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Jiansheng Li, Mingqing Lu, Bei Huang, Yingjun Lv
Interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral response is an important part of host defense. Previous studies reported that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) inhibits interferon production, but the mechanism is still poorly understood. In this study, PCV2 suppresses IFN-β and IRF3 promoters and mRNA level of IFN-β induced by ISD or Poly(I:C), but has no effect on the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB. Furthermore, PCV2 decreases the mRNA level of IFN-β and IFN-β promoter activity driven by STING, TBK1, IRF3, and IRF3/5D, and causes a reduction in the protein level of nuclear p-IRF3...
May 21, 2018: Virology
Yan Wang, Rui Wang, Yanrong Li, Yingjie Sun, Cuiping Song, Yuan Zhan, Lei Tan, Ying Liao, ChunChun Meng, Xusheng Qiu, Chan Ding
The cell cycle, as a basic cellular process, is conservatively regulated. Consequently, subversion of the host cell replication cycle is a common strategy employed by many viruses to create a cellular environment favorable for viral replication. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes disease in poultry and is also an effective oncolytic agent. However, the effects of NDV infection on cell cycle progression are unknown. In this study, we showed that NDV replication in asynchronized cells resulted in the accumulation of infected cells in the G0 /G1 phase of the cell cycle, which benefitted the proliferation of NDV...
May 21, 2018: Virology
Xin Wang, Mei-Mei Zhang, Kai Yan, Qi Tang, Yi-Quan Wu, Wen-Bo He, Huan-Chun Chen, Zheng-Fei Liu
Pseudorabies virus (PRV), the etiological pathogen of Aujeszky's disease, belongs to the Alphaherpesvirus subfamily. Large latency transcript (LLT), the most abundant PRV transcript, harbors a ~ 4.6 kb microRNA (miRNA) cluster-encoding intron. To investigate the function of the LLT miRNA cluster during the life cycle of PRV, we generated a miRNA cluster mutation virus (PRV-∆miR cluster) and revertant virus. Analysis of the growth kinetics of PRV-ΔmiR cluster-infected cells revealed significantly smaller plaques and lower titers than the wild-type and revertant viruses...
May 16, 2018: Virology
Tetiana Hutchison, Aditi Malu, Laçin Yapindi, Rachel Bergeson, Kendra Peck, Megan Romeo, Carolyn Harrod, Jordan Pope, Louisa Smitherman, Wesleigh Gwinn, Lee Ratner, Courtney Yates, Robert Harrod
The human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is an oncoretrovirus that infects and transforms CD4+ T-cells and causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) -an aggressive lymphoproliferative disease that is highly refractive to most anticancer therapies. The HTLV-1 proviral genome encodes several regulatory products within a conserved 3' nucleotide sequence, known as pX; however, it remains unclear how these factors might cooperate or dynamically interact in virus-infected cells. Here we demonstrate that the HTLV-1 latency-maintenance factor p30II induces the TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) and counters the oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and cytotoxicity caused by the viral oncoproteins Tax and HBZ...
May 16, 2018: Virology
Yun Li, Lei Sun, Weinan Zheng, Madina Mahesutihan, Jing Li, Yuhai Bi, Heran Wang, Wenjun Liu, Ting Rong Luo
Nucleoprotein (NP) is a major component of the viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex that is responsible for viral replication, transcription and packaging of influenza A virus. Phosphorylation of NP plays an important role during viral infection. In the present study, we identified threonine 188 (T188) as a novel phosphorylated residue in the NP of influenza A virus by using mass spectrometry. T188 is located within nuclear export signal 2 (NES2) which is chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-independent...
May 15, 2018: Virology
Emilie Hultin, Laila Sara Arroyo Mühr, Zurab Bzhalava, Maria Hortlund, Camilla Lagheden, Peter Sundström, Joakim Dillner
Infections have been suggested to be involved in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). We used metagenomic sequencing to detect both known and yet unknown microorganisms in 2 nested case control studies of MS. Two different cohorts were followed for MS using registry linkages. Serum samples taken before diagnosis as well as samples from matched control subjects were selected. In cohort1 with 75 cases and 75 controls, most viral reads were Anelloviridae-related and >95% detected among the cases. Among samples taken up to 2 years before MS diagnosis, Anellovirus species TTMV1, TTMV6 and TTV27 were significantly more common among cases...
May 14, 2018: Virology
Xiao-Kun Li, Shao-Fei Zhang, Wen Xu, Bo Xing, Qing-Bin Lu, Pan-He Zhang, Hao Li, Li Zhang, Wen-Cong Zhang, Wei-Wei Chen, Wu-Chun Cao, Wei Liu
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection typically causes acute fever, thrombocytopenia and leucopenia, presenting with a high case fatality rate. The pathogenesis of SFTSV infection, however, is not well described. It was hypothesized that endothelial dysfunction might play part in the disease process. In current study, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical manifestations among a large group of confirmed SFTS cases and found evidence of plasma leakage and vascular endothelial injury...
