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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918996/arsenic-removal-from-water-by-coupling-photocatalysis-and-complexation-ultrafiltration-processes-a-preliminary-study
#1
R Molinari, P Argurio
Inorganic As removal from contaminated water has been studied by off-line coupling of photocatalysis and complexation-ultrafiltration (CP-UF), showing that this combination permits to obtain a quite complete arsenic removal from the treated water. Two commercial polymers, poly(dimethylamine-coepichlorohydrin-coethylenediamine) (PDEHED) and poly(diallyl dimethyl amnmonium chloride) (PolyDADMAC) have been tested in the CP-UF process. The operating conditions (pH and polymer/As weight ratio) for As(V) complexation were determined finding values of 7...
November 27, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914260/the-extent-of-fermentative-transformation-of-phenolic-compounds-in-the-bioanode-controls-exoelectrogenic-activity-in-a-microbial-electrolysis-cell
#2
Xiaofei Zeng, Maya A Collins, Abhijeet P Borole, Spyros G Pavlostathis
Phenolic compounds in hydrolysate/pyrolysate and wastewater streams produced during the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production present a significant challenge in downstream processes. Bioelectrochemical systems are increasingly recognized as an alternative technology to handle biomass-derived streams and to promote water reuse in biofuel production. Thus, a thorough understanding of the fate of phenolic compounds in bioanodes is urgently needed. The present study investigated the biotransformation of three structurally similar phenolic compounds (syringic acid, SA; vanillic acid, VA; 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, HBA), and their individual contribution to exoelectrogenesis in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) bioanode...
November 27, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914259/city-scale-analysis-of-water-related-energy-identifies-more-cost-effective-solutions
#3
Ka Leung Lam, Steven J Kenway, Paul A Lant
Energy and greenhouse gas management in urban water systems typically focus on optimising within the direct system boundary of water utilities that covers the centralised water supply and wastewater treatment systems, despite a greater energy influence by the water end use. This work develops a cost curve of water-related energy management options from a city perspective for a hypothetical Australian city. It is compared with that from the water utility perspective. The curves are based on 18 water-related energy management options that have been implemented or evaluated in Australia...
November 26, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915187/dose-response-models-and-a-quantitative-microbial-risk-assessment-framework-for-the-mycobacterium-avium-complex-that-account-for-recent-developments-in-molecular-biology-taxonomy-and-epidemiology
#4
REVIEW
Kerry A Hamilton, Mark H Weir, Charles N Haas
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a group of environmentally-transmitted pathogens of great public health importance. This group is known to be harbored, amplified, and selected for more human-virulent characteristics by amoeba species in aquatic biofilms. However, a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) has not been performed due to the lack of dose response models resulting from significant heterogeneity within even a single species or subspecies of MAC, as well as the range of human susceptibilities to mycobacterial disease...
November 24, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912099/citrate-enhanced-release-of-arsenic-during-pyrite-oxidation-at-circumneutral-conditions
#5
Peng Zhang, Weiyu Yao, Songhu Yuan
The release of arsenic (As) from the oxidation of As-rich pyrite is an important source of the high arsenic in groundwater. As a widespread low-molecular-weight organic acid, citrate plays an important role on the cycling of Fe(II)/Fe(III) through complexation in circumneutral subsurface environments, while the influence of citrate on the release of As from the oxidation of As-rich pyrite is poorly understood. In this study, As was loaded onto pyrite particles under anoxic conditions, and its release was investigated in the presence of 0-1 mM citrate at pH 7...
November 24, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914258/centralised-decentralised-or-hybrid-sanitation-systems-economic-evaluation-under-urban-development-uncertainty-and-phased-expansion
#6
Ivar Roefs, Brendo Meulman, Jan H G Vreeburg, Marc Spiller
Sanitation systems are built to be robust, that is, they are dimensioned to cope with population growth and other variability that occurs throughout their lifetime. It was recently shown that building sanitation systems in phases is more cost effective than one robust design. This phasing can take place by building small autonomous decentralised units that operate closer to the actual demand. Research has shown that variability and uncertainty in urban development does affect the cost effectiveness of this approach...
