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Indian Journal of Cancer

R Mistry, A Patil
Resistance to 1st or 2nd generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) - tyrosine kinases (TKIs) develops predominantly due to an acquired mutation, EGFR T790M. Third-generation EGFR-TKIs have demonstrated potent activity against TKI resistance mediated by EGFR T790M. Thus, it become critical to identify T790M mutation on disease progression. Analysis of tumor tissue biopsy material is considered as gold standard for mutation detection. However, lung re-biopsy in a progressed patient involves several challenges - access to tumor, patient's willingness, safety, cost...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
B Biswas, N Ghadyalpatil, M V Krishna, J Deshmukh
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have revolutionized the treatment of EGFR-mutant nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These EGFR TKIs demonstrate a different adverse event (AE) profile as compared to conventional chemotherapy agents. They are more commonly associated with cutaneous AEs and diarrhea while hematological AEs occurred commonly with chemotherapy agents. These AEs are the extension of pharmacological effect and occur as a result of blockade of EGFR-regulated pathways in the skin and gastrointestinal tract...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
A Chougule, S Basak
Lung cancer is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide and is on the rise in India. The identification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has paved the way for personalized therapy in lung cancer with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Despite the proven efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in patients harboring EGFR mutations, their clinical utility is limited by the development of acquired resistance mechanisms by the tumor cells. T790M mutation accounts for 60% of all resistance mechanisms to EGFR TKIs and is responsible for treatment failure with first- and second-generation TKIs...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
U Batra, N Lokeshwar, S Gupta, P Shirsath
Metastases to central nervous system (CNS) are very common in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive mutation. Brain is the most affected part of CNS where blood-brain barrier (BBB) presents a challenge to currently available chemotherapeutic agents as well as first- (erlotinib and gefitinib) and second (afatinib)-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) due to their poor penetrability. A rapid development of EGFR T790M secondary mutation is another cause of treatment failure, and patients tend to progress despite initial response to first- and second-generation EGFR TKIs...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
Suresh H Advani, Hemant Malhotra, Raju Titus Chacko, Maheboob Basade, Pavithran Keechilat, P N Mahapatra, Chanchal Goswami, T P Sahoo, Chirag Shah
Advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment is primarily based on platinum-based chemotherapy. Although epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting has shifted the treatment paradigm toward personalized tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), resistance develops inevitably and EGFR T790M is the most common acquired resistance mechanism. Rebiopsy of resistant NSCLC cases can provide additional information on the underlying resistant mechanisms and therefore can help clinicians in taking better management decisions...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
D C Doval, R Deshpande, B Dhabhar, K G Babu, K Prabhash, R Chopra, P V Sripada, C Deshmukh, M Suryavanshi
More than 50% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases harbor an actionable mutation, and molecular testing at different intervals can help in personalized and targeted treatment. Core tissue biopsy and needle biopsy done at the time of diagnosis/disease progression are interventional, time-consuming and can affect the patients adversely. Noninterventional biomarker testing by liquid biopsy promises to revolutionize advanced stage cancer screening. The present report was formulated based on an expert panel meeting of renowned oncologists who gave their opinions for minimally invasive liquid biopsy to detect targetable molecular biomarkers in advanced NSCLC cases...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
S Aggarwal, S Patil, N Rohtagi
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for the majority of primary lung cancer cases worldwide. The activating mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been demonstrated to associate with the development of NSCLC, with T790M mutation being the most common. Over the years, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) were developed to target EGFR-related mutations. However, patients with activating EGFR mutations who are initially responsive to EGFR-TKIs eventually develop acquired resistance after a median progression-free survival of 10-16 months, followed by disease progression...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
T Raja, N K Warrier
Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) commonly harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. Due to the complex disease pathology, early-stage diagnosis of patients with EGFR mutation is essential to make appropriate treatment decision. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are commonly used for their treatment, but almost half of the patients with EGFR mutation do not respond to the available TKIs and develop acquired resistance owing to T790M mutation. The presence of T790M mutation also warrants a robust diagnostic method so as to allow clinicians to modify cancer treatment...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
A Pathak, S Rajappa, A Gore
Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is increasingly being treated with targeted therapies. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been extensively studied in NSCLC as an oncogenic driver. However, the efficacy of the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is adversely impacted by the development of resistance. The occurrence of de novo resistance to EGFR TKIs is attributed to multiple mechanisms such as point mutations of oncogenes and chromosomal rearrangements. The development of acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs is facilitated by secondary mutations, phenotypical transformation, aberrance of downstream pathways, and activation of alternate signaling pathways...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
Deepak Sharma, Sonu Goel, Pranay Lal
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use and education of an individual are linked to each other. Educated people are more likely to practice healthy behaviors and are aware of the harms of tobacco use. This paper uses the Global Adult Tobacco Survey data (GATS-India) to study the education differential associated with tobacco use and its predictors across India. METHODOLOGY: Secondary data analysis was conducted for GATS conducted in 2009-2010 in India. Data for "illiterate" and "literate" study subjects were analyzed according to study subject's "tobacco consumption pattern," their "quitting behavior," "exposure to second hand smoke (SHS)" and "observing health warnings on tobacco products...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
