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Water Research

Liping Fang, Ru Liu, Ji Li, Cuihong Xu, Li-Zhi Huang, Dongsheng Wang
An effective approach for eutrophication control and phosphate recovery remains a longstanding challenge. Herein, we present a new technique for phosphate sequestration in lake and phosphate recovery using novel magnetically recoverable magnetite/lanthanum hydroxide [M-La(OH)3] hybrids that can be prepared using a simple one-pot synthesis method. Batch studies show that M-La(OH)3 exhibits a strong sorption towards phosphate with sorption capacities of up to 52.7 mg-P/g at pH 7.0 in water. A simple model indicates that the efficiency of M-La(OH)3 for phosphate sequestration in lake is significantly attenuated by 34-45% compared to that in water, due to interference from sediment particles...
December 5, 2017: Water Research
Huiyu Dong, Zhimin Qiang, Shaogang Liu, Jin Li, Jianwei Yu, Jiuhui Qu
Presence of iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICMs) in source water is of high concern, because of their potential to form highly toxic iodinated disinfection by-products (I-DBPs). This study investigated kinetics, mechanisms and products for oxidation of one ICMs, iopamidol (IPM) by ferrate (Fe(VI)). The obtained apparent second-order rate constants for oxidation of IPM by Fe(VI) ranged from 0.7 M-1 s-1 to 74.6 M-1 s-1 at pH 6.0-10.0, which were highly dependent on pH. It was found that the oxidation of IPM by Fe(VI) led to the formation of highly toxic I-DBPs...
December 5, 2017: Water Research
Shuji Matsushita, Daisuke Komizo, Linh Thi Thuy Cao, Yoshiteru Aoi, Tomonori Kindaichi, Noriatsu Ozaki, Hiroyuki Imachi, Akiyoshi Ohashi
Biogenic manganese oxide (BioMnOx) can efficiently adsorb various minor metals. The production of BioMnOx in reactors to remove metals during wastewater treatment processes is a promising biotechnological method. However, it is difficult to preferentially enrich manganese-oxidizing bacteria (MnOB) to produce BioMnOx during wastewater treatment processes. A unique method of cultivating MnOB using methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) to produce soluble microbial products is proposed here. MnOB were successfully enriched in a methane-fed reactor containing MOB...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
Nico Trauth, Andreas Musolff, Kay Knöller, Ute S Kaden, Toralf Keller, Ulrike Werban, Jan H Fleckenstein
Nitrate contamination in ground- and surface water is a persistent problem in countries with intense agriculture. The transition zone between rivers and their riparian aquifers, where river water and groundwater interact, may play an important role in mediating nitrate exports, as it can facilitate intensive denitrification, which permanently removes nitrate from the aquatic system. However, the in-situ factors controlling riparian denitrification are not fully understood, as they are often strongly linked and their effects superimpose each other...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
Anna Vilajeliu-Pons, Christin Koch, Maria D Balaguer, Jesús Colprim, Falk Harnisch, Sebastià Puig
Removal of nitrogen, mainly in form of ammonium (NH4+), in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is a highly energy demanding process, mainly due to aeration. It causes costs of about half a million Euros per year in an average European WWTP. Alternative, more economical technologies for the removal of nitrogen compounds from wastewater are required. This study proves the complete anoxic conversion of ammonium (NH4+) to dinitrogen gas (N2) in continuously operated bioelectrochemical systems at the litre-scale...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
Erika Castrignanò, Zhugen Yang, Richard Bade, Jose A Baz-Lomba, Sara Castiglioni, Ana Causanilles, Adrian Covaci, Emma Gracia-Lor, Felix Hernandez, Juliet Kinyua, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Christoph Ort, Benedek G Plósz, Pedram Ramin, Nikolaos I Rousis, Yeonsuk Ryu, Kevin V Thomas, Pim de Voogt, Ettore Zuccato, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
The aim of this paper is to present the first study on spatial and temporal variation in the enantiomeric profile of chiral drugs in eight European cities. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) and enantioselective analysis were combined to evaluate trends in illicit drug use in the context of their consumption vs direct disposal as well as their synthetic production routes. Spatial variations in amphetamine loads were observed with higher use in Northern European cities. Enantioselective analysis showed a general enrichment of amphetamine with the R-(-)-enantiomer in wastewater indicating its abuse...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
Faqian Sun, KeKe Xiao, Wenyu Zhu, Nipuna Withanage, Yan Zhou
In this study, nitrite was added into sludge during freezing process to evaluate its role in waste activated sludge (WAS) solubilization and effect on sludge dewatering characteristics. The results showed that the introduction of 100 mg L-1 of nitrite could increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration from 29.5 to 48.8 mg DOC g-1 VSS under freezing conditions. More DOC was released with the increase of nitrite concentration. Freezing temperature, or freezing speed, also played a role in sludge solubilization...
