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International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726268/being-similar-while-judging-right-and-wrong-the-effects-of-personal-and-situational-similarity-on-moral-judgements
#1
Emilia Pascal
This study investigated the effects of similarity with the transgressor and the victim on the perceived immorality of the transgression. Participants read two stories describing a person that cheated on their partner and a police officer that mistreated somebody. In the first story we manipulated participants' personal similarity to the transgressor and in the second their personal similarity to the victim. In each story, participants' past situational similarity to the target character was assessed according to their previous experiences of being in the same position...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718194/prevalence-of-imaginary-companions-in-japanese-children
#2
Yusuke Moriguchi, Naoya Todo
Having an imaginary companion (IC) is an example of children's pretend play. However, most research regarding children's ICs is from Western cultures. In this study, the prevalence of ICs was assessed among Japanese children (2- to 9-year-old children, N = 800). The developmental (age), biological (sex), and environmental (birth order) effects on Japanese children's ICs were also assessed. Moreover, whether IC status can be an indicator of fantasy orientation in Japanese children was examined. The results revealed that the prevalence of the invisible friend was relatively rare, but the personified object was prevalent in Japanese children...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714080/studying-entrepreneurial-occupations-in-the-terman-women
#3
Eva Schmitt-Rodermund, Elke Schröder, Martin Obschonka
To achieve a better understanding of entrepreneurship development in women, longitudinal data on 672 individuals collected from 1922 to 1959 were analysed in a secondary investigation of the Terman Longitudinal Study. Women's reports on their occupations during 10 different years were assigned to one of two categories: work for pay (0/1), and work allowing for self-employment (0/1) in the respective year. Structural equation modelling supported earlier results concerning male entrepreneurial activity. Personality and aspects of the parenting context the women had experienced by the average age of 12 predicted early entrepreneurial competencies (inventions, leadership) and occupational interests by age 13, which related to an entrepreneurship-related career goal in 1936, when the participants were about 27 years of age on average...
July 16, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703330/struggling-to-be-liked-the-prospective-effect-of-trait-self-control-on-social-desirability-and-the-moderating-role-of-agreeableness
#4
Olga Stavrova, Michail D Kokkoris
Drawing from the literature on the interpersonal functions of self-control, we examined longitudinal associations between trait self-control and social desirability, using a survey of the general population in the Netherlands. Trait self-control at baseline was positively associated with social desirability at a follow-up, even when controlling for prior levels of social desirability. That is, high self-control contributed to individuals' tendency to give socially desirable responses in self-reports. This effect was moderated by individual differences in agreeableness...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703329/relationship-between-collectivism-and-corruption-in-american-and-chinese-books-a-historical-perspective
#5
Yongshuai Li, Xuyun Tan, Zhenwei Huang, Li Liu
Previous research on the relationship between collectivism and corruption has not investigated their co-variation over time. In this study, we use Google Ngram Viewer to track the frequency of words related to collectivism and corruption in American books (1800-2000) and in Chinese Books (1970-2008). The results demonstrate that a positive association between the usage of these terms during the periods in both Chinese and American books, with changes in words related to collectivism preceding changes in words related to corruption in American books...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681385/gender-specific-factors-associated-with-the-suicidal-ideation-of-children-in-taiwan-a-large-scale-cross-sectional-study
#6
Hsiao-Ling Huang, Wu-Der Peng, Ying-Chun Lin, Chien-Hung Lee, Chih-Yang Hu, Shun-Te Huang
We examined the relationship between suicidal ideation (SI) and the depressed mood, life stress and parenting styles in children. A large-scale survey was conducted including 5328 children from 65 elementary schools in Taiwan. SI was measured by asking children if any suicidal thoughts had occurred in the previous month. A series of regression models was analysed separately for male and female students. Compared with boys, girls demonstrated a higher proportion of SI. Among boys, SI was significantly associated with a high level of perceived environmental stress (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675437/the-moderating-role-of-socially-desirable-responding-in-implicit-explicit-attitudes-toward-asylum-seekers
#7
Joel R Anderson
Implicit and explicit attitudes correlate under certain conditions and researchers are interested in the moderating factors of this relationship. This paper explored the role of socially desirable responding in this relationship by testing the hypothesis that impression management (IM; i.e., deliberate response modification) and self-deceptive enhancement (SDE; i.e., positive self-bias) play moderating roles in the relationship of implicit-explicit attitudes toward asylum seekers in Australia. Seventy-four students responded to a battery of measures and the results revealed that IM (but not SDE) moderated this relationship to the extent that higher IM scores weakened the correspondence between implicit and explicit attitude scores...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675427/opinion-leadership-types-or-continuous-opinion-leadership-traits
