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Water Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088722/in-situ-denitrification-and-dnra-rates-in-groundwater-beneath-an-integrated-constructed-wetland
#1
M M R Jahangir, O Fenton, C Müller, R Harrington, P Johnston, K G Richards
Evaluation of the environmental benefits of constructed wetlands (CWs) requires an understanding of their impacts on the groundwater quality under the wetlands. Empirical mass-balance (nitrogen in/nitrogen out) approaches for estimating nitrogen (N) removal in CWs do not characterise the final fate of N; where nitrate (NO3(-)-N) could be reduced to either ammonium (NH4(+)-N) or N2 with the potential for significant production of N2O. Herein, in situ denitrification and DNRA (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium) rates were measured in groundwater beneath cells of an earthen lined integrated constructed wetland (ICW, used to remove the nutrients from municipal wastewater) using the (15)N-enriched NO3(-)-N push-pull method...
January 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088720/role-of-dissolved-mn-iii-in-transformation-of-organic-contaminants-non-oxidative-versus-oxidative-mechanisms
#2
Erdan Hu, Ya Zhang, Shuyan Wu, Jun Wu, Liyuan Liang, Feng He
Mn(III) is a strong oxidant for one electron transfer, which may be important in the transformation of organic contaminants during water/wastewater treatment and biogeochemical redox processes. This study explored the reaction mechanisms of dissolved Mn(III) with organics. The role of dissolved Mn(III) either as a catalyst or an oxidant in reactions with organics was recognized. Aquo and/or hydroxo (or free) Mn(III), generated from the bisulfite activated permanganate process, facilitated efficient N-dealkylation of atrazine via a β-elimination mechanism, resulting no net redox reaction...
January 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088715/micropollutant-induced-tolerance-of-in-situ-periphyton-establishing-causality-in-wastewater-impacted-streams
#3
Ahmed Tlili, Juliane Hollender, Cornelia Kienle, Renata Behra
The overarching aim of this field study was to examine causal links between in-situ exposure to complex mixtures of micropollutants from wastewater treatment plants and effects on freshwater microbial communities in the receiving streams. To reach this goal, we assessed the toxicity of serial dilutions of micropollutant mixtures, extracted from deployed passive samplers at the discharge sites of four Swiss wastewater treatment plants, to in situ periphyton from upstream and downstream of the effluents. On the one hand, comparison of the sensitivities of upstream and downstream periphyton to the micropollutant mixtures indicated that algal and bacterial communities composing the periphyton displayed higher tolerance towards these micropollutants downstream than upstream...
January 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088723/discovery-and-metagenomic-analysis-of-an-anammox-bacterial-enrichment-related-to-candidatus-brocadia-caroliniensis-in-a-full-scale-glycerol-fed-nitritation-denitritation-separate-centrate-treatment-process
#4
Hongkeun Park, Ariane C Brotto, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Kartik Chandran
A distinctive red biofilm was observed in a glycerol-fed digester liquid effluent treatment process coupling partial nitrification (nitritation) and partial denitrification (denitritation) processes. Based on initial phylogenetic screening using 16S rRNA clone libraries and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the biofilm was enriched in novel anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AMX/anammox) closely related to Candidatus "Brocadia caroliniensis". The metabolic functionality of the C. "Brocadia caroliniensis" enrichment was further explored using high-throughput sequencing and de novo metagenome assembly...
January 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088719/low-temperature-mbbr-nitrification-microbiome-analysis
#5
Bradley Young, Robert Delatolla, Kevin Kennedy, Edith Laflamme, Alain Stintzi
This study aims to investigate post carbon removal moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) nitrification through the transition from 20 °C to 1 °C and during through long term operation at 1 °C. Four pilot nitrifying MBBR reactors were operated at various ammonia loading rates to elucidate the temperature effects on ammonia removal rates, cell viability and bacterial communities. The transition from 20 °C to 1 °C and during long term operation at 1 °C were modeled using Arrhenius temperature correction coefficients...
January 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088717/removal-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-from-wastewater-treatment-plant-effluent-by-coagulation
#6
Na Li, Guo-Ping Sheng, Yong-Ze Lu, Raymond J Zeng, Han-Qing Yu
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), as emerging environmental contaminants, have become a threat to human health. Recent studies have demonstrated that the effluent from wastewater treatment plants is a significant point source of ARGs released into the environment. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of coagulation technology in the removal of ARGs from treated wastewater. Specifically, we measured the removal of five ARGs (two sulfonamide resistance genes, sulI and sulII, and three tetracycline resistance genes, tetO, tetW and tetQ) and the class 1 integron intI1 gene via the application of two coagulants: FeCl3 and polyferric chloride (PFC)...
January 4, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088718/highly-efficient-inactivation-of-bacteria-found-in-drinking-water-using-chitosan-bentonite-composites-modelling-and-breakthrough-curve-analysis
#7
Sarah C Motshekga, Suprakas Sinha Ray
Disinfection of bacterially-contaminated drinking water requires a robust and effective technique and can be achieved by using an appropriate disinfectant material. The advanced use of nanomaterials is observed as an alternative and effective way for the disinfection process and water treatment as a whole. Hence, the inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) using chitosan-Bentonite (Cts-Bent) composites was studied in a fixed bed column. Cts-Bent composites were synthesized using in situ cross-linking method using Bent-supported silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles...