November 30, 2017: Water Research
Arnau Casanovas-Massana, Federico Costa, Irina N Riediger, Marcelo Cunha, Daiana de Oliveira, Diogenes C Mota, Erica Sousa, Vladimir A Querino, Nivisson Nery, Mitermayer G Reis, Elsio A Wunder, Peter J Diggle, Albert I Ko
Leptospirosis has emerged as an important urban health problem as slum settlements have expanded worldwide. Yet the dynamics of the environmentally transmitted Leptospira pathogen has not been well characterized in these settings. We used a stratified dense sampling scheme to study the dynamics of Leptospira abundance in surface waters from a Brazilian urban slum community. We collected surface water samples during the dry, intermediate and rainy seasons within a seven-month period and quantified pathogenic Leptospira by quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
November 30, 2017: Water Research
Yijing Zhu, Yayi Wang, Shuai Zhou, Xuxin Jiang, Xiao Ma, Chao Liu
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are an emerging concern in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), as dissemination of ARGs can pose a serious risk to human health. Few studies, however, have quantified ARGs in membrane bioreactors (MBRs), although MBRs have been widely used for both municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. To reveal the capacity of MBRs for removal of ARGs and the response of membrane fouling after antibiotic exposure, five typical ARG subtypes (sulI, sulII, tetC, tetX and ereA) and int1 were quantified affiliated by systematic membrane foulants analysis in a laboratory-scale anoxic/aerobic membrane bioreactor (A/O-MBR)...
November 30, 2017: Water Research
Hehuan Liao, Emily Sarver, Leigh-Anne H Krometis
Ecological degradation of streams remains a major environmental concern worldwide. While stream restoration has received considerable attention, mitigation efforts focused on the improvement of physical habitat have not proven completely effective. Several small-scale studies have emphasized that effective restoration strategies require a more holistic understanding of the variables at play, although the generalization of the findings based on the small-scale studies remains unclear. Using a comprehensive statewide stream monitoring database from West Virginia (WV), a detailed landscape dataset, and a machine learning algorithm, this study explores the interactive impacts of water quality and physical habitat on stream ecosystem health as indicated by benthic macroinvertebrate scores...
November 30, 2017: Water Research
Weiwei Ben, Bing Zhu, Xiangjuan Yuan, Yu Zhang, Min Yang, Zhimin Qiang
This study investigated the occurrence, removal and risk of 42 organic micropollutants (MPs), including 30 pharmaceuticals and personal care products and 12 endocrine disrupting chemicals, in 14 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) distributed across China. The composition profiles of different MP categories in the influent, effluent, and excess sludge were explored and the aqueous removal efficiencies of MPs were determined. Quantitative meta-analysis was performed to compare the efficacies of different wastewater treatment processes in eliminating MPs...
November 30, 2017: Water Research
Liang Zhang, Zefeng Zhang, Rongrong Sun, Shuang Liang, Guang-Hao Chen, Feng Jiang
Sulfur reduction is a promising alternative to sulfate reduction as it can generate sulfide at a low cost for the precipitation of heavy metals or autotrophic denitrification in wastewater treatment. However, the extremely low water solubility of elemental sulfur limits its bioavailability and results in a low sulfur-reduction rate. Polysulfide, which is naturally generated through reactions between sulfur and sulfide, can enhance the bioavailability of sulfur and thus contribute to high-rate sulfur reduction...
November 28, 2017: Water Research
Xinwen Zhang, Zhen Hu, Huu Hao Ngo, Jian Zhang, Wenshan Guo, Shuang Liang, Huijun Xie
Insufficient oxygen supply is identified as one of the major factors limiting organic pollutant and nitrogen (N) removal in constructed wetlands (CWs). This study designed a novel aerated vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) using waste gas from biological wastewater treatment systems to improve pollutant removal in CWs, its potential in purifying waste gas was also identified. Compared with unaerated VFCW, the introduction of waste gas significantly improved NH4+-N and TN removal efficiencies by 128.48 ± 3...
