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Water Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732328/spectroscopic-descriptors-for-dynamic-changes-of-soluble-microbial-products-from-activated-sludge-at-different-biomass-growth-phases-under-prolonged-starvation
#1
Tahir Maqbool, Jinwoo Cho, Jin Hur
In this study, the spectroscopic indices of soluble microbial products (SMP) were explored using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy to identify different distinctive biomass growth phases (i.e., exponential phase, pseudo-endogenous phase, and endogenous phase) and to describe the microbial activity of activated sludge in a batch type bioreactor under prolonged starvation. The optical descriptors, including UV absorption at 254 nm (UVA254), spectral slope, absorbance slope index (ASI), biological index (BIX), humification index (HIX), and the ratio of tryptophan-like to humic-like components (C1/C2), were examined to describe the dynamic changes in SMP...
July 15, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719817/aged-refuse-enhances-anaerobic-digestion-of-waste-activated-sludge
#2
Jianwei Zhao, Lin Gui, Qilin Wang, Yiwen Liu, Dongbo Wang, Bing-Jie Ni, Xiaoming Li, Rui Xu, Guangming Zeng, Qi Yang
In this work, a low-cost alternative approach (i.e., adding aged refuse (AR) into waste activated sludge) to significantly enhance anaerobic digestion of sludge was reported. Experimental results showed that with the addition dosage of AR increasing from 0 to 400 mg/g dry sludge soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased from 1150 to 5240 mg/L at the digestion time of 5 d, while the maximal production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased from 82.6 to 183.9 mg COD/g volatile suspended solids. Although further increase of AR addition decreased the concentrations of both soluble COD and VFA, their contents in these systems with AR addition at any concentration investigated were still higher than those in the blank, which resulted in higher methane yields in these systems...
July 14, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719816/sulfate-radical-induced-degradation-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-agonists-salbutamol-and-terbutaline-phenoxyl-radical-dependent-mechanisms
#3
Lei Zhou, Mohamad Sleiman, Corinne Ferronato, Jean-Marc Chovelon, Pascal de Sainte-Claire, Claire Richard
The present study investigated the reactivity and oxidation mechanisms of salbutamol (SAL) and terbutaline (TBL), two typical β2-adrenoceptor agonists, towards sulfate radical (SO4(-)) by using photo-activated persulfate (PS). The reaction pathways and mechanisms were proposed based on products identification using high resolution HPLC-ESI-MS, laser flash photolysis (LFP) and molecular orbital calculations. The results indicated that SO4(-) was the dominant reactive species in the UV/PS process. The second-order rate constants of sulfate radical reaction with SAL and TBL were measured as (3...
July 14, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715779/mechanisms-underlying-the-acute-toxicity-of-fullerene-to-daphnia-magna-energy-acquisition-restriction-and-oxidative-stress
#4
Xiaohui Lv, Boming Huang, Xiaoshan Zhu, Yuelu Jiang, Baiyang Chen, Yi Tao, Jin Zhou, Zhonghua Cai
The toxicity of fullerene (C60) to Daphnia magna has been a subject with increasing concerns. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated various aspects of the toxicological impacts of C60 on daphnia. After a 72-h exposure, the 50% effective concentration of C60 was 14.9 mg/L for immobilization, and 16.3 mg/L for mortality. Daphnia exhibited a quick uptake of C60 with a body burden value of 413 μg/g in wet weight in the 1 mg/L C60 treatment group...
July 14, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715778/denitrifying-sulfur-conversion-associated-ebpr-the-effect-of-ph-on-anaerobic-metabolism-and-performance
#5
Gang Guo, Di Wu, Tianwei Hao, Hamish Robert Mackey, Li Wei, Guanghao Chen
The performance of the denitrifying sulfur conversion-associated enhanced biological phosphorus removal (DS-EBPR) process tends to be unstable and requires further study and development. This in turn requires extensive study of the anaerobic metabolism in terms of its stoichiometry and kinetics. This study evaluates the corresponding responses of DS-EBPR to pH, as it significantly influences both stoichiometry and biochemical kinetics. The impacts of five representative pH values ranging between 6.5 and 8.5 on the anaerobic metabolism were investigated, followed by identification of the optimal pH for performance optimization...
