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Water Research

Paul Onkundi Nyangaresi, Yi Qin, Guolong Chen, Baoping Zhang, Yinghua Lu, Liang Shen
Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) have shown a potential to replace traditional Ultraviolet (UV) pressure lamps for water disinfection. However, the research is not sufficient and hence, it is still difficult to make any logical conclusions. In this work, UV-LEDs with peak emissions at 267, 275, 310 nm and combined emissions at 267/275, 267/310 and 275/310 nm were applied to a batch water disinfection system. Under either single- or combined-wavelength situation, the inactivation efficiency, reactivation (due to photoreactivation and dark repair) after UV irradiation and electrical energy consumption were evaluated by way of the model bacterium Escherichia coli...
October 8, 2018: Water Research
Juan Pablo Gutiérrez, Doris van Halem, Wim S J Uijttewaal, Efraín Del Risco, Luuk C Rietveld
As a consequence of the suspended sediments in river water, cake formation on the streambed and clogging of the aquifer may occur, leading to a decline in the production yield of riverbank filtration systems, particularly in highly turbid river waters. However, naturally occurring flow forces may induce sufficient scouring of the streambed, thereby self-regulating the thickness of the formed cake layer. This study assessed the recovery of the infiltration capacity in a simulated physically clogged riverbank filtration system, due to self-cleansing processes...
October 8, 2018: Water Research
Tao Yang, Yulei Liu, Lu Wang, Jin Jiang, Zhuangsong Huang, Su-Yan Pang, Haijun Cheng, Dawen Gao, Jun Ma
Roxarsone (ROX) is used in breeding industry to prevent infection by parasites, stimulate livestock growth and improve pigmentation of livestock meat. After being released into environment, ROX could be bio-degraded with the formation of carcinogenic inorganic arsenic (As) species. Here, ferrate oxidation of ROX was reported, in which we studied total-As removal, determined reaction kinetics, identified oxidation products, and proposed a reaction mechanism. It was found that the apparent second-order rate constant (kapp ) of ferrate with ROX was 305 M-1 s-1  at pH 7...
October 7, 2018: Water Research
Rania Ahmed Hamza, Zhiya Sheng, Oliver Terna Iorhemen, Mohamed Sherif Zaghloul, Joo Hwa Tay
This work investigated the long-term stability of aerobic granular sludge treating high-strength organic wastewater in a semi-pilot scale sequential batch reactor (SBR). The reactor was operated for 316 days under different operational conditions. It was found that the F/M ratio is an important parameter affecting granules formation and stability. Three selection mechanisms were investigated: (1) cultivation and maturation at moderately high influent COD concentration (2500 mg/L) followed by increase in influent COD concentration to 7500 mg/L; (2) stressed cultivation and operation at high influent COD concentration of 4500 mg/L; and (3) alternate feed loading strategy (variable influent COD concentration across the daily schedule of cycles at 50%, 75%, and 100% of the peak concentration of 5000 mg/L)...
October 6, 2018: Water Research
Efraim A Serna-Galvis, Jean A Troyon, Stefanos Giannakis, Ricardo A Torres-Palma, Claudio Minero, Davide Vione, Cesar Pulgarin
This work uncovers the implications of the estimation of exogenous inactivation rates for E. coli after the initial lag phase, and presents a strategy for the determination of the second-order inactivation rate constants (k2nd ) of these bacteria with relevant transient species promoted by solar light in natural waters. For this purpose, specific precursors were considered (nitrate ion, rose bengal, anthraquinone-2-sulfonate) as well as the respective photo-generated transient species (i.e., hydroxyl radical (•OH), singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) and triplet excited states)...
October 6, 2018: Water Research
Hongchao Li, Chao Shan, Wei Li, Bingcai Pan
Herein, we proposed a new catalytic oxidation system, i.e., iron(III)-tetraamidomacrocyclic ligand (FeIII -TAML) mediated activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS), for highly efficient organic degradation using p-chlorophenol (4-CP) as a model one. PMS/FeIII -TAML is capable of degrading 4-CP completely in 9 min at the initial 4-CP of 50 μM and pH = 7, whereas the recently explored system, H2 O2 /FeIII -TAML, could only result in ∼22% 4-CP removal in 20 min under otherwise identical conditions. More attractively, inorganic anions (i...
