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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346075/human-papillomavirus-e6-interaction-with-cellular-pdz-domain-proteins-modulates-yap-nuclear-localization
#1
Sydney Webb Strickland, Nicole Brimer, Charles Lyons, Scott B Vande Pol
HPV E6 oncoproteins associate with cellular PDZ proteins. In addition to previously identified cellular PDZ proteins, we found association of the HPV16 E6 PBM with the Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complex, LRCC1, and SLC9A3R2. HPV18 E6 had additional associations when lysates from adenomatous cell lines were used including LRPPRC, RLGAPB, EIF3A, SMC2 and 3, AMOT, AMOTL1, and ARHGEF1; some of these cellular PDZ proteins are implicated in the regulation of the YAP1 transcriptional co-activator. In keratinocytes, nuclear translocation of YAP1 was promoted by the complete HPV-16 genome, or by expression of the individual E6 or E7 oncoproteins; the activity of E6 required an intact PBM at the carboxy-terminus...
January 12, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346074/a-partial-deletion-within-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-non-structural-protein-3a-causes-clinical-attenuation-in-cattle-but-does-not-prevent-subclinical-infection
#2
Carolina Stenfeldt, Jonathan Arzt, Juan M Pacheco, Douglas P Gladue, George R Smoliga, Ediane B Silva, Luis L Rodriguez, Manuel V Borca
Deletions within the 3A coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) are associated with decreased virulence in cattle; however, the mechanisms are unknown. We compared experimental infection of cattle with virulent FMDV O1Campos (O1Ca) and a mutant derivative (O1Ca∆3A) lacking residues 87-106 of 3A. Unexpectedly, primary infection of the nasopharyngeal mucosa was similar for both viruses. However, while O1Ca caused viremia and fulminant clinical disease, O1Ca∆3A infection was subclinical and aviremic...
January 12, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346073/extensive-conservation-of-prokaryotic-ribosomal-binding-sites-in-known-and-novel-picobirnaviruses
#3
Siddharth R Krishnamurthy, David Wang
Currently, the Leviviridae and Cystoviridae are the only two recognized families of prokaryotic RNA viruses. Picobirnaviruses, which are bisegmented double-stranded RNA viruses commonly found in animal stool samples, are currently thought to be animal viruses, but have not been propagated in cell culture or in an animal model. We hypothesize that picobirnaviruses are prokaryotic RNA viruses. We identified and analyzed the genomes of 38 novel picobirnaviruses and determined that a classical bacterial sequence motif, the ribosomal binding site (RBS), is present in the 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs) of all of the novel as well as all previously published picobirnavirus sequences...
January 12, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331867/classification-and-evolution-of-human-papillomavirus-genome-variants-alpha-5-hpv26-51-69-82-alpha-6-hpv30-53-56-66-alpha-11-hpv34-73-alpha-13-hpv54-and-alpha-3-hpv61
#4
Zigui Chen, Mark Schiffman, Rolando Herrero, Rob DeSalle, Kathryn Anastos, Michel Segondy, Vikrant V Sahasrabuddhe, Patti E Gravitt, Ann W Hsing, Paul K S Chan, Robert D Burk
HPV variants from the same type can be classified into lineages and sublineages based on the complete genome differences and the phylogenetic topologies. We examined nucleotide variations of twelve HPV types within the species Alpha-5 (HPV26, 51, 69, 82), Alpha-6 (HPV30, 53, 56, 66), Alpha-11 (HPV34, 73), Alpha-13 (HPV54) and Alpha-3 (HPV61) by analyzing 1432 partial sequences and 181 complete genomes from multiple geographic populations. The inter-lineage and inter-sublineage mean differences of HPV variants ranged between 0...
January 11, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331866/development-of-a-novel-equine-influenza-virus-live-attenuated-vaccine
#5
Laura Rodriguez, Stephanie Reedy, Aitor Nogales, Pablo R Murcia, Thomas M Chambers, Luis Martinez-Sobrido
H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) is an important and significant respiratory pathogen of horses. EIV is enzootic in Europe and North America, mainly due to the suboptimal efficacy of current vaccines. We describe, for the first time, the generation of a temperature sensitive (ts) H3N8 EIV live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) using reverse-genetics approaches. Our EIV LAIV was attenuated (att) in vivo and able to induce, upon a single intranasal administration, protection against H3N8 EIV wild-type (WT) challenge in both a mouse model and the natural host, the horse...