July 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710984/aggregation-behavior-of-tio2-nanoparticles-in-municipal-effluent-influence-of-ionic-strengthen-and-organic-compounds
#6
Meijie Ren, Harald Horn, Fritz H Frimmel
The influence of ionic strengthen and dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) in municipal effluent was investigated. The results demonstrated that DOM promoted the mobility of NPs in aquatic system by synergism between static repulsion and steric effect, while electrolytes were opposite by charge-neutralization. The physical-chemical characteristics of DOM played the major role on the mobility of NPs. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) showed the strongest enhancement on the mobility of TiO2 NPs...
July 11, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732329/an-experimental-study-on-the-influence-of-water-stagnation-and-temperature-change-on-water-quality-in-a-full-scale-domestic-drinking-water-system
#7
Lj Zlatanović, J P van der Hoek, J H G Vreeburg
The drinking water quality changes during the transport through distribution systems. Domestic drinking water systems (DDWSs), which include the plumbing between the water meter and consumer's taps, are the most critical points in which water quality may be affected. In distribution networks, the drinking water temperature and water residence time are regarded as indicators of the drinking water quality. This paper describes an experimental research on the influence of stagnation time and temperature change on drinking water quality in a full-scale DDWS...
July 10, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710983/seasonal-variation-of-bacterial-community-in-biological-aerated-filter-for-ammonia-removal-in-drinking-water-treatment
#8
Hongyuan Liu, Liying Zhu, Xiaohe Tian, Yeshi Yin
Biological aerated filter (BAF) is widely used in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and shows potential application of micropolluted drinking water sources with a higher NH4(+)-N removal efficiency during short warm seasons. Here we adopted a pilot lava-based BAF setup as a pretreatment unit of drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) and achieved a great performance of ammonia removal over a two-year operation using natural river water. We respectively observed 92.62% of NH4(+)-N removal efficiency, 97.88% of NO2(-)-N removal efficiency in summer, and 77...
July 10, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728110/development-of-a-bioanalytical-test-battery-for-water-quality-monitoring-fingerprinting-identified-micropollutants-and-their-contribution-to-effects-in-surface-water
#9
Peta A Neale, Rolf Altenburger, Selim Aït-Aïssa, François Brion, Wibke Busch, Gisela de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Michael S Denison, David Du Pasquier, Klára Hilscherová, Henner Hollert, Daniel A Morales, Jiří Novák, Rita Schlichting, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Helene Serra, Ying Shao, Andrew J Tindall, Knut Erik Tollefsen, Timothy D Williams, Beate I Escher
Surface waters can contain a diverse range of organic pollutants, including pesticides, pharmaceuticals and industrial compounds. While bioassays have been used for water quality monitoring, there is limited knowledge regarding the effects of individual micropollutants and their relationship to the overall mixture effect in water samples. In this study, a battery of in vitro bioassays based on human and fish cell lines and whole organism assays using bacteria, algae, daphnids and fish embryos was assembled for use in water quality monitoring...
July 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710981/photochemical-generation-and-decay-kinetics-of-superoxide-and-hydrogen-peroxide-in-the-presence-of-standard-humic-and-fulvic-acids
#10
Manabu Fujii, Erika Otani
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O2(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be photochemically generated in aerobic waters containing natural organic matters (NOM) such as humic substances (HS). To investigate the effect of NOM molecular composition on the kinetics and mechanism of ROS transformation, photochemical O2(-) generation and subsequent H2O2 production via catalyzed and uncatalyzed (bimolecular dismutation) O2(-) decay were examined in the presence of 14 types of HS (pH 8.0). By using chemiluminescence and colorimetric techniques, the photochemical O2(-) generation rate, quasi-steady-state O2(-) concentration, catalyzed and uncatalyzed O2(-) decay rates, and H2O2 production rate were found to vary significantly by factors of 72, 18, 14, 320, and 7...
