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Baoling Ying, Jacqueline F Spencer, Ann E Tollefson, William S M Wold, Karoly Toth
Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the influence of sex on the course of infectious diseases. Thus far, the best-documented examples point toward an immune-mediated mechanism: the generally stronger immune response in females can result in a faster clearance of the pathogen or, conversely, a more severe immune-mediated pathology. Here, we report that human species C adenoviruses replicate more and cause more pathology in male Syrian hamsters than in females. We also show that this sex disparity is not caused by a stronger immune response to the infection by the female hamsters...
November 10, 2017: Virology
William Marciel de Souza, Marcílio Jorge Fumagalli, Jansen de Araujo, Gilberto Sabino-Santos, Felipe Gonçalves Motta Maia, Marilia Farignoli Romeiro, Sejal Modha, Marcello Schiavo Nardi, Luzia Helena Queiroz, Edison Luiz Durigon, Márcio Roberto Teixeira Nunes, Pablo Ramiro Murcia, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo
The Anelloviridae comprises single-stranded DNA viruses currently grouped in sixty-eight species classified in twelve genera. They have been found in many vertebrate hosts including primates. In this study, we describe the application of the high-throughput sequencing to examine the frequency and diversity of anelloviruses in rodents, bats and opossums captured in São Paulo State, Brazil. We report a total of twenty-six anelloviruses with sixteen nearly complete genomes and ten partial genomes, which include eleven potential novel species identified in rodents (Cricetidae), bats (Molossidae and Phyllostomidae), and opossums (Didelphidae)...
November 9, 2017: Virology
Yuta Kanai, Takahiro Kawagishi, Minoru Okamoto, Yusuke Sakai, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Takeshi Kobayashi
Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) is an emerging bat-borne human pathogen causing severe respiratory illness. To date, however, the evaluation of PRV virulence has largely depended on the limited numbers of clinical cases owing to the lack of animal models. To develop an in vivo model of PRV infection, an inbred C3H mouse strain was infected intranasally with pathogenic PRV strain Miyazaki-Bali/2007. C3H mice suffered severe lung infection with significant body weight reduction and died within 7 days after intranasal infection...
November 9, 2017: Virology
Jinsun Kim, Ga-Eun Lee, Martin Lochelt, Cha-Gyun Shin
Integrase (IN) is an essential enzyme in retroviral life cycle. It mediates viral cDNA integration into host cellular DNA. Feline foamy virus (FFV) is a member of the Spumavirus subfamily of Retroviridae. Recently, its life cycle has been proposed to be different from other retroviruses. Despite this important finding, FFV IN is not understood clearly. Here, we constructed point mutations in FFV IN C-terminal domain (CTD) to obtain a clear understanding of its integration mechanism. Mutation of the amino acid residues in FFV IN CTD interacting with target DNA reduced both IN enzymatic activities in vitro and viral productions in infected cells...
November 9, 2017: Virology
Satyanarayana Tatineni, Anthony J McMechan, Gary L Hein
Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus; family Potyviridae), is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer). The requirement of coat protein (CP) for WSMV transmission by the wheat curl mite was examined using a series of viable deletion and point mutations. Mite transmission of WSMV was completely abolished with deletions comprising CP amino acids 58-100. In contrast, the amino-proximal (amino acids 6-27 and 36-57) and carboxy-terminal (14 amino acids) regions of CP were expendable for mite transmission...
November 9, 2017: Virology
Ahmed Atef Mesalam, Isabelle Desombere, Ali Farhoudi, Freya Van Houtte, Lieven Verhoye, Jonathan Ball, Jean Dubuisson, Steven K H Foung, Arvind H Patel, Mats A A Persson, Geert Leroux-Roels, Philip Meuleman
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope have been raised mainly against envelope protein 2 (E2), while the antigenic epitopes of envelope protein 1 (E1) are not fully identified. Here we describe the detailed characterization of a human mAb, designated A6, generated from an HCV genotype 1b infected patient. ELISA results showed reactivity of mAb A6 to full-length HCV E1E2 of genotypes 1a, 1b and 2a. Epitope mapping identified a region spanning amino acids 230-239 within the N-terminal region of E1 as critical for binding...
November 9, 2017: Virology
Jihui Lin, Chengbao Wang, Wulong Liang, Jing Zhang, Longxiang Zhang, Huifang Lv, Wang Dong, Yanming Zhang
Rab1A belongs to the small Rab GTPase family and is involved in the lifecycle of numerous viruses. Here, knockdown of Rab1A inhibited CSFV growth. Further study revealed that Rab1A depletion decreased intracellular and extracellular CSFV titers, but did not affect intracellular virus genome copies and E2 protein expression within a virus lifecycle, which suggested that Rab1A is required for CSFV particle assembly rather than for genome replication or virion release. This was proofed by blocking the spread of virus using neutralizing antibodies, through which the negative effects of Rab1A knockdown on multi-cycle replication of CSFV were eliminated...
