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Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919326/characterization-of-a-pkr-inhibitor-from-the-pathogenic-ranavirus-ambystoma-tigrinum-virus-using-a-heterologous-vaccinia-virus-system
#1
Trung P Huynh, James K Jancovich, Latha Tripuraneni, Michael C Heck, Jeffrey O Langland, Bertram L Jacobs
Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV) (family Iridoviridae, genus Ranavirus) was isolated from diseased tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum stebbinsi) from the San Rafael Valley in southern Arizona, USA in 1996. Genomic sequencing of ATV, as well as other members of the genus, identified an open reading frame that has homology to the eukaryotic translation initiation factor, eIF2α (ATV eIF2α homologue, vIF2αH). Therefore, we asked if the ATV vIF2αH could also inhibit PKR. To test this hypothesis, the ATV vIF2αH was cloned into vaccinia virus (VACV) in place of the well-characterized VACV PKR inhibitor, E3L...
September 14, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918303/decoding-noises-in-hiv-computational-genotyping
#2
MingRui Jia, Timothy Shaw, Xing Zhang, Dong Liu, Ye Shen, Amara E Ezeamama, Chunfu Yang, Ming Zhang
Lack of a consistent and reliable genotyping system can critically impede HIV genomic research on pathogenesis, fitness, virulence, drug resistance, and genomic-based healthcare and treatment. At present, mis-genotyping, i.e., background noises in molecular genotyping, and its impact on epidemic surveillance is unknown. For the first time, we present a comprehensive assessment of HIV genotyping quality. HIV sequence data were retrieved from worldwide published records, and subjected to a systematic genotyping assessment pipeline...
September 14, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915437/temporal-characterization-of-the-non-structural-adenovirus-type-2-proteome-and-phosphoproteome-using-high-resolving-mass-spectrometry
#3
Malin Källsten, Arina Gromova, Hongxing Zhao, Alberto Valdés, Anne Konzer, Ulf Pettersson, Sara Bergström Lind
The proteome and phosphoproteome of non-structural proteins of Adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) were time resolved using a developed mass spectrometry approach. These proteins are expressed by the viral genome and important for the infection process, but not part of the virus particle. We unambiguously confirm the existence of 95% of the viral proteins predicted to be encoded by the viral genome. Most non-structural proteins peaked in expression at late time post infection. We identified 27 non-redundant sites of phosphorylation on seven different non-structural proteins...
September 12, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915406/autographa-californica-multiple-nucleopolyhedrovirus-pk1-is-a-factor-that-regulates-high-level-expression-of-very-late-genes-in-viral-infection
#4
Changyong Liang, Xia Su, Guodong Xu, Xuejuan Dai, Shuling Zhao
The remarkable ability of baculovirus is to hyperexpress very late genes, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report the effect of PK1, a baculovirus-encoded serine/threonine kinase, on very late gene hyperexpression. PK1 knockout does not completely disrupt very late gene expression, but down regulates the hyperexpression. Those truncated PK1s that exhibit kinase activity in vitro rescue the decline of very late hyperexpression, while other truncated PK1s and a point mutant PK1 (D137A) without kinase activity fail to rescue the decline of very late hyperexpression, suggesting that PK1 regulates very late gene expression by its kinase activity...
September 12, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915405/hepatic-immunopathology-during-occult-hepacivirus-re-infection
#5
Cordelia Manickam, Amanda J Martinot, Rhianna A Jones, Valerie Varner, R Keith Reeves
Despite drug advances for Hepatitis C virus (HCV), re-infections remain prevalent in high-risk populations. Unfortunately, the role of preexisting viral immunity and how it modulates re-infection is unclear. GBV-B infection of common marmosets is a useful model to study tissue immune responses in hepacivirus infections, and in this study we re-challenged 4 animals after clearance of primary viremia. Although only low-to-absent viremia was observed following re-challenge, GBV-B viral RNA was detectable in liver, confirming re-infection...