July 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709106/microcosms-for-evaluating-microbial-indicator-persistence-and-mobilization-in-fluvial-sediments-during-rainfall-events
#11
Julia Martín-Díaz, Cristina García-Aljaro, Míriam Pascual-Benito, Belén Galofré, Anicet R Blanch, Francisco Lucena
Mediterranean rivers, which are subject to long, dry periods and heavy rainfall events, could be particularly useful for understanding future climate scenarios. This study generated microcosms that mimicked riverbank sediment resuspension into the water of a typical Mediterranean river as a consequence of heavy rainfall. The mobilization and inactivation of six fecal pollution indicators and microbial source tracking markers were evaluated. The T90 values in the sediments were: 4 days for sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacterium, 11 days for culturable E...
July 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710982/occurrence-fate-and-mass-balance-of-different-classes-of-pharmaceuticals-and-personal-care-products-in-an-anaerobic-anoxic-oxic-wastewater-treatment-plant-in-xiamen-china
#12
Muhammad Ashfaq, Yan Li, Yuwen Wang, Wenjie Chen, Han Wang, Xiangqiang Chen, Wei Wu, Zhenyi Huang, Chang-Ping Yu, Qian Sun
In this study, the occurrence and fate of 49 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were investigated in an anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2/O) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) for seven consecutive days using 24-h composite sampling technique. Special emphasis was placed to understand the distribution of PPCPs in dissolved and adsorbed phase, and to evaluate PPCP fate in different treatment units. Among the 49 PPCPs, 40 PPCPs in influent, 36 in effluent, 29 in sludge and 23 in suspended solids were detected at least once during sampling...
July 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728109/zero-valent-aluminum-for-reductive-removal-of-aqueous-pollutants-over-a-wide-ph-range-performance-and-mechanism-especially-at-near-neutral-ph
#13
Shiying Yang, Di Zheng, Tengfei Ren, Yixuan Zhang, Jia Xin
Zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl) draws much attention due to its strong reducibility. However, under neutral pH conditions, the reduction ability of ZVAl for pollutant removal has still been suspected because of the formed compact surface film of Al-(hydr)oxide. In this study, unmodified ZVAl was employed to reductively remove aqueous pollutants over a wide pH range, and its performance and mechanism, especially at near-neutral pH, were systematically studied for the first time. Results demonstrated that ZVAl had a wide range of pH applicability from 2 to 12, even in neutral environment...
July 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709107/efficient-bacterial-inactivation-with-z-scheme-agi-bi2moo6-under-visible-light-irradiation
#14
Jialiang Liang, Fuyang Liu, Jun Deng, Mian Li, Meiping Tong
A novel Z-scheme AgI/Bi2MoO6 hybrid photocatalyst was fabricated via a solvothermal-precipitation approach to disinfect bacteria in water. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopic (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), as well as photoluminescence spectra (PL) were employed to characterize the fabricated photocatalyst. Due to the stronger redox potential and better separation of charge carriers induced by the Z-scheme structure, the optimal synthesized AgI/Bi2MoO6 exhibited excellent disinfection activity towards both Gram-negative strain Escherichia coli (E...
July 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704772/assessing-the-role-of-bed-sediments-in-the-persistence-of-red-mud-pollution-in-a-shallow-lake-kinghorn-loch-uk
#15
Justyna P Olszewska, Kate V Heal, Ian J Winfield, Lorna J Eades, Bryan M Spears
Red mud is a by-product of alumina production. Little is known about the long-term fate of red mud constituents in fresh waters or of the processes regulating recovery of fresh waters following pollution control. In 1983, red mud leachate was diverted away from Kinghorn Loch, UK, after many years of polluting this shallow and monomictic lake. We hypothesised that the redox-sensitive constituents of red mud leachate, phosphorus (P), arsenic (As) and vanadium (V), would persist in the Kinghorn Loch for many years following pollution control as a result of cycling between the lake bed sediment and the overlying water column...
