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Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770865/the-agrobacterium-phenotypic-plasticity-plast-genes
#1
Léon Otten
The transfer of T-DNA sequences from Agrobacterium to plant cells is a well-understood process of natural genetic engineering. The expression of T-DNA genes in plants leads to tumors, hairy roots, or transgenic plants. The transformed cells multiply and synthesize small molecules, called opines, used by Agrobacteria for their growth. Several T-DNA genes stimulate or influence plant growth. Among these, iaaH and iaaM encode proteins involved in auxin synthesis, whereas ipt encodes a protein involved in cytokinin synthesis...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770864/agrobacterium-mediated-transformation-of-yeast-and-fungi
#2
Paul J J Hooykaas, G Paul H van Heusden, Xiaolei Niu, M Reza Roushan, Jalal Soltani, Xiaorong Zhang, Bert J van der Zaal
Two decades ago, it was discovered that the well-known plant vector Agrobacterium tumefaciens can also transform yeasts and fungi when these microorganisms are co-cultivated on a solid substrate in the presence of a phenolic inducer such as acetosyringone. It is important that the medium has a low pH (5-6) and that the temperature is kept at room temperature (20-25 °C) during co-cultivation. Nowadays, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) is the method of choice for the transformation of many fungal species; as the method is simple, the transformation efficiencies are much higher than with other methods, and AMT leads to single-copy integration much more frequently than do other methods...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770863/siv-latency-in-macrophages-in-the-cns
#3
Lucio Gama, Celina Abreu, Erin N Shirk, Suzanne E Queen, Sarah E Beck, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Brandon T Bullock, M Christine Zink, Joseph L Mankowski, Janice E Clements
Lentiviruses infect myeloid cells, leading to acute infection followed by persistent/latent infections not cleared by the host immune system. HIV and SIV are lentiviruses that infect CD4+ lymphocytes in addition to myeloid cells in blood and tissues. HIV infection of myeloid cells in brain, lung, and heart causes tissue-specific diseases that are mostly observed during severe immunosuppression, when the number of circulating CD4+ T cells declines to exceeding low levels. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) controls viral replication but does not successfully eliminate latent virus, which leads to viral rebound once ART is interrupted...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696440/leptospiral-genomics-and-pathogenesis
#4
Dieter Bulach, Ben Adler
Until about 15 years ago, the molecular and cellular basis for pathogenesis in leptospirosis was virtually unknown. The determination of the first full genome sequence in 2003 was followed rapidly by other whole genome sequences, whose availability facilitated the development of transposon mutagenesis and then directed mutagenesis of pathogenic Leptospira spp. The combination of genomics, transcriptomics and mutant construction and characterisation has resulted in major progress in our understanding of the taxonomy and biology of Leptospira...
April 26, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556826/niche-construction-and-exploitation-by-agrobacterium-how-to-survive-and-face-competition-in-soil-and-plant-habitats
#5
Y Dessaux, D Faure
Agrobacterium populations live in different habitats (bare soil, rhizosphere, host plants), and hence face different environmental constraints. They have evolved the capacity to exploit diverse resources and to escape plant defense and competition from other microbiota. By modifying the genome of their host, Agrobacterium populations exhibit the remarkable ability to construct and exploit the ecological niche of the plant tumors that they incite. This niche is characterized by the accumulation of specific, low molecular weight compounds termed opines that play a critical role in Agrobacterium 's lifestyle...
March 20, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556825/breast-organotypic-cancer-models
#6
Pilar Carranza-Rosales, Nancy Elena Guzmán-Delgado, Irma Edith Carranza-Torres, Ezequiel Viveros-Valdez, Javier Morán-Martínez
Breast cancer is the most common cancer type diagnosed in women, it represents a critical public health problem worldwide, with 1,671,149 estimated new cases and nearly 571,000 related deaths. Research on breast cancer has mainly been conducted using two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures and animal models. The usefulness of these models is reflected in the vast knowledge accumulated over the past decades. However, considering that animal models are three-dimensional (3D) in nature, the validity of the studies using 2D cell cultures has recently been questioned...