May 10, 2018: Virology
Rosario N Brancaccio, Alexis Robitaille, Sankhadeep Dutta, Cyrille Cuenin, Daiga Santare, Girts Skenders, Marcis Leja, Nicole Fischer, Anna R Giuliano, Dana E Rollison, Adam Grundhoff, Massimo Tommasino, Tarik Gheit
With the advent of new molecular tools, the discovery of new papillomaviruses (PVs) has accelerated during the past decade, enabling the expansion of knowledge about the viral populations that inhabit the human body. Human PVs (HPVs) are etiologically linked to benign or malignant lesions of the skin and mucosa. The detection of HPV types can vary widely, depending mainly on the methodology and the quality of the biological sample. Next-generation sequencing is one of the most powerful tools, enabling the discovery of novel viruses in a wide range of biological material...
May 7, 2018: Virology
Jun-Ichi Inaba, Peter D Nagy
Similar to other (+)RNA viruses, tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) utilizes metabolites, lipids, membranes, and co-opted host factors during replication. The coordination of cell metabolism and growth with environmental cues is performed by the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase in eukaryotic cells. In this paper, we find that TBSV replication partially inhibits TOR activity, likely due to recruitment of glycolytic enzymes to the viral replication compartment, which results in reduced ATP levels in the cytosol...
May 4, 2018: Virology
Yongfeng Li, Libao Xie, Lingkai Zhang, Xiao Wang, Chao Li, Yuying Han, Shouping Hu, Yuan Sun, Su Li, Yuzi Luo, Lihong Liu, Muhammad Munir, Hua-Ji Qiu
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) C-strain was developed through hundreds of passages of a highly virulent CSFV in rabbits. To investigate the molecular basis for the adaptation of C-strain to the rabbit (ACR), a panel of chimeric viruses with the exchange of glycoproteins Erns , E1, and/or E2 between C-strain and the highly virulent Shimen strain and a number of mutant viruses with different amino acid substitutions in E2 protein were generated and evaluated in rabbits. Our results demonstrate that Shimen-based chimeras expressing Erns -E1-E2, Erns -E2 or E1-E2 but not Erns -E1, Erns , E1, or E2 of C-strain can replicate in rabbits, indicating that E2 in combination with either Erns or E1 confers the ACR...
May 4, 2018: Virology
Vitina Sozzi, Fang Shen, Jieliang Chen, Danni Colledge, Kathy Jackson, Stephen Locarnini, Zhenghong Yuan, Peter A Revill
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) exists as 9 major genotypes and multiple subtypes, many of which exhibit differences in pathogenicity and treatment response. Genotype H identified in Central America is associated with low incidence of liver disease and HCC, but higher incidence of occult HBV (low level HBV DNA positivity, HBsAg negative). The replication phenotype of genotype H associated with less severe forms of liver disease is unknown. We hypothesized that the reduced pathogenesis associated with this genotype may be due to by lower rates of viral replication and/or secretion compared to other characterised strains...
May 4, 2018: Virology
Dane Bowder, Jesse Thompson, Kate Durst, Haley Hollingsead, Duoyi Hu, Wenzhong Wei, Shi-Hua Xiang
The twin-cysteine motif (TCM) in the V2 loop region of gp120, identified in our previous report on the simian immunodeficiency virus mac239 (SIVmac239), is a conserved evolutionary element in all primate lentiviruses except for HIV-1 which has lost the TCM during cross-species transmission. In this study, we have further explored the TCM in other SIV and HIV-2 strains. Our data shows that strains from different evolutionary lineages have different phenotypes when the twin-cysteines are removed. In the SIVsm/HIV-2 lineage, removal of the twin-cysteines decreases envelope trimer stability, but in the SIVagm lineage, a blockage of gp160 processing is observed...
May 2, 2018: Virology
Song Guo, Sek-Man Wong
A predicted stem-loop structure of 25 nucleotides, located in the coat protein (CP) gene and 3'-UTR sequences of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), was validated previously (Guo et al., 2015). In this study, both disrupted stem-loop and nucleotide deletion mutants of TMV replicated more rapidly in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts. The TMV mutant with a complete mirrored stem-loop structure showed similar level of viral RNA accumulation as TMV. Recovering the stem-loop structure also resulted in a similar replication level as TMV...
May 2, 2018: Virology
Tien-Huang Chen, Yi-Jun Wu, Jiun-Nan Hou, Yi-Hsuan Chiang, Chih-Chieh Cheng, Eny Sifiyatun, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Lian-Chen Wang, Wei-June Chen
Mosquito cells allow dengue viruses (DENVs) to undergo replication without causing serious deleterious effects on the cells, leading to advantages for dissemination to other cells. Despite this, increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is usually detected in C6/36 cells with DENV2 infection as shown in mammalian cells. Uniquely, oxidative stress caused by the ROS is alleviated by eliciting antioxidant defense which leads to protection of mosquito cells from the infection. In the present study, a novel p53 paralogue (p53-2) was identified and proved to be regulated in C6/36 cells with DENV2 infection...
