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Water Research

Carmen M Dominguez, Nihal Oturan, Arturo Romero, Aurora Santos, Mehmet A Oturan
This study focuses on the effect of electrode materials on abatement of lindane (an organochlorine pesticide) by electrooxidation process. Comparative performances of different anodic (platinum (Pt), dimensionally stable anode (DSA) and boron-doped diamond (BDD)) and cathodic (carbon sponge (CS), carbon felt (CF) and stainless steel (SS)) materials on lindane electrooxidation and mineralization were investigated. Special attention was paid to determine the role of chlorine active species during the electrooxidation process...
February 16, 2018: Water Research
Alescia A Roberto, Jonathon B Van Gray, Laura G Leff
Sediment bacterial communities play a critical role in biogeochemical cycling in lotic ecosystems. Despite their ecological significance, the effects of urban discharge on spatiotemporal distribution of bacterial communities are understudied. In this study, we examined the effect of urban discharge on the spatiotemporal distribution of stream sediment bacteria in a northeast Ohio stream. Water and sediment samples were collected after large storm events (discharge > 100 m) from sites along a highly impacted stream (Tinkers Creek, Cuyahoga River watershed, Ohio, USA) and two reference streams...
February 15, 2018: Water Research
Bryce A Figdore, H David Stensel, Mari-Karoliina H Winkler
Sidestream granular activated sludge grown on anaerobic digester dewatering centrate was bioaugmented and selectively retained to enable high nitrification performance of a 2.5-day aerobic SRT non-nitrifying flocculent activated sludge system at 12 °C. Sidestream-grown granules performed enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) and short-cut nitrogen removal via nitrite. After bioaugmentation, EBPR continued in the mainstream but ammonia oxidation was eventually to nitrate. Low effluent NH3 -N concentrations from 0...
February 14, 2018: Water Research
Daniel Gerrity, Mayara Arnold, Eric Dickenson, Duane Moser, Joshua D Sackett, Eric C Wert
Microbial community structure in the ozone-biofiltration systems of two drinking water and two wastewater treatment facilities was characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Collectively, these datasets enabled comparisons by facility, water type (drinking water, wastewater), pre-oxidation (ozonation, chlorination), media type (anthracite, activated carbon), media depth, and backwash dynamics. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in drinking water filters, whereas Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and Planctomycetes were differentially abundant in wastewater filters...
February 13, 2018: Water Research
Eva Nieuwenhuis, Johan Post, Alex Duinmeijer, Jeroen Langeveld, François Clemens
The accumulation of FOG (Fat, Oil and Grease) deposits in sewer pumping stations results in an increase in maintenance costs, malfunctioning of pumps and, a potential increase of wastewater spills in receiving open water bodies. It is thought that a variety of parameters (e.g. geometry of the pump sump, pump operation, socioeconomic parameters of the catchment) influences the built-up of FOG. Based on a database containing data of 126 pumping stations located in five Dutch municipalities a statistical model was built...
February 13, 2018: Water Research
Rui Zhang, Xiaoxiang Wang, Lei Zhou, Zhu Liu, Doug Crump
Sulfate radical (SO4 .- )-induced oxidation is an important technology in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for the removal of pollutants. To date, few studies have assessed the effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) on the SO4 .- -induced oxidation of organic micro-pollutants. In the present work, a quantum chemical calculation was used to investigate the influence of the external oxygen molecule on the Gibbs free energy (Gpollutant ) and HOMO-LUMO gap (ΔE) of 15 organic micro-pollutants representing four chemical categories...
February 13, 2018: Water Research
Brian G Rahm, Natalie Morse, Michelle Bowen, Jun Choi, Dhaval Mehta, Sridhar Vedachalam
Like many regions around the world, New York State, USA, faces challenges in meeting wastewater treatment quality standards because of aging infrastructure, limited funding, shifting demographics and increasingly stringent environmental regulations. In recent decades construction of new wastewater treatment and distribution infrastructure in NY has most often occurred in exurban communities and suburban developments that are less dense than traditional urban cores. Here, we examine the role of size and capacity utilization on wastewater treatment effectiveness with respect to critical effluent parameters, and additionally explore which common facility engineering controls influence water quality treatment using a unique dataset of descriptive information...