Gang Lin, Yue Lou
PURPOSE: Numerous studies have investigated the role of p16INK4a alteration in patients with soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) yielding inconsistent and inconclusive results. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to precisely assess its prognostic value. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic literature databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science were searched, and five studies with a total of 536 patients were eligible for this meta-analysis. Pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of overall survival (OS) was used to assess the prognostic role of p16INK4a alteration...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
Amit V Varma, Garima Malpani, Purti Agrawal, Kamal Malukani, Shilpi Dosi
BACKGROUND: Teratomas are tumors that contain tissues derived from three different germ cell layers and having a wider range of differentiation with different site and age at presentation. The aim of the present study was to know the frequency of teratomas in various sites and to analyze their clinicomorphological features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study is a retrospective study conducted in tertiary care hospital of Central India. All the cases diagnosed as teratoma in the period of 8 years were included and studied with reference to age, sex, site, size, gross, and microscopic features...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
Emine Kilic Bagir, Arbil Acikalin, Perihan Alsancak, Semra Paydas, Emel Gurkan, Melek Ergin
BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common type of leukemia among adults in Western populations. CLL has a wide range of clinical presentations and varied outcomes. For CLL, cytogenetic assessment is essential for estimating prognoses and determining the treatment of choice. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique is widely used for genetic assessment due to its high sensitivity. AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the frequencies of deletions of 13q14...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
B Nageshwari, Ramchander Merugu
INTRODUCTION: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell malignancy accounting for 0.8% of all cancer deaths globally. This malignancy is characterized by lytic bone disease renal insufficiency, anemia, hypercalcemia, and immunodeficiency. The myeloma cells have enhanced expression of CD138. CD138 is a transmembrane heparin sulfate glycoprotein expressed on different types of adherent and nonadherent cells.CD138 is used as a standard marker for identification of tumor cells. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Despite introduction of many therapeutic agents, the management of multiple myeloma (MM) remains a challenge and search for new therapeutic agents is in progress...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
Arpita Sharma, Jagannath Dev Sharma, Amal Chandra Kataki, Debanjana Barman, Ranjan Lahon, Barsha Roy Deka, Chinmoy Misra, Manoj Kalita
INTRODUCTION: The global burden of cancer incidence and mortality are rising continuously worldwide. As per the GLOBOCAN 2012 estimates, about 14.1 million cancer cases and 8.2 million cancer deaths occurred and 32.6 million people living with cancer (within 5 years of diagnosis) in 2012 worldwide. Reliable data on the magnitude and the pattern of cancer are essential for monitoring the health of the community, assessing the performance of the health care system. Cancer registries should pay great attention to quality of their data...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
Andeep Ramesh Kukkar, Harsha Panchal, Asha Anand
Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus are unusual anterior mediastinal tumors with a variable prognosis. A retrospective analysis of five patients with primary neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus admitted to the Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute, Ahmedabad, between 2012 and 2016, was done to study the clinical profile and outcome of these patients. The role of various prognostic factors such as surgical resection, histological grade, and Masaoka-Koga staging was also analyzed. Majority of the patients present with signs and symptoms related to a rapidly expanding mediastinal mass, such as breathlessness, facial puffiness, edema over the neck and extremities, chest pain, and other features of superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
Than Singh Tomar, Rema Prabhakaran Nair, Suchetha Sambasivan, K M Jagathnath Krishna, Aleyamma Mathew, Iqbal M Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of laparoscopy in detecting inoperable disease in patients undergoing interval cytoreduction (ICR) for advanced ovarian carcinoma (AOC). The primary outcome measured was the performance of laparoscopy-based predictive index value (PIV) score developed by Fagotti et al. The secondary outcomes measured were performance of individual parameters included in PIV score and optimal cytoreduction (OCR) rates in our population...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
Xiaowu Li, Lechao Le, Liang Han, Youwei Zhang, Sanyuan Sun
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of apatinib alone or combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced squamous cell lung cancer. METHODS: Forty patients with advanced squamous cell lung carcinoma were enrolled in this study, who were treated in Xuzhou Central Hospital from 2014 to 2015. All patients underwent first-line or more chemotherapy. Patients were administrated with apatinib 425 mg/day, alone or combined with chemotherapy...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
Subbiah Shanmugam, Gopu Govindasamy, Syed Afroze Hussain, Prasanna Srinivasa H Rao
BACKGROUND: The major morbidities of modified radical mastectomy both short- and long-term are sequelae of axillary dissection. Flap complications, prolonged seroma, need for axillary drainage, wound infection, lymphedema, shoulder stiffness, and paresthesia are major causes for morbidity after axillary dissection. Different techniques have been implemented to tackle these problems. Few of these include reducing the axillary dead space, using various forms of energy devices. AIMS: We have prospectively compared two energy sources, namely, ultrasonic dissector (UD) against the electrocautery dissection in axillary dissection for breast cancer with respect to outcomes...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
Parth Kanaiyalal Patel, Ashok Kumar Sinha, Shashikant Saini
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and second most common type of cancer overall. The prime objectives of axillary surgery in the management of breast cancer are 1) accurate staging, 2) treatment to cure and 3) quantitative information of metastatic lymph nodes for prognostic purposes and allocation to adjuvant protocols. During axillary dissection, all 3 level lymphnodes are removed, while the important axillary structures (axillary vein, long thoracic and thoracodorsal nerves) are preserved...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
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