November 9, 2017: Virology
Yang Liu, Jianbo Chen, Olga A Nikolaitchik, Belete A Desimmie, Steven Busan, Vinay K Pathak, Kevin M Weeks, Wei-Shau Hu
The HIV-1 RNA genome contains complex structures with many structural elements playing regulatory roles during viral replication. A recent study has identified multiple RNA structures with unknown functions that are conserved among HIV-1 and two simian immunodeficiency viruses. To explore the roles of these conserved RNA structures, we introduced synonymous mutations into the HIV-1 genome to disrupt each structure. These mutants exhibited similar particle production, viral infectivity, and replication kinetics relative to the parent NL4-3 virus...
November 9, 2017: Virology
Paul G Cantalupo, Joshua P Katz, James M Pipas
We have developed a virus detection and discovery computational pipeline, Pickaxe, and applied it to NGS databases provided by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We analyzed a collection of whole genome (WGS), exome (WXS), and RNA (RNA-Seq) sequencing libraries from 3052 participants across 22 different cancers. NGS data from nearly all tumor and normal tissues examined contained contaminating viral sequences. Intensive computational and manual efforts are required to remove these artifacts. We found that several different types of cancers harbored Herpesviruses including EBV, CMV, HHV1, HHV2, HHV6 and HHV7...
November 3, 2017: Virology
Fuxian Zhang, Hong Guo, Jie Zhang, Qingxiu Chen, Qin Fang
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a member of the Aquareovirus genus in the Reoviridae family, is considered the most pathogenic aquareovirus. However, its productive viral entry pathways remain largely unclear. Using a combination of quantum dot (QD)-based live-virus tracking and biochemical assays, we found that extraction of cellular membrane cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and nystatin strongly inhibited the internalization of GCRVs, and supplementation with cholesterol restored viral infection...
November 2, 2017: Virology
Fenfen Sun, Wei Pan, Honglei Gao, Xiaole Qi, Liting Qin, Yongqiang Wang, Yulong Gao, Xiaomei Wang
Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is a small, single-stranded DNA virus of Anelloviridae family. Its genome segments encode three proteins, VP1, VP2, and VP3. This study identified an interaction between VP2 and VP3 and mapped the interaction domains. Through the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system, VP2 was found to interact with VP3. The presence of the VP2-VP3 complex in CAV-infected chicken cells was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. Confocal microscopy showed that VP2 and VP3 were expressed in the cytoplasm in cotransfected Vero cells...
October 31, 2017: Virology
Rodney P Kincaid, Neena G Panicker, Mary M Lozano, Christopher S Sullivan, Jaquelin P Dudley, Farah Mustafa
Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) induces breast cancer in mice in the absence of known virally-encoded oncogenes. Tumorigenesis by MMTV is thought to occur primarily through insertional mutagenesis, leading to the activation of cellular proto-oncogenes and outgrowth of selected cells. Here we investigated whether MMTV encodes microRNAs (miRNAs) and/or modulates host miRNAs that could contribute to tumorigenesis. High throughput small RNA sequencing analysis of MMTV-infected cells and MMTV-induced mammary tumors demonstrates that MMTV does not encode miRNAs...
October 30, 2017: Virology
Albert G M van Geelen, Tavis K Anderson, Kelly M Lager, Phani B Das, Nicholas J Otis, Nestor A Montiel, Laura C Miller, Vikas Kulshreshtha, Alexandra C Buckley, Susan L Brockmeier, Jianqiang Zhang, Phillip C Gauger, Karen M Harmon, Kay S Faaberg
Recent cases of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in United States swine-herds have been associated with high mortality in piglets and severe morbidity in sows. Analysis of the ORF5 gene from such clinical cases revealed a unique restriction fragment polymorphism (RFLP) of 1-7-4. The genome diversity of seventeen of these viruses (81.4% to 99.8% identical; collected 2013-2015) and the pathogenicity of 4 representative viruses were compared to that of SDSU73, a known moderately virulent strain...
October 30, 2017: Virology
María Mercedes Elizalde, Ina Sevic, María Mora González López Ledesma, Rodolfo Héctor Campos, Luciana Barbini, Diego Martin Flichman
In the context of pathogenesis of HBV infection, HBV genotypes and mutants have been shown to affect the natural course of chronic infection and treatment outcomes. In this work, we studied the induction of apoptosis by the replication of HBV subgenotypes F1b and F4, and the naturally occurring mutants BCP and preCore. Both subgenotypes F1b and F4 HBV genome transfections induced cell death by apoptosis in human hepatocytes. The BCPdm (A1762T/G1764A) and preCore (G1896A) mutants induced higher levels of apoptosis than the wt virus...
