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Liran Fu, Hongjie Hu, Yang Liu, Zhiyi Jing, Wenhui Li
Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) is the functional receptor for human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and its satellite hepatitis D virus (HDV). Species barriers to HBV/HDV infection are mainly determined at entry level by variations in the sequences of particular NTCP orthologs. In this study, we sought to determine whether the NTCP ortholog in woodchuck (Marmota monax), woodchuck NTCP (wNTCP) supports viral infection. We found that wNTCP is capable of supporting HBV/HDV infection in HepG2 cells, but to much lower extent than human NTCP (hNTCP), which is about 90% reduction of hNTCP...
February 14, 2017: Virology
Marcio R T Nunes, María Angélica Contreras-Gutierrez, Hilda Guzman, Livia C Martins, Mayla Feitoza Barbirato, Chelsea Savit, Victoria Balta, Sandra Uribe, Rafael Vivero, Juan David Suaza, Hamilton Oliveira, Joaquin P Nunes Neto, Valeria L Carvalho, Sandro Patroca da Silva, Jedson F Cardoso, Rodrigo Santo de Oliveira, Poliana da Silva Lemos, Thomas G Wood, Steven G Widen, Pedro F C Vasconcelos, Durland Fish, Nikos Vasilakis, Robert B Tesh
The recently described taxon Negevirus is comprised of a diverse group of insect-specific viruses isolated from mosquitoes and phlebotomine sandflies. In this study, a comprehensive genetic characterization, molecular, epidemiological and evolutionary analyses were conducted on nearly full-length sequences of 91 new negevirus isolates obtained in Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Panama, USA and Nepal. We demonstrated that these arthropod restricted viruses are clustered in two major phylogenetic groups with origins related to three plant virus genera (Cilevirus, Higrevirus and Blunevirus)...
February 10, 2017: Virology
M A Rodgers, A S Vallari, B Harris, J Yamaguchi, V Holzmayer, K Forberg, M G Berg, J Kenmenge, C Ngansop, B Awazi, D Mbanya, L Kaptue, C Brennan, G Cloherty, N Ndembi
Surveillance of emerging viral variants is critical to ensuring that blood screening and diagnostic tests detect all infections regardless of strain or geographic location. In this study, we conducted serological and molecular surveillance to monitor the prevalence and diversity of HIV, HBV, and HTLV in South Cameroon. The prevalence of HIV was 8.53%, HBV was 10.45%, and HTLV was 1.04% amongst study participants. Molecular characterization of 555 HIV-1 specimens identified incredible diversity, including 7 subtypes, 12 CRFs, 6 unclassified, 24 Group O and 2 Group N infections...
February 10, 2017: Virology
Julia Hornig, K Yeon Choi, Alistair McGregor
Guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) immediate early proteins, IE1 and IE2, demonstrated structural and functional homologies with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). GPCMV IE1 and IE2 co-localized in the nucleus with each other, the viral polymerase and guinea pig ND10 components (gpPML, gpDaxx, gpSp100, gpATRX). IE1 showed direct interaction with ND10 components by immunoprecipitation unlike IE2. Additionally, IE1 protein disrupted ND10 bodies. IE1 mutagenesis mapped the nuclear localization signal to the C-terminus and identified the core domain for gpPML interaction...
February 9, 2017: Virology
Darius Kazlauskas, Anisha Dayaram, Simona Kraberger, Sharyn Goldstien, Arvind Varsani, Mart Krupovic
Bacilladnaviruses have single-stranded (ss) DNA genomes and infect diatoms, a major group of unicellular algae widespread in aquatic habitats. Despite their ecological importance, the provenance and relationships of bacilladnaviruses to other eukaryotic viruses remain unclear. Accordingly, they are currently classified into the 'floating' genus Bacilladnavirus. Here we present three new bacilladnavirus genomes recovered from a mollusc Amphibola crenata and benthic sediments from the Avon-Heathcote estuary in New Zealand...
February 9, 2017: Virology
Claire Barber, Chris Netherton, Lynnette Goatley, Alice Moon, Steve Goodbourn, Linda Dixon
The African swine fever virus DP71L protein recruits protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to dephosphorylate the translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and avoid shut-off of global protein synthesis and downstream activation of the pro-apoptotic factor CHOP. Residues V16 and F18A were critical for binding of DP71L to PP1. Mutation of this PP1 binding motif or deletion of residues between 52 and 66 reduced the ability of DP71L to cause dephosphorylation of eIF2α and inhibit CHOP induction. The residues LSAVL, between 57 and 61, were also required...