January 11, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331865/structure-based-assessment-of-protein-protein-interactions-and-accessibility-of-protein-ix-in-adenoviruses-with-implications-for-antigen-display
#6
Nathaniel L Matteson, Michael A Barry, Vijay S Reddy
The exterior minor protein IX of adenoviruses (AdVs) is a frequent target of attachment of antigens and the modified AdVs are being used as potent vaccine platforms. The organization of protein IX is disticntly different between human adenoviruses (HAdVs) and non-HAdVs. The analysis of solvent accessibility, based on the near atomic resolution structures, suggests that the C-terminal residues of IX are more accessible in non-HAdVs (e.g., bovine adenovirus) than in HAdVs. Although the C-terminal fusions of IX are displayed on the capsid surface, they could disrupt the formation of tetrameric coiled-coils (4-HLXB) in HAdVs due to steric hinderance, thereby potentially affecting the capsid stability...
January 11, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331676/identification-of-novel-amino-acid-residues-of-influenza-virus-pa-x-that-are-important-for-pa-x-shutoff-activity-by-using-yeast
#7
Kohei Oishi, Seiya Yamayoshi, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
The influenza A virus protein PA-X comprises an N-terminal PA region and a C-terminal PA-X-specific region. PA-X suppresses host gene expression, termed shutoff, via mRNA cleavage. Although the endonuclease active site in the N-terminal PA region of PA-X and basic amino acids in the C-terminal PA-X-specific region are known to be important for PA-X shutoff activity, other amino acids may also play a role. Here, we used yeast to identify novel amino acids of PA-X that are important for PA-X shutoff activity...
January 10, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329683/respiratory-disease-in-ball-pythons-python-regius-experimentally-infected-with-ball-python-nidovirus
#8
Laura L Hoon-Hanks, Marylee L Layton, Robert J Ossiboff, John S L Parker, Edward J Dubovi, Mark D Stenglein
Circumstantial evidence has linked a new group of nidoviruses with respiratory disease in pythons, lizards, and cattle. We conducted experimental infections in ball pythons (Python regius) to test the hypothesis that ball python nidovirus (BPNV) infection results in respiratory disease. Three ball pythons were inoculated orally and intratracheally with cell culture isolated BPNV and two were sham inoculated. Antemortem choanal, oroesophageal, and cloacal swabs and postmortem tissues of infected snakes were positive for viral RNA, protein, and infectious virus by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot and virus isolation...
January 9, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329682/feline-coronavirus-insights-into-viral-pathogenesis-based-on-the-spike-protein-structure-and-function
#9
Javier A Jaimes, Gary R Whittaker
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an etiological agent that causes a benign enteric illness and the fatal systemic disease feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). The FCoV spike (S) protein is considered the viral regulator for binding and entry to the cell. This protein is also involved in FCoV tropism and virulence, as well as in the switch from enteric disease to FIP. This regulation is carried out by spike's major functions: receptor binding and virus-cell membrane fusion. In this review, we address important aspects in FCoV genetics, replication and pathogenesis, focusing on the role of S...
January 9, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329079/the-interactome-of-ebv-lmp1-evaluated-by-proximity-based-bioid-approach
#10
Mark A Rider, Mujeeb R Cheerathodi, Stephanie N Hurwitz, Dingani Nkosi, Lauren A Howell, Deanna C Tremblay, Xia Liu, Fanxiu Zhu, David G Meckes
Epstein-Barr virus LMP1 is an oncoprotein required for immortalizing B lymphocytes and also plays important roles in transforming non-lymphoid tissue. The discovery of LMP1 protein interactions will likely generate targets to treat EBV-associated cancers. Here, we define the broader LMP1 interactome using the recently developed BioID method. Combined with mass spectrometry, we identified over 1000 proteins across seven independent experiments with direct or indirect relationships to LMP1. Pathway analysis suggests that a significant number of the proteins identified are involved in signal transduction and protein or vesicle trafficking...