September 12, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915404/dynamic-phosphorylation-of-ebola-virus-vp30-in-np-induced-inclusion-bodies
#6
Clemens Lier, Stephan Becker, Nadine Biedenkopf
Zaire Ebolavirus (EBOV) causes a severe feverish disease with high case fatality rates. Transcription of EBOV is dependent on the activity of the nucleocapsid protein VP30 which represents an essential viral transcription factor. Activity of VP30 is regulated via phosphorylation at six N-terminal serine residues. Recent data demonstrated that dynamic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of serine residue 29 is essential for transcriptional support activity of VP30. To analyze the spatio/temporal dynamics of VP30 phosphorylation, we generated a peptide antibody recognizing specifically VP30 phosphorylated at serine 29...
September 12, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910710/outer-nuclear-membrane-fusion-of-adjacent-nuclei-in-varicella-zoster-virus-induced-syncytia
#7
Wei Wang, Lianwei Yang, Xiumin Huang, Wenkun Fu, Dequan Pan, Linli Cai, Jianghui Ye, Jian Liu, Ningshao Xia, Tong Cheng, Hua Zhu
Syncytia formation has been considered important for cell-to-cell spread and pathogenesis of many viruses. As a syncytium forms, individual nuclei often congregate together, allowing close contact of nuclear membranes and possibly fusion to occur. However, there is currently no reported evidence of nuclear membrane fusion between adjacent nuclei in wild-type virus-induced syncytia. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one typical syncytia-inducing virus that causes chickenpox and shingles in humans. Here, we report, for the first time, an interesting observation of apparent fusion of the outer nuclear membranes from juxtaposed nuclei that comprise VZV syncytia both in ARPE-19 human epithelial cells in vitro and in human skin xenografts in the SCID-hu mouse model in vivo...
September 11, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898730/immunogenicity-of-orfv-based-vectors-expressing-the-rabies-virus-glycoprotein-in-livestock-species
#8
Mathias Martins, Lok R Joshi, Fernando S Rodrigues, Deniz Anziliero, Rafael Frandoloso, Gerald F Kutish, Daniel L Rock, Rudi Weiblen, Eduardo F Flores, Diego G Diel
The parapoxvirus Orf virus (ORFV) encodes several immunomodulatory proteins (IMPs) that modulate host-innate and pro-inflammatory responses and has been proposed as a vaccine delivery vector for use in animal species. Here we describe the construction and characterization of two recombinant ORFV vectors expressing the rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein (G). The RABV-G gene was inserted in the ORFV024 or ORFV121 gene loci, which encode for IMPs that are unique to parapoxviruses and inhibit activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway...
September 9, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898712/inhibition-of-the-lytic-cycle-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-by-cohesin-factors-following-de-novo-infection
#9
Zsolt Toth, Richard J Smindak, Bernadett Papp
Establishment of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency following infection is a multistep process, during which polycomb proteins are recruited onto the KSHV genome, which is crucial for the genome-wide repression of lytic genes during latency. Strikingly, only a subset of lytic genes are expressed transiently in the early phase of infection prior to the binding of polycomb proteins onto the KSHV genome, which raises the question what restricts lytic gene expression in the first hours of infection...
September 9, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898711/sjl-bone-marrow-derived-macrophages-do-not-have-irf3-mutations-and-are-highly-susceptible-to-theiler-s-virus-infection
#10
Kyung-No Son, Zhiguo Liang, Howard L Lipton
It is well known that SJL mice are susceptible to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced demyelinating disease while C57BL6 (B6) and B10 mice are resistant, and H-2(s) on a B10 background (B10.S) contributes modestly to susceptibility. A recent study linked two IRF3 non-conservative mutations in SJL compared to B10.S mice to resistance to TMEV infection of SJL peritoneal-derived macrophages, an observation of practical interest in light of the central role of IRF3 transcription factor in the type I interferon (IFN) response...
