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Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090367/advances-and-obstacles-in-the-genetic-dissection-of-chlamydial-virulence
#1
Julie A Brothwell, Matthew K Muramatsu, Guangming Zhong, David E Nelson
Obligate intracellular pathogens in the family Chlamydiaceae infect taxonomically diverse eukaryotes ranging from amoebae to mammals. However, many fundamental aspects of chlamydial cell biology and pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Genetic dissection of chlamydial biology has historically been hampered by a lack of genetic tools. Exploitation of the ability of chlamydia to recombine genomic material by lateral gene transfer (LGT) ushered in a new era in chlamydia research. With methods to map mutations in place, genetic screens were able to assign functions and phenotypes to specific chlamydial genes...
November 1, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071476/the-antiviral-immune-response-and-its-impact-on-the-hiv-1-reservoir
#2
Rebecca T Veenhuis, Joel N Blankson
Latently infected resting memory CD4(+) T cells represent a major barrier to HIV-1 eradication. Studies have shown that it will not be possible to cure HIV-1 infection unless these cells are eliminated. Latently infected cells probably do not express viral antigens and thus may not be susceptible to the HIV-1 specific immune response, nevertheless the size and composition of the reservoir is influenced by the immune system. In this chapter, we review the different components of the HIV-1 specific immune response and discuss how the immune system can be harnessed to eradicate the virus...
October 26, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071475/assays-to-measure-latency-reservoirs-and-reactivation
#3
Janet D Siliciano, Robert F Siliciano
HIV-1 persists even in patients who are successfully treated with combination antiretroviral therapy. The major barrier to cure is a small pool of latently infected resting CD4(+) T cells carrying an integrated copy of the viral genome that is not expressed while the cells remain in a resting state. Targeting this latent reservoir is a major focus of HIV-1 cure research, and the development of a rapid and scalable assay for the reservoir is a rate-limiting step in the search for a cure. The most commonly used assays are standard PCR assays targeting conserved regions of the HIV-1 genome...
October 26, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071474/molecular-control-of-hiv-and-siv-latency
#4
Gilles Darcis, Benoit Van Driessche, Sophie Bouchat, Frank Kirchhoff, Carine Van Lint
The HIV latent reservoirs are considered as the main hurdle to viral eradication. Numerous mechanisms lead to the establishment of HIV latency and act at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. A better understanding of latency is needed in order to ultimately achieve a cure for HIV. The mechanisms underlying latency vary between patients, tissues, anatomical compartments, and cell types. From this point of view, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection and the use of nonhuman primate (NHP) models that recapitulate many aspects of HIV-associated latency establishment and disease progression are essential tools since they allow extensive tissue sampling as well as a control of infection parameters (virus type, dose, route, and time)...
October 26, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071473/west-africa-2013-ebola-from-virus-outbreak-to-humanitarian-crisis
#5
Daniel G Bausch
The 2013 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa constituted a major humanitarian crisis. The outbreak numbered over 28,500 cases, more than 10 times the number cumulatively registered from all previous EVD outbreaks combined, with at least 11,000 deaths, and resulted in billions of dollars of lost economic growth to an already impoverished region. The unprecedented scale of West Africa 2013 took the world by surprise and laid bare deficiencies in our response capacity to complex humanitarian disasters of highly infectious and lethal pathogens...
October 26, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071472/immune-interventions-to-eliminate-the-hiv-reservoir
#6
Denise C Hsu, Jintanat Ananworanich
Inducing HIV remission is a monumental challenge. A potential strategy is the "kick and kill" approach where latently infected cells are first activated to express viral proteins and then eliminated through cytopathic effects of HIV or immune-mediated killing. However, pre-existing immune responses to HIV cannot eradicate HIV infection due to the presence of escape variants, inadequate magnitude, and breadth of responses as well as immune exhaustion. The two major approaches to boost immune-mediated elimination of infected cells include enhancing cytotoxic T lymphocyte mediated killing and harnessing antibodies to eliminate HIV...