February 12, 2018: Water Research
Juan Li, Jin Jiang, Su-Yan Pang, Yang Zhou, Yuan Gao, Yi Yang, Shaofang Sun, Guanqi Liu, Jun Ma, Chengchun Jiang, Lihong Wang
This work investigated impacts of iodide (I- ) on the transformation of the widely used phenolic preservative methylparaben (MeP) as well as 11 other phenolic compounds by potassium permanganate (KMnO4 ). It was found that KMnO4 showed a low reactivity towards MeP in the absence of I- with apparent second-order rate constants (kapp ) ranging from 0.065 ± 0.0071 to 1.0 ± 0.1 M-1 s-1 over the pH range of 5-9. The presence of I- remarkably enhanced the transformation rates of MeP by KMnO4 via the contribution of hypoiodous acid (HOI) in situ formed, which displayed several orders of magnitude higher reactivity towards MeP than KMnO4 ...
February 10, 2018: Water Research
Joanna Fabrowska, Beata Messyasz, Radosław Pankiewicz, Patrycja Wilińska, Bogusława Łęska
Polyphenols are chemicals that primarily inhibit the growth of various autotrophic organisms. The presence of these metabolites greatly boosts the ecological dominance of eg. Cladophora, which creates large surface mats. The main goal of our work was to quantify the phenol and polyphenols (allelopathic substances) secreted by the macroalgae as a result of exposure to biotic stress caused by competition. The research was carried out on the Cladophora glomerata biomass collected from two freshwater ecosystems located in Wielkopolska Region (Poland, Fig...
February 10, 2018: Water Research
Long-Fei Ren, Mister Adeel, Jun Li, Cong Xu, Zheng Xu, Xiaofan Zhang, Jiahui Shao, Yiliang He
Phenol recovery from phenol-laden saline wastewater plays an important role in the waste reclamation and pollution control. A membrane aromatic recovery system-like membrane contactor (MARS-like membrane contactor) was set up in this study using electrospun polydimethylsiloxane/polymethyl methacrylate (PDMS/PMMA) membrane with 0.0048 m 2 effective area to separate phenol from saline wastewater. Phenol and water contact angles of 0° and 162° were achieved on this membrane surface simultaneously, indicating its potential in the separation of phenol and water-soluble salt...
February 10, 2018: Water Research
Bo Wang, Di Wu, George A Ekama, To-Hung Tsui, Feng Jiang, Guang-Hao Chen
Continuous gas recirculation (CGR) was demonstrated in this study to be an effective method to mitigate the persistent problem of sludge flotation in high-rate sulfate-reducing upflow sludge bed (SRUSB) reactors that do not produce much gas. The effects of hydraulic- and CGR-mixing on the mixing regime of the SRUSB reactors were investigated over a period of 45 d at the average shear rates of 0.9, 1.5, 2.7, 4.2 and 7.2 s-1 (Phase I). CGR-mixing at 4.2 s-1 resulted in the smallest reactor short-circuiting flow of 1...
February 9, 2018: Water Research
Lin Chen, To-Hung Tsui, George A Ekama, Hamish R Mackey, Tianwei Hao, Guanghao Chen
The determination of organics biodegradability and corresponding biodegradation kinetics provides valuable information on the optimal design and operation of anaerobic biotechnology especially for sulfidogenesis. This study proposes a deterministic method, i.e. a biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test, and compares it to the conventional biochemical methane potential (BMP) test in terms of their ability to characterize sulfate-laden organic waste biodegradability. It demonstrated 1.48 times higher degradation of volatile suspended solids (VSS) and 2...
February 9, 2018: Water Research
Elodie Passeport, Ning Zhang, Langping Wu, Hartmut Herrmann, Barbara Sherwood Lollar, Hans-Hermann Richnow
Substituted chlorobenzenes are the basic substructure of many surface water contaminants. In this study, the isotope fractionation and reaction mechanisms involved during the aqueous direct and indirect photodegradation of CH3 -, Cl-, and NO2 - substituted chlorobenzenes were investigated in laboratory experiments. Only 4-nitrochlorobenzene showed slow but isotopically fractionating direct photolysis. During indirect photodegradation using UV/H2 O2 -generated OH radicals, the pseudo first-order reaction rate constants increased in the order of the NO2 - < Cl- < CH3 - substituted chlorobenzenes...
