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Water Research

Kaishan Song, Yingxin Shang, Zhidan Wen, Pierre-Andre Jacinthe, Ge Liu, Lili Lyu, Chong Fang
Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is a major component of DOM in waters, and plays a vital role in carbon cycling in inland waters. In this study, the light absorption and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectra (EEMs) of CDOM of 936 water samples collected in 2014-2017 from 234 lakes in five regions across China were examined to determine relationships between lake water sources (fresh versus saline) and their fluorescence/absorption characteristics. Results indicated significant differences regarding DOC concentration and aCDOM (254) between freshwater (6...
December 8, 2018: Water Research
Yarong Song, Yimei Tian, Xuan Li, Jing Wei, Haiya Zhang, Philip L Bond, Zhiguo Yuan, Guangming Jiang
Microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) is a major deterioration affecting sewers worldwide. MICC is not uniform on sewer inner walls and often occurs at hot spots such as crown and tidal regions, which are critical to determine sewer service life. Especially, concrete corrosion in tidal regions is complicated due to the fluctuation of wastewater levels and the hydraulic scouring effects. The traditional methodology of corrosion monitoring also limits the study of the tidal corrosion. In this study, by using a combination of various advanced mineral analytical techniques and culture-independent 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, the development of corrosion, the formation of corrosion products and the variation of microbial communities in tidal regions were investigated systematically...
December 6, 2018: Water Research
Franz Tscheikner-Gratl, Vasilis Bellos, Alma Schellart, Antonio Moreno-Rodenas, Manoranjan Muthusamy, Jeroen Langeveld, Francois Clemens, Lorenzo Benedetti, Miguel Angel Rico-Ramirez, Rita Fernandes de Carvalho, Lutz Breuer, James Shucksmith, Gerard B M Heuvelink, Simon Tait
This paper aims to stimulate discussion based on the experiences derived from the QUICS project (Quantifying Uncertainty in Integrated Catchment Studies). First it briefly discusses the current state of knowledge on uncertainties in sub-models of integrated catchment models and the existing frameworks for analysing uncertainty. Furthermore, it compares the relative approaches of both building and calibrating fully integrated models or linking separate sub-models. It also discusses the implications of model linkage on overall uncertainty and how to define an acceptable level of model complexity...
December 5, 2018: Water Research
Evelyne Doré, Elise Deshommes, Laurent Laroche, Shokoufeh Nour, Michèle Prévost
Partial lead service line replacement (PLSLR) results in the addition of a new galvanic connection and can increase lead concentrations at the tap. Focus has been given to minimizing lead release after PLSLR, but little information is available on the impact of lead remedial actions on copper concentrations, especially before passivation occurs. The impact of water quality (decreased chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio from 0.9 to 0.3; addition of orthoP; pH increase to 8.3) on lead and copper concentrations was investigated after stagnation (30 min-336 h) in a pipe rig comparing full lead service line (LSL), and two configurations of partial LSLs (Cu-Pb and Pb-Cu)...
December 3, 2018: Water Research
Kai-Ge Lu, Haiou Huang
Silica scaling of reverse osmosis membranes in brackish water desalination is less understood than hardness scaling due to the complex silica behaviors at the membrane/water interface. In this study, -COOH, -SO3 H, -NH2 and -OH functional groups were introduced onto polyamide membranes to create distinct surface physicochemical properties. The resulting membranes were further studied under similar scaling conditions to yield temporal flux loss data that were empirically interpreted by a logistic growth model...
November 30, 2018: Water Research
Marlies E R Christiaens, Kai M Udert, Jan B A Arends, Steve Huysman, Lynn Vanhaecke, Ewan McAdam, Korneel Rabaey
Ammonia recovery from urine avoids the need for nitrogen removal through nitrification/denitrification and re-synthesis of ammonia (NH3 ) via the Haber-Bosch process. Previously, we coupled an alkalifying electrochemical cell to a stripping column, and achieved competitive nitrogen removal and energy efficiencies using only electricity as input, compared to other technologies such as conventional column stripping with air. Direct liquid-liquid extraction with a hydrophobic gas membrane could be an alternative to increase nitrogen recovery from urine into the absorbent while minimizing energy requirements, as well as ensuring microbial and micropollutant retention...
