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Water Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665509/a-novel-process-for-volatile-fatty-acids-production-from-syngas-by-integrating-with-mesophilic-alkaline-fermentation-of-waste-activated-sludge
#1
Yue Rao, Jingjing Wan, Yafeng Liu, Irini Angelidaki, Shicheng Zhang, Yalei Zhang, Gang Luo
The present study proposed and demonstrated a novel process for the bioconversion of syngas (mainly CO and H2 ) to valuable volatile fatty acids (VFA) by integrating with mesophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS). The results showed that although pH 9 was suitable for VFA production from WAS, 62.5% of the consumed CO was converted to methane due to the presence of hydrogenogenic pathway for CO conversion. The increase of pH from 9 to 9.5 inhibited the methane production from CO because of the possible presence of only acetogenic pathway for CO conversion...
April 11, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665507/ultrafiltration-and-nanofiltration-membrane-fouling-by-natural-organic-matter-mechanisms-and-mitigation-by-pre-ozonation-and-ph
#2
Wenzheng Yu, Teng Liu, John Crawshaw, Ting Liu, Nigel Graham
The fouling of ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes during the treatment of surface waters continues to be of concern and the particular role of natural organic matter (NOM) requires further investigation. In this study the effect of pH and surface charge on membrane fouling during the treatment of samples of a representative surface water (Hyde Park recreational lake) were evaluated, together with the impact of pre-ozonation. While biopolymers in the surface water could be removed by the UF membrane, smaller molecular weight (MW) fractions of NOM were poorly removed, confirming the importance of membrane pore size...
April 11, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660621/analysis-and-modelling-of-powdered-activated-carbon-dosing-for-taste-and-odour-removal
#3
Edoardo Bertone, Carol Chang, Peta Thiel, Kelvin O'Halloran
A series of experiments were undertaken in order to understand and predict the dosage of powdered activated carbon required to remove taste and odour compounds in an Australian drinking water treatment plant. Competitive effects with organic matter removal by aluminium sulphate during coagulation were also quantified. Data on raw and finished water quality following jar tests, as well as chemical dosages and treatment performance, were statistically analysed, and a data-driven prediction model was developed...
April 10, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660620/using-river-sediments-to-analyze-the-driving-force-difference-for-non-point-source-pollution-dynamics-between-two-scales-of-watersheds
#4
Wei Ouyang, Wanxin Yang, Mats Tysklind, Yixue Xu, Chunye Lin, Xiang Gao, Zengchao Hao
The formation and transportation processes of non-point source (NPS) pollution varied among the studied watersheds in the Northeastern China, so we hypothesized that the driving force behind NPS pollution followed the spatial scale effect. With a watershed outlet sedimentary flux analysis and a distributed NPS pollution loading model, we investigated the temporal dynamics of NPS and the differences in driving forces. Sediment core samples were collected from two adjacent watersheds, the smaller Abujiao watershed and the larger Naoli watershed...
April 10, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656191/instability-diagnosis-and-syntrophic-acetate-oxidation-during-thermophilic-digestion-of-vegetable-waste
#5
Dong Li, Yi Ran, Lin Chen, Qin Cao, Zhidong Li, Xiaofeng Liu
Effective process monitoring and instability diagnosis are important for stable anaerobic digestion (AD) of vegetable waste (VW). In order to evaluate the performance of thermophilic digestion of VW, to make early diagnosis for instability after organic overload, and to reveal the dynamics of microbial community under different running states, thermophilic AD of VW was carried out under improved organic loading rates (OLR) of 0.5-2.5 g volatile solid (VS)/(L ∙ d) in this study. Gaseous parameters including volumetric methane production rate (VMPR), CH4 , CO2 , and H2 concentrations, and liquid parameters including pH, oxidation-reduction potential, volatile fatty acid (VFA), and total alkalinity (TA), bicarbonate alkalinity (BA), intermediate alkalinity (IA), and ammonia, were monitored...
April 10, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656192/in-vitro-bioanalysis-of-drinking-water-from-source-to-tap
#6
Anna Kjerstine Rosenmai, Johan Lundqvist, Théo le Godec, Åsa Ohlsson, Rikard Tröger, Björn Hellman, Agneta Oskarsson
The presence of chemical pollutants in sources of drinking water is a key environmental problem threatening public health. Efficient removal of pollutants in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) is needed as well as methods for assessment of the total impact of all present chemicals on water quality. In the present study we have analyzed the bioactivity of water samples from source to tap, including effects of various water treatments in a DWTP, using a battery of cell-based bioassays, covering health-relevant endpoints...
April 6, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653357/controlling-bromate-formation-in-the-co-ii-peroxymonosulfate-process-by-ammonia-chlorine-ammonia-and-ammonia-chlorine-pretreatment-strategies
#7
Li Ling, Zhaobing Li, Jingyun Fang, Chii Shang
The Co(II)/peroxymonosulfate (Co(II)/PMS) process, producing sulfate radicals (SO4 •- ), effectively removes organic pollutants in water, while producing a significant amount of bromate (BrO3 - ) in the presence of bromide (Br- ). This paper investigates the ammonia (NH3 ) addition, chlorine-ammonia (Cl2 -NH3 ) and ammonia-chlorine (NH3 -Cl2 ) pretreatment strategies in controlling BrO3 - formation in 20 min in the Co(II)/PMS process at pH 4.0. The addition of NH3 retarded the BrO3 - formation, but only at a reduction level of about 9...