February 8, 2017: Virology
Laura Rodriguez, Aitor Nogales, Emma C Reilly, David J Topham, Pablo R Murcia, Colin R Parrish, Luis Martinez Sobrido
Canine influenza is a contagious respiratory disease in dogs caused by two subtypes (H3N2 and H3N8) of canine influenza virus (CIV). Currently, only inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) are available for the prevention of CIVs. Historically, live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) have been shown to produce better immunogenicity and protection efficacy than IIVs. Here, we have engineered a CIV H3N2 LAIV by using the internal genes of a previously described CIV H3N8 LAIV as a master donor virus (MDV) and the surface HA and NA genes of a circulating CIV H3N2 strain...
February 3, 2017: Virology
S-H Sheldon Tai, Cari Hearn, Sudawapee Umthong, Olga Agafitei, Hans H Cheng, John R Dunn, Masahiro Niikura
Gallid herpesvirus 2 (Marek's disease virus, MDV) causes lymphoproliferative Marek's disease (MD), and is unique among alphaherpesviruses as the viral genome encodes an oncoprotein, Meq. To elucidate the temporal relationship between Meq expression and the development of MD lymphomas in infected chickens, we generated a virulent recombinant MDV that expresses GFP simultaneously with Meq. By using this virus, we monitored the dynamics of Meq expression in vivo throughout the course of infection. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the percentage of Meq-expressing cells dramatically increased in the early latent phase but decreased thereafter...
February 1, 2017: Virology
Lucy R Stewart, Sridhar Jarugula, Yujing Zhao, Feng Qu, DeeMarie Marty
Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV), a member of the genus Waikavirus, family Secoviridae, has a 11784 nt (+)ssRNA genome that encodes a 389kDa proteolytically processed polyprotein. We show that the N-terminal 78kDa polyprotein (R78) of MCDV acts as a suppressor of RNA silencing in a well-established assay system. We further demonstrate that R78 is cleaved by the viral 3C-like protease into 51 and 27kDa proteins (p51 and p27), and that p51 is responsible for silencing suppressor activity. Silencing suppressor activity of R78 is conserved in three divergent MCDV strains (MCDV-Severe, MCDV-M1, and MCDV-Tennessee), as well as the waikavirus Bellflower vein chlorosis virus, but was not detected for orthologous protein of Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV-A) or the similarly-positioned protein from the sequivirus Parsnip yellow fleck virus (PYFV)...
February 1, 2017: Virology
Bernice Nounamo, Yibo Li, Peter O'Byrne, Aoife M Kearney, Amir Khan, Jia Liu
In humans, deleterious mutations in the sterile α motif domain protein 9 (SAMD9) gene are associated with cancer, inflammation, weakening of the immune response, and developmental arrest. However, the biological function of SAMD9 and its sequence-structure relationships remain to be characterized. Previously, we found that an essential host range factor, M062 protein from myxoma virus (MYXV), antagonized the function of human SAMD9. In this study, we examine the interaction between M062 and human SAMD9 to identify regions that are critical to SAMD9 function...
January 31, 2017: Virology
Tanya O Robinson, Mingce Zhang, Christina Ochsenbauer, Lesley E Smythies, Randall Q Cron
Previous in vitro studies have shown that the HIV-1 virus can alter the cytokine/chemokine profile of polarized macrophages which may lead to their increased susceptibility to viral infection. Here, we found that M2 monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) were significantly more permissive to productive infection by R5-tropic HIV-1 strains, including transmitted founder (T/F) viruses, than M1 MDM. Previous in vitro studies by our lab showed that regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress HIV-1 infection in non-Treg CD4 T cells...
January 31, 2017: Virology
Yun Ha Lee, Yo Han Jang, Baik Lin Seong
The manufacture of influenza vaccines has traditionally depended upon a method using embryonated hen's eggs. However, concerns regarding the potential shortage of the influenza substrate in the event of a pandemic has led to the development of cell culture-derived vaccines, which offers shorter lead-in times and greater production flexibility. We examined optimal conditions for the production of reassortant X-31ca-based H5N1 cold-adapted live attenuated influenza vaccine (rH5N1ca) cultured in mammalian cell lines...
January 31, 2017: Virology
Philippa Hillyer, Viraj P Mane, Aaron Chen, Maria B Dos Santos, Lynnsie M Schramm, Rachel E Shepard, Cindy Luongo, Cyril Le Nouën, Lei Huang, Lihan Yan, Ursula J Buchholz, Ronald G Jubin, Peter L Collins, Ronald L Rabin
Whether respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) induces severe infantile pulmonary disease may depend on viral strain and expression of types I and III interferons (IFNs). These IFNs impact disease severity by inducing expression of many anti-viral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). To investigate the impact of RSV strain on IFN and ISG expression, we stimulated human monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) with either RSV A2 or Line 19 and measured expression of types I and III IFNs and ISGs. At 24h, A2 elicited higher ISG expression than Line 19...
