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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049966/performance-comparison-of-secondary-and-tertiary-treatment-systems-for-treating-antibiotic-resistance
#1
Manisha Lamba, Shaikh Ziauddin Ahammad
Rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) in developing countries is posing a greater health risk and increasing the global disease burden. AR proliferation mediated by treated/untreated discharges from sewage treatment plants (STPs) is a prime public health concern. Efficient sewage treatment is among our key defenses against the dissemination of infectious diseases. The present study aims to estimate the efficiency of aerobic [activated sludge process (ASP) and modified trickling filter (MTF)] and anaerobic reactors (anaerobic flow-through reactor) along with the three disinfection techniques (UV, ozone and chlorination) in reducing ARB and ARGs present in the domestic sewage...
October 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049968/a-novel-eulerian-approach-for-modelling-cyanobacteria-movement-thin-layer-formation-and-recurrent-risk-to-drinking-water-intakes
#2
Mouhamed Ndong, David Bird, Tri Nguyen Quang, René Kahawita, David Hamilton, Marie Laure de Boutray, Michèle Prévost, Sarah Dorner
Toxic cyanobacteria (CB) blooms are being reported in an increasing number of water bodies worldwide. As drinking water (DW) treatment can be disrupted by CB, in addition to long term management plans, short term operational decision-making tools are needed that enable an understanding of the temporal variability of CB movement in relation to drinking water intakes. In this paper, we propose a novel conservative model based on a Eulerian framework and compare results with data from CB blooms in Missisquoi Bay (Québec, Canada)...
October 10, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049965/development-of-a-molecular-method-for-testing-the-effectiveness-of-uv-systems-on-site
#3
Limor Nizri, Dalit Vaizel-Ohayon, Hila Ben-Amram, Yehonatan Sharaby, Malka Halpern, Hadas Mamane
We established a molecular method for quantifying ultraviolet (UV) disinfection efficacy using total bacterial DNA in a water sample. To evaluate UV damage to the DNA, we developed the "DNA damage" factor, which is a novel cultivation-independent approach that reveals UV-exposure efficiency by applying a simple PCR amplification method. The study's goal was to prove the feasibility of this method for demonstrating the efficiency of UV systems in the field using flow-through UV reactors. In laboratory-based experiments using seeded bacteria, the DNA damage tests demonstrated a good correlation between PCR products and UV dose...
October 10, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035765/a-force-based-mechanistic-model-for-describing-activated-sludge-settling-process
#4
Guihua Xu, Fengjun Yin, Yuanjian Xu, Han-Qing Yu
Sludge settling as the last step in the biological wastewater treatment process substantially affects the system performance, and thus the design and control optimization of the sludge settling process has been frequently investigated with mathematical modeling tools. So far, these models are developed on the basis of the solid flux theory with numerous parameters and complicated boundary conditions, and their prediction results are often unsatisfactory. In this work, a new force-based mechanical model with five parameters was developed, in which five forces were adopted and Newton's law, rather than the flux theory, was used to describe the sludge settling process...
October 10, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037511/comment-on-mistakes-and-inconsistencies-regarding-adsorption-of-contaminants-from-aqueous-solution-a-critical-review-published-by-tran-et%C3%A2-al-water-research-120-2017-88-116
#5
Frank-Dieter Kopinke, Anett Georgi, Kai-Uwe Goss
Correct treatment of adsorption thermodynamics requires consistent handling of adsorption isotherms and the corresponding sorption coefficients. The present comment points to some inconsistencies and misunderstandings in a recent review article.
October 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035770/solar-desalination-of-seawater-using-double-dye-modified-ptfe-membrane
#6
Masahiro Fujiwara, Masaki Kikuchi
The production of purified water by seawater desalination is now a significant countermeasure against recent severe water shortage. As the global warming is thought to be a dominant cause of the water scarcity problem, the energy employed for the desalination should be free from fossil fuels. We recently reported a simple membrane desalination combining the harvesting of solar energy and the membrane permeation of vaporized water. Water on a PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) membrane modified with disperse red 1 (DR1) as an azobenzene dye that photo-isomerizes with visible light permeates through it under visible light irradiation...
October 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035769/transport-and-long-term-release-behavior-of-polymer-coated-silver-nanoparticles-in-saturated-quartz-sand-the-impacts-of-input-concentration-grain-size-and-flow-rate
#7
Jun Hou, Mingzhi Zhang, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Lingzhan Miao, Yi Xu, Guoxiang You, Bowen Lv, Yangyang Yang, Zhilin Liu
This study investigated the transport and long-term release of stabilized poly vinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) in a quartz sand column with various sand grain sizes (0.3-0.5 μm, 0.5-1.0 μm, 1.0-2.0 μm), input concentrations of PVP-AgNP solution (1, 5, 15, 25 mg/L), and flow rates corresponding to a filter velocities (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 mL/min-0.14, 0.21, 0.28, 0.35 cm/min) by determining breakthrough curves, retention profiles, and long-term release curves. Breakthrough curves and retention profiles were simulated by a mathematical model based on the advection dispersion equation coupled with second-order kinetics...