#8
Timo Gnambs
Opinion leadership is typically conceptualised as a continuous personality trait. However, many authors adhere to the view of qualitatively different opinion leadership types and apply arbitrary criteria to split continuous trait scores into two groups (i.e., opinion leaders vs. non-leaders). The present study is the first to empirically evaluate this approach. A sample of N = 3812 adults (67% women) was administered a validated opinion leadership scale. Finite mixture models examined whether the latent trait distribution can be represented by a set of discrete trait levels that reflected distinct opinion leadership types...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675432/economic-and-social-distance-perceived-income-inequality-negatively-predicts-an-interdependent-self-construal
#9
Ángel Sánchez-Rodríguez, Guillermo B Willis, Rosa Rodríguez-Bailón
Previous research has shown that economic inequality influences how people are related with others. In this article, we suggest that perceived economic inequality influences self-construal. Specifically, we propose that higher economic inequality leads to an independent self-construal, whereas lower economic inequality leads to an interdependent self-construal. Correlational data from Studies 1a and 1b revealed that people who perceive lower levels of economic inequality tend to show higher levels of interdependent self-construal, even after controlling for social class...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675428/are-country-level-prevalences-of-rule-violations-associated-with-knowledge-overclaiming-among-students
#10
Clemens B Fell, Cornelius J König, Sebastian Jung, Daniel Sorg, Matthias Ziegler
Cultural norms of behaviour influence desirable and problematic behaviours of individuals. In particular, cultural norms should influence individuals' dishonesty. In a recent Nature study, prevalence of rule violations was introduced as a new country-level measure of behavioural norms. However, information on individuals' actual honesty was not available due to characteristics of the experimental design. Overcoming this limitation, we show that country-level behavioural norms are related to individual-level knowledge overclaiming behaviour (i...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635144/not-all-cultural-values-are-created-equal-cultural-change-in-china-reexamined-through-google-books
#11
Rui Zhang, Liping Weng
Given its major transformations in recent decades, China has figured prominently in research on cultural change. Previous research converges in showing a general trend towards individualism in contemporary China while noting that rising individualism tends to coexist with enduring collectivism. To further understand this, we tested whether perceived traditional importance of cultural values would modulate the trajectory of cultural change reflected in word usage frequencies in published books. We re-analysed Google's Chinese corpus since 1980 based on a broad sample of words associated with individualism-collectivism...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573645/effects-of-social-identity-salience-on-motivational-orientation-and-conflict-strategies-in-intergenerational-conflict
#12
Henry C Y Ho, Dannii Y Yeung
With the upsurge of older adults still working, the labour force is becoming increasingly diverse in age. Age diversity in an organisation can increase the likelihood of intergenerational conflict. The present study aims to integrate the dual concern model and social identity theory to explain the underlying mechanisms of intergenerational conflict by examining the effects of social identity salience on motivational orientation and conflict strategies. A 2 (subgroup identity salience: low vs. high younger/older group membership) × 2 (superordinate identity salience: low vs...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547913/it-s-better-to-give-than-to-receive-psychological-need-satisfaction-mediating-links-between-wasta-favouritism-and-individuals-psychological-distress
#13
Tarik Abdulkreem Alwerthan, Dena Phillips Swanson, Ronald David Rogge
Wasta (i.e. the distribution of favours among family, friends and tribe; favouritism; nepotism) permeates numerous Middle Eastern cultures, representing a method of strengthening social ties and showing loyalty/generosity, but also representing one of the largest sources of corruption in Middle East. The current study investigated links between wasta and psychological distress in a survey of 1088 educators from Saudi Arabia. Drawing from the self-determination theory (SDT) conceptual framework, Structural Equation Modeling analyses suggested that benefitting from wasta was linked to higher levels of psychological distress and those links were explained in part (i...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503775/contemporary-psychology-and-women-a-gender-analysis-of-the-scientific-production
#14
Julio González-Álvarez, Teresa Cervera-Crespo