October 6, 2018: Water Research
Qiong Luo, Ze-Hua Liu, Hua Yin, Zhi Dang, Ping-Xiao Wu, Neng-Wu Zhu, Zhang Lin, Yu Liu
Increasing attention has been dedicated to trace phthalates in bottled water due to the serious concerns on public health, while there is still a lack of systematic analysis and assessment of current global situation. Through analyzing five representative phthalates in bottled water over 20 countries, this work clearly revealed the phthalates-associated potential risks in both human daily intake and estrogenic effect. In the risk assessment, the kinetic models were also developed to describe and predict phthalates migration...
October 5, 2018: Water Research
Mengtuan Ge, Dengjun Wang, Junwei Yang, Qiang Jin, Zongyuan Chen, Wangsuo Wu, Zhijun Guo
Remediating uranium contamination becomes a worldwide interest because of increasing uranium release from mining activities. Due to ubiquitous presence of pyrite and the application of iron-based technology, colloidal iron oxy-hydroxides such as akaganéite colloid (AKC) extensively exist in uranium polluted water at uranium tailing sites. In this context, we studied individual and co-transport of U(VI) and AKC in water-saturated sand columns at 50 mg/L AKC and environmentally relevant U(VI) concentrations (5...
October 5, 2018: Water Research
J C J Gude, L C Rietveld, D van Halem
In the top layer of aerated rapid sand filtration systems, uncharged As(III) is biologically converted to charged As(V). Subsequently, the main removal mechanism for As(V) is adsorption onto oxidised, flocculated Fe(III) (hydrous ferric hydroxides; HFO). The aim of this research was to understand the interactions between As and Fe in biologically active rapid filter columns and investigate the effect of different operational modes on Fe removal to subsequently promote As removal. For this purpose, different filter media column experiments were performed using natural, aerated groundwater containing 3...
October 5, 2018: Water Research
Yoshifumi Nakazawa, Yoshihiko Matsui, Yusuke Hanamura, Koki Shinno, Nobutaka Shirasaki, Taku Matsushita
Because of the eminent adsorptive capacity and rate for dissolved organic molecules compared to conventionally-sized powdered activated carbon (PAC), super-fine powdered activated carbon (SPAC) is gathering momentum for use in not only the pretreatment for membrane filtration for drinking water purification but also the conventional water purification process consisting of coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation, and rapid sand-filtration (CSF). However, the probability of SPAC particles to leak through a sand bed is higher than that of PAC, and their strict leakage control is an issue to be challenged when applying SPAC to CSF...
October 5, 2018: Water Research
Wei Zhang, Gaosheng Zhang, Caihong Liu, Juan Li, Tong Zheng, Jun Ma, Lu Wang, Jin Jiang, Xuedong Zhai
In order to attain a high-efficiency and low-cost adsorbent for both arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) removal from As-contaminated water, a novel nanostructured Fe-Ti-Mn composite oxide (FTMO) was fabricated through a one-step simultaneous oxidation and co-precipitation method. Batch control experiments and series of spectroscopy detection technologies were carried out to investigate the surface change of the FTMO adsorbent and the respective role of Fe, Ti and Mn content in the arsenic adsorption process...
October 5, 2018: Water Research
Wenxiu Qin, Yue Gu, Guozhong Wang, Tianxing Wu, Haimin Zhang, Xiaoxian Tang, Yunxia Zhang, Huijun Zhao
In an effort to provide early warnings for the occurrence of eutrophication, it is highly desirable to develop an accurate and efficient technique to ensure continuous monitoring of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in the aquatic environment from the viewpoint of environmental management. Herein, a new diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) technique was developed and evaluated for in situ measurement of DRP in waters, in which Zr-based metal organic frameworks (MOFs, UiO-66) were utilized as aqueous binding agent (abbreviated as UiO-66 DGT)...
October 5, 2018: Water Research
Tongcai Liu, Kai Yin, Chengbin Liu, Jinming Luo, John Crittenden, Weiqiu Zhang, Shenglian Luo, Qunying He, Yongxiu Deng, Hui Liu, Danyu Zhang
Oxcarbazepine (OXC) is ubiquitous in the aqueous environment. And due to its ecotoxicological effects and potential risks to human, an effective way to eliminate OXC from aqueous environment has aroused public concerns in recent years. Radical-based reactions have been shown to be an efficient way for OXC destruction, but the reactions of OXC with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and carbonate radical (CO3 •- ) are still unclear. In this study, we focused the degradation of OXC and ROS, CO3 •- generation mechanism, and their roles in OXC degradation via UV and UV/H2 O2 ...