January 9, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329078/schmallenberg-virus-non-structural-protein-nsm-intracellular-distribution-and-role-of-non-hydrophobic-domains
#11
Franziska Kraatz, Kerstin Wernike, Sven Reiche, Andrea Aebischer, Ilona Reimann, Martin Beer
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) induces fetal malformation, abortions and stillbirth in ruminants. While the non-structural protein NSs is a major virulence factor, the biological function of NSm, the second non-structural protein which consists of three hydrophobic transmembrane (I, III, V) and two non-hydrophobic regions (II, IV), is still unknown. Here, a series of NSm mutants displaying deletions of nearly the entire NSm or of the non-hydrophobic domains was generated and the intracellular distribution of NSm was assessed...
January 9, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325778/nonstructural-proteins-nsp2tf-and-nsp2n-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-play-important-roles-in-suppressing-host-innate-immune-responses
#12
Y Li, P Shang, D Shyu, C Carrillo, P Naraghi-Arani, Crystal J Jaing, G J Renukaradhya, A E Firth, E J Snijder, Y Fang
Recently, we identified a unique -2/-1 ribosomal frameshift mechanism in PRRSV, which yields two truncated forms of nonstructural protein (nsp) 2 variants, nsp2TF and nsp2N. Here, in vitro expression of individual PRRSV nsp2TF and nsp2N demonstrated their ability to suppress cellular innate immune responses in transfected cells. Two recombinant viruses were further analyzed, in which either nsp2TF was C-terminally truncated (vKO1) or expression of both nsp2TF and nsp2N was knocked out (vKO2). Host cellular mRNA profiling showed that a panel of cellular immune genes, in particular those involved in innate immunity, was upregulated in cells infected with vKO1 and vKO2...
January 8, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324360/evaluation-of-the-zoonotic-potential-of-multiple-subgroups-of-clade-2-3-4-4-influenza-a-h5n8-virus
#13
Yu-Na Lee, Eun-Kyoung Lee, Byung-Min Song, Gyeong-Beom Heo, Sang-Hee Woo, Sun-Ha Cheon, Youn-Jeong Lee
Clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have spread worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis identified two genetic groups of the H5N8 HPAIVs in South Korea; group A evolved further into four subgroups. Here, we examined the zoonotic potential, both in vivo and in vitro, of genetically distinct subgroups of H5N8 HPAIVs isolated in South Korea. When compared with other subgroups, A/mallard/Korea/H2102/2015 (H2102) virus caused relatively severe disease in mice at high doses. In ferrets, all H5N8 viruses replicated restrictively in the respiratory tract and did not induce significant clinical signs of influenza infection...
January 8, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324359/progress-toward-an-enhanced-vaccine-eight-marked-attenuated-viruses-to-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-disease-virus
#14
Allyn Spear, Feng-Xue Wang, Matthew A Kappes, Phani B Das, Kay S Faaberg
Recombinant viruses of strain Ingelvac® PRRS porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified live virus vaccine were produced with two individual small in-frame deletions in nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2; Δ23 and Δ87) and also the same deletions supplanted with foreign tags (Δ23-V5, Δ23-FLAG, Δ23-S, Δ87-V5, Δ87-FLAG, Δ87-S). The viruses, but one (Δ87-FLAG), were stable for 10 passages and showed minimal effects on in vitro growth. Northern hybridization showed that the Δ23-tagged probe detected intracellular viral genome RNA as well as shorter RNAs that may represent heteroclite species, while the Δ87-tagged probe detected predominantly only genome length RNAs...
January 8, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324358/regulatory-cd4-t-cells-inhibit-hiv-1-expression-of-other-cd4-t-cell-subsets-via-interactions-with-cell-surface-regulatory-proteins
#15
Mingce Zhang, Tanya O Robinson, Alexandra Duverger, Olaf Kutsch, Sonya L Heath, Randy Q Cron
During chronic HIV-1 infection, regulatory CD4 T cells (Tregs) frequently represent the largest subpopulation of CD4 T cell subsets, implying relative resistant to HIV-1. When HIV-1 infection of CD4 T cells was explored in vitro and ex vivo from patient samples, Tregs possessed lower levels of HIV-1 DNA and RNA in comparison with conventional effector and memory CD4 T cells. Moreover, Tregs suppressed HIV-1 expression in other CD4 T cells in an in vitro co-culture system. This suppression was mediated in part via multiple inhibitory surface proteins expressed on Tregs...