November 30, 2018: Water Research
Junfeng Wang, Xinshan Song, Qusheng Li, Heng Bai, Congyun Zhu, Baisha Weng, Denghua Yan, Junhong Bai
The frequent occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aquatic environments is of great concern because of their teratogenicity, toxicity, carcinogenicity, and mutagenicity to plants, animals and human beings. In this study the bioelectricity generation, biodegradation, phytoextraction and substrate adsorption of phenanthrene and anthracene in a constructed wetland-microbial fuel cell (CW-MFC) were investigated with an anode electrode amended with or without biochar-nZVI. During a 182-day operation period, the average removal efficiency for phenanthrene and anthracene ranged from 88...
November 30, 2018: Water Research
Jian-Ping Zou, Ying Chen, Shan-Shan Liu, Qiu-Ju Xing, Wen-Hua Dong, Xu-Biao Luo, Wei-Li Dai, Xiao Xiao, Jin-Ming Luo, John Crittenden
A novel electrocatalytic system was developed to realize one-pot conversion of organic pollutants into liquid fuels such as methanol (CH3 OH) and ethanol (C2 H5 OH). The process combines the catalytic oxidation of organic pollutants with electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 . We first coupled the electrocatalytic process with SO4 •- -based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) using a 3D-hexagonal Co3 O4 anode. In this step, 4-NP was mineralized to CO2 , and then the CO2 was converted to CH3 OH and C2 H5 OH by electrocatalytic reduction using a flower-like CuO cathode...
November 30, 2018: Water Research
Huarong Yu, Kibaek Lee, Xiaolei Zhang, Kwang-Ho Choo
Efficient media designs for microbial quorum quenching (QQ) are essential to enable maximal biofouling control in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Here we introduce a novel, double-layered, biocarrier design, which has QQ bacteria in the shell layer with biostimulating agents in the core, for effective membrane biofouling control. Confining the biostimulant within dense polymer materials permits its controlled release over an extended period. The provision of the biostimulant from the core to the outer shell, where the QQ bacteria are encapsulated, facilitates their prolonged survival and active life...
November 30, 2018: Water Research
Jianxin Pan, Jingde Ma, Haizhen Wu, Ben Chen, Meiling He, Chen Liao, Chaohai Wei
Metabolic division of labor is a key ecological strategy in bacteria to allow concurrent execution of multiple tasks through functional differentiation and metabolite exchange. While it is prevalent in nature, a lot of novel interactions remain to be further explored for improved wastewater biological treatment. Here, we present a combined experimental and modeling study on the simultaneous removal of nitrogen and thiocyanate from wastewater by using a syntrophic microbial community. The syntrophic division of labor was achieved by coupling autotrophic denitrification (AD) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (AN) through both cooperative and competitive interactions...
November 30, 2018: Water Research
Longfei Wang, Yi Li, Peisheng Zhang, Shujuan Zhang, Peng Li, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang
River biofilms play fundamental roles in shaping the architecture of aquatic systems. Sorption to biofilms was thought to be a crucial mechanism controlling the fate and transport of trace emerging contaminants. This study focused on the role of in situ colonized river biofilms in the early fate of phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenols (BPs) at trace concentrations in a representative urban river. PAEs and BPs were readily sorbed to biofilms with uptakes of 38.2-162.5 μg/g for PAEs and 1787.7-4425.6 μg/g for BPs, respectively...
November 29, 2018: Water Research
Ian M Bradley, Maria C Sevillano-Rivera, Ameet J Pinto, Jeremy S Guest
Suspended growth, mixed community phototrophic wastewater treatment systems (including high-rate algal ponds and photobioreactors) have the potential to achieve biological nitrogen and phosphorus recovery with effluent nutrient concentrations below the current limit-of-technology. In order to achieve reliable and predictive performance, it is necessary to establish a thorough understanding of how design and operational decisions influence the complex community structure governing nutrient recovery in these systems...
November 28, 2018: Water Research
Ying Shao, Hongxia Xiao, Carolina Di Paolo, Björn Deutschmann, Werner Brack, Henner Hollert, Thomas Benjamin Seiler
Water pollution risks to human health and the environment are emerging as serious concerns in the European Union and worldwide. With the aim to achieve good ecological and chemical status of all European water bodies, the "European Water Framework Directive" (WFD) was enacted. With the framework, bioanalytical techniques have been recognized as an important aspect. However, there are limitations to the application of bioassays directly for water quality assessment. Such approaches often fail to identify pollutants of concern, since the defined priority and monitored pollutants often fail to explain the observed toxicity...