November 23, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914257/photosensitized-degradation-of-acetaminophen-in-natural-organic-matter-solutions-the-role-of-triplet-states-and-oxygen
#7
Yanyun Li, Yanheng Pan, Lushi Lian, Shuwen Yan, Weihua Song, Xin Yang
The photolysis of acetaminophen, a widely used pharmaceutical, in simulated natural organic matter solutions was investigated. The triplet states of natural organic matter ((3)NOM*) were found to play the dominant role in its photodegradation, while the contributions from hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen were negligible. Dissolved oxygen (DO) plays a dual role. From anaerobic to microaerobic (0.5 mg/L DO) conditions, the degradation rate of acetaminophen increased by 4-fold. That suggests the involvement of DO in reactions with the degradation intermediates...
November 22, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907823/control-of-the-red-tide-dinoflagellate-cochlodinium-polykrikoides-by-ozone-in-seawater
#8
Minjung Shin, Hye-Jin Lee, Min Sik Kim, Noh-Back Park, Changha Lee
The inactivation of C. polykrikoides, a red tide dinoflagellate, by ozonation was investigated in seawater by monitoring numbers of viable and total cells. Parameters affecting the inactivation efficacy of C. polykrikoides such as the ozone dose, initial cell concentration, pH, and temperature were examined. The viable cell number rapidly decreased in the initial stage of the reaction (mostly in 1-2 min), whereas the decrease in total cell number was relatively slow and steady. Increasing ozone dose and decreasing initial cell concentration increased the inactivation efficacy of C...
November 22, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898334/relative-contribution-of-ammonia-oxidizing-bacteria-and-other-members-of-nitrifying-activated-sludge-communities-to-micropollutant-biotransformation
#9
Yujie Men, Stefan Achermann, Damian E Helbling, David R Johnson, Kathrin Fenner
Improved micropollutant (MP) biotransformation during biological wastewater treatment has been associated with high ammonia oxidation activities, suggesting co-metabolic biotransformation by ammonia oxidizing bacteria as an underlying mechanism. The goal of this study was to clarify the contribution of ammonia oxidizing bacteria to increased MP degradation in nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) communities using a series of inhibition experiments. To this end, we treated a NAS community with two different ammonia oxidation inhibitors, namely octyne (OCT), a mechanistic inhibitor that covalently binds to ammonia monooxygenases, and allylthiourea (ATU), a copper chelator that depletes copper ions from the active center of ammonia monooxygenases...
November 22, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912100/source-tracking-using-microbial-community-fingerprints-method-comparison-with-hydrodynamic-modelling
#10
D T McCarthy, D Jovanovic, A Lintern, I Teakle, M Barnes, A Deletic, R Coleman, G Rooney, T Prosser, S Coutts, M R Hipsey, L C Bruce, R Henry
Urban estuaries around the world are experiencing contamination from diffuse and point sources, which increases risks to public health. To mitigate and manage risks posed by elevated levels of contamination in urban waterways, it is critical to identify the primary water sources of contamination within catchments. Source tracking using microbial community fingerprints is one tool that can be used to identify sources. However, results derived from this approach have not yet been evaluated using independent datasets...
November 16, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888776/bioavailable-phosphorus-p-reduction-is-less-than-mobile-p-immobilization-in-lake-sediment-for-eutrophication-control-by-inactivating-agents
#11
Changhui Wang, Rui He, Yu Wu, Miquel Lürling, Haiyuan Cai, He-Long Jiang, Xin Liu
Phosphorus (P) immobilization by inactivating agents in the sediment of eutrophic lakes to reduce immediately available P in lake water is often crucial for mitigating nuisance eutrophication symptoms, such as cyanobacterial blooms. Macrophytes and phytoplankton, however, can directly utilize P from the sediment for growth. Accordingly, a comprehensive analysis of the P bioavailability in lake sediment amended with two promising P-inactivation agents, namely Phoslock(®) and drinking water treatment residue (DWTR), was investigated in both short- and long-term studies (20 and 180 d)...