October 26, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071471/the-hidden-genomics-of-chlamydia-trachomatis
#7
James Hadfield, Angèle Bénard, Daryl Domman, Nicholas Thomson
The application of whole-genome sequencing has moved us on from sequencing single genomes to defining unravelling population structures in different niches, and at the -species, -serotype or even -genus level, and in local, national and global settings. This has been instrumental in cataloguing and revealing a huge a range of diversity in this bacterium, when at first we thought there was little. Genomics has challenged assumptions, added insight, as well as confusion and glimpses of truths. What is clear is that at a time when we start to realise the extent and nature of the diversity contained within a genus or a species like this, the huge depth of knowledge communities have developed, through cell biology, as well as the new found molecular approaches will be more precious than ever to link genotype to phenotype...
October 26, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064060/regulation-of-gene-and-protein-expression-in-the-lyme-disease-spirochete
#8
Brian Stevenson, Janakiram Seshu
The infectious cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi necessitates persistent infection of both vertebrates and ticks, and efficient means of transmission between those two very different types of hosts. The Lyme disease spirochete has evolved mechanisms to sense its location in the infectious cycle, and use that information to control production of the proteins and other factors required for each step. Numerous components of borrelial regulatory pathways have been characterized to date. Their effects are being pieced together, thereby providing glimpses into a complex web of cooperative and antagonistic interactions...
October 25, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038956/interaction-of-leptospira-with-the-innate-immune-system
#9
Catherine Werts
Innate immunity encompasses immediate host responses that detect and respond to microbes. Besides recognition by the complement system (see the chapter by A. Barbosa, this volume), innate immunity concerns cellular responses. These are triggered through recognition of conserved microbial components (called MAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading, through secretion of cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, and immune mediators, to cellular recruitment and phagocytosis. Leptospira spp. are successful zoonotic pathogenic bacteria that obviously overcome the immune system of their hosts...
October 17, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026925/er-protein-quality-control-and-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-the-heart
#10
A Arrieta, E A Blackwood, C C Glembotski
Cardiac myocytes are the cells responsible for the robust ability of the heart to pump blood throughout the circulatory system. Cardiac myocytes grow in response to a variety of physiological and pathological conditions; this growth challenges endoplasmic reticulum-protein quality control (ER-PQC), a major feature of which includes the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER-PQC and the UPR in cardiac myocytes growing under physiological conditions, including normal development, exercise, and pregnancy, are sufficient to support hypertrophic growth of each cardiac myocyte...
October 13, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026924/gene-regulation-two-component-regulatory-systems-and-adaptive-responses-in-treponema-denticola
#11
Richard T Marconi
The oral microbiome consists of a remarkably diverse group of 500-700 bacterial species. The microbial etiology of periodontal disease is similarly complex. Of the ~400 bacterial species identified in subgingival plaque, at least 50 belong to the genus Treponema. As periodontal disease develops and progresses, T. denticola transitions from a low to high abundance species in the subgingival crevice. Changes in the overall composition of the bacterial population trigger significant changes in the local physical, immunological and physiochemical conditions...
October 13, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026923/nonhuman-primate-models-for-studies-of-aids-virus-persistence-during-suppressive-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#12
Gregory Q Del Prete, Jeffrey D Lifson
Nonhuman primate (NHP) models of AIDS represent a potentially powerful component of the effort to understand in vivo sources of AIDS virus that persist in the setting of suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and to develop and evaluate novel strategies for more definitive treatment of HIV infection (i.e., viral eradication "cure", or sustained off-cART remission). Multiple different NHP models are available, each characterized by a particular NHP species, infecting virus, and cART regimen, and each with a distinct capacity to recapitulate different aspects of HIV infection...
October 13, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939965/complement-immune-evasion-by-spirochetes
#13
Angela S Barbosa, Lourdes Isaac
The complement system plays an important role in the innate and acquired immune response against pathogens. A sophisticated network of activating and regulating proteins allows the distinction between intact and damaged host and non-host surfaces such as bacteria and other parasites. Non-host structures trigger the alternative pathway which may lead to their elimination by phagocytosis or cell lysis. In addition, complement proteins such as C1q, mannose binding lectin (MBL), and ficolins act as pathogen pattern-recognition molecules...
