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Ying Feng, Xikui Sun, Xianmiao Ye, Yupeng Feng, Jinlin Wang, Xuehua Zheng, Xinglong Liu, Changhua Yi, Mingli Hao, Qian Wang, Feng Li, Wei Xu, Liang Li, Chufang Li, Rong Zhou, Ling Chen, Liqiang Feng
Re-emerging human adenoviruses type 14 (HAdV14) and 55 (HAdV55) represent two highly virulent adenoviruses. The neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses elicited by infection or immunization remain largely unknown. Herein, we generated hexon-chimeric HAdV14 viruses harboring each single or entire hexon hyper-variable-regions (HVR) from HAdV55, and determined the neutralizing epitopes of human and mouse nAbs. In human sera, hexon-targeting nAbs are type-specific and mainly recognize HVR2, 5, and 7. Fiber-targeting nAbs are only detectable in sera cross-neutralizing HAdV14 and HAdV55 and contribute substantially to cross-neutralization...
March 15, 2018: Virology
Eric Barklis, August O Staubus, Andrew Mack, Logan Harper, Robin Lid Barklis, Ayna Alfadhli
The matrix (MA) domain of the HIV-1 precursor Gag protein (PrGag) has been shown interact with the HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein, and to direct PrGag proteins to plasma membrane (PM) assembly sites by virtue of its affinity to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI[4,5]P2). Unexpectedly, HIV-1 viruses with large MA deletions (ΔMA) have been shown to be conditionally infectious as long as they are matched with Env truncation mutant proteins or alternative viral glycoproteins. To characterize the interactions of wild type (WT) and ΔMA Gag proteins with PI(4,5)P2 and other acidic phospholipids, we have employed a set of lipid biosensors as probes...
March 14, 2018: Virology
Jinqian Li, Shengjun Feng, Xi Liu, Mingzhe Guo, Mingxiao Chen, Yiyi Chen, Liang Rong, Jinyu Xia, Yuanping Zhou, Jin Zhong, Yi-Ping Li
Genotype 1b strain Con1 represents an important reference in the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Here, we aimed to develop an advanced infectious Con1 recombinant. We found that previously identified mutations A1226G/F1464L/A1672S/Q1773H permitted culture adaption of Con1 Core-NS5A (C-5A) recombinant containing 5'UTR and NS5B-3'UTR from JFH1 (genotype 2a), thus acquired additional mutations L725H/F886L/D2415G. C-5A containing all seven mutations (C-5A_7m) replicated efficiently in Huh7.5 and Huh7.5.1 cells and had an increased infectivity in SEC14L2-expressing Huh7...
March 14, 2018: Virology
Beatrix Meltzer, Deemah Dabbagh, Jia Guo, Fatah Kashanchi, Mudit Tyagi, Yuntao Wu
In HIV infected macrophages, a large population of viral genomes persists as the unintegrated form (uDNA) that is transcriptionally active. However, how this transcriptional activity is controlled remains unclear. In this report, we investigated whether Tat, the viral transactivator of transcription, is involved in uDNA transcription. We demonstrate that de novo Tat activity is generated from uDNA, and this uDNA-derived Tat (uTat) transactivates the uDNA LTR. In addition, uTat is required for the transcriptional persistence of uDNA that is assembled into repressive episomal minichromatin...
March 14, 2018: Virology
Luan Wang, Hao He, Shuangchao Wang, Xiaoguang Chen, Dewen Qiu, Hideki Kondo, Lihua Guo
Here we describe a novel (-)ssRNA mycovirus, Fusarium graminearum negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (FgNSRV-1), isolated from Fusarium graminearum strain HN1. The genome of FgNSRV-1 is 9072 nucleotides in length, with five discontinuous but linear ORFs (ORF I-V). Phylogenetic analysis based on entire L polymerase sequences indicated that FgNSRV-1 is related to the (-)ssRNA mycovirus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (SsNSRV-1), and other mycoviruses. Our data suggest that FgNSRV-1 can be classified into the family Mymonaviridae, order Mononegavirales...
March 14, 2018: Virology
Neha J Pancholi, Matthew D Weitzman
During viral replication in the nucleus, the DNA genomes of adenoviruses are accessible to cellular DNA-binding proteins. Human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) targets the cellular Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex (MRN) to evade detection by the DNA damage response (DDR). Ad5 mutants that cannot target MRN have reduced viral propagation. Previous studies showed that diverse adenovirus serotypes interact differently with MRN. While these studies revealed diverse MRN interactions among serotypes, it remains unclear how these differences influence viral replication...