January 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088716/unveiling-the-transformation-and-bioavailability-of-dissolved-organic-matter-in-contrasting-hydrothermal-vents-using-fluorescence-eem-parafac
#8
Liyang Yang, Wan-E Zhuang, Chen-Tung Arthur Chen, Bing-Jye Wang, Fu-Wen Kuo
The submarine hydrothermal systems are extreme environments where active cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM) may occur. However, little is known about the optical properties and bioavailability of hydrothermal DOM, which could provide valuable insights into its transformation processes and biogeochemical reactivity. The quantity, quality, and bioavailability of DOM were investigated for four very different hydrothermal vents east of Taiwan, using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorption spectroscopy, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC)...
January 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086114/microbial-source-tracking-in-shellfish-harvesting-waters-in-the-gulf-of-nicoya-costa-rica
#9
E M Symonds, S Young, M E Verbyla, S M McQuaig-Ulrich, E Ross, J A Jiménez, V J Harwood, M Breitbart
Current microbial water quality monitoring is generally limited to culture-based measurements of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). Given the many possible sources of fecal pollution within a watershed and extra-intestinal FIB reservoirs, it is important to determine source(s) of fecal pollution as a means to improve water quality and protect public health. The principal objective of this investigation was to characterize the microbial water quality of shellfish harvesting areas in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica during 2015...
January 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086113/general-combined-model-for-the-hydrodynamic-behaviour-of-fixed-and-fluidised-granular-beds
#10
Garry Hoyland
This work describes the derivation of a general mathematical model applicable to both fixed and fluidised granular beds, operating within the full hydrodynamic spectrum from viscous to inertial flows. The fundamental insight for the derivation of the model is that practical fluidised beds and fixed beds have similar hydrodynamic properties. The validity of the general model is demonstrated for fluid fractions up to 0.90. A crucial development in the general model is the replacement of hydraulic diameter, which has served as the size descriptor of flow paths in most fixed-bed models derived since the advent of the classic Blake-Kozeny equation...
January 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068536/application-of-uv-absorbance-and-fluorescence-indicators-to-assess-the-formation-of-biodegradable-dissolved-organic-carbon-and-bromate-during-ozonation
#11
Wen-Tao Li, Meng-Jie Cao, Tessora Young, Barbara Ruffino, Michael Dodd, Ai-Min Li, Gregory Korshin
This study examined the significance of changes of UV absorbance and fluorescence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as surrogate indicators for assessing the formation of bromate and biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) during the ozonation of surface water and wastewater effluent. Spectroscopic monitoring was carried out using benchtop UV/Vis and fluorescence spectrophotometers and a newly developed miniature LED UV/fluorescence sensor capable of rapidly measuring UVA280 and protein-like and humic-like fluorescence...
January 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068534/potential-effects-of-loading-nano-zero-valent-iron-discharged-on-membrane-fouling-in-an-anoxic-oxic-membrane-bioreactor
#12
Lijie Zhou, Weiqin Zhuang, Xin Wang, Ke Yu, Shufang Yang, Siqing Xia
A laboratory-scale submerged anoxic-oxic membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater was operated to investigate the potential effects of loading suspended nano zero valent iron (nZVI, 25 and 50 mg/L) discharged on the membrane fouling. nZVI transformed rapidly into Fe(n+), generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caused oxidative stress. This result rapidly led to the cell lysis and bacteria death, and further resulted in the decrease of biomass and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). nZVI also thinned the membrane fouling layer...
January 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088721/modeling-biosolids-drying-through-a-laminated-hydrophobic-membrane
#13
Solmaz Marzooghi, Chunjian Shi, Steven K Dentel, Paul T Imhoff
The adaptation of the membrane distillation process as a low-cost and sustainable approach to biosolids drying and stabilization is investigated, which may have application in container-based sanitation systems proposed in low-income urban regions. Three-layer laminated, breathable, hydrophobic membranes enclose the biosolids, facilitating drying but preventing transport of contaminants. The membranes used in this process are non-wetting with pore spaces that only allow vapor transport. Water vapor can be expelled due to a moderate vapor pressure gradient...
December 29, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063284/production-of-hydroxyl-radicals-from-oxygenation-of-simulated-amd-due-to-caco3-induced-ph-increase
#14
Jian Zhu, Peng Zhang, Songhu Yuan, Peng Liao, Ao Qian, Xixiang Liu, Man Tong, Lina Li
Many karst areas are impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD) which is characterized by low pH, high concentrations of dissolved Fe(II) and toxic contaminants. During the flow of AMD in karst areas, the increase in pH facilitates the oxygenation of Fe(II). Whereas, the oxidizing capacity for Fe(II) oxygenation in AMD is poorly understood. In light of the recent finding that hydroxyl radicals (OH) can be produced from Fe(II) oxygenation, this study experimentally measured the cumulative concentrations of OH produced from oxygenation of simulated AMD (8...