January 31, 2017: Virology
Joseph Gutkoska, Michael LaRocco, Elizabeth Ramirez-Medina, Teresa de Los Santos, Paul Lawrence
Sam68 was previously shown to be a critical host factor for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication. MicroRNA (miR) miR-203a is reportedly a negative regulator of Sam68 expression both in vitro and in vivo. Here, transfection of miR-203a-3p and miR-203a-5p mimics separately and in combination in a porcine cell line followed by FMDV infection resulted in diminished viral protein synthesis and a 4 and 6log reduction in virus titers relative to negative controls, respectively. Unexpectedly, Sam68 expression was increased by miR-203a-5p transfection, but not miR-203a-3p...
January 30, 2017: Virology
Victor Emmanuel Viana Geddes, Diego Pandeló José, Fabio E Leal, Douglas F Nixon, Amilcar Tanuri, Renato Santana Aguiar
HIV-1 latency is a major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. Coinfection with HTLV-1 has been associated with faster progression to AIDS. HTLV-1 encodes the transactivator Tax which can activate both HTLV-1 and HIV-1 transcription. Here, we demonstrate that Tax activates HIV transcription in latent CD4(+) T cells. Tax promotes the activation of P-TEFb, releasing CDK9 and Cyclin T1 from inactive forms, promoting transcription elongation and reactivation of latent HIV-1. Tax mutants lacking interaction with the HIV-1-LTR promoter were not able to activate P-TEFb, with no subsequent activation of latent HIV...
January 30, 2017: Virology
Andrew B Janowski, Siddharth R Krishnamurthy, Efrem S Lim, Guoyan Zhao, Jason M Brenchley, Dan H Barouch, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, Mark J Manary, Lori R Holtz, David Wang
Next-generation sequencing has expanded our understanding of the viral populations that constitute the mammalian virome. We describe a novel taxon of viruses named Statoviruses, for Stool associated Tombus-like viruses, present in multiple metagenomic datasets. These viruses define a novel clade that is phylogenetically related to the RNA virus families Tombusviridae and Flaviviridae. Five distinct statovirus types were identified in human, macaque, mouse, and cow gastrointestinal tract samples. The prototype genome, statovirus A, was frequently identified in macaque stool samples from multiple geographically distinct cohorts...
January 30, 2017: Virology
Jinhwa Lee, Hai Yu, Yonghai Li, Jingjiao Ma, Yuekun Lang, Michael Duff, Jamie Henningson, Qinfang Liu, Yuhao Li, Abdou Nagy, Bhupinder Bawa, Zejun Li, Guangzhi Tong, Juergen A Richt, Wenjun Ma
Although several studies have investigated the functions of influenza PA-X, the impact of different expressions of PA-X protein including full-length, truncated or PA-X deficient forms on virus replication, pathogenicity and host response remains unclear. Herein, we generated two mutated viruses expressing a full-length or deficient PA-X protein based on the A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) virus that expresses a truncated PA-X to understand three different expressions of PA-X protein on virus replication, pathogenicity and host immune responses...
January 28, 2017: Virology
Ben Peeters, Sylvia Reemers, Jos Dortmans, Erik de Vries, Mart de Jong, Saskia van de Zande, Peter J M Rottier, Cornelis A M de Haan
Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A viruses display a remarkable genetic and antigenic diversity. We examined to what extent genetic distances between several H5N1 viruses from different clades correlate with antigenic differences and vaccine performance. H5-specific antisera were generated, and cross-reactivity and antigenic distances between 12 different viruses were determined. In general, antigenic distances increased proportional to genetic distances although notable exceptions were observed. Antigenic distances correlated better with genetic variation in 27 selected, antigenically-relevant H5 residues, than in the complete HA1 domain...
January 27, 2017: Virology
Claudia Filippone, Fabienne de Oliveira, Edouard Betsem, Laura Schaeffer, Arnaud Fontanet, Veronique Lemée, Antoine Gessain, Jean-Christophe Plantier
Central African tropical forests are home to several species of non-human primates (NHPs), infected by Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV). It is well-known that HIV-1 epidemic is due to cross-transmission and adaptation of SIV to humans. The main goal of this work was to investigate if a NHP bite is a risk factor for SIV acquisition. A cross-sectional study was performed in rural Cameroon on 246 bitten individuals (mostly by adult NHPs), matched, according to sex, age, and ethnicity (Bantus and Pygmies), with an equal number of not-bitten subjects...
January 27, 2017: Virology
George Hung, S J Flint
Several of the functions of the human adenovirus type 5 E1B 55kDa protein are fulfilled via the virus-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase it forms with the viral E4 Orf6 protein and several cellular proteins. Important substrates of this enzyme have not been identified, and other functions, including repression of transcription of interferon-sensitive genes, do not require the ligase. We therefore used immunoaffinity purification and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of lysates of normal human cells infected in parallel with HAdV-C5 and E1B 55kDa protein-null mutant viruses to identify specifically E1B 55kDa-associated proteins...
January 27, 2017: Virology
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