October 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035767/life-cycle-energy-impacts-for-adapting-an-urban-water-supply-system-to-droughts
#8
Ka Leung Lam, Jennifer R Stokes-Draut, Arpad Horvath, Joe L Lane, Steven J Kenway, Paul A Lant
In recent years, cities in some water stressed regions have explored alternative water sources such as seawater desalination and potable water recycling in spite of concerns over increasing energy consumption. In this study, we evaluate the current and future life-cycle energy impacts of four alternative water supply strategies introduced during a decade-long drought in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. These strategies were: seawater desalination, indirect potable water recycling, network integration, and rainwater tanks...
October 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031801/use-of-lectin-magnetic-separation-lms-for-detecting-toxoplasma-gondii-oocysts-in-environmental-water-samples
#9
Jemere Bekele Harito, Andrew T Campbell, Kristoffer R Tysnes, Lucy J Robertson
Proof-of-principle of lectin-magnetic separation (LMS) for isolating Toxoplasma oocysts (pre-treated with 0.5% acidified pepsin (AP)) from water for subsequent detection by microscopy or molecular methods has been shown. However, application of this technique in the routine water-analysis laboratory requires that the method is tested, modified, and optimized. The current study describes attempts to apply the LMS technique on supernatants from water samples previously analyzed for contamination with Cryptosporidium and Giardia using standard methods, and the supernatant following immunomagnetic separation (IMS) retained...
October 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049967/halogenated-fatty-amides-a-brand-new-class-of-disinfection-by-products
#10
Dmitry S Kosyakov, Nikolay V Ul'yanovskii, Mark S Popov, Tomas B Latkin, Albert T Lebedev
An array of similar halogenated nitrogen-containing compounds with elemental composition CnH2nNO2X, CnH2n-2NO2X and CnH2n-1NOX2 (X = Cl, Br; n = 16, 18, 22) was detected in drinking water with high performance liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) method. Compounds of this type were never mentioned among disinfection by-products. Tandem mass spectrometry allowed referring them to halohydrines or dihalogenated fatty amides, the products of conjugated electrophilic addition of halogens to the double bonds of unsaturated fatty amides...
October 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045805/triclocarban-enhances-short-chain-fatty-acids-production-from-anaerobic-fermentation-of-waste-activated-sludge
#11
Yali Wang, Dongbo Wang, Yiwen Liu, Qilin Wang, Fei Chen, Qi Yang, Xiaoming Li, Guangming Zeng, Hailong Li
Triclocarban (TCC), one typical antibacterial agent being widely used in various applications, was found to be present in waste activated sludge at significant levels. To date, however, its effect on anaerobic fermentation of sludge has not been investigated. This work therefore aims to fill this knowledge gap. Experimental results showed that when TCC content in sludge increased from 26.7 ± 5.3 to 520.5 ± 12.6 mg per kilogram total suspended solids, the maximum concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) increased from 32...
October 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035766/sequential-biofiltration-a-novel-approach-for-enhanced-biological-removal-of-trace-organic-chemicals-from-wastewater-treatment-plant-effluent
#12
Johann Müller, Jörg E Drewes, Uwe Hübner
Recent studies revealed the benefits of oligotrophic and oxic conditions for the biological removal of many trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) during soil-aquifer treatment. These findings indicate an unused tuning potential that might also be applicable in engineered biofiltration systems with drastically reduced hydraulic retention times for an enhanced mitigation of TOrCs during wastewater treatment. This study introduces the novel approach of sequential biofiltration (SBF) for the advanced treatment of secondary effluent using two granular media filters operated in series with an intermediate aeration step aiming for oxic and oligotrophic conditions in the second filter stage...
October 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031799/impact-of-humic-acid-on-the-photoreductive-degradation-of-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-pfos-by-uv-iodide-process
#13
Zhuyu Sun, Chaojie Zhang, Pei Chen, Qi Zhou, Michael R Hoffmann
Iodide photolysis under UV illumination affords an effective method to produce hydrated electrons (eaq(-)) in aqueous solution. Therefore, UV/Iodide photolysis can be utilized for the reductive degradation of many recalcitrant pollutants. However, the effect of naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) such as humic and fulvic acids (HA/FA), which may impact the efficiency of UV/Iodide photoreduction, is poorly understood. In this study, the UV photoreductive degradation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the presence of I(-) and HA is studied...
October 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031798/viral-diversity-and-abundance-in-polluted-waters-in-kampala-uganda
#14
Evan O'Brien, Joyce Nakyazze, Huiyun Wu, Noah Kiwanuka, William Cunningham, John B Kaneene, Irene Xagoraraki
Waterborne viruses are a significant cause of human disease, especially in developing countries such as Uganda. A total of 15 virus-selective samples were collected at five sites (Bugolobi Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) influent and effluent, Nakivubo Channel upstream and downstream of the WWTP, and Nakivubo Swamp) in July and August 2016. Quantitative PCR and quantitative RT-PCR was performed to determine the concentrations of four human viruses (adenovirus, enterovirus, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus) in the samples...