October 27, 2017: Virology
Phu-Tri Tran, Kristin Widyasari, Jang-Kyun Seo, Kook-Hyung Kim
Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), a member of the genus Potyvirus, significantly reduces soybean production worldwide. Rsv3, which confers strain-specific resistance to SMV, was previously mapped between the markers A519F/R and M3Satt in chromosome 14 of the soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotype L29. Analysis of the soybean genome database revealed that five different NBS-LRR sequences exist between the flanking markers. Among these candidate Rsv3 genes, the full-length cDNA of the Glyma.14g204700 was successfully cloned from L29...
October 25, 2017: Virology
Tatsunori Nakano, Masaharu Takahashi, Kazuaki Takahashi, Shigeo Nagashima, Yusuke Suzuki, Yoichi Nishigaki, Eiichi Tomita, Hiroshi Okano, Yumi Oya, Katsuya Shiraki, Kojiro Takase, Kazushi Sugimoto, Junichi Koyama, Hitoshi Mizuo, Kazuto Ikezawa, Tatsuya Aikawa, Masahiro Arai, Hiroaki Okamoto
Hepatitis E virus subtype 3f (HEV-3f) strains are usually isolated in Europe and Thailand. Recently, HEV-3f strains were detected from six acute hepatitis E patients in Japan, none of whom had a history of travel to endemic areas. We inferred the origin and transmission route of the six HEV-3f strains. A time-scaled phylogenetic tree of the six strains with reference strains was constructed using a Bayesian statistical inference framework. The time-scaled tree indicated that the six strains independently derived from similar European strains between 2008 and 2014...
October 24, 2017: Virology
Agnieszka Brzozowska, Andrea D Lipińska, Natalia Derewońko, Dorota Lesiak, Michał Rychłowski, Łukasz Rąbalski, Krystyna Bieńkowska-Szewczyk
Us3 protein is a serine/threonine kinase conserved within the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily of herpesviruses. The Us3 homologs of herpes simplex virus, pseudorabies virus, and bovine herpesvirus type 5 have been shown to block apoptosis triggered by viral infection or exogenous inducers. To determine whether these characteristics are shared by bovine herpesvirus type 1 Us3, we constructed two viral mutants: BHV-1 Us3 deletion mutant (BHV-1ΔUs3) and a kinase-dead mutant (BHV-1KD). Flow cytometry analysis and TUNEL assay clearly demonstrated, that only BHV-1 wild type virus suppressed infection-induced apoptosis and protected cells from apoptosis triggered by exogenous factors: sorbitol or staurosporine...
October 23, 2017: Virology
Fernando Diaz, Sean Gregory, Hiroshi Nakashima, Mariano S Viapiano, David M Knipe
Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is the leading cause of genital herpes and increases the risk of HIV infection, but there is no effective vaccine. A replication-defective HSV-2 mutant virus, dl5-29, is effective in animal models and has been in a phase I trial. Previous studies have shown that dl5-29 gives higher antibody responses and better protection when inoculated intramuscularly (IM) as compared with subcutaneously (SC). However, the basis for this effect has not been defined. We confirmed that IM inoculation of dl5-29 is more immunogenic and provides better protection than SC inoculation...
October 22, 2017: Virology
Arcady Mushegian, Eli Levy Karin, Tal Pupko
The order Herpesvirales includes animal viruses with large double-strand DNA genomes replicating in the nucleus. The main capsid protein in the best-studied family Herpesviridae contains a domain with HK97-like fold related to bacteriophage head proteins, and several virion maturation factors are also homologous between phages and herpesviruses. The origin of herpesvirus DNA replication proteins is less well understood. While analyzing the genomes of herpesviruses in the family Malacohepresviridae, we identified nearly 30 families of proteins conserved in other herpesviruses, including several phage-related domains in morphogenetic proteins...
October 21, 2017: Virology
Elissa J Schwartz, Naveen K Vaidya, Karin S Dorman, Susan Carpenter, Robert H Mealey
Understanding the dynamics of acute viral infection is crucial for developing strategies to prevent and control infection. In this study, lentiviral dynamics in a host without adaptive immunity were examined in order to determine kinetic parameters of infection and quantify the effect of neutralizing antibodies in preventing infection, using mathematical modeling of data from equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection of horses with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Estimated parameters were used to calculate the basic reproductive number and virus doubling time and found that the rate that antibodies neutralized virus was ~18 times greater than the virus clearance rate...
October 19, 2017: Virology
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