March 20, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556824/the-ecology-of-agrobacterium-vitis-and-management-of-crown-gall-disease-in-vineyards
#7
Nemanja Kuzmanović, Joanna Puławska, Lingyun Hao, Thomas J Burr
Agrobacterium vitis is the primary causal agent of grapevine crown gall worldwide. Symptoms of grapevine crown gall disease include tumor formation on the aerial plant parts, whereas both tumorigenic and nontumorigenic strains of A. vitis cause root necrosis. Genetic and genomic analyses indicated that A. vitis is distinguishable from the members of the Agrobacterium genus and its transfer to the genus Allorhizobium was suggested. A. vitis is genetically diverse, with respect to both chromosomal and plasmid DNA...
March 20, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556823/small-noncoding-rnas-in-agrobacterium-tumefaciens
#8
Keunsub Lee, Kan Wang
During the last decade, small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as essential post-transcriptional regulators in bacteria. Nearly all important physiological and stress responses are modulated by ncRNA regulators, such as riboswitches, trans-acting small RNAs (sRNAs), and cis-antisense RNAs. Recently, three RNA-seq studies identified a total of 1534 candidate ncRNAs from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a pathogen and biotechnology tool for plants. Only a few ncRNAs have been functionally characterized in A. tumefaciens, and some of them appear to be involved in virulence...
March 20, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500562/one-more-decade-of-agrobacterium-taxonomy
#9
Han Ming Gan, Michael A Savka
This chapter presents a historical overview of the development and changes in scientific approaches to classifying members of the Agrobacterium genus. We also describe the changes in the inference of evolutionary relationships among Agrobacterium biovars and Agrobacterium strains from using the 16S rRNA marker to recA genes and to the use of multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). Further, the impacts of the genomic era enabling low cost and rapid whole genome sequencing on Agrobacterium phylogeny are reviewed with a focus on the use of new and sophisticated bioinformatics approaches to refine phylogenetic inferences...
March 3, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500561/beyond-agrobacterium-mediated-transformation-horizontal-gene-transfer-from-bacteria-to-eukaryotes
#10
Benoît Lacroix, Vitaly Citovsky
Besides the massive gene transfer from organelles to the nuclear genomes, which occurred during the early evolution of eukaryote lineages, the importance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in eukaryotes remains controversial. Yet, increasing amounts of genomic data reveal many cases of bacterium-to-eukaryote HGT that likely represent a significant force in adaptive evolution of eukaryotic species. However, DNA transfer involved in genetic transformation of plants by Agrobacterium species has traditionally been considered as the unique example of natural DNA transfer and integration into eukaryotic genomes...
March 3, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500560/agrobacterium-mediated-transformation-in-the-evolution-of-plants
#11
Tatiana V Matveeva
In most cases, the genetic engineering of plants uses Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to introduce novel genes. In nature, insertion of T-DNA into the plant genome and its subsequent transfer via sexual reproduction have been shown for several species in the genera Nicotiana, Ipomoea , and Linaria . A sequence homologous to T-DNA of the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes was found in the genome of wild-type Nicotiana glauca (section Noctiflorae) more than 30 years ago and was named "cellular T-DNA" (cT-DNA)...
March 3, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423618/organotypic-models-of-lung-cancer
#12
Anna Pomerenke
Human lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, with nearly 2 million of new cases diagnosed each year, often too late for a successful therapeutic intervention. In this chapter, organotypic models of lung cancer will be reviewed. Ex vivo tissue explants, spheroids, organoids, and novel bioengineering approaches are currently being used to study human lung cancer. Although there is no ideal method that will fully recapitulate the complex human lung architecture, the three-dimensional (3D) organotypic models described here represent a major advance from classical two-dimensional (2D) tissue culture models...
February 9, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026925/er-protein-quality-control-and-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-the-heart
#13
A Arrieta, E A Blackwood, C C Glembotski
Cardiac myocytes are the cells responsible for the robust ability of the heart to pump blood throughout the circulatory system. Cardiac myocytes grow in response to a variety of physiological and pathological conditions; this growth challenges endoplasmic reticulum-protein quality control (ER-PQC), a major feature of which includes the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER-PQC and the UPR in cardiac myocytes growing under physiological conditions, including normal development, exercise, and pregnancy, are sufficient to support hypertrophic growth of each cardiac myocyte...
