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Water Research

Ran Yin, Li Ling, Chii Shang
UV-LEDs are considered as the most promising UV light sources, because it has the potential to replace conventional UV lamps in some water treatment applications in the foreseeable future. In this study, UV-LEDs at four wavelengths in the UV-C or near UV-C range (i.e., 257.7, 268, 282.3, and 301.2 nm) were used to investigate the wavelength-dependency on chlorine photolysis and its subsequent radical formation. The fluence-based photodecay rates of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hypochlorite (OCl- ) were monotonically correlated to their molar absorption coefficients and quantum yields, and the chlorine photodecay rates were much more significantly affected by molar absorption coefficients (β  = 0...
June 14, 2018: Water Research
Yang Guo, Huijiao Wang, Bin Wang, Shubo Deng, Jun Huang, Gang Yu, Yujue Wang
Prediction of micropollutant abatements by catalytic ozonation is critical for its process design and optimization in water treatment. In this study, a chemical kinetic model based on ozone (O3 ) and hydroxyl radical (OH) rate constants (kO3 and kOH ) and O3 and OH exposures is proposed for the generalized prediction of micropollutant abatement by homogeneous catalytic ozonation. Several micropollutants with kO3 ranging from <0.15 to 1.0 × 106  M-1  s-1 were spiked in water matrices (deionized water and surface water) and then treated by ozonation alone and homogeneous catalytic ozonation with varying transition metals (Ti2+ , Co2+ , Ni2+ , Zn2+ , Cu2+ , Mn2+ , Fe2+ , and Fe3+ )...
June 14, 2018: Water Research
Xiaohu Li, Irini Angelidaki, Yifeng Zhang
Biological conversion of CO2 to value-added chemicals and biofuels has emerged as an attractive strategy to address the energy and environmental concerns caused by the over-reliance on fossil fuels. In this study, an innovative microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cell (MREC), which combines the strengths of reverse electrodialysis (RED) and microbial electrosynthesis technology platforms, was developed to achieve efficient CO2 -to-value chemicals bioconversion by using the salinity gradient energy as driven energy sources...
June 14, 2018: Water Research
Naomi S Wells, Uwe Kappelmeyer, Kay Knöller
Nitrogen fate and transport through contaminated groundwater systems, where N is both ubiquitous and commonly limits pollutant attenuation, must be re-evaluated given evidence for new potential microbial N pathways. We addressed this by measuring the isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic N (DIN = NH4 + , NO2 - , and NO3 - ) and N functional gene abundances (amoA, nirK, nirS, hszA) from 20 to 38 wells across an NH4 + , hydrocarbon, and SO4 2- contaminated aquifer. In-situ N attenuation was confirmed on three sampling dates (0, +6, +12 months) by the decreased [DIN] (4300 - 40 μM) and increased δ15 N-DIN (5‰-33‰) over the flow path...
June 13, 2018: Water Research
Jiongming Sun, Hangzhou Xu, Haiyan Pei, Yan Jin, Hongmin Li, Chunxia Ma
Benthic Oscillatoria sp. may form dense surface blooms especially under eutrophic and calm conditions, which poses a threat to drinking water safety because it can produce toxic and odorous metabolites. This is the first study to investigate the effect of the conventional coagulant polyaluminium ferric chloride (PAFC) on removal of Oscillatoria sp., and the behavior of Oscillatoria sp. cells in sludges formed from different dosages of PAFC (control, optimum, and overdose system) during storage was also studied...
June 9, 2018: Water Research
Hiie Nõlvak, Marika Truu, Kristjan Oopkaup, Kärt Kanger, Ivo Krustok, Emma Nehrenheim, Jaak Truu
Wastewater treatment systems receiving municipal wastewater are major dissemination nodes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) between anthropogenic and natural environments. This study examined the fate of antibiotic resistome and class 1-3 integron-integrase genes in photobioreactors that were treating municipal wastewater diluted (70/30) with lake or tap water for the algal biomass production. A combined approach of metagenomic and quantitative (qPCR) analysis was undertaken. Municipal wastewater treatment in the photobioreactors led to reduced antibiotic resistome proportion, number of ARG subtypes, and abundances of individual ARGs in the bacterial community...
