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Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232603/correction-to-agrobacterium-a-genome-editing-tool-delivery-system
#1
Nagesh Sardesai, Subhashree Subramanyam
By mistake the chapter was published with incorrect author name. The chapter has now been corrected.
September 20, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232602/enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli
#2
Claire Jenkins
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC, formerly known as "EAggEC") cause acute or persistent watery diarrhoea (with or without mucus) in children, predominantly in low-income countries, and are associated with travellers' diarrhoea in children and adults in middle and high income countries. The diverse nature of EAEC is such that not all strains cause disease. Conversely, certain strains of EAEC possess additional virulence determinants associated with the ability to cause severe diarrhoea and other symptoms, which might be life-threatening in vulnerable patients...
September 20, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232601/activity-based-protein-profiling-methods-to-study-bacteria-the-power-of-small-molecule-electrophiles
#3
Shabnam Sharifzadeh, Joshua D Shirley, Erin E Carlson
ABPP methods have been utilized for the last two decades as a means to investigate complex proteomes in all three domains of life. Extensive use in eukaryotes has provided a more fundamental understanding of the biological processes involved in numerous diseases and has driven drug discovery and treatment campaigns. However, the use of ABPP in prokaryotes has been less common, although it has gained more attention over the last decade. The urgent need for understanding bacteriophysiology and bacterial pathogenicity at a foundational level has never been more apparent, as the rise in antibiotic resistance has resulted in the inadequate and ineffective treatment of infections...
September 20, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232600/human-organotypic-models-for-anti-infective-research
#4
Astrid Hendriks, Ana Rita Cruz, Elisabetta Soldaini, Andrea Guido Oreste Manetti, Fabio Bagnoli
The use of human organotypic models for biomedical research is experiencing a significant increase due to their biological relevance, the possibility to perform high-throughput analyses, and their cost efficiency. In the field of anti-infective research, comprising the search for novel antipathogenic treatments including vaccines, efforts have been made to reduce the use of animal models. That is due to two main reasons: unreliability of data obtained with animal models and the increasing willingness to reduce the use of animals in research for ethical reasons...
September 20, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218158/shigella-and-enteroinvasive-escherichia-coli
#5
Ilia Belotserkovsky, Philippe J Sansonetti
Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) are gram-negative bacteria responsible for bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) in humans, which is characterized by invasion and inflammatory destruction of the human colonic epithelium. Different EIEC and Shigella subgroups rose independently from commensal E. coli through patho-adaptive evolution that included loss of functional genes interfering with the virulence and/or with the intracellular lifestyle of the bacteria, as well as acquisition of genetic elements harboring virulence genes...
September 15, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203396/activity-based-protein-profiling-at-the-host-pathogen-interface
#6
Yekaterina Kovalyova, Stavroula K Hatzios
Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a technique for selectively detecting reactive amino acids in complex proteomes with the aid of chemical probes. Using probes that target catalytically active enzymes, ABPP can rapidly define the functional proteome of a biological system. In recent years, this approach has been increasingly applied to globally profile enzymes active at the host-pathogen interface of microbial infections. From in vitro co-culture systems to animal models of infection, these studies have revealed enzyme-mediated mechanisms of microbial pathogenicity, host immunity, and metabolic adaptation that dynamically shape pathogen interactions with the host...
September 11, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203395/the-overlooked-glycan-components-of-the-cryptococcus-capsule
#7
Fernanda L Fonseca, Flavia C G Reis, Bianca A G Sena, Luísa J Jozefowicz, Livia Kmetzsch, Marcio L Rodrigues
Pathogenic species of Cryptococcus kill approximately 200,000 people each year. The most important virulence mechanism of C. neoformans and C. gattii, the causative agents of human and animal cryptococcosis, is the ability to form a polysaccharide capsule. Acapsular mutants of C. neoformans are avirulent in mice models of infection, and extracellularly released capsular polysaccharides are deleterious to the immune system. The principal capsular component in the Cryptococcus genus is a complex mannan substituted with xylosyl and glucuronyl units, namely glucuronoxylomannan (GXM)...
