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Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646340/clinical-management-of-ebola-virus-disease-patients-in-low-resource-settings
#1
Armand Sprecher, Michel Van Herp, Pierre E Rollin
The low-resource environment deprives healthcare providers caring for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) of many of the means employed for the critically ill that are available in better resourced settings, such as advanced therapeutic interventions and abundant staff. In addition to these limitations may be added those imposed by the remote tropical locations, where EVD outbreaks occur. In this setting, a safe environment is created where healthcare workers may care for their patients over the evolving course of their acute illness into their convalescent period...
June 24, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646339/roles-of-non-coding-rnas-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-infection
#2
Ralph A Tripp, Abhijeet A Bakre
Analysis of host gene expression profiles following viral infections of target cells/tissues can reveal crucial insights into the host: virus interaction and enables the development of novel therapeutics and prophylactics. Regions of the host genome that do not code for protein, encode structural, and functional non-coding RNAs that are important not only in regulation of host gene expression but also may impact viral replication. This review summarizes the role of host non-coding RNAs during replication of multiple respiratory viruses with a focus on Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), an important pediatric pathogen...
June 24, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643205/role-of-host-genes-in-influenza-virus-replication
#3
Megan L Shaw, Silke Stertz
At every step of their replication cycle influenza viruses depend heavily on their host cells. The multifaceted interactions that occur between the virus and its host cell determine the outcome of the infection, including efficiency of progeny virus production, tropism, and pathogenicity. In order to understand viral disease and develop therapies for influenza it is therefore pertinent to study the intricate interplay between influenza viruses and their required host factors. Here, we review the current knowledge on host cell factors required by influenza virus at the different stages of the viral replication cycle...
June 23, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643204/host-factors-in-coronavirus-replication
#4
Adriaan H de Wilde, Eric J Snijder, Marjolein Kikkert, Martijn J van Hemert
Coronaviruses are pathogens with a serious impact on human and animal health. They mostly cause enteric or respiratory disease, which can be severe and life threatening, e.g., in the case of the zoonotic coronaviruses causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in humans. Despite the economic and societal impact of such coronavirus infections, and the likelihood of future outbreaks of additional pathogenic coronaviruses, our options to prevent or treat coronavirus infections remain very limited...
June 23, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643203/nonhuman-primate-models-of-ebola-virus-disease
#5
Richard S Bennett, Louis M Huzella, Peter B Jahrling, Laura Bollinger, Gene G Olinger, Lisa E Hensley
Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans is associated with four ebolaviruses: Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), and Taï Forest virus. To date, no documented cases of human disease have been associated with Reston virus. Here, we describe the nonhuman primate (NHP) models that currently serve as gold standards for testing ebolavirus vaccines and therapeutic agents and elucidating underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis. Although multiple models have been explored over the past 50 years, the predominance of published work has been performed in macaque models...
June 23, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643202/specific-igm-and-regulation-of-antibody-responses
#6
Anna Sörman, Birgitta Heyman
Specific IgM, administered together with the antigen it recognizes, enhances primary antibody responses, formation of germinal centers, and priming for secondary antibody responses. The response to all epitopes on the antigen to which IgM binds is usually enhanced. IgM preferentially enhances responses to large antigens such as erythrocytes, malaria parasites, and keyhole limpet hemocyanine. In order for an effect to be seen, antigens must be administered in suboptimal concentrations and in close temporal relationship to the IgM...
June 23, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601948/inside-the-cell-assembly-of-filoviruses
#7
Larissa Kolesnikova, Asuka Nanbo, Stephan Becker, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
This chapter reviews our current knowledge about the spatiotemporal assembly of filoviral particles. We will follow particles from nucleocapsid entry into the cytoplasm until the nucleocapsids are enveloped at the plasma membrane. We will also highlight the currently open scientific questions surrounding filovirus assembly.
