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Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303476/a-review-of-clinical-cases-of-infection-with-photorhabdus-asymbiotica
#1
John G Gerrard, Robert P Stevens
The three recognised Photorhabdus species are bioluminescent Gram-negative bacilli of the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are all pathogenic to insects and form a symbiotic relationship with nematodes of the genus Heterorhabditis. P. luminescens and P. temperata are both harmless to humans whilst P. asymbiotica, on the other hand, is a human pathogen that is a symbiont of the newly described nematode vector, Heterorhabditis gerrardi. In this chapter, we review the epidemiological and clinical features of eighteen human cases of P...
March 17, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233068/insecticidal-toxin-complexes-from-photorhabdus-luminescens
#2
Joel Sheets, Klaus Aktories
Various bacterial toxins have potent insecticidal activity. Recently, the Toxin complexes (Tc's) of Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus species have become an increased focus of current research. These large tripartite toxins with molecular masses >1.4 megadaltons consist of three components termed A, B, and C (or TcA, TcB, and TcC). While TcA is involved in receptor binding and toxin translocation, TcC possesses the specific toxin enzyme activity and TcB is a linker between components TcA and TcC. Here, a structure function analysis of the toxins is described and the application of Tc toxins as potential insecticides is discussed...
February 24, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204975/surface-and-exoproteomes-of-gram-positive-pathogens-for-vaccine-discovery
#3
Massimiliano Biagini, Fabio Bagnoli, Nathalie Norais
Reverse vaccinology has been very successful in the discovery of vaccine candidates against many pathogenic bacteria by integrating genome and proteome mining. This great achievement was facilitated by the complementarity of the in silico prediction of antigens and the empirical data on protein localization, expression, and immunogenicity obtained through different techniques based on electrophoresis, immunoblotting and mass spectrometry. An iterative process between information provided by DNA sequence analysis and proteomic data has been established leading to precise antigen identification...
February 16, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204974/lipid-peroxidation-dependent-cell-death-regulated-by-gpx4-and-ferroptosis
#4
Hirotaka Imai, Masaki Matsuoka, Takeshi Kumagai, Taro Sakamoto, Tomoko Koumura
Glutathione peroxidase 4 (Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, PHGPx) can directly reduce phospholipid hydroperoxide. Depletion of GPx4 induces lipid peroxidation-dependent cell death in embryo, testis, brain, liver, heart, and photoreceptor cells of mice. Administration of vitamin E in tissue specific GPx4 KO mice restored tissue damage in testis, liver, and heart. These results indicate that suppression of phospholipid peroxidation is essential for cell survival in normal tissues in mice. Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent non-apoptotic cell death that can elicited by pharmacological inhibiting the cystine/glutamate antiporter, system Xc(-) (type I) or directly binding and loss of activity of GPx4 (Type II) in cancer cells with high level RAS-RAF-MEK pathway activity or p53 expression, but not in normal cells...
February 16, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204973/iaps-and-cell-death
#5
John Silke, James Vince
IAPs were named as inhibitors of apoptosis, programmed cell death, but it has become apparent that they are regulators of other types of cell death too. Because they inhibit cell death in cancer cells there has been an intense interest in developing inhibitors of these proteins to induce or sensitise cancer cells to death. In this article, we will discuss the involvement of IAPs in the apoptosis, necroptosis and pyroptosis programmed cell death paradigms. All these types of cell death are intimately involved with causing or repressing inflammation and it should perhaps therefore come as no surprise that IAPs are also involved in regulating inflammation directly...
February 16, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197738/vaccines-for-staphylococcus-aureus-and-target-populations
#6
Clarissa Pozzi, Reuben Olaniyi, Lassi Liljeroos, Ilaria Galgani, Rino Rappuoli, Fabio Bagnoli
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading pathogen in surgical site, intensive care unit, and skin infections, as well as healthcare-associated pneumonias. These infections are associated with an enormous burden of morbidity, mortality, and increase of hospital length of stay and patient cost. S. aureus is impressively fast in acquiring antibiotic resistance, and multidrug-resistant strains are a serious threat to human health. Due to resistance or insufficient effectiveness, antibiotics and bundle measures leave a tremendous unmet medical need worldwide...