April 6, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653356/interaction-of-toxic-chemicals-with-microplastics-a-critical-review
#8
REVIEW
Fen Wang, Charles S Wong, Da Chen, Xingwen Lu, Fei Wang, Eddy Y Zeng
Occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in the environment has attracted great attention as it has become a global concern. This review aims to systematically demonstrate the role of marine microplastic as a novel medium for environmental partitioning of chemicals in the ocean, which can cause toxic effects in the ecological environment. This review assimilated and analyzed available data published between 1972 and 2017 on the interaction between MPs and selected chemicals. Firstly, the review analyzes the occurrence of chemicals in MPs and outlines their distribution patterns...
April 6, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656194/multiple-dynamic-al-based-floc-layers-on-ultrafiltration-membrane-surfaces-for-humic-acid-and-reservoir-water-fouling-reduction
#9
Baiwen Ma, Wenjiang Li, Ruiping Liu, Gang Liu, Jingqiu Sun, Huijuan Liu, Jiuhui Qu, Walter van der Meer
The integration of adsorbents with ultrafiltration (UF) membranes is a promising method for alleviating membrane fouling and reducing land use. However, adsorbents typically are only injected into the membrane tank once, resulting in a single dynamic protection layer and low removal efficiency over long-term operation. In addition, the granular adsorbents used can cause membrane surface damage. To overcome these disadvantages, we injected inexpensive and loose aluminum (Al)-based flocs directly into a membrane tank with bottom aeration in the presence of humic acid (HA) or raw water taken from the Miyun Reservoir (Beijing, China)...
April 5, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660619/highly-efficient-removal-of-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-in-an-electrolysis-integrated-horizontal-subsurface-flow-constructed-wetland-amended-with-biochar
#10
Yan Gao, Wen Zhang, Bin Gao, Wen Jia, Aijun Miao, Lin Xiao, Liuyan Yang
Electrolysis combined with biochar (BC) was used in a constructed wetland to intensify nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal from wastewater simultaneously. A pilot study was conducted using an electrolysis-integrated, BC-amended, horizontal, subsurface-flow, constructed wetland (E-BHFCW). The research results showed that both electrolysis and BC substrate played important roles in the intensified, constructed wetland. The electrolysis combined BC substrate greatly enhanced the removal rates of nitrate (49...
April 4, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655096/precipitation-thresholds-for-fecal-bacterial-indicators-in-the-chesapeake-bay
#11
A K Leight, R R Hood
Many coastal states of the United States restrict harvest of shellfish from select areas based on some environmental trigger. Such areas are classified as being conditionally approved. In Maryland, the trigger is an inch or more of rainfall that has fallen in the last 24 h. This study used 11 years of monitoring data to test the relationship between daily rainfall totals and densities of fecal indicators in Maryland shellfish harvest waters. Precipitation and fecal coliform (FC) water monitoring data from 2004 to 2014 were matched by date and watershed...
April 4, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655095/sub-chronic-inhalation-of-reclaimed-water-induced-fibrotic-lesion-in-a-mouse-model
#12
Jinling Xue, Jinshan Zhang, Qian-Yuan Wu, Yun Lu
When reclaimed water is used as municipal miscellaneous water, acute exposure of the generated aerosol with high levels of endotoxins can cause severe inflammation in the lungs. However, the potential risks of long-term inhalation of reclaimed water remains unclear. To identify the adverse effects of sub-chronic reclaimed water inhalation and explain the underlying mechanisms, a mouse model of 12-week sub-chronic exposure was established, and wastewater before a membrane bioreactor (MBR, positive control) and the MBR effluent (reclaimed water, which met the quality standard of urban use and was currently used for landscape irrigation) were tested in this study...
April 4, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653358/anaerobic-treatment-of-n-n-dimethylformamide-containing-wastewater-by-co-culturing-two-sources-of-inoculum
#13
Zhe Kong, Lu Li, Rei Kurihara, Kengo Kubota, Yu-You Li
The complete methanogenic degradation of N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was achieved in this study. Initially, DMF was found to be feebly degradable by a lab-scale submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) using normal anaerobic digestion sludge (ADS) even after 120-day's culturing. However, aerobic DMF-degrading activated sludge (AS) was rapidly cultivated in a continuous aeration reactor (CAR). A specially designed anaerobic co-cultured sludge (ACS) made by artificially mixing AS with ADS was successfully domesticated by a long term repeated batch experiment...