September 9, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892736/five-distinct-reassortants-of-h5n6-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-viruses-affected-japan-during-the-winter-of-2016-2017
#11
Nobuhiro Takemae, Ryota Tsunekuni, Kirill Sharshov, Taichiro Tanikawa, Yuko Uchida, Hiroshi Ito, Kosuke Soda, Tatsufumi Usui, Ivan Sobolev, Alexander Shestopalov, Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi, Junki Mine, Toshihiro Ito, Takehiko Saito
To elucidate the evolutionary pathway, we sequenced the entire genomes of 89 H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) isolated in Japan during winter 2016-2017 and 117 AIV/HPAIVs isolated in Japan and Russia. Phylogenetic analysis showed that at least 5 distinct genotypes of H5N6 HPAIVs affected poultry and wild birds during that period. Japanese H5N6 isolates shared a common genetic ancestor in 6 of 8 genomic segments, and the PA and NS genes demonstrated 4 and 2 genetic origins, respectively...
September 8, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892735/expression-of-the-chemokine-receptors-ccr1-and-ccr2b-is-up-regulated-in-peripheral-blood-b-cells-upon-ebv-infection-and-in-established-lymphoblastoid-cell-lines
#12
Irina Kholodnyuk, Zanna Rudevica, Ainars Leonciks, Barbro Ehlin-Henriksson, Elena Kashuba
In immunocompetent individuals, EBV establishes in B cells an asymptomatic lifelong latent infection controlled by the immune system. Chemokine receptors regulate immune system function. CCR1 and CCR2 share protein sequence similarity and exert responses to multiple chemokines. The role of these receptors in B cells is largely unknown. We show that the mRNA and functional protein expression of CCR1 and CCR2 is induced in ex vivo B cells upon EBV infection and in established lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs)...
September 8, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888112/isolate-fitness-and-tissue-tropism-determine-superinfection-success
#13
S J Harper, S J Cowell, W O Dawson
The mechanism of cross-protection, the deliberate infection of plants with a "mild" virus isolate to protect against "severe" isolates, has long been a topic of debate. In our model system, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), this appears to be genotype-specific superinfection-exclusion, suggesting a simple recipe for cross-protection. However, this concept failed in field trials, which led us to examine the process of superinfection-exclusion more closely. We found that exclusion relies on the relative fitness of the primary versus the challenge isolates, and the host infected, and that significant differences in superinfection success could occur between isolates that differ by as few as 3 nucleotides...
September 6, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888111/an-influenza-a-virus-h7n9-anti-neuraminidase-monoclonal-antibody-protects-mice-from-morbidity-without-interfering-with-the-development-of-protective-immunity-to-subsequent-homologous-challenge
#14
Jason R Wilson, Jessica A Belser, Juliana DaSilva, Zhu Guo, Xiangjie Sun, Shane Gansebom, Yaohui Bai, Thomas J Stark, Jessie Chang, Paul Carney, Min Z Levine, John Barnes, James Stevens, Taronna R Maines, Terrence M Tumpey, Ian A York
The emergence of A(H7N9) virus strains with resistance to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors highlights a critical need to discover new countermeasures for treatment of A(H7N9) virus-infected patients. We previously described an anti-NA mAb (3c10-3) that has prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in mice lethally challenged with A(H7N9) virus when delivered intraperitoneally (i.p.). Here we show that intrananasal (i.n.) administration of 3c10-3 protects 100% of mice from mortality when treated 24h post-challenge and further characterize the protective efficacy of 3c10-3 using a nonlethal A(H7N9) challenge model...
September 6, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888110/association-of-toll-like-receptor-polymorphisms-with-susceptibility-to-chikungunya-virus-infection
#15
Sudip Kumar Dutta, Anusri Tripathi
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection leads to activation of innate immune response by triggering Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways resulting in elevated cytokines and type-I interferon levels. Genetic variations of these genes may influence human CHIKV-susceptibility and disease progression. Present study aimed to identify role of TLR polymorphisms in CHIKV-susceptibility and their association with cytokines and clinical symptoms. This is the first study illustrating certain genotypes of TLR-7 and TLR-8 SNPs viz...