February 15, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154939/a-practical-guide-to-recombineering-in-photorhabdus-and-xenorhabdus
#7
Jia Yin, Hailong Wang, Ruijuan Li, Vinothkannan Ravichandran, Xiaoying Bian, Aiying Li, Qiang Tu, A Francis Stewart, Jun Fu, Youming Zhang
Fluent genetic manipulation of prokaryote genomes is still limited to only a few commonly used hosts. Ideally the advanced technologies available for cloning into recombinant Escherichia coli should also be applicable in other prokaryotes. In particular, 'recombineering' is mediated by the lambda Red operon that permits fluent and precise engineering of the E. coli genome and associated recombinant DNA. The major limitation is that host-specific phage-derived recombination systems are also required in more distant species...
February 3, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091935/natural-products-from-photorhabdus-and-other-entomopathogenic-bacteria
#8
Kenan A J Bozhüyük, Qiuqin Zhou, Yvonne Engel, Antje Heinrich, Alexander Pérez, Helge B Bode
Although the first natural products (NP) from Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus bacteria have been known now for almost 30 years, a huge variety of new compounds have been identified in the last 5-10 years, mainly due to the application of modern mass spectrometry. Additionally, application of molecular methods that allow the activation of NP production in several different strains as well as efficient heterologous expression methods have led to the production and validation of many new compounds. In this chapter we discuss the benefit of using Photorhabdus as a model system for microbial chemical ecology...
January 4, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091933/flagellar-regulation-and-virulence-in-the-entomopathogenic-bacteria-xenorhabdus-nematophila-and-photorhabdus-luminescens
#9
Alain Givaudan, Anne Lanois
There is a complex interplay between the regulation of flagellar motility and the expression of virulence factors in many bacterial pathogens. Here, we review the literature on the direct and indirect roles of flagellar motility in mediating the tripartite interaction between entomopathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus), their nematode hosts, and their insect targets. First, we describe the swimming and swarming motility of insect pathogenic bacteria and its impact on insect colonization. Then, we describe the coupling between the expression of flagellar and virulence genes and the dynamic of expression of the flagellar regulon during invertebrate infection...
December 28, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091931/identifying-anti-host-effectors-in-photorhabdus
#10
Andrea J Dowling
The death of the insect host is an essential part of the life cycle of Photorhabdus, and as a result, this bacterium comes equipped with a dazzlingly large array of toxins and virulence factors that ensure rapid insect death. Elucidation of the key players in insect infection and mortality has therefore proved difficult using traditional microbiological techniques such as individual gene knockouts due to the high level of functional redundancy displayed by Photorhabdus virulence factors. Thus, knockout of any individual toxin gene may serve to delay time to death but not to render the bacteria avirulent due to the continued presence of an array of other toxins and virulence factors in the single-gene mutant...
December 28, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197739/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-igg4-related-disease
#11
Terumi Kamisawa, Kazuichi Okazaki
It is critical to differentiate IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) from malignant tumor and similar disease of the affected organ to apply appropriate therapy and avoid unnecessary surgery. IgG4-RD is diagnosed on combination of typical radiological findings; elevation of serum IgG4 levels; histopathological findings of abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and lymphocytes, storiform fibrosis , and obliterative phlebitis ; association with other IgG4-related diseases; and response to steroids. Histopathological approach is particularly recommended...
2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124160/helicobacter-pylori-and-extragastric-diseases
#12
Andreas Kyburz, Anne Müller
The Gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori is predominantly known for its tight association with peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer development. However, recent epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that chronic infection with H. pylori may at the same time be beneficial to the host by conferring protection against gastroesophageal diseases, asthma, other allergic disease manifestations and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In this chapter, we summarize the epidemiological data that are available to date to support or refute a possible inverse correlation of H...
2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124159/helicobacter-pylori-mediated-genetic-instability-and-gastric-carcinogenesis
#13
Takahiro Shimizu, Tsutomu Chiba, Hiroyuki Marusawa
Helicobacter pylori infection is the most important cause of human gastric cancer worldwide. Gastric cancer develops over a long time after H. pylori infection via stepwise accumulation of genetic alterations and positive selection of cells with growth advantages. H. pylori itself and the resultant chronic inflammation lead to the emergence of genetic alterations in gastric epithelial cells via increased susceptibility of these cells to DNA damage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in inflammatory and gastric epithelial cells, as well as the expression of cytidine deaminase in gastric epithelial cells, may link H...