October 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020641/assessing-membrane-biofouling-and-its-gel-layer-of-anoxic-oxic-membrane-bioreactor-for-megacity-municipal-wastewater-treatment-during-plum-rain-season-in-yangtze-river-delta-china
#15
Lijie Zhou, Biao Ye, Siqing Xia
This study assessed membrane biofouling and its gel layer of anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor (A/O-MBR) for megacity municipal wastewater treatment during plum rain season, which was continuous rainy weather, in Yangtze River Delta, China. A laboratory-scale A/O-MBR was operated to treat the municipal wastewater from Quyang wastewater treatment plant, which located at the typical megacity of Shanghai in Yangtze River Delta, from April to July accompanying with plum rain season. As reactor performance showed, CODCr, NH4(+)-N, TN, TP of the influent gradually decreased during plum rain season, and inhibited pollutant removal due to organic carbon shortage...
October 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035764/suitability-of-fluorescent-whitening-compounds-fwcs-as-indicators-of-human-faecal-contamination-from-septic-tanks-in-rural-catchments
#16
Donata Dubber, Laurence W Gill
Rural river catchments are impacted by diffuse pollution sources from agricultural practices and on-site domestic wastewater treatment systems (DWWTS), mainly septic tanks. Methods that can distinguish between contamination sources will significantly increase water management efficiency as they will allow for the development and application of targeted remediation measures. Fluorescent whitening compounds (FWC), are used as optical brighteners in laundry detergents and enter the environment through the discharge of domestic wastewater effluents...
October 4, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031800/tannic-acid-promotes-ion-release-of-copper-oxide-nanoparticles-impacts-from-solution-ph-change-and-complexation-reactions
#17
Jing Zhao, Yang Liu, Bo Pan, Guoqian Gao, Ying Liu, Siqian Liu, Ni Liang, Dandan Zhou, Martina G Vijver, Willie J G M Peijnenburg
The increasing number of applications in which copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are used, may lead to potential release of CuO NPs into the environment. However, the impact of natural organic matters on the behavior and fate of CuO NPs in aquatic media is still largely unknown. In this study, the dissolution and aggregation of CuO NPs under the exposure of tannic acid (TA) were monitored over a period of 72 h, with a focus on assessing the contributions of solution pH changes and complexation reactions...
October 4, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035768/uv-photoconversion-of-environmental-oestrogen-diethylstilbestrol-and-its-persistence-in-surface-water-under-sunlight
#18
Bi Xu, Kuixiao Li, Juan Qiao, Zhiqi Liungai, Chao Chen, Yun Lu
As one of the most oestrogenic synthetic compounds in water environment, diethylstilbestrol (DES) has been studied for decades. Some studies showed that DES can be removed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. However, no one has paid attention to the formation of oestrogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the persistence of DES in surface water remains a mystery. In this study, UV was found to be very effective in removing oestrogenic activity regardless of water quality. Three oestrogenic DBPs were specifically isolated by oestrogen receptor-based affinity chromatography and identified as 9,10-diethylphenanthrene-3,6-diol, cis-DES and Z,Z-dienestrol...
October 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020640/bridging-spatially-segregated-redox-zones-with-a-microbial-electrochemical-snorkel-triggers-biogeochemical-cycles-in-oil-contaminated-river-tyne-uk-sediments
#19
Carolina Cruz Viggi, Bruna Matturro, Emanuela Frascadore, Susanna Insogna, Alessio Mezzi, Saulius Kaciulis, Angela Sherry, Obioma K Mejeha, Ian M Head, Eleni Vaiopoulou, Korneel Rabaey, Simona Rossetti, Federico Aulenta
Marine sediments represent an important sink for a number of anthropogenic organic contaminants, including petroleum hydrocarbons following an accidental oil spill. Degradation of these compounds largely depends on the activity of sedimentary microbial communities linked to biogeochemical cycles, in which abundant elements such as iron and sulfur are shuttled between their oxidized and reduced forms. Here we show that introduction of a small electrically conductive graphite rod ("the electrochemical snorkel") into an oil-contaminated River Tyne (UK) sediment, so as to create an electrochemical connection between the anoxic contaminated sediment and the oxygenated overlying water, has a large impact on the rate of metabolic reactions taking place in the bulk sediment...
October 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031797/impact-of-zero-valent-iron-nanoparticles-on-the-activity-of-anaerobic-granular-sludge-from-macroscopic-to-microcosmic-investigation
#20
Chuan-Shu He, Pan-Pan He, Hou-Yun Yang, Ling-Li Li, Yue Lin, Yang Mu, Han-Qing Yu
The study aimed at evaluating the influence of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) on the activity of anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) from both macroscopic and microcosmic aspects using different methodologies. The tolerance response of AGS to nZVI was firstly investigated using short-term and long-term experiments, and also compared with anaerobic flocs. The Fe fate and distribution, the change of contents/structure of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and the variation of microbial community in the AGS after exposure to nZVI were further explored...
October 1, 2017: Water Research
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