November 16, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888775/cost-energy-global-warming-eutrophication-and-local-human-health-impacts-of-community-water-and-sanitation-service-options
#12
Mary E Schoen, Xiaobo Xue, Alison Wood, Troy R Hawkins, Jay Garland, Nicholas J Ashbolt
We compared water and sanitation system options for a coastal community across selected sustainability metrics, including environmental impact (i.e., life cycle eutrophication potential, energy consumption, and global warming potential), equivalent annual cost, and local human health impact. We computed normalized metric scores, which we used to discuss the options' strengths and weaknesses, and conducted sensitivity analysis of the scores to changes in variable and uncertain input parameters. The alternative systems, which combined centralized drinking water with sanitation services based on the concepts of energy and nutrient recovery as well as on-site water reuse, had reduced environmental and local human health impacts and costs than the conventional, centralized option...
November 16, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883921/how-well-is-microlitter-purified-from-wastewater-a-detailed-study-on-the-stepwise-removal-of-microlitter-in-a-tertiary-level-wastewater-treatment-plant
#13
Julia Talvitie, Anna Mikola, Outi Setälä, Mari Heinonen, Arto Koistinen
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can offer a solution to reduce the point source input of microlitter and microplastics into the environment. To evaluate the contributing processes for microlitter removal, the removal of microlitter from wastewater during different treatment steps of mechanical, chemical and biological treatment (activated sludge) and biologically active filter (BAF) in a large (population equivalent 800 000) advanced WWTP was examined. Most of the microlitter was removed already during the pre-treatment and activated sludge treatment further decreased the microlitter concentration...
November 16, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883920/nano-exploration-of-organic-conditioning-film-formed-on-polymeric-surfaces-exposed-to-drinking-water
#14
Grégory Francius, Racha El Zein, Laurence Mathieu, Florence Gosselin, Armand Maul, Jean-Claude Block
Adsorption of organic macromolecules onto surfaces in contact with waters forms a so-called conditioning film and induces modifications of the surface properties. Here, we characterized conditioning films formed onto two hydrophobic materials (used as pipe liner) and immersed for 24 h in tap water. Using combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM), and chemical force microscopy (CFM), we detected some changes in roughness and hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance of the surface of the tested coupons, and also the deposition of numerous organic polymers (few millions/cm(2)) randomly distributed on the surface...
November 14, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883918/enhancement-of-bromate-formation-by-ph-depression-during-ozonation-of-bromide-containing-water-in-the-presence-of-hydroxylamine
#15
Jingxin Yang, Ji Li, Wenyi Dong, Jun Ma, Yi Yang, Jiayin Li, Zhichao Yang, Xiaolei Zhang, Jia Gu, Wanying Xie, Yan Cang
This work investigated the fate of bromate formation during ozonation in the presence of hydroxylamine (HA). Results indicated that pH depression, as a commonly feasible control strategy for bromate formation during ozonation, unexpectedly enhanced the bromate formation during ozonation in the presence of HA. A dramatically high level of bromate was observed at acidic pH in the ozone/HA process. The scavenging experiments demonstrated the essential role of OH produced in the reaction of ozone with HA in bromate formation...
November 14, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866106/denitrification-in-an-integrated-bioelectro-photocatalytic-system
#16
Zhi-Qi Lin, Shi-Jie Yuan, Wen-Wei Li, Jie-Jie Chen, Guo-Ping Sheng, Han-Qing Yu
Since nitrate causes severe ecological and health risks, nitrate contamination of drinking water sources has become one of the most important water quality concerns all over the world. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate to molecular nitrogen presents a promising approach to remove nitrate from drinking water sources. However, harmful intermediates like NO2(-), NO, NO2 and N2O are usually formed, and metal loading or hole scavengers are generally needed to reduce the recombination of photo-generated electrons and holes, which will cause secondary pollution to drinking water...