June 8, 2018: Water Research
Chen Gu, Jing Wang, Mengfan Guo, Meng Sui, Hong Lu, Guangfei Liu
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) has attracted considerable attention due to its ubiquitous presence in different environmental compartments worldwide. However, information on its aerobic biodegradability in coastal environments remains unknown. Here, the aerobic biodegradation of TBBPA using a Pseudoalteromonas species commonly found in the marine environment was investigated. We found that extracellular biogenic siderophore, superoxide anion radical (O2 •- ), hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), and hydroxyl radical (• OH) were involved in TBBPA degradation...
June 7, 2018: Water Research
Catarina F Araujo, Mariela M Nolasco, Antonio M P Ribeiro, Paulo J A Ribeiro-Claro
Widespread microplastic pollution is raising growing concerns as to its detrimental effects upon living organisms. A realistic risk assessment must stand on representative data on the abundance, size distribution and chemical composition of microplastics. Raman microscopy is an indispensable tool for the analysis of very small microplastics (<20 μm). Still, its use is far from widespread, in part due to drawbacks such as long measurement time and proneness to spectral distortion induced by fluorescence...
June 6, 2018: Water Research
Quxiu Dai, Liping Ma, Nanqi Ren, Ping Ning, Zhiying Guo, Longgui Xie, Haijun Gao
Modified phosphogypsum (MPG) was developed to improve dewaterability of sewage sludge, and dewatering performance, properties of treated sludge, composition and morphology distribution of EPS, dynamic analysis and multiple regression model on bound water release were investigated. The results showed that addition of MPG caused extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) disintegration through charge neutralization. Destruction of EPS promoted the formation of larger sludge flocs and the release of bound water into supernatant...
June 6, 2018: Water Research
Nadia Farhat, Frederik Hammes, Emmanuelle Prest, Johannes Vrouwenvelder
The bacterial growth potential is important to understand and manage bacterial regrowth-related water quality concerns. Bacterial growth potential depends on growth promoting/limiting compounds, therefore, nutrient availability is the key factor governing bacterial growth potential. Selecting proper tools for bacterial growth measurement is essential for routine implementation of the growth potential measurement. This study proposes a growth potential assay that is universal and can be used for different water types and soil extract without restrictions of pure culture or cultivability of the bacterial strain...
June 6, 2018: Water Research
Anand Archana, Benoit Thibodeau, Naomi Geeraert, Min Nina Xu, Shuh-Ji Kao, David M Baker
Elevated nutrient inputs have led to increased eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems worldwide. An understanding of the relative contribution of different nutrient sources is imperative for effective water quality management. Stable isotope values of nitrate (δ15 NNO3- , δ18 ONO3- ) can complement conventional water quality monitoring programs to help differentiate natural sources of NO3 - from anthropogenic inputs and estimate the processes involved in N cycling within an ecosystem. We measured nutrient concentrations, δ15 NNO3- , and δ18 ONO3- in 76 locations along a salinity gradient from the lower end of the Pearl River Estuary, one of China's largest rivers discharging into the South China Sea, towards the open ocean...
June 5, 2018: Water Research
Peng Zhang, Shiling Zheng, Jia Liu, Bingchen Wang, Fanghua Liu, Yujie Feng
Biochar has been reported to facilitate direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in co-cultures between Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens, a model defined co-culture system. In this study, the biochar derived from the activated sludge with different pyrolysis temperature was added to the co-cultures, the ethanol metabolism rates (Re) and succinate production rates (Rs) of co-culture with biochar-800 were 1.05- and 1.42-fold higher than that without addition. The results suggested that the conductivity of the biochar did not correlate with the facilitating effect of the biochar on the co-culture metabolism...
June 5, 2018: Water Research
Xiaochen Liu, Arthur H W Beusen, Ludovicus P H Van Beek, José M Mogollón, Xiangbin Ran, Alexander F Bouwman
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) flows from land to sea in the Yangtze River basin were simulated for the period 1900-2010, by combining models for hydrology, nutrient input to surface water, and an in-stream retention. This study reveals that the basin-wide nutrient budget, delivery to surface water, and in-stream retention increased during this period. Since 2004, the Three Gorges Reservoir has contributed 5% and 7% of N and P basin-wide retention, respectively. With the dramatic rise in nutrient delivery, even this additional retention was insufficient to prevent an increase of riverine export from 337 Gg N yr-1 and 58 Gg P yr-1 (N:P molar ratio = 13) to 5896 Gg N yr-1 and 381 Gg P yr-1 (N:P molar ratio = 35) to the East China Sea and Yellow Sea (ECSYS)...