June 11, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601947/mechanisms-of-filovirus-entry
#8
R A Davey, O Shtanko, M Anantpadma, Y Sakurai, K Chandran, W Maury
Filovirus entry into cells is complex, perhaps as complex as any viral entry mechanism identified to date. However, over the past 10 years, the important events required for filoviruses to enter into the endosomal compartment and fuse with vesicular membranes have been elucidated (Fig. 1). Here, we highlight the important steps that are required for productive entry of filoviruses into mammalian cells.
June 11, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601946/clinical-management-of-patients-with-ebola-virus-disease-in-high-resource-settings
#9
G Marshall Lyon, Aneesh K Mehta, Bruce S Ribner
Like most viral illnesses in humans, supportive care of the patient is the mainstay of clinical care for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). The goal is to maintain and sustain the patient until a specific immune response develops and clears the viral infection. Clearly, antiviral therapy may eventually help speed recovery, but supportive care will likely always be the centerpiece of care of the patient with EVD. While terrible in terms of human suffering and loss, the EVD outbreak of 2014-2016 provided an unheralded opportunity to advance our understanding in the care of patients (WHO 2016)...
June 11, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550454/oncogenic-roles-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-axis
#10
Masahiro Aoki, Teruaki Fujishita
The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is frequently activated in various human cancers and has been considered a promising therapeutic target. Many of the positive regulators of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR axis, including the catalytic (p110α) and regulatory (p85α), of class IA PI3K, AKT, RHEB, mTOR, and eIF4E, possess oncogenic potentials, as demonstrated by transformation assays in vitro and by genetically engineered mouse models in vivo. Genetic evidences also indicate their roles in malignancies induced by activation of the upstream oncoproteins including receptor tyrosine kinases and RAS and those induced by the loss of the negative regulators of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway such as PTEN, TSC1/2, LKB1, and PIPP...
May 28, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550453/exchange-of-genetic-sequences-between-viruses-and-hosts
#11
Robin A Weiss
Although genetic transfer between viruses and vertebrate hosts occurs less frequently than gene flow between bacteriophages and prokaryotes, it is extensive and has affected the evolution of both parties. With retroviruses, the integration of proviral DNA into chromosomal DNA can result in the activation of adjacent host gene expression and in the transduction of host transcripts into retroviral genomes as oncogenes. Yet in contrast to lysogenic phage, there is little evidence that viral oncogenes persist in a chain of natural transmission or that retroviral transduction is a significant driver of the horizontal spread of host genes...
May 28, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466200/myc-and-raf-key-effectors-in-cellular-signaling-and-major-drivers-in-human-cancer
#12
Eduard Stefan, Klaus Bister
The prototypes of the human MYC and RAF gene families are orthologs of animal proto-oncogenes that were originally identified as transduced alleles in the genomes of highly oncogenic retroviruses. MYC and RAF genes are now established as key regulatory elements in normal cellular physiology, but also as major cancer driver genes. Although the predominantly nuclear MYC proteins and the cytoplasmic RAF proteins have different biochemical functions, they are functionally linked in pivotal signaling cascades and circuits...
May 3, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401358/mrna-cancer-vaccines-messages-that-prevail
#13
Christian Grunwitz, Lena M Kranz
During the last decade, mRNA became increasingly recognized as a versatile tool for the development of new innovative therapeutics. Especially for vaccine development, mRNA is of outstanding interest and numerous clinical trials have been initiated. Strikingly, all of these studies have proven that large-scale GMP production of mRNA is feasible and concordantly report a favorable safety profile of mRNA vaccines. Induction of T-cell immunity is a multi-faceted process comprising antigen acquisition, antigen processing and presentation, as well as immune stimulation...
March 31, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349285/mitochondria-associated-membranes-and-er-stress
#14
Alexander R van Vliet, Patrizia Agostinis
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a crucial organelle for coordinating cellular Ca(2+) signaling and protein synthesis and folding. Moreover, the dynamic and complex membranous structures constituting the ER allow the formation of contact sites with other organelles and structures, including among others the mitochondria and the plasma membrane (PM). The contact sites that the ER form with mitochondria is a hot topic in research, and the nature of the so-called mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) is continuously evolving...
