017: Laboratory Animals
André Bleich, Rene H Tolba
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Laboratory Animals
Arieh Bomzon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Laboratory Animals
Natalie Burden, John Kendrick, Lindsay Knight, Victoria McGregor, Helen Murphy, Malcolm Punler, Hans van Wijk
Bile duct cannulation (BDC) studies are usually carried out in the rat to support the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion profiling of novel agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals. The different aspects of these studies (e.g. surgical preparation, dosing and collection of bile) can be intricate and/or technically complex. The animals are often kept singly housed for the duration of the studies following surgical implantation of the cannulas. The generation of insufficient data to meet the study objectives, for example due to failure in cannula patency, can result in the need to repeat these studies...
October 2017: Laboratory Animals
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