June 4, 2018: Water Research
Yang Zhou, Xiaolei Wang, Changyin Zhu, Dionysios D Dionysiou, Guangchao Zhao, Guodong Fang, Dongmei Zhou
Peroxymonosulfate (PMS) or persulfate activation by sulfur-containing minerals has been applied extensively for the degradation of contaminants; however, the role of sulfur conversion in this process has not been fully explored. In this study, pyrite (FeS2 )-based PMS activation process was developed for diethyl phthalate (DEP) degradation, and its underlying mechanisms were elucidated. PMS was found to be efficiently activated by FeS2 for DEP degradation and mineralization, achieving 58.9% total organic carbon removal using 0...
June 4, 2018: Water Research
Prithvi Simha, Jenna Senecal, Annika Nordin, Cecilia Lalander, Björn Vinnerås
In urine-separating sanitation systems, bacterial urease enzymes can hydrolyse urea to ammonia during the pipe transport and storage of urine. The present study investigated whether it was possible to reduce the urine volume without losing the nitrogen as ammonia. A method for stabilising the urine prior to dehydration was developed. Briefly, fresh human urine was stabilised by passage through an anion-exchanger, added to an alkaline media (wood ash or alkalised biochar), and dehydrated. Urine dehydration was investigated at three temperatures: 40, 45 and 50 °C...
June 2, 2018: Water Research
Long Huang, Zhiqiang Chen, Dandan Xiong, Qinxue Wen, Ye Ji
As the main intermediate metabolite in anaerobic digestion of wasted activated sludge (WAS), volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are proper substrate for mixed culture (MC) polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis. To further optimize the performance of MC PHA production process, VFA_odd (i.e., VFA with odd carbon atoms) oriented acidification process was proposed and conducted in this study. Three regulation factors including reaction pH, fraction of added β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and glycerol were selected and response surface methodology (RSM) was used to enhance and effectively regulate the VFA_odd production while maintaining enough acidification degree in the WAS acidification...
June 1, 2018: Water Research
L Hermon, J Denonfoux, J Hellal, C Joulian, S Ferreira, S Vuilleumier, G Imfeld
Dichloromethane (DCM) is a widespread and toxic industrial solvent which often co-occurs with chlorinated ethenes at polluted sites. Biodegradation of DCM occurs under both oxic and anoxic conditions in soils and aquifers. Here we investigated in situ and ex situ biodegradation of DCM in groundwater sampled from the industrial site of Themeroil (France), where DCM occurs as a major co-contaminant of chloroethenes. Carbon isotopic fractionation (εC ) for DCM ranging from -46 to -22‰ were obtained under oxic or denitrifying conditions, in mineral medium or contaminated groundwater, and for laboratory cultures of Hyphomicrobium sp...
May 31, 2018: Water Research
Yi-Ting Chen, Wan-Ru Chen, Tsair-Fuh Lin
Beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a new cyanobacterial neurotoxin produced by more than 20 genera of cyanobacteria, has been associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC) or Alzheimer's disease. Although BMAA has been shown to be removed in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), studies regarding the reactions between BMAA and the commonly used oxidants in DWTPs are limited to chlorine under specific conditions. In this study, the reaction kinetics between BMAA and five oxidants commonly used in DWTPs, including chlorine, potassium permanganate, ozone, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical were investigated...
May 31, 2018: Water Research
Huacheng Xu, Mengwen Xu, Yani Li, Xin Liu, Laodong Guo, Helong Jiang
Stability of colloidal particles contributes to the turbidity in the water column, which significantly influences water quality and ecological functions in aquatic environments especially shallow lakes. Here we report characterization, origin and aggregation behavior of aquatic colloids, including natural colloidal particles (NCPs) and total inorganic colloidal particles (TICPs), in a highly turbid shallow lake, via field observations, simulation experiments, ultrafiltration, spectral and microscopic, and light scattering techniques...
May 31, 2018: Water Research
Sheng Chen, Xi Li, Yahong Wang, Jie Zeng, Chengsong Ye, Xianping Li, Lizheng Guo, Shenghua Zhang, Xin Yu
Many pathogens can enter into a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state in response to harsh environmental stresses. Bacteria in this state can retain certain features of viable cells, such as cellular integrity, metabolic activity, or virulence and may present health risks associated with drinking water. In this study, we investigated the ability of chlorination and chloramination, which are widely used methods to disinfect drinking water, to induce Escherichia coli into a VBNC state. After treatment with chlorine and chloramine at concentrations of 1, 2, 3, and 4 mg/L, the counts of culturable E...
May 30, 2018: Water Research
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