March 13, 2018: Virology
Yilong Wang, Rongxian Liu, Mijia Lu, Yingzhi Yang, Duo Zhou, Xiaoqiang Hao, Dongming Zhou, Bin Wang, Jianrong Li, Yao-Wei Huang, Zhengyan Zhao
The live-attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine based on the Hu191 strain has played a significant role in controlling measles in China. However, it has considerable adverse effects that may cause public health burden. We hypothesize that the safety and efficacy of MV vaccine can be improved by altering the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) binding site in the conserved region VI of the large polymerase protein. To test this hypothesis, we established an efficient reverse genetics system for the rMV-Hu191 strain and generated two recombinant MV-Hu191 carrying mutations in the SAM binding site...
March 8, 2018: Virology
Shifeng Ling, Mingyang Luo, Shengnan Jiang, Jiayu Liu, Chunying Ding, Qinghuan Zhang, Huancheng Guo, Wenjie Gong, Changchun Tu, Jinfu Sun
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) nonstructural protein NS5A is a multifunctional protein functioning in regulation of viral genome replication, protein translation and assembly by interaction with viral or host proteins. Here, heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) has been identified as a novel binding partner of NS5A by using His tag "pull down" coupled with shotgun LC-MS/MS, with interaction of both proteins further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and laser confocal assays. In PK-15 cells, silencing of Hsp27 expression by siRNA enhanced CSFV replication, and upregulation of Hsp27 inhibited viral proliferation...
March 8, 2018: Virology
Klaudia Chrzastek, Dong-Hun Lee, Saad Gharaibeh, Aniko Zsak, Darrell R Kapczynski
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are a valuable tool to monitor changes in viral genomes and determine the genetic heterogeneity of viruses. In this study, NGS was applied to clinical poultry samples from Jordan to detect eleven H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV). All of the viruses tested belonged to Middle East A genetic group of G1 lineage. Deep sequencing demonstrated a high degree of heterogeneity of glutamine and leucine residues at position 226 in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene, which increases specificity to either avian or mammalian-type receptors...
March 7, 2018: Virology
Jon Gil-Ranedo, Eva Hernando, Noelia Valle, Laura Riolobos, Beatriz Maroto, José M Almendral
The T1 parvovirus Minute Virus of Mice (MVM) was used to study the roles that phosphorylation and N-terminal domains (Nt) configuration of capsid subunits may play in icosahedral nuclear viruses assembly. In synchronous MVM infection, capsid subunits newly assembled as two types of cytoplasmic trimeric intermediates (3VP2, and 1VP1:2VP2) harbored a VP1 phosphorylation level fivefold higher than that of VP2, and hidden Nt. Upon nuclear translocation at S phase, VP1-Nt became exposed in the heterotrimer and subsequent subviral assembly intermediates...
March 7, 2018: Virology
Rong Wang, Liping Yang, Yali Zhang, Junyan Li, Liran Xu, Yueqiang Xiao, Qian Zhang, Liang Bai, Sihai Zhao, Enqi Liu, Yan-Jin Zhang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes inflammatory injuries in infected pigs. PRRSV induces secretion of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) that enhances inflammatory response. However, the mechanism of PRRSV-induced HMGB1 secretion is unknown. Here, we discovered PRRSV induced HMGB1 secretion via activating protein kinase C-delta (PKCδ). HMGB1 secretion was positively correlated with PKCδ activation in PRRSV-infected cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. Suppression of PKCδ with inhibitor and siRNA significantly blocked PRRSV-induced HMGB1 translocation and secretion, which indicates PKCδ activation is essential for the PRRSV-mediated HMGB1 secretion...
March 6, 2018: Virology
Jianjia Zhang, Min Feng, Ying Fan, Weifan Xu, Qin Zheng, Xiaofeng Wu
The structural proteins of baculovirus are well studied, but the interactions between them remain unclear. In order to reveal protein-protein interactions among viral structural proteins and their associated proteins of the budded virus of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), the yeast two hybrid (Y2H) system was used to evaluate the interactions of 27 viral genes products. Fifty-seven interactions were identified with 51 binary interactions and 6 self-associations. Among them, 10 interactions were further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation assays...
March 3, 2018: Virology
Chun-Miao Ji, Bin Wang, Jiyong Zhou, Yao-Wei Huang
A monkey cell line Vero (ATCC CCL-81) is commonly used for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) propagation in vitro. However, it is still controversial whether the porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN) counterpart on Vero cells (Vero-APN) confers PEDV entry. We found that endogenous expression of Vero-APN was undetectable in the mRNA and the protein levels in Vero cells. We cloned the partial Vero-APN gene (3340-bp) containing exons 1 to 9 from cellular DNA and subsequently generated two APN-knockout Vero cell lines by CRISPR/Cas9 approach...