Despite important advances made in recent decades, women are still underrepresented in science (less than 30% of authorships). This study presents a bibliometric analysis of all the Psychology articles published in 2009 included in the Web of Science database (Thomson Reuters) in order to examine the contribution of women in contemporary Psychology, their pattern of research collaboration, the scientific content and the scientific impact from a gender perspective. From a total of 90,067 authorships, gender could be identified in 74,413 (82...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493413/examining-the-emerging-entrepreneurial-mindset-in-adolescence-a-study-in-nigeria
#15
Samuel O Salami
This study investigated the relationship of family environment, network, parental socio-economic status, self-efficacy and proactive personality on entrepreneurial intention of secondary school adolescents and the mediating role of self-efficacy. The participants were 250 secondary school SS2 adolescents randomly selected from six secondary schools in Ibadan Metropolis, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Structural Equation Modelling was used to analyse the data obtained from the participants. The results showed that all the contextual and individual factors had significant relationship with entrepreneurial intention and self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488277/variants-of-biculturalism-in-migrant-and-host-adolescents-living-in-italy-and-spain-testing-the-importance-of-life-domains-through-the-relative-acculturation-extended-model
#16
Tiziana Mancini, Marisol Navas, Lucia López-Rodríguez, Benedetta Bottura
Several variants of biculturalism have recently been proposed (Schwartz, Birman, Benet-Martínez, & Unger, 2016). Nevertheless, few studies have identified different types of bicultural individuals, and no one has addressed the possibility that these types could depend on acculturation domains. By using the Relative Acculturation Extended Model (RAEM), this study aimed to explore if different variants of biculturalism could be individuated, and if some of these variants were sensitive to life domains. Four samples of migrant and host adolescents living in Italy (n = 173 and n = 186) and Spain (n = 139 and n = 156) answered a questionnaire about acculturation perceptions and preferences in central and peripheral life domains...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474407/emotional-display-rules-in-palestine-ingroup-outgroup-membership-status-of-interaction-partner-and-gender
#17
Sharon M Flicker, Haneen J S Ayoub, Melissa J Guynn
This study investigates emotional display rules within the Palestinian context, focusing on the seven basic emotions in a sample of 150 college students from the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. Overall, participants felt that it was more appropriate to express positive emotions (happiness and surprise) than negative powerful (anger, contempt and disgust) or negative powerless (fear and sadness) emotions. They also perceived it to be more appropriate to express positive and negative powerless emotions to ingroup than outgroup members and to express negative powerful emotions to lower status compared to higher status individuals...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474340/doddering-but-dear-%C3%A2-even-in-the-eyes-of-young-children-age-stereotyping-and-prejudice-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#18
Christin-Melanie Vauclair, Ricardo Borges Rodrigues, Sibila Marques, Carla Sofia Esteves, Filipa Cunha, Filomena Gerardo
This study aims to explore age prejudice, and to examine age stereotyping in children and adolescents by adopting the Stereotype Content Model (SCM) as a theoretical framework. It was hypothesised that children are socialised into adopting an ambivalent representation of old age (socialisation hypothesis) and that this cognitive bias becomes weaker in adolescence due to greater cognitive maturity (developmental hypothesis). By analysing representative data from Portugal (European Social Survey; N = 2367), it was ascertained that the ambivalent age stereotype (higher evaluations of warmth than competence for older people) is indeed a shared social representation of older people in Portuguese society...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474338/the-changing-psychology-of-culture-in-german-speaking-countries-a-google-ngram-study
#19
Nadja Younes, Ulf-Dietrich Reips
This article provides evidence for the long-term affiliation between ecological and cultural changes in German-speaking countries, based on the assumptions derived from social change and human development theory. Based on this theory, the increase in urbanisation, as a measure of ecological change, is associated with significant cultural changes of psychology. Whereas urbanisation is linked to greater individualistic values and materialistic attitudes, rural environments are strongly associated with collectivistic values like allegiance, prevalence of religion, and feelings of belonging and benevolence...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464241/the-effects-of-promoting-alternative-thinking-strategies-preschool-program-on-teacher-children-relationships-and-children-s-social-competence-in-turkey
#20
Gamze Bilir Seyhan, Sakire Ocak Karabay, Tugce B Arda Tuncdemir, Mark T Greenberg, Celene Domitrovich
This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) Preschool Program on the outcomes of children's social-emotional competence, perceived relationships between teacher and children and teachers' ability to create a positive classroom atmosphere. Two hundred and eighty five children (48-72 months) and teachers in Izmir participated in the intervention, and 280 children (48-72 months) and teachers participated as comparison group. Intervention teachers implemented PATHS in their classrooms...
May 2, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
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