November 28, 2017: Water Research
Anca-Maria Tugulea, Rocio Aranda-Rodriguez, Denis Bérubé, Michèle Giddings, France Lemieux, Joan Hnatiw, Luda Dabeka, François Breton
The National Survey of Disinfection By-Products and Selected Emerging Contaminants investigated the formation of various disinfection by-products and contaminants in 65 water treatment systems (WTSs) across Canada. Results for six iodo-trihalomethanes (iodo-THMs) are reported in this paper. The participating water treatment systems included large, medium and small systems using water sources and treatment processes which were representative of Canadian drinking water. Five water samples (source water, treated water and three water samples along the distribution system) were collected from each treatment system, both under winter and summer conditions...
November 27, 2017: Water Research
Huijiao Wang, Juhong Zhan, Weikun Yao, Bin Wang, Shubo Deng, Jun Huang, Gang Yu, Yujue Wang
Pharmaceutical abatement in a groundwater (GW), surface water (SW), and secondary effluent (SE) by conventional ozonation, the conventional peroxone (O3/H2O2), and the electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) processes was compared in batch tests. SE had significantly more fast-reacting dissolved organic matter (DOM) moieties than GW and SW. Therefore, O3 decomposed much faster in SE than in GW and SW. At specific ozone doses of 0.5-1.5 mg O3/mg dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the application of O3/H2O2 and E-peroxone process (by adding external H2O2 stocks or in-situ generating H2O2 from cathodic O2 reduction during ozonation) similarly enhanced the OH yield from O3 decomposition by ∼5-12% and 5-7% in GW and SW, respectively, compared to conventional ozonation...
November 27, 2017: Water Research
Marlen Heinz, Dominik Zak
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of freezing and cold storage at 4 °C on bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) concentration and SEC fractions determined with size exclusion chromatography (SEC), as well as on spectral properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) analyzed with fluorescence spectroscopy. In order to account for differences in DOM composition and source we analyzed storage effects for three different sample types, including a lake water sample representing freshwater DOM, a leaf litter leachate of Phragmites australis representing a terrestrial, 'fresh' DOM source and peatland porewater samples...
November 27, 2017: Water Research
Feifei Wang, Doris van Halem, Lei Ding, Ying Bai, Karin Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, Jan Peter van der Hoek
The removal of bromate (BrO3-) as a by-product of ozonation in subsequent managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems, specifically in anoxic nitrate (NO3-)-reducing zones, has so far gained little attention. In this study, batch reactors and columns were used to explore the influence of NO3- and increased assimilable organic carbon (AOC) due to ozonation pre-treatment on BrO3- removal in MAR systems. 8 m column experiments were carried out for 10 months to investigate BrO3- behavior in anoxic NO3--reducing zones of MAR systems...
November 27, 2017: Water Research
Wei Wei, Qilin Wang, Liguo Zhang, Andrew Laloo, Haoran Duan, Damien J Batstone, Zhiguo Yuan
Previous work has demonstrated that pre-treatment of waste activated sludge (WAS) with free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) enhances the biodegradability of WAS, identified by a 20-50% increase in specific methane production in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. This suggests that FNA pre-treatment would enhance the destruction of volatile solids (VS) in an anaerobic sludge digester, and reduce overall sludge disposal costs, provided that the dewaterability of the digested sludge is not negatively affected...
November 24, 2017: Water Research
Patrick Biller, Ib Johannsen, Juliano Souza Dos Passos, Lars Ditlev Mørck Ottosen
Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising technology for biofuel production and treatment of wastewater sludge. The current study investigates a novel utilization of biomass-assisted filtration of primary sludge to obtain high dry matter (DM) content sludge. Drastic improvements in filtration speed are achieved using different types of lignocellulosic biomass filter aids prepared via mechanical pre-treatment. The combined sludge-biomass filter cake is subsequently used as a feedstock for HTL and shows superior bio-crude yields and properties compared to their individual counterparts...
November 23, 2017: Water Research
Surapong Rattanakul, Kumiko Oguma
To demonstrate the effectiveness of UV light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) to disinfect water, UV-LEDs at peak emission wavelengths of 265, 280, and 300 nm were adopted to inactivate pathogenic species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila, and surrogate species, including Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis spores, and bacteriophage Qβ in water, compared to conventional low-pressure UV lamp emitting at 254 nm. The inactivation profiles of each species showed either a linear or sigmoidal survival curve, which both fit well with the Geeraerd's model...
November 23, 2017: Water Research
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