February 9, 2018: Water Research
Qilin Yu, Xiaochen Jin, Yaobin Zhang
Sludge cell disruption was generally considered as the rate-limiting step for the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). Advanced oxidation processes and bio-electro-chemical systems were recently reported to enhance the hydrolysis of WAS and sludge cell disruption, while the cell-breaking processes of these systems remain unclear yet. In this study, an innovative Bio-electro-Fenton system was developed to pretreat the WAS sequentially with cathode Fenton process and anode anaerobic digestion...
February 9, 2018: Water Research
Joerg Winter, Heather E Wray, Martin Schulz, Roman Vortisch, Benoit Barbeau, Pierre R Bérubé
The present study investigated the impact of different loading approaches and microbial activity on the Natural Organic Matter (NOM) removal efficiency and capacity of ion exchange resins. Gaining further knowledge on the impact of loading approaches is of relevance because laboratory-scale multiple loading tests (MLTs) have been introduced as a simpler and faster alternative to column tests for predicting the performance of IEX, but only anecdotal evidence exists to support their ability to forecast contaminant removal and runtime until breakthrough of IEX systems...
February 9, 2018: Water Research
Eiji Haramoto, Masaaki Kitajima, Akihiko Hata, Jason R Torrey, Yoshifumi Masago, Daisuke Sano, Hiroyuki Katayama
Waterborne human enteric viruses, such as noroviruses and adenoviruses, are excreted in the feces of infected individuals and transmitted via the fecal-oral route including contaminated food and water. Since viruses are normally present at low concentrations in aquatic environments, they should be concentrated into smaller volumes prior to downstream molecular biological applications, such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This review describes recent progress made in the development of concentration and detection methods of human enteric viruses in water, and discusses their applications for providing a better understanding of the prevalence of the viruses in various types of water worldwide...
February 8, 2018: Water Research
Seong-Jun Chun, Yingshun Cui, Chi-Yong Ahn, Hee-Mock Oh
A highly settleable microalga, Ettlia sp., was applied to a freshwater recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) of Danio rerio to improve the treatment of nitrogenous compounds. The growth characteristics of the microalgae, water quality parameters, and bacterial communities were monitored for 73 days. In the treatment RAS, the inoculated Ettlia sp. grew up to 1.26 g/L and dominated (>99%) throughout the experiment, whereas naturally occurring microalgae grew to 0.57 g/L in the control RAS. The nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium concentrations in the treatment RAS were reduced by 50...
February 8, 2018: Water Research
Andrew J Ward, Kimmo Arola, Emma Thompson Brewster, Chirag M Mehta, Damien J Batstone
Nutrient recovery performance utilising an electrodialysis (ED) process was quantified in a 30-cell pair pilot reactor with a 7.2 m2 effective membrane area, utilising domestic anaerobic digester supernatant, which had been passed through a centrifuge as a feed source (centrate). A concentrated product (NH4 -N 7100 ± 300 mg/L and K 2490 ± 40 mg/L) could be achieved by concentrating nutrient ions from the centrate wastewater dilute feed stream to the product stream using the ED process. The average total current efficiency for all major cations over the experimental period was 76 ± 2% (NH4 -N transport 40%, K transport 14%)...
February 8, 2018: Water Research
Lathika Varanasi, Erica Coscarelli, Maryam Khaksari, Lynn R Mazzoleni, Daisuke Minakata
Considering the increasing identification of trace organic contaminants in natural aquatic environments, the removal of trace organic contaminants from water or wastewater discharge is an urgent task. Ultraviolet (UV) and UV-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H 2 O 2 ), UV/free chlorine and UV/persulfate, are attractive and promising approaches for the removal of these contaminants due to the high reactivity of active radical species produced in these UV-AOPs with a wide variety of organic contaminants...
February 8, 2018: Water Research
Huacheng Xu, Laodong Guo
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is ubiquitous and plays an important role in regulating water quality, ecological function, and the fate and transport of trace elements and pollutants in aquatic environments. Both the colloidal precursors (i.e. <1 kDa) and bulk DOM collected from a freshwater estuary were incubated in the dark for 21 days to examine dynamic changes in molecular size and composition induced by microbial degradation and self-assembly. Results showed that the concentrations of total organic carbon, carbohydrates, and protein-like substances decreased by 11-30% during incubation, while those of humic- and fulvic-like substances remained relatively constant, indicating humic substances are more resistant to microbial utilization compared to carbohydrates and protein-like DOM...
February 7, 2018: Water Research
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