October 5, 2018: Water Research
Yong-Bao Chu, Min Li, Jin-Wei Liu, Wei Xu, Shi-Han Cheng, Hua-Zhang Zhao
Types and structures of phosphorus compounds influence the removal of phosphorus by coagulation. Until now, the molecular-level interaction between coagulants and phosphorus (especially organophosphates) and the relationship between removal efficiency and phosphorus structure have not been clear. This work investigated the removal of phosphorus with different structures using conventional coagulants (poly aluminum chloride (PACl) and polymerized ferric sulfate (PFS)) and a novel covalently-bound inorganic-organic hybrid coagulant (CBHyC)...
October 5, 2018: Water Research
Cheng Tan, Calvin He, Wangwang Tang, Peter Kovalsky, John Fletcher, T David Waite
Capacitive de-ionization (CDI) systems are well-known for their low energy consumption making them suitable for applications powered by renewable energy. In this study, CDI technology is, for the first time, integrated with a suitably-scaled, stand-alone, renewable power system comprising photovoltaic panels and battery storage. Guidelines for designing and sizing such power systems are proposed including determining electrode charging current, PV panels and battery capacity. A 1 kW pilot plant was designed, constructed and operated to verify the proposed guidelines...
October 3, 2018: Water Research
Shaoyang Hu, Tingting Gong, Qiming Xian, Junjie Wang, Jian Ma, Zhigang Li, Jinbao Yin, Beibei Zhang, Bin Xu
Iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are widely present in disinfected drinking waters and wastewater effluents, and they have drawn increasing concern owing to their high toxicity. To date, the reported iodinated DBPs mainly include aliphatic and aromatic ones, and iodinated trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) are the most commonly detected aliphatic iodinated DBPs in disinfected waters. In this study, the formation of iodinated THMs and HAAs from aromatic iodinated DBPs during chloramination was investigated...
October 2, 2018: Water Research
Joseph E Weaver, Hyunsuk Hong, Joel J Ducoste, Francis L de Los Reyes
Biological floc size is an important reactor microenvironment parameter that is often not experimentally controlled due to a lack of suitable methods. Here, we introduce the Couette-Taylor bioreactor (CTB) as an improved tool for controlling biological floc size, specifically as compared with bubble-column sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). A CTB consists of two concentric walls, either of which may be rotated to induce fluid motion. The induced flow produces hydrodynamic shear which is more uniform than that produced through aeration in SBRs...
October 2, 2018: Water Research
D Sudmalis, S K Millah, M C Gagliano, C I Butré, C M Plugge, H H M Rijnaarts, G Zeeman, H Temmink
Increasing amounts of saline (waste)water with high concentrations of organic pollutants are generated globally. In the anaerobic (waste)water treatment domain, high salt concentrations are repeatedly reported to inhibit methanogenic activity and strategies to overcome this toxicity are needed. Current research focuses on the use of potential osmolyte precursor compounds for osmotic stress alleviation in granular anaerobic sludges upon exposure to hypersalinity shocks. Glutamic acid, aspartic acid, lysine, potassium, gelatine, and tryptone were tested for their potential to alleviate osmotic stress in laboratory grown and full - scale granular sludge...
October 2, 2018: Water Research
Mi-Hee Lee, Christopher L Osburn, Kyung-Hoon Shin, Jin Hur
Despite numerous studies on changes to optical proxies of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by biogeochemical processing, the applicability of commonly-used spectroscopic indices has not been explored as DOM source tracking tools under conditions where biogeochemical processes may alter them. For this study, two contrasting DOM end members, Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) and algogenic DOM (ADOM), and their mixtures, were used to examine the potential changes in the conservative mixing behaviors of several well-known optical indices via end member mixing analysis under the influence of biodegradation, UV irradiation, and clay mineral (kaolin) adsorption...
October 1, 2018: Water Research
Yuefei Ji, Junhe Lu, Lu Wang, Mengdi Jiang, Yan Yang, Peizeng Yang, Lei Zhou, Corinne Ferronato, Jean-Marc Chovelon
Despite that sulfate radical-based activated peroxymonosulfate (PMS) oxidation processes (e.g., UV/PMS, Co2+ /PMS, etc.) have been widely applied for decontamination, the direct oxidation of organic contaminants by PMS per se is less known. This contribution reports that certain contaminants, such as sulfonamides (SAs), are amendable to direct oxidation by PMS without activation. Using sulfamethoxazole (SMX) as a representative, kinetics and density functional theory (DFT)-based computational methods were applied to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and pathways through which SMX was transformed by direct PMS oxidation...
October 1, 2018: Water Research
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