November 14, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866105/pilot-scale-removal-and-recovery-of-dissolved-phosphate-from-secondary-wastewater-effluents-with-reusable-znfezr-adsorbent-fe3o4-sio2-particles-with-magnetic-harvesting
#17
Asya Drenkova-Tuhtan, Michael Schneider, Matthias Franzreb, Carsten Meyer, Carsten Gellermann, Gerhard Sextl, Karl Mandel, Heidrun Steinmetz
Advanced nanocomposite magnetic particles functionalized with ZnFeZr-adsorbent are developed, characterized and tested for the removal and recovery of phosphate directly from spiked secondary wastewater effluent (∼10 mg/L PO4-P). The phosphate loaded particles can be extracted from the liquid phase via magnetic separation, regenerated in a NaOH solution where phosphate desorption takes place, and reused in numerous cycles. Laboratory experiments demonstrate their reusability and stability in 60 consecutive adsorption/desorption runs where under optimal conditions > 90% total P-recovery efficiency is reached...
November 14, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883917/osmotic-versus-conventional-membrane-bioreactors-integrated-with-reverse-osmosis-for-water-reuse-biological-stability-membrane-fouling-and-contaminant-removal
#18
Wenhai Luo, Hop V Phan, Ming Xie, Faisal I Hai, William E Price, Menachem Elimelech, Long D Nghiem
This study systematically compares the performance of osmotic membrane bioreactor - reverse osmosis (OMBR-RO) and conventional membrane bioreactor - reverse osmosis (MBR-RO) for advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse. Both systems achieved effective removal of bulk organic matter and nutrients, and almost complete removal of all 31 trace organic contaminants investigated. They both could produce high quality water suitable for recycling applications. During OMBR-RO operation, salinity build-up in the bioreactor reduced the water flux and negatively impacted the system biological treatment by altering biomass characteristics and microbial community structure...
November 12, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866107/perturbation-free-measurement-of-in-situ-di-nitrogen-emissions-from-denitrification-in-nitrate-rich-aquatic-ecosystems
#19
Shuping Qin, Timothy Clough, Jiafa Luo, Nicole Wrage-Mönnig, Oene Oenema, Yuming Zhang, Chunsheng Hu
Increased production of reactive nitrogen (Nr) from atmospheric di-nitrogen (N2) has greatly contributed to increased food production. However, enriching the biosphere with Nr has also caused a series of negative effects on global ecosystems, especially aquatic ecosystems. The main pathway converting Nr back into the atmospheric N2 pool is the last step in the denitrification process. Despite several attempts, there is still a need for perturbation-free methods for measuring in situ N2 fluxes from denitrification in aquatic ecosystems at the field scale...
November 12, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866102/variations-in-physical-chemical-and-biological-properties-in-relation-to-sludge-dewaterability-under-fe-ii-oxone-conditioning
#20
Keke Xiao, Yun Chen, Xie Jiang, Qin Yang, Wan Yi Seow, Wenyu Zhu, Yan Zhou
The mechanism of Fe (II) - oxone conditioning to improve sludge dewaterability was investigated in this study. Five different types of sludge were tested, including raw sludge (Group 1: mixed primary and secondary sludge, waste activated sludge and anaerobic digested sludge) and pretreated sludge with prior solubilisation (Group 2: ultrasonic or thermal pretreated sludge). After Fe (II) - oxone conditioning, the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, protein and polysaccharide of soluble extracellular polymeric substances (SB EPS) increased for Group 1, but decreased for Group 2...
November 10, 2016: Water Research
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