September 23, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929194/adapting-secretory-proteostasis-and-function-through-the-unfolded-protein-response
#14
Madeline Y Wong, Andrew S DiChiara, Patreece H Suen, Kenny Chen, Ngoc-Duc Doan, Matthew D Shoulders
Cells address challenges to protein folding in the secretory pathway by engaging endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized protective mechanisms that are collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). By the action of the transmembrane signal transducers IRE1, PERK, and ATF6, the UPR induces networks of genes whose products alleviate the burden of protein misfolding. The UPR also plays instructive roles in cell differentiation and development, aids in the response to pathogens, and coordinates the output of professional secretory cells...
September 20, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929193/immune-regulation-by-ubiquitin-tagging-as-checkpoint-code
#15
Peng Zeng, Jieyu Ma, Runqing Yang, Yun-Cai Liu
The immune system is equipped with effective machinery to mobilize its activation to defend invading microorganisms, and at the same time, to refrain from attacking its own tissues to maintain immune tolerance. The balance of activation and tolerance is tightly controlled by diverse mechanisms, since breakdown of tolerance could result in disastrous consequences such as the development of autoimmune diseases. One of the mechanisms is by the means of protein ubiquitination, which involves the process of tagging a small peptide ubiquitin to protein substrates...
September 20, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929192/role-of-pd-1-in-immunity-and-diseases
#16
Kenji Chamoto, Muna Al-Habsi, Tasuku Honjo
Immunity developed to defend our bodies from foreign particles, including bacteria and viruses. Although effector cells responsible for acquired immunity, mainly T cells, and B cells, are able to distinguish self from non-self, they sometimes attack the body's tissues because of imperfect central tolerance. Several immune check points developed to limit overactivation of these cells. One of the most important immune checkpoints is programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), which is expressed mainly on activated lymphocytes...
September 20, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929191/overview-of-lag-3-expressing-il-10-producing-regulatory-t-cells
#17
Keishi Fujio, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Tomohisa Okamura
Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) play crucial roles in the induction of peripheral tolerance to self- and foreign-antigens. IL-10-producing regulatory T cells (IL-10-producing Treg cells) constitute a Treg cell subset characterized by the production of high amounts of IL-10, cytokine-mediated immunosuppressive capabilities, and independence of Foxp3 expression for their suppressive activity. In the past decade, identifying naturally occurring IL-10-producing Treg cells was difficult due to the lack of suitable surface markers...
September 20, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929190/mining-the-complex-family-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatases-for-checkpoint-regulators-in-immunity
#18
Claudia Penafuerte, Luis Alberto Perez-Quintero, Valerie Vinette, Teri Hatzihristidis, Michel L Tremblay
The family of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) includes 107 genes in humans that are diverse in their structures and expression profiles. The majority are present in immune cells and play various roles in either inhibiting or promoting the duration and amplitude of signaling cascades. Several PTPs, including TC-PTP (PTPN2) and SHP-1 (PTPN6), have been recognized as being crucial for maintaining proper immune response and self-tolerance, and have gained recognition as true immune system checkpoint modulators...
September 20, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918539/accelerating-vaccine-development-during-the-2013-2016-west-african-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak
#19
Elizabeth S Higgs, Sheri A Dubey, Beth A G Coller, Jakub K Simon, Laura Bollinger, Robert A Sorenson, Barthalomew Wilson, Martha C Nason, Lisa E Hensley
The Ebola virus disease outbreak that began in Western Africa in December 2013 was unprecedented in both scope and spread, and the global response was slower and less coherent than was optimal given the scale and pace of the epidemic. Past experience with limited localized outbreaks, lack of licensed medical countermeasures, reluctance by first responders to direct scarce resources to clinical research, community resistance to outside interventions, and lack of local infrastructure were among the factors delaying clinical research during the outbreak...
September 17, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918538/genetic-manipulation-of-borrelia-spp
#20
Dan Drecktrah, D Scott Samuels
The spirochetes Borrelia (Borreliella) burgdorferi and Borrelia hermsii, the etiologic agents of Lyme disease and relapsing fever, respectively, cycle in nature between an arthropod vector and a vertebrate host. They have extraordinarily unusual genomes that are highly segmented and predominantly linear. The genetic analyses of Lyme disease spirochetes have become increasingly more sophisticated, while the age of genetic investigation in the relapsing fever spirochetes is just dawning. Molecular tools available for B...
September 17, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
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