November 28, 2018: Water Research
Qian Xiao, Shuili Yu, Lei Li, Yikui Zhang, Peng Yi
The photocatalytic decomposition of bromate (BrO3 - ), a possible human carcinogen, has attracted much attention because of its high efficiency and easier combination with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection in water treatment plants. In this study, the Fe(II)Ti(IV) layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been made through a facile hydrothermal method and used as an alternative photocatalyst for reduction of BrO3 - . LDHs prepared at a Fe/Ti molar ratio of ∼0.5 and pH 7.0, denoted as FeTi-0.5 (pH 7.0), exhibited the highest BrO3 - removal efficiency (removal rate constant = 0...
November 27, 2018: Water Research
Peiyuan Lin, Xian-Xun Yuan
Deterioration modelling has been a bottlenecking step towards risk-informed asset management of municipal water distribution networks. To close the gap, we proposed a two-time-scale (TTS) point process model on a pipe level for modelling and prediction of water main breaks. This paper presents the characterization, statistical parameter estimation, probabilistic features, and application of the model. Combining Poisson and renewal models into one, the proposed TTS process is characterized by a conditional intensity function of two time variables-one in a pipe clock for overall pipe aging and the other in a repair clock for local renewal...
November 27, 2018: Water Research
Yuanfeng Wei, Hui Liu, Chengbin Liu, Shenglian Luo, Yutang Liu, Xingwen Yu, Jianhong Ma, Kai Yin, Haopeng Feng
Although oxidation of As(III) to As(V) is deemed necessary to promote arsenic removal, the oxidation process usually involves toxic byproducts, well-defined conditions, energy input or sludge generation. Moreover, extra operations are required to remove the resulting As(V). A heterogeneous catalytic process of CuFe2 O4 with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) is established for As(III) oxidation and adsorption. The PMS can be activated by CuFe2 O4 to generate radical species for As(III) oxidation. The CuFe2 O4 /PMS has a stronger affinity for arsenic than CuFe2 O4 alone...
November 27, 2018: Water Research
Wangwang Tang, Jie Liang, Di He, Jilai Gong, Lin Tang, Zhifeng Liu, Dongbo Wang, Guangming Zeng
Substantial consumption and widespread contamination of the available freshwater resources necessitate a continuing search for sustainable, cost-effective and energy-efficient technologies for reclaiming this valuable life-sustaining liquid. With these key advantages, capacitive deionization (CDI) has emerged as a promising technology for the facile removal of ions or other charged species from aqueous solutions via capacitive effects or Faradaic interactions, and is currently being actively explored for water treatment with particular applications in water desalination and wastewater remediation...
November 26, 2018: Water Research
Shin Giek Goh, Nazanin Saeidi, Xiaoqiong Gu, Genevieve Gabrielle Rose Vergara, Liang Liang, Haoming Fang, Masaaki Kitajima, Ariel Kushmaro, Karina Yew-Hoong Gin
Fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Enterococcus, have been widely used to indicate the presence of pathogens. However, the suitability of fecal indicator bacteria to represent health risks is still being challenged, particularly in tropical aquatic environments. The objective of this study is to understand the occurrence and prevalence of indicators and pathogens in areas with contrasting land use, as well as to identify the major correlations between indicators, pathogens and environmental parameters...
November 26, 2018: Water Research
Evelyne Doré, Elise Deshommes, Laurent Laroche, Shokoufeh Nour, Michèle Prévost
Long-term (155 weeks) Pb concentrations, following partial lead service lines replacements (PLSLR), were measured in a flow through pilot made of harvested lead service lines (LSL) from the distribution system of the City of Montreal. The present study also investigates how release of Pb from full and partial LSLs is influenced by: pipe diameter, decrease in chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) from 0.9 to 0.3, addition of orthophosphate (1 mg P/L), and increase in pH to 8.3. Pb concentrations were measured after 16 h of stagnation and under flow conditions...
November 26, 2018: Water Research
Wouter Pronk, An Ding, Eberhard Morgenroth, Nicolas Derlon, Peter Desmond, Michael Burkhardt, Bing Wu, Anthony G Fane
Gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration has been investigated for almost 10 years. The technology is characterized not only by relatively lower transmembrane pressures which can be achieved by gravity (extremely low energy consumption), but also by the phenomenon of flux stabilization: A biofilm is allowed to form on the membrane and a stabilization of flux occurs which is related to biological processes within the biofilm layer on the membrane. This enables stable operation during a year or longer without any cleaning or flushing...
November 25, 2018: Water Research
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