2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124158/pathogenesis-of-gastric-cancer-genetics-and-molecular-classification
#14
Ceu Figueiredo, M Constanza Camargo, Marina Leite, Ezequiel M Fuentes-Pananá, Charles S Rabkin, José C Machado
Gastric cancer is the fifth most incident and the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. Infection with Helicobacter pylori is the major risk factor for this disease. Gastric cancer is the final outcome of a cascade of events that takes decades to occur and results from the accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. These changes are crucial for tumor cells to expedite and sustain the array of pathways involved in the cancer development, such as cell cycle, DNA repair, metabolism, cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and immune surveillance...
2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124157/impact-of-the-microbiota-and-gastric-disease-development-by-helicobacter-pylori
#15
Teresa Alarcón, Laura Llorca, Guillermo Perez-Perez
Microorganisms in humans form complex communities with important functions and differences in each part of the body. The stomach was considered to be a sterile organ until the discovery of Helicobacter pylori, but nowadays, it is possible to demonstrate that other microorganisms beyond H. pylori can colonize the gastric mucosa and that the diverse microbiota ecosystem of the stomach is different from the mouth and the esophagus, and also from the small intestine and large intestine. H. pylori seems to be the most important member of the gastric microbiota with the highest relative abundance when present, but when it is absent, the stomach has a diverse microbiota...
2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124156/helicobacter-pylori-induced-changes-in-gastric-acid-secretion-and-upper-gastrointestinal-disease
#16
Adam J Smolka, Mitchell L Schubert
Appropriate management of Helicobacter pylori infection of the human stomach is evolving and remains a significant clinical challenge. Acute infection results in hypochlorhydria, whereas chronic infection results in either hypo- or hyperchlorhydria, depending upon the anatomic site of infection. Acute hypochlorhydria facilitates survival of the bacterium and its infection of the stomach. Interestingly, most patients chronically infected with H. pylori manifest a pangastritis with reduced acid secretion due to bacterial virulence factors, inflammatory cytokines, and various degrees of gastric atrophy...
2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124155/exploiting-the-gastric-epithelial-barrier-helicobacter-pylori-s-attack-on-tight-and-adherens-junctions
#17
Steffen Backert, Thomas P Schmidt, Aileen Harrer, Silja Wessler
Highly organized intercellular tight and adherens junctions are crucial structural components for establishing and maintenance of epithelial barrier functions, which control the microbiota and protect against intruding pathogens in humans. Alterations in these complexes represent key events in the development and progression of multiple infectious diseases as well as various cancers. The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori exerts an amazing set of strategies to manipulate these epithelial cell-to-cell junctions, which are implicated in changing cell polarity, migration and invasive growth as well as pro-inflammatory and proliferative responses...
2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124154/dna-transfer-and-toll-like-receptor-modulation-by-helicobacter-pylori
#18
Matthew Gordon Varga, Richard M Peek
Helicobacter pylori is the most common bacterial infection worldwide, and virtually all infected persons develop co-existing gastritis. H. pylori is able to send and receive signals from the gastric mucosa, which enables both host and microbe to engage in a dynamic equilibrium. In order to persist within the human host, H. pylori has adopted dichotomous strategies to both induce inflammation as a means of liberating nutrients while simultaneously tempering the immune response to augment its survival. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nod proteins are innate immune receptors that are present in epithelial cells and represent the first line of defense against pathogens...
2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124153/gastric-organoids-an-emerging-model-system-to-study-helicobacter-pylori-pathogenesis
#19
Malvika Pompaiah, Sina Bartfeld
Helicobacter research classically uses fixed human tissue, animal models or cancer cell lines. Each of these study objects has its advantages and has brought central insights into the infection process. Nevertheless, in model systems for basic and medical research, there is a gap between two-dimensional and most often transformed cell cultures and three-dimensional, highly organized tissues. In recent years, stem cell research has provided the means to fill this gap. The identification of the niche factors that support growth, expansion and differentiation of stem cells in vitro has allowed the development of three-dimensional culture systems called organoids...
2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124152/structural-insights-into-helicobacter-pylori-cag-protein-interactions-with-host-cell-factors
#20
Célia Bergé, Laurent Terradot
The most virulent strains of Helicobacter pylori carry a genomic island (cagPAI) containing a set of 27-31 genes. The encoded proteins assemble a syringe-like apparatus to inject the cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) protein into gastric cells. This molecular device belongs to the type IV secretion system (T4SS) family albeit with unique characteristics. The cagPAI-encoded T4SS and its effector protein CagA have an intricate relationship with the host cell, with multiple interactions that only start to be deciphered from a structural point of view...
2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
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