January 8, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324290/ross-river-virus-envelope-glycans-contribute-to-disease-through-activation-of-the-host-complement-system
#16
Bronwyn M Gunn, Jennifer E Jones, Reed S Shabman, Alan C Whitmore, Sanjay Sarkar, Lance K Blevins, Thomas E Morrison, Mark T Heise
Mannose binding lectin (MBL) generally plays a protective role during viral infection, yet MBL-mediated complement activation promotes Ross River virus (RRV)-induced inflammatory tissue destruction, contributing to arthritis and myositis. As MBL binds to carbohydrates, we hypothesized that N-linked glycans on the RRV envelope glycoproteins act as ligands for MBL. Using a panel of RRV mutants lacking the envelope N-linked glycans, we found that MBL deposition onto infected cells was dependent on the E2 glycans...
January 8, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324289/phylogenetic-analysis-reveals-three-distinct-epidemiological-profiles-in-dutch-and-flemish-blood-donors-with-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#17
Thijs J van de Laar, Véronique A Van Gaever, Peter van Swieten, An Muylaert, Veerle Compernolle, Hans L Zaaijer
During 2006-2016, hepatitis B virus (HBV) was detected in nearly 400 blood donors in the Netherlands and Flanders. Donor demographics and self-reported risk factors as disclosed during the donor exit interview were compared to HBV phylogenies of donor and reference sequences. First-time donors with chronic HBV-infection were often immigrants (67%) infected with genetically highly diverse strains of genotypes A (32%), B (8%), C (6%), D (53%) and E to H (1%). Each subtype was strongly associated with donor ethnicity...
January 8, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316505/molecular-dissection-of-distinct-symptoms-induced-by-tomato-chlorosis-virus-and-tomato-yellow-leaf-curl-virus-based-on-comparative-transcriptome-analysis
#18
Jang-Kyun Seo, Mi-Kyeong Kim, Hae-Ryun Kwak, Hong-Soo Choi, Moon Nam, Junkyoung Choe, Boram Choi, Soo-Jung Han, Jin-Ho Kang, Choonkyun Jung
The viral infection of plants may cause various physiological symptoms associated with the reprogramming of plant gene expression. However, the molecular mechanisms and associated genes underlying disease symptom development in plants infected with viruses are largely unknown. In this study, we employed RNA sequencing for in-depth molecular characterization of the transcriptional changes associated with the development of distinct symptoms induced by tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) and tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in tomato...
January 6, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310105/zika-viral-infection-and-neutralizing-human-antibody-response-in-a-blt-humanized-mouse-model
#19
Kimberly Schmitt, Paige Charlins, Milena Veselinovic, Lauren Kinner-Bibeau, Shuang Hu, James Curlin, Leila Remling-Mulder, Ken E Olson, Tawfik Aboellail, Ramesh Akkina
Many murine and non-human primate animal models have been recently developed to understand Zika viral pathogenesis. However, a major limitation with these models is the inability to directly examine the human-specific immune response. Here, we utilized a BLT humanized mouse model endowed with a transplanted human immune system. Plasma viremia could be detected within 48h after viral challenge and viremia persisted for as long as 220 days in some mice. Neutralizing human antibody was detected in infected mice and mouse sera showed reactivity with the viral envelope and capsid proteins in a radio-immunoprecipitation assay...
January 5, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307597/intercellular-transfer-of-mitochondria-rescues-virus-induced-cell-death-but-facilitates-cell-to-cell-spreading-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#20
Rui Guo, Duane Davis, Ying Fang
Our recent study showed that intercellular tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) serve as an alternative pathway for cell-to-cell spreading of infectious materials of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In this study, we found that PRRSV infection could induce the formation of TNTs between infected and uninfected cells. Co-culturing PRRSV-infected cells with uninfected cells, including porcine umbilical cord stem cells, rescued PRRSV-induced cell death. Mitochondrion, an important regulator of cell survival/death, was observed transferring from uninfected to PRRSV-infected cells...
January 4, 2018: Virology
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