April 4, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649702/quantitative-characterization-and-analysis-of-granule-transformations-role-of-intermittent-gas-sparging-in-a-super-high-rate-anaerobic-system
#14
To-Hung Tsui, George A Ekama, Guang-Hao Chen
Knowledge of leveraging biomass characteristics is essential for achieving a microbial community with a desired structure to optimize anaerobic bioreactor performance. This study investigates the successive granule transformations in a high-rate anaerobic system with intermittent gas sparging and sequential increases in organic loading rates (OLRs), by establishing the correlations between the granule microstructures and reactor operating parameters. Over the course of a 196-day lab-scale trial, the granules were visualized in various stages using scanning electron microscopy, and digital image processing was applied for further quantifying their surface properties...
April 4, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649703/modeling-the-exposure-of-wild-fish-to-endocrine-active-chemicals-potential-linkages-of-total-estrogenicity-to-field-observed-intersex
#15
Maricor J Arlos, Wayne J Parker, José R Bicudo, Pam Law, Keegan A Hicks, Meghan L M Fuzzen, Susan A Andrews, Mark R Servos
Decades of studies on endocrine disruption have suggested the need to manage the release of key estrogens from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). However, the proposed thresholds are below the detection limits of most routine chemical analysis, thereby restricting the ability of watershed managers to assess the environmental exposure appropriately. In this study, we demonstrated the utility of a mechanistic model to address the data gaps on estrogen exposure. Concentrations of the prominent estrogenic contaminants in wastewaters (estrone, estradiol, and ethinylestradiol) were simulated in the Grand River in southern Ontario (Canada) for nine years, including a period when major WWTP upgrades occurred...
April 3, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631185/risk-of-infection-from-legionella-associated-with-spray-irrigation-of-reclaimed-water
#16
Ian L Pepper, Charles P Gerba
Legionella pneumophila has been detected in reclaimed water used for spray irrigation of turfgrass in public parks and golf courses. This study determined the risks of infection from exposure to various levels of Legionella in reclaimed waters considering: the method of spray application; and the duration and frequency of exposure. Evaluation of these factors resulted in a risk of infection greater than 1:10,000 for several scenarios when the number of Legionella in the reclaimed water exceeded 1000 colony-forming units (CFU) per ml...
April 2, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627643/contribution-of-alcohol-radicals-to-contaminant-degradation-in-quenching-studies-of-persulfate-activation-process
#17
Changyin Zhu, Fengxiao Zhu, Dionysios D Dionysiou, Dongmei Zhou, Guodong Fang, Juan Gao
Alcohols such as ethanol (EtOH) and tert-butanol (TBA) are frequently used as quenching agents to identify the primary radical species in the persulfate (PS)-based oxidation processes. However, the contribution of alcohol radicals (ARs) to contaminant degradation in this process has rarely been assessed. In this study, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), phenol, and carbon tetrachloride were selected as probes to test the role of ARs in the thermally activated PS system. It was found that the degradation rates of these compounds were largely depended on their reactivities with ARs and the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the reaction system...
March 31, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660622/wetting-phenomena-in-membrane-distillation-mechanisms-reversal-and-prevention
#18
REVIEW
Mohammad Rezaei, David M Warsinger, John H Lienhard V, Mikel C Duke, Takeshi Matsuura, Wolfgang M Samhaber
Membrane distillation (MD) is a rapidly emerging water treatment technology; however, membrane pore wetting is a primary barrier to widespread industrial use of MD. The primary causes of membrane wetting are exceedance of liquid entry pressure and membrane fouling. Developments in membrane design and the use of pretreatment have provided significant advancement toward wetting prevention in membrane distillation, but further progress is needed. In this study, a broad review is carried out on wetting incidence in membrane distillation processes...
March 30, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635151/vertical-algal-biofilm-enhanced-raceway-pond-for-cost-effective-wastewater-treatment-and-value-added-products-production
#19
Qi Zhang, Zhigang Yu, Liandong Zhu, Ting Ye, Jiaolan Zuo, Xuemei Li, Bo Xiao, Shiping Jin
A win-win strategy by the integration of wastewater treatment with value-added products production through a vertical-algal-biofilm enhanced raceway was investigated in the present study. Raceway pond was enhanced by vertically setting the biofilm in the system with a certain interval distance that could be adjusted for different light conditions and wastewater types. Two types of synthetic wastewater were treated with suitability-proven materials as biofilm carriers under four operation distances. Composition of the harvested algal biomass was analyzed...
March 30, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649704/pesticide-degradation-and-export-losses-at-the-catchment-scale-insights-from-compound-specific-isotope-analysis-csia
#20
Pablo Alvarez-Zaldívar, Sylvain Payraudeau, Fatima Meite, Jeremy Masbou, Gwenaël Imfeld
Although pesticides undergo degradation tests prior to use, determining their export, degradation and persistence under field conditions remains a challenge for water resource management. Compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) can provide evidence of contaminant degradation extent, as it is generally independent of non-destructive dissipation (e.g., dilution, sorption, volatilization) regulating environmental concentrations. While this approach has been successfully implemented in subsurface environments, its application to pesticides in near-surface hydrological contexts at catchment scale is lacking...
March 29, 2018: Water Research
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