September 11, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203394/development-of-activity-based-proteomic-probes-for-protein-citrullination
#8
Venkatesh V Nemmara, Paul R Thompson
Protein arginine deiminases (PADs) catalyze the post-translational deimination of peptidyl arginine to form peptidyl citrulline. This modification is increased in multiple inflammatory diseases and in certain cancers. PADs regulate a variety of signaling pathways including apoptosis, terminal differentiation, and transcriptional regulation. Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) probes have been developed to understand the role of the PADs in vivo and to investigate the effect of protein citrullination in various pathological conditions...
September 11, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30182197/real-time-trafficking-of-agrobacterium-virulence-protein-vire2-inside-host-cells
#9
Haitao Tu, Xiaoyang Li, Qinghua Yang, Ling Peng, Shen Q Pan
A. tumefaciens delivers T-DNA and virulence proteins, including VirE2, into host plant cells, where T-DNA is proposed to be protected by VirE2 molecules as a nucleoprotein complex (T-complex) and trafficked into the nucleus. VirE2 is a protein that can self-aggregate and contains targeting sequences so that it can efficiently move from outside of a cell to the nucleus. We adopted a split-GFP approach and generated a VirE2-GFP fusion which retains the self-aggregating property and the targeting sequences. The fusion protein is fully functional and can move inside cells in real time in a readily detectable format: fluorescent and unique filamentous aggregates...
September 5, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30182196/coping-with-high-temperature-a-unique-regulation-in-a-tumefaciens
#10
Dvora Biran, Or Rotem, Ran Rosen, Eliora Z Ron
Elevation of temperature is a frequent and considerable stress for mesophilic bacteria. Therefore, several molecular mechanisms have evolved to cope with high temperature. We have been studying the response of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to temperature stress, focusing on two aspects: the heat-shock response and the temperature-dependent regulation of methionine biosynthesis. The results indicate that the molecular mechanisms involved in A. tumefaciens control of growth at high temperature are unique and we are still missing important information essential for understanding how these bacteria cope with temperature stress...
September 5, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30178264/activity-based-protein-profiling-of-non-ribosomal-peptide-synthetases
#11
Fumihiro Ishikawa, Genzoh Tanabe, Hideaki Kakeya
Non-ribosomal peptide (NRP) natural products are one of the most promising resources for drug discovery and development because of their wide-ranging of therapeutic potential, and their behavior as virulence factors and signaling molecules. The NRPs are biosynthesized independently of the ribosome by enzyme assembly lines known as the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) machinery. Genetic, biochemical, and bioinformatics analyses have provided a detailed understanding of the mechanism of NRPS catalysis...
September 4, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30178262/opportunities-and-challenges-in-activity-based-protein-profiling-of-mycobacteria
#12
Hiren V Patel, Michael Li, Jessica C Seeliger
Mycobacteria, from saprophytic to pathogenic species, encounter diverse environments that demand metabolic versatility and rapid adaptation from these bacteria for their survival. The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for example, can enter a reversible state of dormancy in which it is metabolically active, but does not increase in number, and which is believed to enable its survival in the human host for years, with attendant risk for reactivation to active tuberculosis. Driven by the need to combat mycobacterial diseases like tuberculosis, efforts to understand such adaptations have benefitted in recent years from application of activity-based probes...
September 4, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30178261/how-to-target-viral-and-bacterial-effector-proteins-interfering-with-ubiquitin-signaling
#13
Gerbrand J van der Heden van Noort, Huib Ovaa
Ubiquitination is a frequently occurring and very diverse posttranslational modification influencing a wide scope of cellular processes. Ubiquitin (Ub) has the unique ability to form eight different lysine-linked polymeric chains, mixed chains and engages with ubiquitin-like (Ubl) molecules. The distinct signals evoked by specific enzymes play a crucial role in, for instance, proteasome-mediated protein degradation, cell cycle regulation, and DNA damage responses. Due to the large variety of cellular functions that this posttranslational modification influences, the enzymes that construct such Ub modifications, and subsequently controle and degrade these signals, is enormous...