March 1, 2018: Virology
Helen Singleton, Simon P Graham, Jean-Pierre Frossard, Katherine B Bodman-Smith, Falko Steinbach
Monocytes are considered refractory to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus type 1 (PRRSV-1) infection. However, monocytes are only short-lived in blood, being able to differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells (DC). It was therefore merited to revisit PRRSV-1 interaction with monocytes, particularly those treated with cytokines influencing monocyte biology. Thus, several factors were screened, particularly those modulating monocyte differentiation and expression of putative PRRSV-1 receptors (CD169 and CD163)...
March 1, 2018: Virology
Adarsh K Gupta, Gary L Hein, Robert A Graybosch, Satyanarayana Tatineni
High Plains wheat mosaic virus (HPWMoV, genus Emaravirus; family Fimoviridae), transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer), harbors a monocistronic octapartite single-stranded negative-sense RNA genome. In this study, putative proteins encoded by HPWMoV genomic RNAs 2-8 were screened for potential RNA silencing suppression activity by using a green fluorescent protein-based reporter agroinfiltration assay. We found that proteins encoded by RNAs 7 (P7) and 8 (P8) suppressed silencing induced by single- or double-stranded RNAs and efficiently suppressed the transitive pathway of RNA silencing...
February 27, 2018: Virology
Meriadeg Ar Gouilh, Sébastien J Puechmaille, Laure Diancourt, Mathias Vandenbogaert, Jordi Serra-Cobo, Marc Lopez Roïg, Paul Brown, François Moutou, Valérie Caro, Astrid Vabret, Jean-Claude Manuguerra
The emergence of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, triggered the discovery of a high diversity of coronaviruses in bats. Studies from Europe have shown that coronaviruses circulate in bats in France but this reflects only a fraction of the whole diversity. In the current study the diversity of coronaviruses circulating in western Europe was extensively explored. Ten alphacoronaviruses in eleven bat species belonging to the Miniopteridae, Vespertilionidae and Rhinolophidae families and, a SARS-CoV-related Betacoronavirus in Rhinolophus ferrumequinum were identified...
February 23, 2018: Virology
Florencia Barrionuevo, Sebastián Di Giacomo, Danilo Bucafusco, Andrea Ayude, Juan Schammas, M Cruz Miraglia, Alejandra Capozzo, Manuel V Borca, Mariano Perez-Filgueira
The role of passively transferred sera in the protection against aerogenous foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus infection in cattle was evaluated using vaccine-induced immune serum preparations obtained at 7 and 26 days post-vaccination (dpv). We showed that circulating antibodies were sufficient to prevent disease generalization after oronasal infection in animals passively transferred with 26-dpv serum but not with the 7-dpv serum. Conversely, conventional FMD vaccination provided clinical protection at 7 dpv, promoting fast and robust antibody responses upon challenge and even though antibody titers were similar to those found in animals passively immunized with 7-dpv serum...
February 23, 2018: Virology
Matti Jalasvuori, Katariina Koskinen
Tectiviridae are composed of tailless bacteriophages with an icosahedral capsid and an inner membrane enclosing a double-stranded 15 kb linear DNA genome. Five of the seven previously studied Tectivirus isolates infect bacteria from Bacillus cereus sensu lato group (Betatectivirus), one distantly related member (PRD1) infect Enterobactericeae (Alpatectivirus) and one recently discovered virus infect Gluconobacter cerinus (Gammatectivirus). Here we expand the host spectrum of Betatectivirus elements to four additional genera (Streptococcus, Exiguobacterium, Clostridium and Brevibacillus) and to more distantly related Bacillus species (B...
February 23, 2018: Virology
Lei Tan, Yuqiang Zhang, Changtao Qiao, Yanmei Yuan, Yingjie Sun, Xusheng Qiu, Chunchun Meng, Cuiping Song, Ying Liao, Muhammad Munir, Venugopal Nair, Zhuang Ding, Xiufan Liu, Chan Ding
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes major economic losses in the poultry industry. Previous studies have shown that NDV utilizes different pathways to infect various cells, including dendritic cells (DCs). Here, we demonstrate that NDV gains entry into DCs mainly via macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The detection of cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) indicates that NDV significantly induces Th1 responses and lowers Th2 responses...
February 23, 2018: Virology
Jian Zhang, Longjun Guo, Lijun Yang, Jiayu Xu, Lu Zhang, Li Feng, Hongyan Chen, Yue Wang
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a causative agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED). PED, characterized by acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, has caused serious economic losses in pig industry worldwide. Here, we demonstrate that activation of a disintergrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) induced the decrease of PEDV infection in HEK293 and IPEC-J2 cells and the downregulation of cell surface aminopeptidase N (APN) expression, an important entry factor for PEDV infection. Furthermore, overexpression of ADAM17 suppressed PEDV infection in HEK293 and IPEC-J2 cells, whereas ablation of ADAM17 expression using ADAM17 specific siRNA resulted in a corresponding increase of PEDV infection and an upregulation of cell surface APN expression...
February 20, 2018: Virology
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