May 1, 2018: Virology
Evandra Strazza Rodrigues, Maria do Carmo Favarin, Mayra Dorigan de Macedo, Katia Kaori Otaguiri, Maristela Delgado Orellana, Osvaldo Massaiti Takayanagui, Patrícia Vianna Bonini Palma, Svetoslav Nanev Slavov, Dimas Tadeu Covas, Simone Kashima
The bone marrow (BM) biology during HTLV-1 infection is obscure. In this study, we investigated BM mononuclear cells and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from HTLV-1 asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. An infiltration of CD4+ T-cell lymphocytes in the BM of HTLV-1-infected individuals was observed when compared to healthy controls. The provirus detection in the BM CD4+ T cells confirmed the presence of integrated HTLV DNA. In regard to MSC, we observed that the number of fibroblast progenitor cells was lower in HTLV-1 infected individuals than in healthy controls...
April 30, 2018: Virology
Steven D Hatfield, Keith A Daniels, Carey L O'Donnell, Stephen N Waggoner, Raymond M Welsh
Natural killer (NK) cells control antiviral adaptive immune responses in mice during some virus infections, but the universality of this phenomenon remains unknown. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection of mice triggered potent cytotoxic activity of NK cells (NKLCMV ) against activated CD4 T cells, tumor cells, and allogeneic lymphocytes. In contrast, NK cells activated by vaccinia virus (VACV) infection (NKVACV ) exhibited weaker cytolytic activity against each of these target cells. Relative to NKLCMV cells, NKVACV cells exhibited a more immature (CD11b- CD27+ ) phenotype, and lower expression levels of the activation marker CD69, cytotoxic effector molecules (perforin, granzyme B), and the transcription factor IRF4...
April 28, 2018: Virology
Chaoqi Ren, Mengmeng Yu, Yao Zhang, Minghui Fan, Fangfang Chang, Lixiao Xing, Yongzhen Liu, Yongqiang Wang, Xiaole Qi, Changjun Liu, Yanping Zhang, Hongyu Cui, Kai Li, Li Gao, Qing Pan, Xiaomei Wang, Yulong Gao
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), a highly oncogenic retrovirus, causes leukemia-like proliferative diseases in chickens. microRNAs post-transcriptionally suppress targets and are involved in the development of various tumors. We previously showed that miR-221 is upregulated in ALV-J-induced tumors. In this study, we analyzed the possible function of miR-221 in ALV-J tumorigenesis. The target validation system showed that CDKN1B is a target of miR-221 and is downregulated in ALV-J infection. As CDKN1B arrests the cell cycle and regulates its progression, we analyzed the proliferation of ALV-J-infected DF-1 cells...
April 23, 2018: Virology
Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, A Gregory Bruce, Kellie Howard, Minako Ikoma, Margaret E Thouless, Timothy M Rose
We developed a set of rabbit antisera to characterize infections by the macaque RV2 rhadinovirus homologs of KSHV. We analyzed tissues from rhesus and pig-tailed macaques naturally infected with rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV) or Macaca nemestrina rhadinovirus 2 (MneRV2). Our study demonstrates that RV2 rhadinoviruses have a tropism for epithelial cells, lymphocytes and gonadal germ cells in vivo. We observed latent infections in both undifferentiated and differentiated epithelial cells with expression of the latency marker, LANA...
April 21, 2018: Virology
Saikat Boliar, Shilpa Patil, Brihaspati N Shukla, Ali Ghobbeh, Suprit Deshpande, Weizao Chen, Javier Guenaga, Dimiter S Dimitrov, Richard T Wyatt, Bimal K Chakrabarti
HIV-1 virus entry into target cells requires the envelope glycoprotein (Env) to first bind the primary receptor, CD4 and subsequently the co-receptor. Antibody access to the co-receptor binding site (CoRbs) in the pre-receptor-engaged state, prior to cell attachment, remains poorly understood. Here, we have demonstrated that for tier-1 Envs, the CoRbs is directly accessible to full-length CD4-induced (CD4i) antibodies even before primary receptor engagement, indicating that on these Envs the CoRbs site is either preformed or can conformationally sample post-CD4-bound state...
April 20, 2018: Virology
Pingchao Li, Fengling Feng, Enxiang Pan, Xiaozhen Fan, Qing Yang, Min Guan, Ling Chen, Caijun Sun
Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is a common cause of respiratory tract infection, and populations worldwide have high prevalence of anti-Ad5 antibodies, implying extensively prior infection. Ad5 infection potently activates the host innate defense and inflammation, but the molecular mechanisms are not completely clarified. We report here that monocytes from Ad5-seropositive subjects upregulates the expression of scavenger receptor A (SR-A), and the increased SR-A promote the susceptibility of Ad5 entry and subsequent innate signaling activation...
April 19, 2018: Virology
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