December 29, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049049/bio-electrolytic-sensor-for-rapid-monitoring-of-volatile-fatty-acids-in-anaerobic-digestion-process
#15
Xiangdan Jin, Xiaohu Li, Nannan Zhao, Irini Angelidaki, Yifeng Zhang
This study presents an innovative biosensor that was developed on the basis of a microbial electrolysis cell for fast and reliable measurement of volatile fatty acids (VFA) during anaerobic digestion (AD) process. The bio-electrolytic sensor was first tested with synthetic wastewater containing varying concentrations of VFA. A linear correlation (R(2) = 0.99) between current densities (0.03 ± 0.01 to 2.43 ± 0.12 A/m(2)) and VFA concentrations (5-100 mM) was found. The sensor performance was then investigated under different affecting parameters such as the external voltage, VFA composition ratio, and ionic strength...
December 29, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068535/comparison-of-micropollutants-removal-performance-between-pre-ozonation-and-post-ozonation-using-a-pilot-study
#16
Kai Yang, Jianwei Yu, Qingyuan Guo, Chunmiao Wang, Min Yang, Yu Zhang, Ping Xia, Dong Zhang, Zhiyong Yu
Despite the strong oxidizing ability of ozone, pre-ozonation has seldom been employed for the purpose of micropollutant removal in drinking water utilities. In this paper, the possibility of using pre-ozonation instead of post-ozonation for the removal of micropollutants was explored because of the lower risk of forming carcinogenic bromate. A 1.0 m(3)/h pilot system was utilized to compare the efficacy of pre- and post-ozonation in the removal of bulk organic pollutants as well as micropollutants, including typical odor-causing compounds, pharmaceuticals, and typical pesticides, from one source water (Huangpu River) characterized by the occurrence of various micropollutants...
December 27, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061387/the-role-of-zero-valent-iron-on-the-fate-of-tetracycline-resistance-genes-and-class-1-integrons-during-thermophilic-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-waste-sludge-and-kitchen-waste
#17
Pin Gao, Chaochao Gu, Xin Wei, Xiang Li, Hong Chen, Hanzhong Jia, Zhenhong Liu, Gang Xue, Chunyan Ma
Activated sludge has been identified as a potential significant source of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to the environment. Anaerobic digestion is extensively used for sludge stabilization and resource recovery, and represents a crucial process for controlling the dissemination of ARGs prior to land application of digested sludge. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of zero valent iron (Fe(0)) on the attenuation of seven representative tetracycline resistance genes (tet, tet(A), tet(C), tet(G), tet(M), tet(O), tet(W), and tet(X)), and the integrase gene intI1 during thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of waste sludge and kitchen waste...
December 27, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056397/conjugative-multi-resistant-plasmids-in-haihe-river-and-their-impacts-on-the-abundance-and-spatial-distribution-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#18
Bingjun Dang, Daqing Mao, Yan Xu, Yi Luo
In this study, five classes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were quantified in sediment samples of Haihe River, China, with abundance ranging from 1.39 × 10(4) to 1.58 × 10(10) copies/g dry weight. Meanwhile, antibiotic resistant conjugative plasmids were also isolated from these samples through filter mating assays. In total, 202 transconjugants were isolated and tested for their antibiotic resistance phenotypes, among which 26 different types of conjugative plasmids were observed. The majority of these plasmids showed a multi-resistant phenotype and the most prevalent resistance was tetracycline resistance and sulfonamide resistance...
December 27, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063283/microbial-community-redundancy-in-anaerobic-digestion-drives-process-recovery-after-salinity-exposure
#19
Jo De Vrieze, Marlies E R Christiaens, Diego Walraedt, Arno Devooght, Umer Zeeshan Ijaz, Nico Boon
Anaerobic digestion of high-salinity wastewaters often results in process inhibition due to the susceptibility of the methanogenic archaea. The ability of the microbial community to deal with increased salinity levels is of high importance to ensure process perseverance or recovery after failure. The exact strategy of the microbial community to ensure process endurance is, however, often unknown. In this study, we investigated how the microbial community is able to recover process performance following a disturbance through the application of high-salinity molasses wastewater...
December 26, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043000/evaluating-the-role-of-soluble-aluminum-in-manganese-removal-via-mnox-s-coated-filtration-media-in-drinking-water-treatment
#20
A Jones, W R Knocke
The Mn oxide (MnOx(s)) surfaces of water treatment filtration media are known to aid in the capture of dissolved Mn species, but the discovery of significant deposits of Al within these coatings (Tobiason et al., 2008) raised certain questions about the possible role of Al in soluble Mn removal and the formation of the MnOx(s) surface on the media. This phenomenon was addressed by conducting a series of bench-scale column studies that involved the application of solutions containing varying amounts of soluble Al and Mn to MnOx(s)-coated media...
December 26, 2016: Water Research
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