July 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704771/predicting-the-propagation-of-concentration-and-saturation-fronts-in-fixed-bed-filters
#16
O Callery, M G Healy
The phenomenon of adsorption is widely exploited across a range of industries to remove contaminants from gases and liquids. Much recent research has focused on identifying low-cost adsorbents which have the potential to be used as alternatives to expensive industry standards like activated carbons. Evaluating these emerging adsorbents entails a considerable amount of labor intensive and costly testing and analysis. This study proposes a simple, low-cost method to rapidly assess the potential of novel media for potential use in large-scale adsorption filters...
July 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704770/detection-of-oncogenic-viruses-in-water-environments-by-a-luminex-based-multiplex-platform-for-high-throughput-screening-of-infectious-agents
#17
P Di Bonito, M Iaconelli, T Gheit, M Tommasino, S Della Libera, L Bonadonna, G La Rosa
Recent studies documented the detection of viruses strongly associated with human cancer in urban sewages and other water environments worldwide. The aim of this study was to estimate the occurrence of human oncogenic viruses in environmental samples (sewage, river, marine, and pool/spa water) using highly sensitive and specific multiplex bead-based assays (Luminex technology). A total of 33 samples were analysed for 140 oncogenic viral agents, including mucosal and cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs), human polyomaviruses (HPyV), human herpesviruses (HHV) and mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV)...
July 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697484/organic-compounds-in-hydraulic-fracturing-fluids-and-wastewaters-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Jenna L Luek, Michael Gonsior
High volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) of shale to stimulate the release of natural gas produces a large quantity of wastewater in the form of flowback fluids and produced water. These wastewaters are highly variable in their composition and contain a mixture of fracturing fluid additives, geogenic inorganic and organic substances, and transformation products. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of organic compounds identified in HVHF fluids, flowback fluids, and produced waters are reviewed here to communicate knowledge gaps that exist in the composition of HVHF wastewaters...
July 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697482/a-new-approach-for-evaluating-transformations-of-dissolved-organic-matter-dom-via-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-and-relating-it-to-bacterial-activity
#19
Norbert Kamjunke, Wolf von Tümpling, Norbert Hertkorn, Mourad Harir, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Helge Norf, Markus Weitere, Peter Herzsprung
Streams are important sites of transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM). The molecular characterization of DOM-quality changes requires sophisticated analytical evaluation techniques. The goal of our study was to link molecular DOM transformation with bacterial activity. We measured the degradation of leaf leachate over a gradient of bacterial production obtained by different rates of percolation of sediments in seven experimental flumes on five sampling dates. We developed a new strategy for evaluating molecular formula data sets obtained by ultra-high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS), in which the time-dependent change of component abundance was fitted by a linear regression model after normalization of mass peak intensities...
July 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692923/permeability-recovery-of-fouled-forward-osmosis-membranes-by-chemical-cleaning-during-a-long-term-operation-of-anaerobic-osmotic-membrane-bioreactors-treating-low-strength-wastewater
#20
Xinhua Wang, Taozhan Hu, Zhiwei Wang, Xiufen Li, Yueping Ren
Anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactor (AnOMBR) has gained increasing interests in wastewater treatment owing to its simultaneous recovery of biogas and water. However, the forward osmosis (FO) membrane fouling was severe during a long-term operation of AnOMBRs. Here, we aim to recover the permeability of fouled FO membranes by chemical cleaning. Specifically speaking, an optimal chemical cleaning procedure was searched for fouled thin film composite polyamide FO (TFC-FO) membranes in a novel microfiltration (MF) assisted AnOMBR (AnMF-OMBR)...
July 5, 2017: Water Research
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