September 6, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866238/genetic-variation-and-co-evolutionary-relationship-of-rna-polymerase-complex-segments-in-influenza-a-viruses
#16
Wentian Chen, Qi Xu, Yaogang Zhong, Hanjie Yu, Jian Shu, Tianran Ma, Zheng Li
The RNA polymerase complex (RNApc) in influenza A viruses (IVs) is composed of the PB2, PB1 and PA subunits, which are encoded by the three longest genome segments (Seg1-3) and are responsible for the replication of vRNAs and transcription of viral mRNAs. However, the co-evolutionary relationships of the three segments from the known 126 subtypes IVs are unclear. In this study, we performed a detailed analysis based on a total number of 121,191 nucleotide sequences. Three segment sequences were aligned before the repeated, incomplete and mixed sequences were removed for homologous and phylogenetic analyses...
August 31, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866237/effects-of-simultaneously-elevated-temperature-and-co2-levels-on-nicotiana-benthamiana-and-its-infection-by-different-positive-sense-rna-viruses-are-cumulative-and-virus-type-specific
#17
Francisco J Del Toro, Farshad Rakhshandehroo, Beatriz Larruy, Emmanuel Aguilar, Francisco Tenllado, Tomás Canto
We have studied how simultaneously elevated temperature and CO2 levels [climate change-related conditions (CCC) of 30°C, 970 parts-per-million (ppm) of CO2 vs. standard conditions (SC) of 25°C, ~ 405ppm CO2] affect physiochemical properties of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, and also its infection by several positive-sense RNA viruses. In previous works we had studied effects of elevated temperature, CO2 levels separately. Under CCC, leaves of healthy plants almost doubled their area relative to SC but contained less protein/unit-of-area, similarly to what we had found under conditions of elevated CO2 alone...
August 31, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865344/heartland-virus-infection-in-hamsters-deficient-in-type-i-interferon-signaling-protracted-disease-course-ameliorated-by-favipiravir
#18
Jonna B Westover, Johanna D Rigas, Arnaud J Van Wettere, Rong Li, Brady T Hickerson, Kie-Hoon Jung, Jinxin Miao, Erin S Reynolds, Bettina L Conrad, Skot Nielson, Yousuke Furuta, Saravanan Thangamani, Zhongde Wang, Brian B Gowen
Heartland virus (HRTV) is an emerging tick-borne virus (Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus) that has caused sporadic cases of human disease in several central and mid-eastern states of America. Animal models of HRTV disease are needed to gain insights into viral pathogenesis and advancing antiviral drug development. Presence of clinical disease following HRTV challenge in hamsters deficient in STAT2 function underscores the important role played by type I interferon-induced antiviral responses. However, the recovery of most of the infected animals suggests that other mechanisms to control infection and limit disease offer substantial protection...
August 30, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863277/insights-into-genetic-diversity-and-biological-propensities-of-potentially-zoonotic-avian-influenza-h9n2-viruses-circulating-in-egypt
#19
Mahmoud M Naguib, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Rokshana Parvin, Martin Beer, Thomas Vahlenkamp, Timm C Harder
Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses have established endemic status in Egyptian poultry populations since 2012. Recently, four cases of human H9N2 virus infections in Egypt demonstrated the zoonotic potential of these viruses. Egyptian H9N2 viruses obtained from 2011 to 2014 phylogenetically grouped into three clusters (1-3) within subclade B of the G1 lineage. Antigenically, a close clustering of the Egyptian H9N2 viruses with other recent G1-B like H9N2 strains and a significant antigenic distance from viruses outside the G1-B lineage was evident...
August 29, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860048/editorial-introduction-to-ranaviruses-and-other-members-of-the-family-iridoviridae-their-place-in-the-virosphere-a-special-emphasis-section-of-virology
#20
EDITORIAL
Richard C Condit, V Gregory Chinchar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 28, 2017: Virology
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