September 4, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30178263/modulation-of-host-cell-processes-by-t3ss-effectors
#14
Avinash R Shenoy, R Christopher D Furniss, Philippa J Goddard, Abigail Clements
Two of the enteric Escherichia coli pathotypes-enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)-have a conserved type 3 secretion system which is essential for virulence. The T3SS is used to translocate between 25 and 50 bacterial proteins directly into the host cytosol where they manipulate a variety of host cell processes to establish a successful infection. In this chapter, we discuss effectors from EPEC/EHEC in the context of the host proteins and processes that they target-the actin cytoskeleton, small guanosine triphosphatases and innate immune signalling pathways that regulate inflammation and cell death...
August 30, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30128828/transcriptome-sequencing-approaches-to-elucidate-host-microbe-interactions-in-opportunistic-human-fungal-pathogens
#15
Hrant Hovhannisyan, Toni Gabaldón
Infections caused by opportunistic human fungal pathogens are a source of increasing medical concern, due to their growing incidence, the emergence of novel pathogenic species, and the lack of effective diagnostics tools. Fungal pathogens are phylogenetically diverse, and their virulence mechanisms can differ widely across species. Despite extensive efforts, the molecular bases of virulence in pathogenic fungi and their interactions with the human host remain poorly understood for most species. In this context, next-generation sequencing approaches hold the promise of helping to close this knowledge gap...
August 21, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30128827/deciphering-t-cell-immunometabolism-with-activity-based-protein-profiling
#16
Adam L Borne, Tao Huang, Rebecca L McCloud, Boobalan Pachaiyappan, Timothy N J Bullock, Ku-Lung Hsu
As a major sentinel of adaptive immunity, T cells seek and destroy diseased cells using antigen recognition to achieve molecular specificity. Strategies to block checkpoint inhibition of T cell activity and thus reawaken the patient's antitumor immune responses are rapidly becoming standard of care for treatment of diverse cancers. Adoptive transfer of patient T cells genetically engineered with tumor-targeting capabilities is redefining the field of personalized medicines. The diverse opportunities for exploiting T cell biology in the clinic have prompted new efforts to expand the scope of targets amenable to immuno-oncology...
August 21, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30128826/chemical-proteomic-profiling-of-protein-fatty-acylation-in-microbial-pathogens
#17
Tao Peng, Howard C Hang
Protein fatty-acylation describes the covalent modification of protein with fatty acids during or after translation. Chemical proteomic profiling methods have provided new opportunities to explore protein fatty-acylation in microbial pathogens. Recent studies suggest that protein fatty-acylation is essential to survival and pathogenesis of eukaryotic pathogens such as parasites and fungi. Moreover, fatty-acylation in host cells can be exploited or manipulated by pathogenic bacteria. Herein, we first review the prevalent classes of fatty-acylation in microbial pathogens and the chemical proteomic profiling methods for their global analysis...
August 21, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105424/activity-based-protein-profiling-for-the-study-of-parasite-biology
#18
Henry J Benns, Edward W Tate, Matthew A Child
Parasites exist within most ecological niches, often transitioning through biologically and chemically complex host environments over the course of their parasitic life cycles. While the development of technologies for genetic engineering has revolutionised the field of functional genomics, parasites have historically been less amenable to such modification. In light of this, parasitologists have often been at the forefront of adopting new small-molecule technologies, repurposing drugs into biological tools and probes...
August 14, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105423/target-identification-of-bioactive-covalently-acting-natural-products
#19
Daniel K Nomura, Thomas J Maimone
There are countless natural products that have been isolated from microbes, plants, and other living organisms that have been shown to possess therapeutic activities such as antimicrobial, anticancer, or anti-inflammatory effects. However, developing these bioactive natural products into drugs has remained challenging in part because of their difficulty in isolation, synthesis, mechanistic understanding, and off-target effects. Among the large pool of bioactive natural products lies classes of compounds that contain potential reactive electrophilic centers that can covalently react with nucleophilic amino acid hotspots on proteins and other biological molecules to modulate their biological action...
August 14, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105422/residual-immune-activation-and-latency
#20
Elena Bruzzesi, Irini Sereti
The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the 1990s has dramatically changed the course of HIV infection, decreasing the risk for both AIDS- and non-AIDS-related events. Cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), liver and kidney disease, neurological disorders and frailty have become of great importance lately in the clinical management as they represent the principal cause of death in people living with HIV who receive cART (Kirk et al. in Clin Infect Dis 45(1):103-10, 2007; Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy Study et al...
August 14, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
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