March 28, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349284/the-evolution-of-tumor-formation-in-humans-and-mice-with-inherited-mutations-in-the-p53-gene
#15
Arnold J Levine
While tumors are very heterogeneous in their origins, mutations in the p53 gene and inactivation of p53 gene functions are the most common feature that predispose to the formation of cancers in humans. Inherited p53 mutations lead to different tumor types at very different frequencies and at very different ages than somatic p53 mutations. The reasons for this are explored. When the first mutation arises in a stem cell (a gatekeeper mutation) it selects for a specific subset of second mutations which in turn select for mutations in a third subset of genes...
March 28, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349283/infectious-agents-in-bovine-red-meat-and-milk-and-their-potential-role-in-cancer-and-other-chronic-diseases
#16
Harald Zur Hausen, Timo Bund, Ethel-Michele de Villiers
Red meat and dairy products have frequently been suggested to represent risk factors for certain cancers, chronic neurodegenerative diseases, and autoimmune and cardiovascular disorders. This review summarizes the evidence and investigates the possible involvement of infectious factors in these diseases. The isolation of small circular single-stranded DNA molecules from serum and dairy products of Eurasian Aurochs (Bos taurus)-derived cattle, obviously persisting as episomes in infected cells, provides the basis for further investigations...
March 28, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303476/a-review-of-clinical-cases-of-infection-with-photorhabdus-asymbiotica
#17
John G Gerrard, Robert P Stevens
The three recognised Photorhabdus species are bioluminescent Gram-negative bacilli of the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are all pathogenic to insects and form a symbiotic relationship with nematodes of the genus Heterorhabditis. P. luminescens and P. temperata are both harmless to humans whilst P. asymbiotica, on the other hand, is a human pathogen that is a symbiont of the newly described nematode vector, Heterorhabditis gerrardi. In this chapter, we review the epidemiological and clinical features of eighteen human cases of P...
March 17, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233068/insecticidal-toxin-complexes-from-photorhabdus-luminescens
#18
Joel Sheets, Klaus Aktories
Various bacterial toxins have potent insecticidal activity. Recently, the Toxin complexes (Tc's) of Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus species have become an increased focus of current research. These large tripartite toxins with molecular masses >1.4 megadaltons consist of three components termed A, B, and C (or TcA, TcB, and TcC). While TcA is involved in receptor binding and toxin translocation, TcC possesses the specific toxin enzyme activity and TcB is a linker between components TcA and TcC. Here, a structure function analysis of the toxins is described and the application of Tc toxins as potential insecticides is discussed...
February 24, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204975/surface-and-exoproteomes-of-gram-positive-pathogens-for-vaccine-discovery
#19
Massimiliano Biagini, Fabio Bagnoli, Nathalie Norais
Reverse vaccinology has been very successful in the discovery of vaccine candidates against many pathogenic bacteria by integrating genome and proteome mining. This great achievement was facilitated by the complementarity of the in silico prediction of antigens and the empirical data on protein localization, expression, and immunogenicity obtained through different techniques based on electrophoresis, immunoblotting and mass spectrometry. An iterative process between information provided by DNA sequence analysis and proteomic data has been established leading to precise antigen identification...
February 16, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197738/vaccines-for-staphylococcus-aureus-and-target-populations
#20
Clarissa Pozzi, Reuben Olaniyi, Lassi Liljeroos, Ilaria Galgani, Rino Rappuoli, Fabio Bagnoli
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading pathogen in surgical site, intensive care unit, and skin infections, as well as healthcare-associated pneumonias. These infections are associated with an enormous burden of morbidity, mortality, and increase of hospital length of stay and patient cost. S. aureus is impressively fast in acquiring antibiotic resistance, and multidrug-resistant strains are a serious threat to human health. Due to resistance or insufficient effectiveness, antibiotics and bundle measures leave a tremendous unmet medical need worldwide...
February 15, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
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