2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900680/coordinating-organismal-metabolism-during-protein-misfolding-in-the-er-through-the-unfolded-protein-response
#14
Vishwanatha K Chandrahas, Jaeseok Han, Randal J Kaufman
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular organelle responsible for folding of secretory and membrane proteins. Perturbance in ER homeostasis caused by various intrinsic/extrinsic stimuli challenges the protein-folding capacity of the ER, leading to an ER dysfunction, called ER stress. Cells have developed a defensive response to adapt and/or survive in the face of ER stress that may be detrimental to cell function and survival. When exposed to ER stress, the cell activates a complex and elaborate signaling network that includes translational modulation and transcriptional induction of genes...
2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879522/cell-non-autonomous-upr-er-signaling
#15
Soudabeh Imanikia, Ming Sheng, Rebecca C Taylor
The UPRER is an important regulator of secretory pathway homeostasis, and plays roles in many physiological processes. Its broad range of targets and ability to modulate secretion and membrane trafficking make it perfectly positioned to influence intercellular communication, enabling the UPRER to coordinate physiological processes between cells and tissues. Recent evidence suggests that the activation of the UPRER can itself be communicated between cells. This cell non-autonomous route to UPRER activation occurs in multiple species, and enables organism-wide responses to stress that involve processes as diverse as immunity, metabolism, aging and reproduction...
2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256135/cell-and-gene-therapy-for-hiv-cure
#16
Christopher W Peterson, Hans-Peter Kiem
As the HIV pandemic rapidly spread worldwide in the 1980s and 1990s, a new approach to treat cancer, genetic diseases, and infectious diseases was also emerging. Cell and gene therapy strategies are connected with human pathologies at a fundamental level, by delivering DNA and RNA molecules that could correct and/or ameliorate the underlying genetic factors of any illness. The history of HIV gene therapy is especially intriguing, in that the virus that was targeted was soon co-opted to become part of the targeting strategy...
December 19, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196824/spirochetal-lipoproteins-in-pathogenesis-and-immunity
#17
David A Haake, Wolfram R Zückert
Lipoproteins are lipid-modified proteins that dominate the spirochetal proteome. While found in all bacteria, spirochetal lipoproteins have unique features and play critical roles in spirochete biology. For this reason, considerable effort has been devoted to determining how the lipoproteome is generated. Essential features of the structural elements of lipoproteins are now understood with greater clarity, enabling greater confidence in identification of lipoproteins from genomic sequences. The journey from the ribosome to the outer membrane, and in some cases, to the cellular surface has been defined, including secretion, lipidation, sorting, and export across the outer membrane...
December 2, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164341/mathematical-models-of-hiv-latency
#18
Alison L Hill
Viral latency is a major barrier to curing HIV infection with antiretroviral therapy, and consequently, for eliminating the disease globally. The establishment, maintenance, and potential clearance of latent infection are complex dynamic processes and can be best understood and described with the help of mathematical models. Here we review the use of viral dynamics models for HIV, with a focus on applications to the latent reservoir. Such models have been used to explain the multiphasic decay of viral load during antiretroviral therapy, the early seeding of the latent reservoir during acute infection and the limited inflow during treatment, the dynamics of viral blips, and the phenomenon of posttreatment control...
November 22, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090367/advances-and-obstacles-in-the-genetic-dissection-of-chlamydial-virulence
#19
Julie A Brothwell, Matthew K Muramatsu, Guangming Zhong, David E Nelson
Obligate intracellular pathogens in the family Chlamydiaceae infect taxonomically diverse eukaryotes ranging from amoebae to mammals. However, many fundamental aspects of chlamydial cell biology and pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Genetic dissection of chlamydial biology has historically been hampered by a lack of genetic tools. Exploitation of the ability of chlamydia to recombine genomic material by lateral gene transfer (LGT) ushered in a new era in chlamydia research. With methods to map mutations in place, genetic screens were able to assign functions and phenotypes to specific chlamydial genes...
November 1, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071476/the-antiviral-immune-response-and-its-impact-on-the-hiv-1-reservoir
#20
Rebecca T Veenhuis, Joel N Blankson
Latently infected resting memory CD4(+) T cells represent a major barrier to HIV-1 eradication. Studies have shown that it will not be possible to cure HIV-1 infection unless these cells are eliminated. Latently infected cells probably do not express viral antigens and thus may not be susceptible to the HIV-1 specific immune response, nevertheless the size and composition of the reservoir is influenced by the immune system. In this chapter, we review the different components of the HIV-1 specific immune response and discuss how the immune system can be harnessed to eradicate the virus...
October 26, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
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